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Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации
Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное
учреждение высшего образования
САНКТ-ПЕТЕРБУРГСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ
УНИВЕРСИТЕТ ПРОМЫШЛЕННЫХ ТЕХНОЛОГИИ И ДИЗАЙНА
КАФЕДРА ИНОСТРАННЫХ ЯЗЫКОВ
Английский для успешного бизнеса
Методические указания для студентов 1-го и 2-го курсов очно-заочной
формы обучения по направлениям подготовки
080109.65 – Бухгалтерский учет, анализ и аудит;
080111.65 – Маркетинг;
38.03.02 – Менеджмент;
38.03.01 – Экономика
Составитель
Г. С. Атнашева
Санкт-Петербург
2015
Рекомендовано на заседании кафедры
29.01.2015 г.,
протокол № 5
Рецензент О. В. Шведова
Цель данных методических указаний – обучение навыкам устной речи
на английском языке по базовой тематике в области менеджмента и
экономики. Методические указания предусматривают представление
материала по тематическому принципу на базе современных текстов.
Оригинал-макет подготовлен составителем и издан в авторской
редакции.
Подписано в печать 13.04.2015г. Формат 60х841/16.
Усл. печ. л. 4,0. Заказ 296/15.
Электронный адрес: http://publish.sutd.ru
Отпечатано в типографии ФГБОУВПО «СПбГУПТД»
191028, С-Петербург, ул. Моховая, 26
ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ
Методические указания цель помочь студентам овладеть навыками
устной речи на английском языке в сфере делового общения и знаниями в
области менеджмента и экономики, усвоить лексический минимум по
базовым разделам экономической тематики, ознакомить студентов с
современными материалами по предлагаемым темам, развить навыки
беспереводного чтения.
Тексты составлены на базе современных аутентичных, источников с
определенной адаптацией к уровню языковой подготовки обучающихся.
Тексты снабжены тематическим словарем и элементарными упражнениями
лексического характера. Упражнения имеют целью закрепить лексику
базовых текстов до уровня их активного использования в речевых
высказываниях в процессе многократных повторений. Кроме того, после
большинства текстов предлагаются диалоги на данную тему, заучивание
которых также способствует развитию навыков устной речи, овладению
речевыми клише и их практическому использованию в деловых ситуациях.
Методические указания содержат и грамматический материал,
основная цель которого систематизировать имеющиеся знания, развивать
навыки и умения правильно употреблять грамматические структуры
английского языка как в устной, так и в письменной речи. Грамматическая
часть состоит из теоретической и практической частей.
Теоретическая часть включает в себя ряд разделов, носящих
тематический характер и отражающих основные грамматические категории
английского языка. Тематические разделы расположены по принципу
нарастания сложности, что позволяет не только прочно усваивать
материал, но и способствует его дальнейшему закреплению.
Практическая часть представлена сборником тренировочных
упражнений, направленных на развитие коммуникативных навыков,
выработку и автоматизацию употребления различных грамматических
структур, в целях последующего употребления этих знаний при работе с
англоязычными текстами.
3
Unit 1
Essential vocabulary
management
provide
application
require
certain
employ
sole
proprietorship
achieve
house
employee
assets
content
incentive
attainment
fund
meet obligations
obtain
entail
customer
wholesaler
lend
obtain
income
endowment
utility
insurance premium
involve
external
consumer market
competitor
accomplish
allocate
4
управление, руководство, менеджмент
обеспечивать, давать
применение
требовать
определенный
нанимать
единоличный
собственность
достигать
размещать, вмещать
работник, служащий
активы
довольный, удовлетворенный
стимул, побудительный мотив
достижение, приобретение
фонд, денежные средства
выполнять обязательства
получать
влечь за собой, вызывать
покупатель (постоянный), клиент
оптовик
ссужать; давать взаймы
получать
доход
пожертвование, благотворительный взнос
предприятие коммунального обслуживания
страховая премия
быть связанным (с)
внешний
потребительский рынок
конкурент
осуществить
распределять, размещать
Text 1
What is management?
Management is the process of achieving organizational goals through
engaging in the four major functions of planning, organizing, motivating and
controlling. This definition recognizes that management is an ongoing activity,
entails reaching important goals, and involves knowing how to perform the four
major functions of management.
Planning. Planning is the management function that involves setting goals
and deciding how to achieve them best. This function also includes considering
what must be done to encourage necessary levels of changes and innovations.
Planning involves resources and time. Hence, planning includes:
- setting objectives
- developing strategy, programs and plans for achieving goals
- determining necessary resources and its allocation.
Organizing. Organizing is the management function that focuses on
allocating and arranging human and nonhuman resources so that plans can be
carried out successfully.
It is through the organizing function that managers determine, which tasks
are to be done, how tasks can best be combined into specific jobs, and how jobs
can be grouped into various units that make up the structure of the organization.
Staffing jobs with individuals who can successfully carry out plans is also
a part of the organizing function. In addition, recruiting occurs with a careful eye
toward bringing in individuals with the potential to take on leadership positions
as the company continues to expand.
Motivating. Motivating is the force that makes organizations dynamic,
acting systems rather than static structures. For an organization to achieve its
goals, it is an essential that employees channel the motivation potential they
bring to the organization toward goal attainment. This potential should not lie
dormant, but rather should be activated or stimulated so that organizations
receive the maximum possible energy from the employees.
Controlling. Controlling is the management function that is aimed at
regulating organizational activities so that actual performance conforms to the
expected organizational standards and goals. To do the necessary regulating,
managers need to monitor ongoing activities, compare the results with the
expected standards or progress toward goals, and take corrective action as
needed.
I. Answer the questions
1. What can you say about management in general?
2. Why does a large organization employ many managers?
3. What is important to an organization?
5
4. Does the ability to achieve organizational goals require a great skill?
5. What can you say about management as a process?
6. What main resources are managers concerned with?
II. Translate into Russian
Employ managers; management area; the only manager; the owner of a
sole proprietorship; levels and areas of management; to achieve the
organization's goals; human resources; tangible (material) resources; primary
goals; employee; assets; recreational facilities; lengthy paid vacation; meet
obligations; obtain money; income; insurance premium; consumer market;
survive; competitor; accomplish goals; produce goods and services; grant;
wholesaler; endowment; utility; utility bills; borrow and lend money.
III. Find the English equivalents
Практические результаты; управлять деловыми фирмами; область
(сфера) управления; владелец единоличной собственности; достигать
организационные цели; доход; основные цели организации; оптовик;
стимул; длительный оплачиваемый отпуск; давать деньги в долг;
оплачивать счета предприятий коммунального обслуживания; страховая
премия; потребительский рынок; выживать; конкурент; осуществить цели;
товары и услуги; активы; пожертвование (благотворительный взнос).
IV. Fill in the blanks with the words from the text
1. Management is based on ... and today we can say that it is ....
2. The owner of a sole proprietorship may be the only... in the
organization.
3. Management is the process of coordinating the resources of an
organization to achieve the …. of the organization.
4. Managers are concerned with four types of ...
5. Human resources are perhaps the most ... resources.
6. To keep employees content, a variety of ... are used.
V. Speak on the following
1.
General definition of management.
2.
Controlling and motivating.
6
Grammar
Tense revision
Present
Indefinite (Simple)
He is ill.
Is he ill?
He isn’t ill.
You are ill.
We paint pictures.
He paints pictures.
They don’t paint pictures.
He doesn’t paint pictures.
Do you paint pictures?
Does he paint pictures?
You aren’t ill.
Are you ill?
1. Регулярные действия в настоящем
2. Факты, истины (Cats catch mice)
3. Расписание (The train leaves at 5)
4. После if и when для обозначения будущих
действий
Continuous (Progressive)
Perfect
AM / IS /ARE + Ving
We are painting pictures.
He is painting a picture.
I am not painting a picture.
They are not painting pictures.
Are you painting a picture?
Is she painting a picture?
HAVE / HAS + V3
I have painted the picture.
He has sold the picture.
They have not painted the picture.
He hasn’t sold the picture.
Have you painted the picture?
Has she sold the picture?
1. Процесс в момент речи или вокруг него
(I’m reading a book now)
2. Запланированное действие
(We are leaving for Moscow tonight)
3. Эмоции (I’m always losing my keys)
1. Результат действия, завершившиеся к
настоящему моменту
2. Жизненный опыт (I’ve never been to Egypt)
3. Действие началось в прошлом и продолжалось до настоящего момента (I’ve always
loved you)
Perfect Continuous
HAVE BEEN + Ving
I have been reading this book for 2 days.
Я читаю эту книгу 2 дня.
How long has he been reading this book?
Сколько он уже читает эту книгу?
1.Подчеркивается длительный характер
действия, который начался в прошлом и
все еще продолжается или закончится к
настоящему моменту
Ved / Irreg. V.
