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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLIMATOLOGY
Int. J. Climatol. 19: 903–911 (1999)
RATIO OF UV TO GLOBAL BROAD BAND IRRADIATION IN
VALENCIA, SPAIN
J.A. MARTINEZ-LOZANO*, F. TENA and M.P. UTRILLAS
Department of Thermodynamics, Faculty of Physics, Uni6ersity of Valencia, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia, Spain
Recei6ed 29 January 1998
Re6ised 23 No6ember 1998
Accepted 30 No6ember 1998
ABSTRACT
This paper presents the results of an analysis of 6 years of measurements of UV and broad band irradiation values
in Valencia, Spain. Hourly and daily integrated UV irradiance, ITUV, measured by a TUVR Eppley radiometer, and
global irradiance IT from a Kipp-Zonen CM-11 pyranometer, were highly correlated, with ITUV/IT percentages
varying from 2.9% to 3.5% for hourly values and from 2.9% to 3.4% for daily values. If a general linear relation
ITUV =mIT is considered, the correlation coefficient r is always greater than 0.96 for hourly values and 0.91 for daily
values. However, the relation between ITUV/IT and the clearness index kT is poorly correlated, although improved
results, with less dependence on a specific location, can be observed using the kTUV and kT clearness indices. For a
general linear relation, kTUV =mkT, the correlation coefficient r is always greater than 0.89 for hourly values and 0.86
for daily values. Copyright © 1999 Royal Meteorological Society.
KEY WORDS: broad
band UV solar radiation; broad band global solar radiation; UV and global clearness index; Valencia, Spain
1. INTRODUCTION
For many years the biological effects of the solar radiation have been entirely associated with just UVB
(290–320 nm) radiation whilst it has been generally considered that the only effect of exposure to UVA
(320–400 nm) was skin tanning. For a long time, UVA was thought to be more or less inert biologically.
However, UVA is both melanogenic (producing skin pigment, tanning) and erythogenic (producing
redness of skin), although the amount of energy required to produce any effect is of an order of
magnitude higher than that for the UVB region. The relative inefficiency of these longer wavelengths in
producing skin erythema and photokeratitis, and the relative absence of striking germicidal properties,
strengthened the idea that UVA was innocuous. Recently, UVA has received more attention for, among
others, the following biological reasons (Kaidbey and Kligman, 1978; Parrish et al., 1978; Taylor et al.,
1989; Diffey, 1991): (i) the amount of solar UVA reaching the Earth’s surface is far greater than that of
UVB; (ii) photosensitivity reactions (phototoxicity and photoallergy) are mostly mediated by UVA; (iii)
high doses of UVA can cause redness of human skin and moreover, UVA may promote or add to the
biologic effects of UVB; (iv) the development of sunscreens that effectively block or diminish the highly
erythemogenic UVB without significantly altering the amount of UVA reaching the skin permit prolonged
exposures to the sun; (v) the use of UVA in conjunction with photosensitizing drugs has opened up new
therapeutic possibilities in chronic skin disorders, such as psoriasis, mycosis fungoides and eczema; (vi)
there is experimental and epidemiological evidence to suggest that solar UVA is one of the possible
etiologic agents of certain kinds of cataracts in humans.
UVA has been fully established as the most important spectral region where chemical species are
photodissociated by sunlight in the troposphere. At present, photodissociation rates at ground level are
* Correspondence to: Department of Thermodynamics, Faculty of Physics, University of Valencia, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia, Spain.
E-mail: jmartine@uv.es
CCC 0899–8418/99/080903 – 09$17.50
Copyright © 1999 Royal Meteorological Society
904
J.A. MARTINEZ-LOZANO ET AL.
mainly estimated from empirical expressions that relate the UVA irradiance to photodissociation rates
(Van Weele et al., 1995).
