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CANCER March 1, 1996 / Volume 77 / Number 5
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Lennart Hardell, M.D., Ph.D.
Department of Oncology
Orebro Medical Center
Orebro, Sweden
Bo Holmberg, Ph.D.
Department of Toxicology
National Institute of Occupational Health
Solna, Sweden
Hans Malker, Ph.D.
Mid-Sweden Research and Development Centre
Vasternorrland County Council
Sundsuall Hospital
Sundsuall, Sweden
Lars-Erik Paulsson, Ph.D.
Swedish Radiation Protection Institute
Stockholm. Sweden
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among electric utility workers. Epidemiology 1993;4:104- 14.
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exposure to magnetic fields among electric utility workers
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Armstrong B, Theriault G, GuCnel P, Deadman 7, Goldberg
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Author Reply
he review by Hardell et al. regarding low frequency
electromagnetic fields (EMF)and the risk of malignant
disease represents a scholarly complement to our article’
summarizing current concepts on the etiology of brain
The authors conclude, based on an extensive review
of the literature, that there is no evidence to support the
hypothetical association of EMF residential exposure and
the development of central nervous system tumors in
children or adults, except for the documented association
of leukemias in children and living in proximity to residential power lines.’ By contrast, there is an increased
risk of brain tumors with occupational exposure to EMF
for workers involved in the design, manufacture, installation, or maintenance of electronic or electrical equipment.
We agree completely that additional research is ur-
gently needed to understand the cellular and molecular
mechanisms by which environmental exposure, such as
EMF, results in glioma genesis and progression, particularly in animal systems, which, as the authors indicate,
are currently lacking. It was just this type of intense interest and timely dialogue that the Lebow family and the
American Brain ‘Tumor Association sought to stimulate
by holding the conference, and the contribution by Hardell and colleagues represents a valuable addition to the
Brem S, Rozental JM, Moskal JR. What is the etiology of
human brain tumors? Cancer 1995;76:709- 13.
Hardell L, Holmberg B, Malker H, Paulsson L-E. Exposure
to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields and the
risk of malignant disease-an evaluation ot the epidcmio
logical and experimental findings. bur- J C u / i c ~ I + V I I
1995;4(Supplement 1):3- 107.
Steven Brcni, M.1).
M o f i t t C,’ani:er ( ; ( v i t ~ i Tclt)i/)(i,I.%
Jack M. Rozental, M,II., Ph.1).
Northwestern Memorial flospittrl
Lakeside VA Medical ( h i t r r
Cliictigo, 11.
Joseph R. Moskal, 1’h.lS.
Chicago Iizstifir~o/‘
Neurosir r g u y ( 1 I 111
Neu ror~.stt~
t”hictrg0, Il.
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