WAS / WERE + Ving
He was ill.
Was he ill?
He wasn’t ill
Past
We painted pictures.
Did you paint pictures?
He didn’t paint pictures.
Факты, события, регулярные действия в
прошлом
We were painting pictures from 1 to 5.
He was painting his picture.
He wasn’t painting, he was sleeping.
Was he painting?
Were they painting?
Процесс в прошлом
HAD + V3
He had cooked dinner before I came.
Он приготовил обед до того, как я пришел.
Had he cooked dinner before you came?
He hadn’t cooked dinner by 5.
Действие, завершившееся к определенному
моменту в прошлом
HAD BEEN + Ving
He had been cooking dinner for 2 hours when
I came.
Он готовил обед уже 2 часа, когда я пришел.
Had he been cooking dinner?
He hadn’t been cooking dinner.
Действие началось до определенного
момента в прошлом и длилось вплоть до
этого момента.
Future
WILL + BE + Ving
WILL + V
He will paint a picture.
Will he paint a picture?
He won’t paint a picture.
He will be painting his picture for 2 years.
1. Предсказание
2. Обещание, предложение
3. Спонтанное решение
1. Процесс в будущем
Will he be painting? …
He won’t be painting …
2. Запланированное действие
WILL HAVE + V3
He will have painted his picture by July.
Он нарисует картину к июлю.
He won’t have painted.
Will he have painted?
Завершенное действие в будущем
WILL HAVE BEEN + Ving
By that time he will have been painting
his picture for 10 years.
К тому времени он будет рисовать свою
картину уже 10 лет.
Действие начнется до определенного
момента в будущем и будет длиться вплоть
до этого момента
Exercises
I. Imagine you are interviewing someone for a job. You have to
complete the following personal details form. What questions would you
ask? Begin with the given word on the right
Personal Details Questions
Name: 1. What...
Address: 2. Where...
Date of birth: 3. When ...
Present position/occupation: 4. Where ...
Length of service: 5. How long ...
Previous position: 6. Before that,...
Current project: 7. At the moment...
Future intentions/ambitions: 8. In the future, what...
Для выражения длительного действия, которое началось в прошлом и еще
продолжается в настоящее время употребляются предлоги for в течение и
since с.
II. How long ...?, for and since. Make questions and answers, using the
prompts. See the example
1. How long/you/be/in charge of the Finance Department?
A: How long have you been in charge of the Finance department?
B: (I/six months) I have been in charge of it for six Months.
2. How long/you/have a website for investors?
A: .............................................................................................................
B: (We/three/months)...............................................................................
3. How long/the property/be on the market?
A: ………………………………………………………………………
4. How long/you/have an office in Spain?
A: .............................................................................................................
B: (We/2000)...........................................................................................
5. How long/Jason/be in the States?
A:.........................................................................................................
B: (He/the18th).........................................................................................
III. Read the following e-mail. Put the verbs in brackets into the past
simple, present perfect, or present perfect continuous. See the example
To: ken.smith@agreen.co.uk
Subject: Marketing trip
Dear Ken
9
I'm just writing to let you know how I’m getting on with the marketing
trip. Sorry I 1 haven’t been (not/be) in touch for so long, but I 2............. (be)
very busy since I 3...............(arrive) here on the 18th.
There is lots of interest in the new organic fertilizer. Last week I 4............
(go) to Sydney, where I 5 (meet) a number of farmers and 6............. (see) a
couple of agents. I 7............ (leave) Sydney last Sunday and 8............. (be) here
in Darwin since then, making a few useful contacts.
So far the feedback at all my meetings 9............ (be) very positive and I
can say that I 10............ (never/have) such an enthusiastic response to a new
product. I keep hearing the same thing - that interest in organic farming
11............. (grow) for the last few years; more and more consumers 12...........
(buy) organic food, and it looks as if this will continue.
Last night I 13............ (have) dinner with Barry Thomas - you may
remember him – he 14............ (work) for Agrichem London for a couple of years
in the 90s, and then 15............. (come) over here to set up on his own. For the
last year or so he 16.......... (act) as a distributor for some of our agricultural
machinery, and he is interested in becoming a distributor for the fertilizer. I
17........... (not/give) him an answer yet, but I think he could be a good choice.
I’d better send this off to you now - I 18............. (just/have) a phone call
from another farmer who 19....... (hear) about the fertilizer on a radio program
that 20 ............. (go) out this morning.
I’ll be in touch soon.
Best wishes
Jill
IV. Use the words below to make sentences. Include a past perfect
tense contrasted with a simple past tense. Use positive (+), negative (-) and
question forms (?)
1. The company/test/new products/before/launch/on the market
The company had tested the new products before it launched them on the
market. (+)
The company hadn't tested the new products before it launched them on
the market. (-)
Had the company tested the new products before it launched them on the
market? (?)
2. The engineers/visit/the plant/before/the accident/happen
3. The company/publish/the sales results/before/the share price fall
4. The research team/complete/the report/the management/cut/investment
5. When/the deadline/come//she/finish/the report
V. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the future, using will or
going to
1. A: I'm afraid the fax machine isn't working.
10
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
B: Don't worry, it's not a very urgent letter. I'll post (post) it.
A: We've chosen a brand name for the new biscuits.
B: Really? What.............................. (you /call) them?
A: Why are you taking the day off on Friday?
B: I .................... (look) at a new house.
A: I'm afraid there's no sugar. Do you want a coffee without any?
B: No, I ........................... (not have) one, thanks.
A: Have you decided what to do about improving the circulation of the
magazine?
B: Yes, we .......................... (cut) the cover price by 10% as from October.
A: I'm afraid I can't take you to the airport. Something important has just
come up.
B: Never mind. I ....................... (take) a taxi.
A: Do you need any help?
B: Oh, yes please.......................... (you/carry) the display stand for me?
A: Could you make sure Mr. Wilson gets my message?
B: Yes, I ......................... (tell) him myself when he gets in.
Unit 2
Essential vocabulary
top manager
высший менеджер (руководитель)
middle manager
менеджер среднего звена
first-line manager
менеджер первого (низшего) звена
executive
исполнитель
guide
руководить, управлять
overall activities
общая, вся деятельность
associate
связывать, иметь отношение (к)
vice president
вице-президент
chief executive officer (CEO) главный исполнительный директор
board
совет директоров, правление
implement
oсуществлять, реализовать
major policy
основная политика
hand down
разрабатывать, исходить (из)
operating procedure
производственный процесс
supervise
руководить, осуществлять контроль
division manager
руководитель подразделения
department head
начальник отдела
plant manager
директор завода
productions procedure
производственная деятельность
operations manager
директор производства, управляющий
11
operating employee
звена)
supervisor
foreman
project manager
salary
wage
производством
работник-исполнитель (неуправл.
инспектор, начальник
мастер, бригадир
руководитель проекта
заработная плата в виде оклада
заработная плата (почасовая, сдельная
Text 2
Levels of Management
Each organization can be represented as a three-story structure or a
pyramid. Each story corresponds to one of the three general levels of
management: top managers, middle managers, and first-line managers. At the
basic level of this pyramid there are operating employees.
TOP MANAGEMENT
MIDDLE
MANAGEMENT
FIRST-LINE
MANAGEMENT
OPERATING
EMPLOYEES
A top manager is an upper-level executive who guides and controls the
overall activities of the organization. Top managers constitute a small group.
They are generally responsible for the organization's planning and developing its
mission. They also determine the firm's strategy and its major policies. It takes
years of hard work as well as talent and good luck, to reach the ranks of top
managers. They are president, vice president, chief executive officer, and
member of the Board.
A middle manager is a manager who implements the strategy and major
policies handed down from the top level of the organization. Middle managers
develop tactical plans, policies, and standard operating procedures, and they
coordinate and supervise the activities of first-line managers. Titles at the
middle-management level include division manager, department head, plant
manager, and operations manager.
A first-line manager is a manager who coordinates and supervises the
activities of operating employees. First-line managers spend most of their time
12
working with employees, answering questions, and solving day-to-day problems.
Most first-line managers are former operating employees who, owing to their
hard work and potential, were promoted into management. Many of today's
middle and top managers began their careers on this first management level.
Common titles for first-line managers include office manager, supervisor,
foreman and project manager.
Operating employees are not managers. They are qualified and nonqualified persons working for the organization. For their labour or services they
get salaries or wages. They represent the work force of the organization.
Exercises
I. Answer the questions
1. What are the levels of management?
2. What are the common titles associated with top management?
3. What are the common titles associated with middle management?
4. What are the common titles associated with first-line management?
5. Who is at the bottom (нижняя часть) of the management levels?
II. Translate into Russian
Thrеe-story structure (pyramid); levels of management; first-line
managers; middle managers; operating employees; responsible for; define
policies; hard work; good luck; executive; chief executive officer; member of the
Board; activities; supervise; supervisor; division manager; department head;
plant manager; operations manager; foreman.