Spectroradiometry is the most suitable tool for studying both UVB and UVA radiation characteristics
at ground level. Unfortunately, most spectroradiometers are too expensive and have poor accuracy in the
UV range, so that broad band sensors are a commonly used alternative for daily measurements of UV
radiation. These measure the UV radiation in either the 290–400 nm band, which includes both UVB and
UVA, or the narrower 290 – 320 nm band that contains only UVB. At the top of the atmosphere, UVB
irradiance amounts to 1.3% of the solar constant and UVA to 5.9% (Iqbal, 1983) but the UVB component
reaches the ground highly reduced, mainly because of the stratospheric ozone, amounting to less than 10%
of total UV irradiance (Henriksen et al., 1989; Lubin et al., 1989). Therefore, it is reasonable to assume
that the experimental measurements at ground level taken using the whole broad band UV irradiance
represent mainly the behaviour of the UVA component. It would be highly inappropriate to employ them
to draw conclusions about the UVB component.
Even though there are a considerable number of stations registering broad band UV radiation, ITUV,
most of them have only been recently established and very few results covering relatively long periods of
experimental data have been published. However, there exist many time series of global irradiance on a
horizontal plane, IT. There is, therefore, considerable interest in finding simple relations between IT and
ITUV, and to thus establish a first approximation to the broad band UV climatology. Relations of this type
have been proposed by different investigators with values corresponding to periods of less than an hour
(Stewart, 1980; Khun and Rau, 1990; Riordan et al., 1990; Mehos et al., 1991), hourly values (Zavodska
and Reichrt, 1985; Khogali and Al-Bar, 1992), daily values (Yamasaki, 1983; Baker-Blocker et al., 1984;
Nagaraja Rao et al., 1984; Zavodska and Reichrt, 1985; Blumthaler et al., 1992; Feister and Grasnick,
1992), monthly mean hourly values (Feister and Grasnick, 1992) and monthly mean daily values (Schulze
and Grafe, 1969; Al-Aruri et al., 1988; Al-Aruri, 1990; Elhadidy et al., 1990; Khogali and Al-Bar, 1992;
Al-Aruri and Amer, 1993).
This paper presents the results obtained from the analysis of 6 years of UV and global broad band
irradiance measurements in Valencia, Spain. This series permits the establishment of tendencies, especially
where short time interval data are considered. No implication is made that the year-to-year variations are
either smooth or linear, and it certainly cannot be inferred that the observed trend continues for any time
outside the period studied (Justus and Murphey, 1994).
2. EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP AND METHODOLOGY
Integrated UV irradiance measurements were obtained by means of a TUVR Eppley radiometer. The
spectral range of this instrument is 290 – 385 nm. The global irradiance measurements were made by
means of a Kipp-Zonen CM-11 pyranometer, with a spectral range of 305–2800 nm. Both instruments are
part of a solar radiation measurement station that has been described in a previous paper (Utrillas et al.,
1991). Measurements made in the period April 1991–December 1996 were analysed. Within this period,
calibration checks have been performed every year. The TUVR is recalibrated regularly at the IER
(Instituto de Energı́as Renovables) of the CIEMAT. During the summer of 1993 it was recalibrated in the
Eppley Laboratories. This produces some gaps in the continuity of the registered data. The CM-11 is
regularly recalibrated by the authors by direct comparison with an Eppley Precision Spectral Pyranometer
(PSP). Error analysis made in the NREL (Mehos et al., 1991) showed than when the TUVRs were
calibrated outdoors using an Optronic OL752 spectroradiometer, the variability in the results was 7% and
a calculated uncertainty in the calibration factor was given as 8%. With the uncertainties associated with
the instruments as well as the technique used for calibration, the field measurement uncertainty for the
Eppley TUVRs was conservatively estimated at 15%. Otherwise the field measurement uncertainty of the
piranometer is considered to be below 5%.