III. Find the English equivalents
Высший руководитель (менеджер); руководитель (менеджер) первого
звена;
менеджер
среднего
уровня;
исполнитель,
служащий;
исполнительный директор; генеральный директор; директор производства;
директор завода; начальник отдела; руководитель подразделения;
начальник; мастер; бухгалтерский учет; цель и задачи; товары и услуги;
заработная плата (ежемесячная).
IV. Подберите определения следующим терминам
1) general managers
2) project managers
a) managers at the lowest level in the
hierarchy
who
are
directly
responsible for the work of operating
(nonmanagerial) employees;
b) managers beneath the top levels of
the hierarchy who are directly
responsible for the work of other
managers below them;
13
3) first-line managers
4) top managers
5) functional managers
6) middle managers
c) managers at the very top levels of
the hierarchy who are ultimately
responsible for the entire organization;
d) managers who have responsibility
for a specific, specialized area of the
organization and supervise mainly
individuals with expertise and
training in that specialized area;
e) managers who have responsibility
for a whole organization or a
substantial subunit that includes
most of the common specialized
areas within it;
f) managers who have responsibility
for coordinating efforts involving
individuals in several different
organizational units who are all
working on a particular project.
V. Translate into English
1. Существует три основных уровня управления (менеджмента):
высший менеджмент, менеджмент среднего звена и менеджмент
первого звена.
2. Высшие менеджеры направляют и контролируют общую
деятельность организации, они определяют стратегию и основную
политику фирмы.
3. Высшими менеджерами организации являются (are) президент,
вице-президент, главный исполнительный директор и члены
совета директоров (правления).
4. Менеджер среднего звена реализует (осуществляет) стратегию и
основную политику, спускаемые с верхнего уровня организации.
5. Средними менеджерами организации являются руководитель
подразделения, начальник отдела, директор завода и директор
производства.
6. Менеджер
первого
звена
следит
за
деятельностью
неуправленческих служащих и координирует ее.
Grammar
Modal verbs – Модальные глаголы
Модальные глаголы передают отношение говорящего к действию,
выраженному инфинитивом. Говорящий рассматривает действие как
14
возможное, желательное, необходимое, сомнительное, допустимое,
требуемое и т. д.
I can’t go with you. – Я не могу идти с вами.
We must go now. – Теперь нам надо идти.
Модальные глаголы отличаются от других глаголов рядом
особенностей:
1. Они не изменяются по лицам и не имеют окончания –s в 3-м
лице единственного числа.
2. У них нет неличных форм – инфинитива, причастия и герундия,
а следовательно, нет и аналитических видовременных форм.
3. За исключением глаголов can (could) и may (might) имеют
только одну форму.
4. Инфинитив смыслового глагола, следующий за модальными за
исключением глагола ought, употребляется без частицы to.
5. В вопросительном и отрицательном предложениях они
употребляются
без
вспомогательного
глагола.
В
вопросительном предложении перед подлежащим ставится сам
модальный глагол, в отрицательном отрицание not
присоединяется к модальному глаголу.
Наиболее употребительны следующие модальные глаголы:
Can (could) выражает:
- умение, физическую и умственную возможность, способность (Can
you skate?);
- возможность выполнения действий при соответствующих
обстоятельствах (You can see the forest through the other window.);
- разрешение или просьбу (Can you use your car? You can use my car.);
- сомнение и неуверенность (Can it be true?);
- невероятность (It can’t be true.).
May (might) выражает:
- разрешение (May I borrow you pen?);
- предположение с оттенком неуверенности (He may be ill);
- неодобрение или упрек (You might have helped me).
Must выражает:
- необходимость совершения действия (You must talk to your son
about his future);
- запрещение (He must not leave his room for a while);
- предположение, граничащее с уверенностью (Your father must be
eighty now.).
to have to выражает:
- обязанность (He had to do it.);
- отсутствие необходимости (You don’t have to go there).
to be to выражает:
долженствование,
необходимость
как
результат
договоренности (We are to discuss it next time).
Should и ought to выражают:
15
- моральное обязательство (You should (ought to) be always
polite.);
- порицание за невыполнения действия в прошлом (You should
(ought to) have helped me.);
- совет (You should (ought to) see a doctor.);
- предположение (He should (ought to) be at home.).
Exercises:
I. Complete the sentences using must, have to, ought to, should
1. I’m late. I … hurry. 2. We … wait an hour for them. 3. We … reach the
station in half an hour. 4. His English … be giving him a lot of trouble. 5. It’s
dark outside, it … be about 7 now. 6. When he was at the university he … work
to pay his own tuition (плата за обучение). 7. … I offer her my help? 8. She …
know the truth, you … tell her. 9. Why … I do somebody else’s work? 10. It’s 2
o’clock, you … be hungry. 11. I think you … give up smoking. 12. Why … they
worry if they’re paid so well?
II. Choose the correct word or phrase in italics to complete each
sentence
1 You must/needn't save a file before you turn the computer off, or you
will lose it. 2 I'm afraid this is a non-smoking office, so you haven't got to/can't
smoke in here. 3 Employees are reminded that they mustn't/needn't use the office
phone to make personal calls. 4 You needn't/mustn't send that reminder to
Eastwood's - they paid the invoice this morning. 5 You don't have to/can't buy or
sell alcohol in Iran, Saudi Arabia, and several other countries. 6 This income tax
form must/needn't be completed and returned to the Inland Revenue within 30
days.
III. Rewrite each of the following sentences using might, can't, must,
and a suitable infinitive
1. It's possible that they will give us the discount we want.
They might give us the discount we want.
2. Judging by the phone bill, I am sure she has been making long
international
calls.
Judging
by
the
phone
bill,
she
…………………………………………..
3. The factory is on a three-day week. I'm sure they aren't selling many
cars.
4. The
factory
is
on
a
three-day
week.
They
........................................................
5. It was a very bad deal. I am sure they lost a lot of money. It was a very
bad deal. They.........................................................................................
6. There's a chance he will be promoted at the end of the year.
7. H e …………………………………………….
16
8. She seemed very surprised to see me, so I am sure she wasn't expecting
me.
9. She
seemed
very
surprised
to
see
me.
S
h
e
.................................................
IV. Correct the mistakes in the following sentences.
1. We got to pay more tax this year.
2. We have not to spend too much on special promotions.
3. Last year we have to advertise a lot on television.
4. Our competitors are in trouble. They had got to reduce their prices.
5. We must to plan our marketing carefully.
V. Rewrite the following lines. The words in brackets will help you
Line 1. (May I have name please) May I have your name please?
Line 2. (Could spell that me please).
Line 3. (Would mind your passport).
Line 4. (Do think book me early morning).
Line 5. (I wonder you tell me when).
Line 6 (Would you mind if I message collegue).
VI. Telling people what to do. Write sentences using the words in brackets
with must, needn't, or mustn't
1. James needs these documents urgently, (fax them to him immediately).
You must fax them to him immediately.
2. Good, we all seem to agree, (discuss the matter any further).
3. We've still got plenty of stock, (order any more yet).
4. Our health care products are selling really well, (make sure we keep
our market share).
5. The CEO's been trying to get hold of you all morning, (call her right
now).
6. I've got a very important meeting this afternoon, (be late).
Unit 3
Essential vocabulary
primarily
responsible
accounting
investment
affect
entire
basic training
прежде всего
ответственный
бухгалтерский учет
инвестирование
влиять (на)
весь
основное обучение
17
преобразовывать
ассоциировать, отождествлять
товар, товары
метод
относиться (к)
покупатель, клиент, заказчик (постоянный)
продвижение, товара на рынке
продажа, сбыт, реализация
распределение, распространение
заведовать, быть ответственным (за)
заниматься
разрабатывать
нанимать (на работу)
обучать
оценивать
деятельность, исполнение
генеральный директор
обеспечивать
постановления, положения
законодательства
касаться, относиться (к)
найм, занятость
снабжать, обеспечивать
общий
convert
equate
goods
technique
apply (to)
customer
promotion
sale
distribution
be in charge (of)
engage (in)
design
hire
train
apprise
performance
general manager
ensure
regulations
concern
employment
provide
overall
Text 3
AREAS OF MANAGEMENT
An organizational structure can also be divided more or less horizontally
into areas of management. The most common areas are finance, operations,
marketing, human resources, and administration. Depending on its purpose and
mission, an organization may include other areas as well — research and
development, for example, or risk management.
Fi
nance
Opera
tions
Mar
keting
Hum
an
resources
Other
Administ (for example,
ration
Research
and
Development)
A financial manager is primarily responsible for the organization's
financial resources. Accounting and investment are specialized areas within
financial management. Because financing affects the operation of the entire firm,
18
many of the presidents of the largest companies are people who got their "basic
training" as financial managers.
An operations manager creates and manages the systems that convert
resources into goods and services. Traditionally, operations management is
equated with the production of goods. However, in recent years many of the
techniques and procedures of operations management have been applied to the
production of services and to a variety of nonbusiness activities. Like financial
management, operations management has produced a good percentage of today's
company presidents.
A marketing manager is responsible for the exchange of products between
the organization and its customers or clients. Specific areas within marketing are
marketing research, advertising, promotion, sales, and distribution.
A human resources manager is in charge of the organization's human
resources programs. He or she engages in human resources planning, design
systems for hiring, training, and appraising the performance of employees, and
ensures that the organization follows government regulations concerning
employment practices.
An administrative manager (also called a general manager) is not
associated with any specific functional area but provides overall administrative
leadership. A hospital administrator is a good example of an administrative
manager. He or she does not specialize in operations, finance, marketing, or
human resources management but instead coordinates the activities of
specialized managers in all these areas.
Exercises
I. Answer the questions
1. What are the most common areas of management?
2. What is a financial manager responsible for?
3. What is an operations manager traditionally equated with and what are
the changes in recent years?
4. What is a marketing manager responsible for?
5. What does an administrative manager coordinate?
II. Translate into Russian
Organizational structure; purpose and mission; research; customer;
development; accounting; goods and services; production of goods; percentage;
customer; advertising; be in charge of; government regulations; hire; determine;
appraise; guide; ensure; employment; salary; wage; labour.
III. Find the English equivalents
Уровни руководства (менеджмента); развитие; правительственные
постановления; научное исследование; покупатель (постоянный);
19
рекламирование; работа по найму; процентное соотношение; заведовать;
нанимать; обеспечивать; оценивать; разрабатывать; определять политику;
управлять (руководить); осуществлять; решать.
IV. Translate into English
1. Самыми обычными сферами управления являются финансы,
производственные операции, маркетинг, людские ресурсы и
администрирование.
2. Заведующий финансами (finance manager), прежде всего, отвечает
за финансовые ресурсы организации.
3. Традиционно директор производства (operations manager)
ассоциируется (is equated) с производством товаров.
4. Однако, в последние годы управление производством относится к
производству товаров и услуг.
5. Управляющий маркетингом (marketing manager) ответственен за
обмен продукцией между организацией и ее постоянными
покупателями (customers) или клиентами.
V. Speak on the following.
1. Levels of management.
2. Areas of management.
Grammar
Active and Passive Voices.
Действительный и cтрадательный залоги в английском языке.
Залог – это форма глагола, которая показывает, является ли
подлежащее предложения производителем или объектом действия,
выраженного сказуемым. В английском языке имеется два залога: the
Active Voice (действительный залог) и the Passive Voice (страдательный
залог).
Страдательный залог употребляется, когда исполнитель действия
очевиден или несуществен, или когда действие или его результат более
интересны, чем исполнитель. Страдательный залог образуется с помощью
глагола to be в соответствующем времени и III формы глагола (причастие
II).
Passive voice
Indefinite
Present
20
am
is
are
+ V3
Continuous
am
is
+ being + V3
are
Perfect
have (has) + been + V3
was
was
Past
+ being +
V3
+ V3
were
had + been + V3
were
shall
shall
+ be +
V3
Future
will
+ have + been +
V3
will
Сравним действительный залог со страдательным залогом:
Active Voice
Tom delivers the mail. Том доставляет почту.
Passive Voice
The mail is delivered by Tom. Почта доставляется Томом.
Как и в русском языке, существительное, играющее роль дополнения
в предложении действительного залога, в предложении страдательного
залога становится обычно подлежащим. Если в оборотах со страдательным
залогом указан производитель действия, то в русском языке он
обозначается творительным падежом, а в английском ему предшествует
предлог by. Употребление времени в английском страдательном залоге
принципиально не отличается от его употребления в действительном
залоге.
Следует обратить особое внимание на перевод глаголов с предлогом
в страдательном залоге. Наиболее распространённые из этих глаголов:
hear of – слышать о
laugh at – смеяться над
look after – присматривать за (кем–либо)
look at – смотреть на
rely on – полагаться на
send for – посылать за
speak of (about) – говорить о
pay attention to – обращать внимание на
take care of – заботиться о
The book is much spoken about. Об этой книге много говорят.
He can't be relied on. На него нельзя положиться.
В русском переводе не все глаголы сохраняют предлог:
to listen to – слушать что-либо, кого-либо
to look for – искать что-либо
to provide for – обеспечить кого-либо, чем-либо
to explain to – объяснять кому-либо
He was listened to with great attention. Его слушали с большим
вниманием.
21
I. Open the brackets using Present Simple or Past Simple, Active or
Passive. See the example
1. It's a big factory. Five hundred people are employed (employ) there.
2. Most of the Earth's surface ––– (cover) by water.
3. The park gates ––– (lock) at 6.30 p.m. every evening.
4. The letter ––– (post) a week ago and it ––– (arrive) yesterday.
5. I was born in London but I ––– (grow) up in the north of England.
6. While I was on holiday, my camera ––– (steal) from my hotel room.
II. Complete the following sentences with a verb from the box. See the
example
carry cause do make repair send spend wake up
1. The situation is serious. Something must be done before it's too late.
2. I haven't received the letter. It might ––– to the wrong address.
3. A decision will not ––– until the next meeting.
4. I told the hotel receptionist that I wanted to ––– at 6.30 the next
morning.
5. Do you think that less money should ––– on armaments?
6. The injured man couldn't walk and had to –––
III. Rewrite the sentences in passive. See the example.
1. Somebody has cleaned the room. _The room has been cleaned._
2. They have postponed the concert. The –––
3. Somebody is using the computer at the moment. The computer –––
4. I didn't realise that somebody was recording our conversation. I didn't
realise that –––
5. They have built a new hospital near the airport. –––
VI. Rewrite the following sentences using the structure have
something done
1. Someone makes my suits in London.
I have my suits made in London.
2. Someone is going to print 5,000 new catalogues for us.
We.............................................................................................................
3. When is someone going to redecorate my office?
When.........................................................................................................
4. Someone is designing a new office for them.
They..........................................................................................................
5. Someone has checked these figures for me.
I.................................................................................................................
6. Has someone done your hair?
Have..........................................................................................................
22
7. Someone should mend the photocopier for you.
You............................................................................................................
8. Someone delivered the new furniture for us yesterday.
We.............................................................................................................
Unit 4
Essential vocabulary
an individual business
to operate
a sole proprietorship
a stockholder
a general partnership
a share
a limited partnership
a board of directors
a corporation
an interest
an alien corporation
a profit
an owner
a charter
a certificate
taxation
индивидуальное частное предприятие
управлять, заведовать (фабрикой, отделом
и т. п.)
индивидуальное частное предприятие
акционер; пайщик, владелец акции
полное товарищество, товарищество с
неограниченной ответственностью
акция; доля, пай
коммандитное товарищество с
ограниченной ответственностью
правление директоров
(акционерного общества)
корпорация, акционерное общество
доля (в чем–л.) ; участие в прибылях;
участие в капитале;
иностранная корпорация
прибыль, доход, польза
владелец, собственник, хозяин
устав, право, привилегия, льгота
свидетельство, сертификат
налогообложение, обложение налогами
Text 4
DIFFERENT FORMS OF BUSINESS
A business may be privately owned in three different forms. Business in
the USA may be organized as one of the following forms:
–
individual business (a sole proprietorship);
–
general partnership;
–
limited partnership;
23
–
corporation;
–
alien corporation.
Individual business (a sole proprietorship) is owned by one person. A
general partnership has several owners. They all are liable for debts and they
share in the profits.
A limited partnership has at least one general owner and one or more other
owners. They have a limited investment and a limited liability.
A corporation is owned by people called stockholders. Stockholders
usually have certificates showing the number of shares which they own. The
stockholders elect a director or a board of directors to operate the corporation.
Most corporations are owned by a few stockholders. Other corporations are
owned by many stockholders who can buy and sell their shares. Usually they
have little, interest in management of the corporations.
Alien corporations are the corporations of foreign countries, Аll the
corporations have to receive their charters from the state authorities. The charters
contain all the powers of the corporation. Many corporations try to receive their
charters from the authorities, like the state of Delaware, though they operate in
other states. They prefer the state of Delaware because the laws are liberal and
the, taxation is rather low. Such corporations, which receive their charters from
an outside state, are called foreign corporations.
All the corporations require a certificate to do business in the state where
they prefer to operate.
Exercises:
I. Answer the questions
1. What forms of ownership are there in the USA?
2. What are different ways that business can be privately owned?
3. What kind of business is likely to be a sole proprietorship?
4. Who can be owners of a general partnership, a limited partnership, a
corporation, an alien corporation?