The measurements were taken on the terrace of the Faculty of Physics of Valencia University, Burjassot
Campus, located in the East of the Iberian Peninsula, 40 m above sea level, 15 km from the coast and at
Copyright © 1999 Royal Meteorological Society
Int. J. Climatol. 19: 903 – 911 (1999)
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UV AND GLOBAL RADIATION
a latitude of 39.5°N. Obstructions above the horizon are less than 4°, except in a small zone in the
northwest. The measurements were registered continuously and the averaged values stored in a data
logger every 10 min in irradiance units (W/m2). Non-negligible differences may exist in the cosine response
of the instruments employed for the measurements of ITUV and IT; a fact that becomes very important in
variable sky conditions, which are usually associated with broken cloud fields. This could have an
influence on the instantaneous values of ITUV/IT. To avoid this problem, we have reduced our study to
hourly and daily values, generated from the original 10 min registers. For the hourly values, only hours
without data gaps have been considered. Hourly values are expressed both in irradiance units and in
irradiation units. Daily values have been obtained by integrating the 10 min values, including the
incomplete hours in order to consider the irradiation measured in the extreme hours of the day. Daily
values are always expressed in irradiation units.
3. RESULTS
3.1. Relationship between ITUV and IT
In Tables I and II mean daily values and monthly mean daily values are shown for solar global
irradiation, IT, and ultraviolet irradiation, ITUV, for the 6 year period. For both cases, maximum,
minimum and mean monthly values are shown, together with the median and standard deviation of the
mean. The percentage of UV relative to global irradiation, ITUV/IT, is also given. The high standard
deviations obtained are notable for both measurements, making it difficult to draw definitive conclusions
about the climatic representativity of the data. Nevertheless, they should allow trends to be identified that
may be confirmed as longer data series become available
The statistical characteristics of the ITUV values are not analysed here since they are dealt with in a
previous paper for the 1991 – 1994 period (Martı́nez-Lozano et al., 1996) and the results obtained here
confirm the conclusions of that paper. The monthly average daily values of ITUV/IT present no seasonal
trend. Although highest values are generally obtained in the spring (3.4% for April, May and June), the
absolute maxim corresponds to October, the month of higher rainfall in Valencia. This is consistent with
the stronger influence of clouds due to absorption by water vapour highest in the near infrared region
than in the shorter wavelengths (Zavodska and Reichrt, 1985; Ambach et al., 1991; Feister and Grasnick,
1992; Justus and Murphey, 1994).
Table I. Mean daily values of ultraviolet irradiance and solar global irradiance for the 6 year period
Month
ITUV (W/m2)
IT (W/m2)
ITUV/IT
Mx
Mn
Median
Mean
s
Mx
Mn Median
Mean
s
(%)
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
20.3
22.8
32.5
36.9
37.1
37.5
35.5
33.8
31.5
34.7
22.3
16.5
0.40
0.27
0.17
0.27
0.30
0.30
0.46
0.48
0.43
0.42
0.47
0.60
8.0
10.4
13.1
16.3
15.7
15.9
17.5
15.5
13.8
11.5
8.5
6.8
8.1
10.5
13.2
16.4
16.6
16.3
17.1
15.3
13.8
11.9
8.7
7.0
4.4
5.6
7.6
9.6
10.3
10.5
9.8
8.9
8.1
6.9
4.8
3.8
658
708
858
1019
991
1001
970
915
857
781
583
538
11
9
3
8
5
10
10
16
10
9
9
13
260
350
448
497
476
491
550
492
433
320
274
221
272
345
431
488
489
490
523
478
424
336
275
228
157
188
240
277
293
307
282
264
243
193
156
134
2.9
3.0
3.1
3.4
3.4
3.3
3.3
3.2
3.3
3.5
3.2
3.0
Total
37.1
0.17
11.9
13.4
8.9
1019
3
386
410
261
3.2
Mx, maximum; Mn, minimum; s, standard deviation of the mean.
Copyright © 1999 Royal Meteorological Society
Int. J. Climatol. 19: 903 – 911 (1999)
906
J.A. MARTINEZ-LOZANO ET AL.