5. Where do many corporations receive their charters from the
authorities?
6. Why do corporations prefer to receive their charters in the state of
Delaware?
II. Choose the necessary word and put it in the sentence
1. Small ...are very often service industries.
2. Less than 20 percent of European business is ...
3. ... is only a small part of all business receipts.
4. Business may be privately owned in the forms, such as ...
(a sole proprietorship, a corporation, a partnership, businesses, a sole
proprietorship, a limited partnership, a general partnership, etc).
24
III. Translate into English
Управлять, пай, правление директоров, индивидуальное частное
предприятие, прибыль, налогообложение, доля (в чем–либо), устав,
свидетельство, собственник, акционер, иностранная корпорация.
IV. Read, translate and act the dialogue
Jim: Hi, Alice, How are you?
Alice: Fine, as usual, thank you, Jim. What about you?
Jim: I am OK. I am glad to see you.
Alice: So am I. Are you in a hurry?
Jim: No I'm not. We have some time to talk.
Alice: Good. Can you give me a piece of advice?
Jim: Well, I’ll try if I can.
Alice: I’m thinking of starting my own café business. I am good at
cooking.
Jim: It might be a good idea. Are you going into business by yourself?
Alice: Exactly. I'd like to have a cafe with my name on it, where I can
make the decisions alone and where I can control the profit.
Jim: If you go into business alone it is called a sole proprietorship. There
is no need to consult partners or a board of directors.
Alice: Yes. I can hire and fire a new employee. I can have my vacation
when I want.
Jim: But you have a risk, don't you?
Alice: What do you mean?
Jim: The most important risk is that you have an unlimited liability. You
are responsible for your business debts.
Alice: So, if the business fails I have to declare bankruptcy, do I?
Jim: Yes, you do. You can lose your personal assets. You will not receive
tax benefits a partnership or a corporation can also receive.
Alice: Thank you very much for your advice.
Grammar
THE INFINITIVE
Употребление простого инфинитива
Простой инфинитив – это I-я форма глагола (словарная), to read,
to write, to see.
Инфинитив, как правило, употребляется с частицей to, которая
является его грамматическим признаком. Однако частица to иногда
опускается, и инфинитив употребляется без нее:
25
1. После вспомогательных и модальных глаголов: can, could, must,
may, might, will, shall, would, should (и их отрицательных форм cannot=
can’t, must not= mustn’t и т. п.).
She can dance.
Она умеет танцевать.
I must see you at once.
Мне надо встретиться с тобой сейчас же
(немедленно).
He might help me.
Он мог бы помочь мне.
После need и dare, если они используются как модальные:
You needn’t go there.
Вам незачем идти туда.
How dare you ask me?
Как смеете вы спрашивать у меня?
2. После выражений had better – лучше (бы), would rather –
предпочитаю; лучше бы:
You had (=You’d) better help Ты лучше бы помог ей.
her.
I would (=I’d) rather go by train. Я предпочитаю поехать поездом.
3. В объектном инфинитивном обороте (сложное дополнение)
после глаголов:
а) выражающих восприятие при помощи органов чувств: to feel
чувствовать, to hear слышать, to notice замечать, to see видеть и др.:
I felt my pulse quicken.
Я почувствовал, что мой пульс
участился.
She heard the clock strike Она услышала, как часы пробили
eight.
восемь.
I saw him jump.
Я видел, как он прыгнул.
Но если эти глаголы употребляются в страдательном залоге, то инфинитив
употребляется с to:
She was seen to go to the Видели, как она пошла в институт.
institute.
б) После глаголов: to make в значении – заставлять, вынуждать и
to let – разрешать, позволять:
He made me help him.
Он заставил меня помогать ему.
What makes you think so?
Что заставляет тебя думать так?
He let me take his book.
Он разрешил мне взять свою книгу.
We let him do it.
Мы разрешили ему сделать это.
Но если эти глаголы употребляются в страдательном залоге, то
инфинитив употребляется с to:
She was made to repeat the Ее заставили повторить (свой)
story.
рассказ.
4. После why, с которого начинается вопрос. Это редкий тип
предложений, относящихся к односоставным, где из двух главных членов
26
предложения (подлежащее и сказуемое) имеется всего один – сказуемое,
представленное инфинитивом.
Why not go there right away?
Почему бы не пойти туда сейчас же?
Why not take a holiday?
Почему бы не взять отпуск?
Why worry ?
Зачем беспокоиться ?
5. Если в предложении есть два инфинитива, объединенные союзом
and или or, то частица to употребляется только перед первым
инфинитивом:
I want to come and see your new house. Я хочу приехать (и) посмотреть твой
новый дом.
She decided to go and buy something for Она решила пойти и купить что–нибудь на
supper.
ужин.
I. Insert the Infinitive. Think whether a bare Infinitive or a to–
Infinitive is necessary
1. You could (to have done) it long ago. 2. Who made you (to stay) here
and not (to go away)? 3. I’d rather (to tell) her think about their proposal than
just (to follow) her advice. 4. They cannot but (to support) your project,
otherwise they won’t be able (to get) any profit. 5. Look! The chair is overturned
there. You’ll have (to go) and (to put it upright). 6. – Was she seen (to speak) to
the editor? – Yes, my assistant saw her (to do) it.
II. Work in pairs. Respond to the statements given below. Use the
following phrases with a bare Infinitive:
had better (‘d better)
cannot but
would rather (‘d rather)
nothing but
would sooner (‘d sooner)
Add a sentence beginning with Why not + a bare Infinitive.
Model: Andrew is so busy. He is just out of everything. – He’d better take
a day off and go to the country. Why not invite him to have a swim in the lake?
1. I tried to calm her, but she didn’t hear me. 2. Jack Smith decided to
cross his name off the list. He thinks he is not the one to be elected. 3. We are
going to the theatre tonight, but they say, they may cancel the performance
because the leading man is ill. 4. I never talk politics in the pub. 5. David tore
her letter into small pieces. 6. All these late nights are beginning to tell on his
health. 7. Bill failed to repay most of his debt.
III. Insert the Infinitive. Think whether a bare Infinitive or a to–
Infinitive is necessary. Translate the sentences from English into Russian
1. We made the sellers (pack) the goods according to the requirements of
the contract. 2. They won’t let the goods (leave) the customs till the shipping
documents have been checked. 3. Would you like us (send) the consignment
now? 4. He (made) us wait for two hours. 5. The terms of delivery allow us (use)
27
all kinds of shipment. 5 We want you (answer) promptly. 6. Why not you (open)
a credit at the Alpha bank? 7. You’d better (make) the work quickly.
IV. Make and let. Rewrite the sentences beginning with They
mad e us ... or They let us ..
1.
We had to work extremely hard on the training course.
2.
They made us work, extremely hard on the training course.
3.
We were allowed to go out at the weekends.
4.
We had to give a presentation every morning.
5.
We had to speak English all the time.
6.
There was a TV we could watch.
V. Complete these sentences using (not) to + infinitive
1.
We made record profits last year, and this will enable us ...
2.
My parents encouraged me ...
3.
The government should train more young people ...
4.
The conference organizers have invited me ...
5.
Before I went to New York, a colleague warned me ...
VI. Say what advice you would give in these situations.
1.
Your accountants have made a number of mistakes, and you have to
pay the tax authorities a large fine.
I would ask them ...................... and I would tell …………………….
2.
The 16–year–old daughter of a friend comes to you to ask for advice
about what career she should take up.
I would encourage her ....................... and I would advise .......................
Unit 5
Essential vocabulary
start–up costs
для
a service industry
an accounting
advantage
disadvantage
tax benefit
stockbrokerage
28
пусковые затраты (затраты, необходимые
начала новой деятельности
индустрия обслуживания
учет, калькуляция, бухгалтерское/счетное
дело
преимущество
недостаток
налоговая льгота
биржевая игра
an insurance
regulatory burden
tax advantages
unlimited liability
incorporate business
страхование
бремя нормативно–правового соответствия
налоговые льготы
полная ответственность по обязательствам
акционерная компания или общество
Text 5 (Part I)
SOLE PROPRIETORSHIP
With this type of business organization, you would be fully responsible for
all debts and obligations related to your business and all profits would be yours
alone to keep. As a sole owner of the business, a creditor can make a claim
against your personal or business assets to pay off any debt.
Advantages:
 Easy and inexpensive to form a sole proprietorship (you will only
need to register your business name)
 Relatively low cost to start your business
 Lowest amount of regulatory burden
 Direct control of decision making
 Minimal working capital required to start–up
 Tax advantages if your business is not doing well, for example,
deducting your losses from your personal income, lower tax bracket
when profits are low, and so on
 All profits will go to you directly




Disadvantages:
Unlimited liability (if you have business debts, personal assets
would be used to pay off the debt)
Income would be taxable at your personal rate and, if your business
is profitable, this may put you in a higher tax bracket
Lack of continuity for your business, if you need to be absent
Difficulty raising capital on your own
2. Partnerships
A partnership is a good business structure if you want to carry on a
business with a partner and you do not wish to incorporate your business. With a
partnership, financial resources are combined and put into the business. You can
establish the terms of your business with your partner and protect yourself in
case of a disagreement or dissolution by drawing up a specific business
agreement. As partners, you would share in the profits of your business
according to the terms of your agreement.
29
Exercises:
I. Answer the questions
1. What is sole–proprietorship?
2. What are the advantages of sole–proprietorship?
3. What is the difference between sole–proprietorship and partnership?
4. Are there many disadvantages of sole–proprietorship?
II. Translate into English
Cстрахование, бухгалтерское/счетное дело, размер, налоговая льгота,
биржевая игра, индустрия обслуживания, пусковые затраты (затраты,
необходимые для начала новой деятельности, индустрия обслуживания,
бухгалтерское/счетное дело, преимущество, недостаток, налоговая льгота,
биржевая игра, страхование, бремя нормативно–правового соответствия,
налоговые льготы, полная ответственность по своим обязательствам,
акционерная компания или общество
III. Rearrange the letters to make words. Use the definitions in
brackets to help you
1. enrtrepeenur entrepreneur (someone who starts a company and makes
business deals)
2. citapal (money used to start or invest in a business)
3. funoder (someone who starts an organization)
4. prmeeiss (the buildings that a company uses)
5. puchrase (formal buy something)
6. tunvorer (the money a business makes = revenue)
7. seahrs (the equal parts of a company which people can buy
and sell)
8. actisiquion (buying another company; = take–over)
9. cotellaral (property or money that you promise to give the bank if you
cannot pay back a debt)
10. damend (the desire or need that customers have for a product)
IV. Match an item on the left with an item on the right to make
phrases
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
equity
exit
a going
private
a gap in the
do
7. employ
8. brand
30
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
start–up
name
market
concern
strategy
a profit
g.
h.
capital
company
9. fail
10.make
11.raise
12.rent
i.
j.
k.
l.
staff
some market research
to get enough customers
premises
V. Complete the sentences with phrases from Exercise IV
1. The founder of the company is going to retire next year. I think he’ll
probably sell the business as ……. But first he needs to ……….. to see
who might be interested in taking over the business.
2. If the company is going to expand, they will need to ………... They can
either ask the bank, issue new shares, or try to attract ………...
3. She wants to start her own business and she thinks she can see ………..
She has money of her own, so the first steps are to ……….. in a suitable
location, purchase equipment and employ staff.
VI. What department does which job? Match each job from the
column on the left to a company department from the column on the right
1. puts the product into boxes?
2. pays wages and salaries?
3. plans how to promote products?
4. has systems to prevent mistakes?
5. looks after the equipment?
6. deals with complaints?
7. manufactures the products?
8. sends invoices to customers?
9. buys equipment?
10. arranges credit facilities?
11. helps staff develop new skills?
12. sends products to the customer?
13. buys media space?
14. recruits new staff?
15. sends representatives to visit customers?
A. Training
B. Production
C. Marketing
D. Purchasing
E. Personnel
F. Packaging
G. Sales
H. Accounts
I. Payroll
J. Distribution
K. Customer Service
L. Financial Services
M. Quality
N. Advertising
O. Maintenance
Grammar:
Complex object
Объектный инфинитивный оборот
Объектный инфинитивный оборот, или сложное дополнение,
состоит из существительного или личного местоимения в объектном
падеже (me, him, her, us, you, them) и инфинитива, и употребляется лишь
31
после глаголов, выражающих желание, восприятие, предположение,
приказание, просьбу.
Инфинитив с частицей to:
1.
После глаголов, выражающих желание, чувства, намерение:
Инфинитив в страдательном залоге:
I
want
you
to
be
Я хочу, чтобы тебя запомнили.
remembered.
I should like us to be invited
Я хотел бы, чтобы нас пригласили
to the conference.
на конференцию.
2.
После глаголов, выражающих умственную деятельность. В
этой роли над всеми этими глаголами витает общее значение – полагать,
предполагать, считать. После глаголов этой группы (кроме to expect)
чаще всего употребляется инфинитив глагола to be:
Мы знаем, что он хороший
artist.
художник.
I expect him to ask that
Я ожидаю, что он задаст этот
question.
вопрос.
Причем после глаголов to consider, to declare, to find, to prove
инфинитив, обозначенный глаголом to be, часто опускается:
I consider him (to be)
Я считаю, что он не прав.
wrong.
They declared him (to be)
Они объявили его победителем.
the winner.
We know him to be a good
3.
После глаголов, выражающих побуждение (приказ, просьбу,
разрешение, предупреждение). Часто порядок слов английского
предложения с этим оборотом полностью совпадает с порядком слов
русского варианта этого предложения.
The teacher allowed us to use
Учитель позволил нам пользоваться
dictionaries.
словарями.
I ask you not to be late this time.
Я прошу вас не опаздывать на этот
раз.
I’ll get her to come.
Я заставлю ее прийти. (Я сделаю
так, чтобы она пришла.)
The doctor told me to stay in
Врач велел мне оставаться в
bed.
постели.
Если лицо, на которое направлено приказание /разрешение, не
указывается, то используется Passive:
She allowed the car to be
Она разрешила, чтобы машину убрали с
taken away.
этого места.
32
I. Point out the Objective with the Infinitive construction. Pay
attention to the use of the bare Infinitive
1. Never let them watch you work or they will disturb you. 2. What made
you come so early? 3. I was very close to the phone box and noticed the man dial
the number, and then I heard him say something to a certain Liz. 4. I can’t have
him waste his money. He may need it. 5. We could watch them go out every
evening. 6. Did you make her get a new passport? 7. They borrowed the money,
didn’t they? Let them pay it back.
II. The words in the following sentences are in the wrong order.
Rewrite them in the correct order
1. The law allows on to open supermarkets Sundays.
2. The law allows supermarkets to open on Sunday
3. They finance bank persuaded project the the to.
4. The court pay company compensation ordered the to.
5. The fall cut demand forced in us production to.
6. They at conference have invited me speak the to.
III. Reporting what people say. Rewrite the sentences using the verbs
in brackets + object + to + infinitive
1. 'Don't forget to post that letter!'
2. 'Go on, apply for the job.'
3. 'If I were you, I'd make a formal complaint.'
4. 'Would you finish the report as soon as possible, please?'
5. 'You can leave early if you like.'
6. 'Don't rush into a decision.'
a. (remind) He reminded me to send the letter.
b. (encourage)..................................................
c. (advise)..............................................................
d. (ask)................................
e. (allow)...............................................................
f. (warn).................................................................
IV. Finish the sentences
Model: You should learn French. – I want you ... I want you to learn
French.
1. He is to pay the bill. Please, have him ... 2. We had to wait for hours.
The producer made us ... 3. They left very early. I didn’t expect them ... 4. He
will never tell lies. Have you ever known him ... 5. She wanted to hurt him by
her words. She meant her words … 6. Why do you say that? What makes you …
? 7. Why do you think that? What makes you … ? 8. I was sure he would keep
his promise. I expected him … 9. They never come on time. Have you ever
known …? 10. They never speak rudely. Have you ever heard …?
33
Text 5 (Part 2)
You may also be interested in a limited liability partnership in the
business. This means that you would not take part in the control or management
of the business, but would be liable for debts to a specified extent only.
When establishing a partnership, you should have a partnership agreement
drawn up with the assistance of a lawyer, to ensure that:
 You are protecting your interests
 That you have clearly established the terms of the partnership with
regards to issues like profit sharing, dissolving the partnership, and
more
 That you meet the legal requirements for a limited partnership (if
applicable)
Advantages:
 Easy to start–up a partnership
 Start–up costs would be shared equally with you and your partner
 Equal share in the management, profits and assets
 Tax advantage, if income from the partnership is low or loses money
(you and your partner include your share of the partnership in your
individual tax return)
Disadvantages:
 Similar to sole proprietorship, as there is no legal difference
between you and your business
 Unlimited liability (if you have business debts, personal assets
would be used to pay off the debt)
 Hard to find a suitable partner
 Possible development of conflict between you and your partner
 You are held financially responsible for business decisions made by
your partner (for example, contracts that are broken)
3. Corporations
Another type of business structure is incorporation. Incorporation can be
done at the federal or provincial/territorial level. When you incorporate your
business, it is considered to be a legal entity that is separate from the
shareholders. As a shareholder of a corporation, you will not be personally liable
for the debts, obligations or acts of the corporation. When making such
decisions, it is always wise to seek legal advice before incorporating.