Table II. Monthly mean daily values of ultraviolet irradiation and solar global irradiation for the 6 year
period
Month
ITUV (kJ/m2)
IT (kJ/m2)
ITUV/IT
Mx
Mn Median
Mean
s
Mx
Mn
Median
Mean
s
(%)
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
344
511
970
961
1206
1082
1001
870
822
582
458
329
31
30
23
46
30
8
56
71
81
43
50
47
237
356
496
713
798
841
802
722
582
413
290
224
229
337
487
687
754
767
792
691
563
393
279
206
63
102
163
180
215
235
139
117
134
107
82
63
11 642
17 562
29 404
27 198
33 679
29 958
28 305
26 744
23 544
17 712
13 026
10 078
924
822
709
1157
889
279
1893
2435
2699
1123
1084
1428
8679
11 953
17 558
22 360
24 606
25 191
25 125
22 682
18 127
12 708
9557
7586
8026
11 191
16 022
20 474
22 164
22 818
24 399
21 534
17 384
11 558
8715
6622
2543
3648
5071
5536
6512
7269
3963
3711
4097
3557
2740
2437
2.9
3.0
3.0
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.2
3.2
3.1
3.4
3.2
3.1
Total
1206
8
475
500
133
33 679
279
14 680
15 420
4257
3.2
Mx, maximum; Mn, minimum; s, standard deviation of the mean.
The percentage ITUV/IT varied from 2.9% to 3.5% for hourly values and from 2.9% to 3.4% for daily
values. These ratios are of the same order as those obtained in other places in the world (Baker-Blocker
et al., 1984; Elhadidy et al., 1990; Feister and Grasnick, 1992; Khogali and Al-Bar, 1992; Nunez et al.,
1994). Nevertheless, some authors have presented much higher values of between 4% and 7% which in
some cases are twice those obtained in Valencia (Yamasaki, 1983; Nagaraja Rao et al., 1984; Blumthaler
et al., 1992; Al-Aruri and Amer, 1993). This suggests that more measurements of this kind, taken in places
with different meteorological conditions, are needed before establishing a precise ground level incident
irradiance fraction. For these kinds of measurements, the instrumentation used to determine UV and
global radiation should be the same, because otherwise there is the possibility of non-negligible differences
in the cosine responses of the UV and global instruments that would affect the recorded ratio.
Figures 1 and 2 show the evolution of daily and monthly means of IT and ITUV for a typical year.
Linear regression coefficients have been calculated by the least squares’ method for the hourly and daily
values of both quantities. If a general linear relation Y= n+ mX is considered, the independent term n,
is practically zero or less than experimental error. In a number of cases n is positive but obviously we
cannot obtain non-zero values of the UV radiation for zero values for global horizontal radiation.
Therefore, we have supposed that both quantities reach zero together and have fitted a linear relation
Y = mX.
The results of the fits, arranged by months, are shown in Table III. They show that the coefficient of
determination r 2 is always greater than 0.92 for hourly values and 0.83 for daily values, with best results
obtained in the summer. We have not employed mean monthly values, because the averaging process not
only reduces the number of points but also contracts the range of variation of parameters giving clustered
data for which the slope is poorly defined.
Considering all the experimental data, the following regression lines were obtained
Hourly values
Daily values
r 2 =0.96
ITUV =0.033IT
ITUV =0.030IT
r 2 =0.96
Correlations of this kind corresponding to daily values have been obtained by other authors, such as
Nagaraja Rao et al. (1984), who obtained for a 3 year set of daily values
ITUV = 0.052+0.047IT
r 2 =0.98
Copyright © 1999 Royal Meteorological Society
Int. J. Climatol. 19: 903 – 911 (1999)
907
UV AND GLOBAL RADIATION
Pedrós et al. (1997), considering 2 year measurements, obtained
ITUV = 0.064+0.037IT
r 2 =0.96
Zavodska and Reichrt (1985) obtain for 10 years of data
ITUV = 0.052+0.054IT
r 2 =0.92
As can be seen, in all cases the slopes are significantly higher than that obtained for Valencia. This
difference cannot be explained by the error from considering the independent term as zero, as in our case
this is less than the third decimal of the slope. These deviations can be due to the differences in the local
atmospheric conditions. However, such conclusions could be established only in the case where the
characteristics of the instruments and the calibration procedures were the same and the data quality
control was comparable. In this work, the high uniformity of the ratio over several years is a sign of the
correct operation of our instruments. Nevertheless, we do not have information about the data quality
control employed by other authors, and it makes it difficult to establish if the atmospheric conditions are
the only source of the ratio differences for data registered in different places.