Advantages:
 Limited liability
 Ownership is transferable
 Continuous existence
34
 Separate legal entity
 Easier to raise capital
 Possible tax advantage as taxes may be lower for an incorporated
business
Disadvantages:
 A corporation is closely regulated
 More expensive to incorporate than a partnership or sole
proprietorship
 Extensive corporate records required, including shareholder and
director meetings, and documentation filed annually with the
government
 Possible conflict between shareholders and directors
 Possible problem with residency of directors
Exercises:
I. Answer the questions
1. In what professional fields can partnerships be established?
2. In what professional fields can sole proprietorships be established ?
3. What advantages do partnerships have?
4. What disadvantages do corporations have?
II. Choose the necessary word and put it in the sentence
1. Partnerships often receive ... from the government.
2. Partnerships can bring much ... to the partners.
3. A disadvantage of ... is the responsibility for the whole business.
4. A sole ... is the most common in ..., …, … .
(proprietorship, service industries, laundromats, different repair shops,
restaurants, beauty shops, tax benefits, profits, partnerships).
III. Use English equivalents of the words in brackets
1. (Неудача) of advertising campaign resulted in low sales figures of the
new product.
2. To run a business properly one should (нанять на работу) a
professional manager.
3. If the owner of the (товарищества уходит в отставку) or serious
disagreement between the (партнерами) take place, it usually leads to
(ликвидации компании).
4. (Ограниченная ответственность) of the shareholders is sure to be one
of the major benefits of any corporation.
5. Being the oldest form of business, (единоличная форма
собственности) is the main form of (собственности) in farming, building,
35
repairing work and (личных услугах) such as hairdressing, selling retail estate,
etc.
6. (Владелец) provides complete control over the business, its loans,
capital and policies.
IV. Read, translate and act out the dialogue
Maurice: Good morning, Susan. I haven't seen you for a long time!
Susan:
Good morning, Maurice. I have been very busy. I went into
business with my friend.
Maurice: Really? How is it going?
Susan:
Fine, thank you. We get along very well, and the shop is
attracting more and more customers.
Maurice: It sounds good. How many partners are there in your business?
Susan: There are two of us. My friend's background is accounting. She
is very good at bookkeeping.
Maurice: And you?
Susan: I guess, I am rather good with customers. I enjoy selling things.
Maurice: Wel1, it sounds interesting. I believe you do not run many risks
in your business.
Susan:
I suppose any business can be risky. As partners we are both
liable.
Maurice:
Did you both put the same amount of money into your
business?
Susan: No, we didn't invest the same amount of capital. But I think we
have combined our resources very well. I think it is good for both of' us.
V. Find the definitions of the following words
profit, gain, benefit, income, revenue
1. An increase in amount, increase in wealth.
2. The money gained in a business transaction, especially the difference
between the amount earned and amount spent.
3. The money received from the work done, or from the money invested
(as interest), or from the property owned (as rent).
4. Something equals to advantage.
5. The amount a firm earns by selling goods or services in a given period
such as a year.
36
Grammar
COMPLEX SUBJECT
Субъектный инфинитивный оборот
Субъектный инфинитивный оборот, или сложное подлежащее,
состоит из существительного или личного местоимения в именительном
падеже и инфинитива, обозначающего действие.
Случаи употребления оборота
1. С глаголами сообщения.
She was announced to be the
winner.
They are reported to arrive in
two days.
He is said to be very ill.
Было объявлено, что она победила.
Говорят, что он очень болен.
2. С глаголами мышления (мнение, предположение, надежда):
She is considered to be the
Ее считают самой лучшей певицей. =
best singer.
Считается, что она лучшая певица.
He is known to be a good
Известно, что он хороший писатель.
writer.
I was supposed to meet him.
Предполагалось, что я встречу его.
3. С глаголами чувственного восприятия:
Birds were heard to sing in
Было слышно, как птицы поют в
the garden.
саду.
He was seen to enter the
Видели, как он входил в дом.
house.
После сказуемого в страдательном залоге сам инфинитив может
употребляться в различных формах:
He is reported to be writing a
Сообщают, что он пишет
new novel. (Continuous Infinitive)
новый роман.
He is said to have returned at
Говорят, что он наконец
last. (Perfect Infinitive)
вернулся.
С глаголом–сказуемым в действительном залоге (Active):
1. С глаголами: to appear, to seem – казаться, представляться,
причем в разговорной речи более уместен seem.
He appeared to know her new Оказалось, что он знает ее новый адрес.
37
address.
He seems to know us.
Кажется, он знает нас.
Если инфинитив выражен глаголом–связкой to be, то он часто
опускается:
He seems (to be) angry.
Кажется, что он сердится.
She seems (to be) unhappy.
Она, кажется, несчастлива.
После этих глаголов могут употребляться все виды инфинитива:
He seems to be watching us. Похоже, он наблюдает за нами. (передает
(Continuous Infinitive)
длительность)
She seemed to have kept all Казалось, что она выполнила все свои
his promises. (Perfect Infinitive)
обещания. (передает завершенность)
2. С глаголами: to chance, to happen – случайно оказываться,, to
prove, to turn out (to be) – случиться, оказаться, причем после них может
употребляться лишь простой инфинитив – Indefinite.
Do you happen to know her Вы, случайно, не знаете ее имени?
name?
He proved to be a good friend.
Оказалось, что он хороший друг.
He turned out (to be) a smuggler. Он оказался контрабандистом.
В разговорной речи to be может опускаться, причем to prove
характерен для официальной речи, а to turn out – для обычной.
3. Глагол–сказуемое выражено прилагательным с глаголом–
связкой:
to be (is, are, was, …) + likely – вероятный/unlikely –
маловероятный/ sure – верный, безусловный. После них может
употребляться лишь простой инфинитив – Indefinite. На русский язык
переводятся наречиями.
He is likely to come.
Вероятно, он придет.
He is unlikely to help you. Вряд ли он поможет тебе.
They are sure to come soon. Они, несомненно, скоро придут.
Отрицательная частица not ставится перед likely, и после sure.
We are not likely to meet Мы вряд ли будем встречаться часто.
often.
I. Note the Complex Subject with the infinitive and the verb it is used
after. Translate the sentences into Russian
1. Her retirement was rather a tragedy; she was forced to retire before
time.
2. He always appeared to be so helpful on the committees, so
considerate.
3. The system seems to be functioning well.
4. Mankind is sure to have entered the age of automation.
5. She appears to make progress in languages.
38
6. They seem to like their work at the exhibition.
II. Match the Infinitive or the Infinitive phrases with the other parts
suggested to make up a sentence with Subjective Infinitive constructions
1. The students are likely
1. to be very monotonous and tedious.
2. My co–workers are supposed
2. to be doing well.
3. My job appeared
3. to have arrived.
4. The American delegation is reported
5. to consult our foreign partners.
5. Robert applied for a job but happened 6. make a negative impression at the
interview.
III. Join the elements of a Subjective Infinitive construction. Use the
proper form of a finite verb
Model: Things – to get better. (to be sure) – Things are sure to
get better.
1. She – to have lost her money. (to turn out) 2. Her husband – to get a pay
increase next month. (to expect) 3. We – to phone him at work. (to suppose) 4.
He – to leave his job. (to force) 5. My boss – to sign the contract. (to make) 6.
His visa – to be no longer valid. (to find) 7. They – to find a job at the moment.
(to be unlikely) 8. The secretary – to type your letters on time. (to be certain)
IV. Choose Russian equivalents
1. A theory is known to be tested by practice.
a. Известно, что теория проверяется практикой.
b. Теория проверяется практикой.
c. Теория известна и проверяется она практикой.
2. Statistics is considered to be a powerful instrument of state
administration.
a. Статистика рассматривается как великий инструмент
управления государством.
b. Статистику рассматривают как важный инструмент
управления государством.
c. Считают, что статистика – это мощный инструмент
управления государством.
3. This approach seems to ignore the objective conditions.
a. Кажется, этот подход игнорирует объективные условия.
b. Этот подход игнорирует объективные условия.
c. Этот подход, кажется, игнорирует объективные условия.
4. He is sure to come.
a. Он уверен, что придет.
b. Он непременно придет.
c. Он уверен и придет.
V. Use the proper form of the infinitive
1. Aggregated demand is likely (to decrease) next year.
39
2. Tax rates are known (to cut) by former government.
3. Prices for these shares are believed (to fluctuate) in the near future.
4. Liability is sure (to be) a form of debt.
5. The liability of the firm was reported (to meet) in due time.
Unit 6
Essential vocabulary
economically
economic
to economize
economical
an economist
microeconomics
the world economy
doldrums
consumer
a recession
a community
to recover
household
a resource
output
unemployment
экономно, бережливо
экономический
экономить
экономный, экономичный
экономист
микроэкономика
мировая экономика
депрессия
потребитель, клиент, заказчик
спад, рецессия, падение, понижение.