3.2. Relationship between ITUV and kT
As already seen, a satisfactory relationship between ITUV and IT for a particular place can be found, but
the extrapolation to different latitudes and different atmospheric conditions is difficult. We can improve
the estimation error and reduce the local character of this relationship by using dimensionless parameters.
For instance, the clearness index kT, defined as the ratio of the total irradiation on a horizontal surface
IT to the extraterrestrial solar irradiation on a horizontal surface I0, represents the overall atmospheric
transmission conditions.
Martı́nez-Lozano et al. (1994) considered that the relation between ITUV/IT and kT proposed by
Elhadidy et al. (1990) and Riordan et al. (1990) is poorly correlated. It is possible to consider kT as an
index that describes the overall atmospheric transmission (due to all absorption and scattering processes)
and influences in a similar way the UV spectral band and the rest of the spectrum. It is called the clearness
Figure 1. Temporal evolution of the daily mean values of ITUV and IT for Valencia, Spain. April 1991 – December 1996
Copyright © 1999 Royal Meteorological Society
Int. J. Climatol. 19: 903 – 911 (1999)
908
J.A. MARTINEZ-LOZANO ET AL.
Figure 2. Temporal evolution of the monthly mean daily values of ITUV and IT for Valencia, Spain. April 1991 – December 1996
index because it decreases with increasing atmospheric attenuation of solar radiation, which is mostly
determined by cloudiness. Martı́nez-Lozano et al. (1994) have shown the usefulness of defining a clearness
index for the UV spectral range, kTUV, able to remove the influence of cloudiness in the IR spectral range
presented in kT. The correlation between kTUV (ITUV/I0UV) and kT considerably improves the results
obtained by the correlation between ITUV/IT and kT.
Although strictly speaking a clearness index is only meaningful for instantaneous values, it is usual to
use it with hourly and daily values and even monthly averages. In this case, and for the reasons already
discussed, we have not considered instantaneous values (really 10 min) and the correlations between kTUV
and kT have been obtained for hourly values and for daily values. The results of the corresponding fits,
Table III. Parameters of linear regression ITUV = mIT for hourly and daily values
Month
Hourly
Daily
m
r2
m
r2
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
0.029
0.030
0.031
0.034
0.034
0.033
0.033
0.032
0.033
0.035
0.031
0.030
0.94
0.96
0.94
0.96
0.98
0.98
0.98
0.98
0.98
0.92
0.92
0.94
0.028
0.030
0.030
0.033
0.034
0.033
0.033
0.032
0.032
0.034
0.032
0.030
0.83
0.92
0.86
0.85
0.94
0.96
0.92
0.90
0.88
0.92
0.85
0.88
Total
0033
0.96
0.030
0.96
Copyright © 1999 Royal Meteorological Society
Int. J. Climatol. 19: 903 – 911 (1999)
909
UV AND GLOBAL RADIATION
Table IV. Parameters of linear regression kTUV = mkT for hourly and daily values
Month
Hourly
Daily
m
r2
m
r2
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
0.49
0.51
0.52
0.57
0.58
0.56
0.56
0.55
0.57
0.59
0.53
0.51
0.79
0.85
0.85
0.81
0.90
0.85
0.90
0.92
0.85
0.85
0.81
0.85
0.50
0.52
0.51
0.57
0.59
0.58
0.57
0.56
0.57
0.58
0.53
0.53
0.74
0.86
0.81
0.83
0.90
0.90
0.86
0.92
0.81
0.92
0.85
0.81
Total
0.54
0.83
0.56
0.81
by months, are shown in Table IV. This table has been produced using similar criteria as those used in
Table III. The average of the correlations is higher for the middle four months of the year than for the
first and last four months, which are close to each other. These results could be explained considering two
different arguments. Firstly, the middle months of the year present a higher proportion of clear days,
which means a higher uniformity in the clearness index values. Secondly, the solar altitude is higher in
such months, and therefore the cosine effect of the instruments on the experimental values is smaller.
Considering all the experimental data in a single fit, the following regression coefficients were obtained
Hourly values
Daily values
kTUV =0.54kT
kTUV =0.56kT
r 2 =0.83
r 2 =0.81
Therefore, the clearness index for the 290 – 385 nm UV band kTUV is approximately 55% of the clearness
index for the whole spectrum kT.
Recently, Pedrós et al. (1997) have studied a similar relation using 2 years daily values registered in
Córdoba, Spain. Using a second-order polynomial they obtain
kTUV = − 0.019 +1.27kT −1.41k 2T
r 2 =0.93
with a mean value of kTUV =0.42kT
Finally, to analyse a possible seasonal dependence of the slope on the previous correlations, Figure 3
shows values of m obtained from the hourly values of the two clearness indices given in Table IV. Two
maxima are seen, one in spring, the other in autumn, with an absolute minimum in winter and a relative
minimum in summer. This curve could be explained considering the climate of Valencia: annual rainfall
is 450 mm with a notable peak in the autumn and a secondary peak in the spring. A 4 months summer
dry season is also notably humid and temperate due to prevailing sea breezes (Clavero, 1994). These
climatic characteristics would explain the curve maxima. The summer relative minimum is complex
requiring consideration of the combined effects of water vapour and aerosols. Previous analyses of the
turbidity coefficients of Angstrom, Linke and Unsworth-Monteith in Valencia (Pinazo et al., 1995; Pedrós
et al., 1999) show that generally they have a minimum in the winter and grow progressively, reaching a
maximum in the summer. The summer values are at least twice as high as the winter ones.
Copyright © 1999 Royal Meteorological Society
Int. J. Climatol. 19: 903 – 911 (1999)
910
J.A. MARTINEZ-LOZANO ET AL.
Figure 3. Temporal evolution of the values of the slope (m) corresponding to the monthly fits kTUV =mkT. Hourly values
4. CONCLUSIONS
The analysis of hourly and daily values of UV horizontal solar irradiation (290–385 nm band), ITUV, and
global horizontal solar irradiation (305 – 2800 nm), IT, measured at Valencia (Spain) during the period
April 1991–December 1996 show the following results:
The ratio ITUV/IT for hourly values ranges from 2.9% to 3.5%. The maximum absolute values
correspond to October and the minimum to January. For daily values, the ratio ranges from 2.9% to
3.4%.
The hourly and daily values of both parameters are highly correlated with a general linear relation
ITUV =mIT between the measured data giving a coefficient of determination r 2 always greater than 0.92
for hourly values and 0.83 for daily values.
The relation between ITUV/IT and kT is poorly correlated but improved figures and less dependence on
location are achieved by using the clearness indexes kTUV and kT. For a general linear relation
kTUV =mkT, the coefficient of determination r 2 is always greater than 0.79 for hourly values and 0.74 for
daily values. We may consider that, on average, the value of the UV clearness index kTUV is approximately
55% of the value of the clearness index for the whole spectrum kT.
These results should not be extrapolated to other parts of the UV spectrum, particularly UVB.
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Int. J. Climatol. 19: 903 – 911 (1999)
UV AND GLOBAL RADIATION
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Copyright © 1999 Royal Meteorological Society
Int. J. Climatol. 19: 903 – 911 (1999)
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