общество, сообщество, община
восстанавливаться, выправляться
домашнее хозяйство
ресурс, источник
продукция, выпуск,
производительность
безработица
Text 6
Economics
Economics is the social science that studies economic activity to gain an
understanding of the processes that govern the production, distribution and
consumption of goods and services in an economy.
The term economics comes from the Ancient Greek οἰκονομία from οἶκος
(oikos, "house") and νόμος (nomos, "custom" or "law"), hence "rules of the
house (hold for good management)". "Political economy" was the earlier name
for the subject, but economists in the late 19th century suggested "economics" as
a shorter term for "economic science" to establish itself as a separate discipline
outside of political science and other social sciences.
40
Economics focuses on the behavior and interactions of economic agents
and how economies work. Consistent with this focus, primary textbooks often
distinguish between microeconomics and macroeconomics. Microeconomics
examines the behavior of basic elements in the economy, including individual
agents and markets, their interactions, and the outcomes of interactions.
Individual agents may include, for example, households, firms, buyers, and
sellers. Macroeconomics analyzes the entire economy (meaning aggregated
production, consumption, savings, and investment) and issues affecting it,
including unemployment of resources (labor, capital, and land), inflation,
economic growth, and the public policies that address these issues (monetary,
fiscal, and other policies).
Besides the traditional concern in production, distribution, and
consumption in an economy, economic analysis may be applied throughout
society, as in business, finance, health care, and government. Economic analyses
may also be applied to such diverse subjects as crime, education, the family, law,
politics, religion, social institutions, war, and science; by considering the
economic aspects of these subjects. Education, for example, requires time, effort,
and expenses, plus the foregone income and experience, yet these losses can be
weighed against future benefits education may bring to the agent or the
economy. At the turn of the 21st century, the expanding domain of economics in
the social sciences has been described as economic imperialism.
Exercises:
I. Answer the questions:
1. What does economics study?
2. What disciplines does economics consist of?
3. What does microeconomics study?
4. What does macroeconomics study?
5. What is economy?
II. Give Russian equivalents to the following:
Economist, unemployment, to economize, economically, consumer,
community, economic, output, doldrums, microeconomics, household, the
world economy, community, a resource, a recession, to recover.
III. Choose the correct word
1. I am a student of (economy, economics) now.
2. At school I didn’t study the (economy, economics) of Great Britain.
3. I hope he’ll make a good (economist, economy).
4. There are many (economic, economical) problems in the world.
5. This car is very (economic, economical).
6. I try to spend money and time (economical, economically).
7. This car (economize, economizes) fuel.
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IV. Find English equivalents for the following:
Мировая экономика, экономист, рецессия, экономно, депрессия,
безработица, домашнее хозяйство, экономить, макроэкономика, продукция,
общество, ресурс, потребитель, восстанавливаться, экономический.
V. Choose the necessary word and put it in the sentence
(interrelations, branch, economics, predications, macroeconomics,
economic laws, economic theories, economy).
1 … is a social science studying the....
2. Economics is a science. It attempts to find ....
3. Economists make ... . They form the basis of....
4. The figure shows the ... between models, theories and reality.
5.... is the... of economics that studies the economy as a whole.
VI. Make true sentences
luxury houses
jobs
There is
clean water
There isn’t enough engineers
in my country
There aren’t
money
in my town
There are
gas and oil
in my family
schools
universities
hospitals
home appliances
Grammar
THE GERUND
Герундий
Герундий – это неличная форма глагола, выражающая название
действия и обладающая как свойствами глагола так и существительного. В
русском языке соответствующей формы нет.
Герундий, обладая свойствами существительного:
1.
Может определяться притяжательным местоимением и
существительным в притяжательном или общем падеже (это –
герундиальный оборот):
their singing – пение (чье?) их
my friend’s reading – чтение (чье?) моего друга
Helen(’s) coming – приезд (чей?) Хелен
42
2.
Перед ним может стоять предлог, например:
by reading – путем чтения, читая
before leaving – перед уходом
3.
Как существительное он может служить в предложении:
подлежащим, частью составного сказуемого, дополнением, определением
или обстоятельством.
Герундий имеет четыре формы – одну простую и три сложных,
образованных с помощью вспомогательных глаголов. По форме герундий
совпадает с соответствующими формами Причастия I (причастия
настоящего времени).
(Active) Действительный
(Passive) Страдательный
залог
залог
Вид
Вспомогательный Смысловой Вспомогательный Смысловой
глагол
глагол
глагол
глагол
–
IV
being
III
Indefinite
asking
being asked
having
III
having been
III
Perfect
having asked
having been asked
Перевод герундия. Аналогичной части речи в русском языке нет, а
так как он имеет признаки существительного и глагола, то в русском языке
можно найти два способа его перевода:
а) существительным, передающим процесс: курение, чтение;
б) глаголом, чаще всего неопределенной формой (инфинитивом) –
делать, а иногда, если есть предлог, деепричастием – делая.
Сложные формы герундия почти всегда переводятся придаточными
предложениями.
Exercises:
I. Translate the sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the way of
rendering the gerund in Russian
1. We inform you of crediting your account with the sum of $500. 2. I am
grateful for his having helped me. 3. We thank you for sending us your new
catalogue. 4. We look forward to being of service to you. 5. We would
appreciate hearing from you in the future. 6. We would appreciate your
considering the matter urgently. 7. We cannot locate receiving the above
remittance. 8. Advise us of having received the above–mentioned payment. 9.
We would greatly appreciate your sending us the duplicate advice as soon as
possible. 10. What is the purpose of sending the invoice?
43
II. Make up a sentence. Use various forms of the gerund. Translate
your sentences. Pay attention to the perfect and voice distinctions of the
gerund
I like
I am (dis)pleased with
He is tired of
She regrets
I had no difficulty in
We remember
He hates
swimming.
having offended him.
being treated like that.
playing chess.
being visited by somebody.
finding the house.
being invited to a concert.
having met him once.
having a cold shower.
being taken to a play.
getting a letter from her.
looking round shops.
SYNTACTICAL FUNCTIONS OF THE GERUND
Функции герундия в предложении
1. В роли подлежащего
В роли подлежащего герундий употребляется без предлога.
Переводится существительным или неопределенной формой глагола
(инфинитивом).
Smoking is bad for health.
Курение вредно для здоровья.
Reading gives you knowledge. Чтение приносит вам
знание.
В разговорной речи употребительны конструкции: it is no use, it is no
good – бесполезно, it is worth / while – стоит (например: потраченного
времени, усилий):
It’s no use waiting any more.
Бесполезно ждать больше.
It is worth while doing it.
Это стоит сделать.
2. Как часть составного именного сказуемого
В этом случае герундий играет роль смысловой части сказуемого,
следуя за глаголом–связкой to be (am, is, are, was, were,…):
His hobby is collecting Его хобби – коллекционировать марки.
stamps.
(коллекционирование марок)
His task was translating the Его задача заключалась в том, чтобы
text from English into перевести текст с английского на русский.
Russian.
44
При этом подлежащее должно обозначать предмет, который сам не
может осуществлять действие, выраженное тем глаголом от которого
образован герундий.
Your job is sorting the mail. Твоя работа – сортировать почту.
III. Translate the sentences from English into Russian
1. Being promoted sometimes helps a lot. 2. It makes all the difference
getting some extra money. 3. Working nine to nine seems to be tiresome.
4. It makes no difference having a talk with him or sending him a letter. 5.
Travelling abroad without a visa is dangerous. 6. It makes no difference going
there by taxi or by bus.
IV. Answer the following questions. Use a gerund or a gerundial
phrase as subject
MODEL: What has been described as economic imperialism? (the
expanding domain of economics in the social science)
1. What takes you much time before going abroad? (to get a visa) 2. What
is necessary when renting a flat? (to keep the flat clean) 3. What is advisable
when looking for a job? (to put an advertisement regularly in a weekly
newspaper and to read advertisements about job vacancies) 4. What is desirable
when choosing a career? (to get the necessary information about the occupation
you are going to choose) 5. What is important when doing business? (to keep
one’s word)
3. В роли предложного дополнения
В роли предложного косвенного дополнения герундий может стоять
после бесчисленного количества глаголов, прилагательных и причастий,
употребляющихся с фиксированными предлогами. В этом случае, как уже
говорилось, из глагольных форм может употребляться только герундий.
1. После глаголов с предлогами, чаще of, for, in и др. Например:
to agree on/to – соглашаться с
to look like – выглядеть как
to complain of – жаловаться на
to object to – возражать против
to consist in – заключаться в
to persist in – упорно продолжать…
to count on/upon –рассчитывать наto result in – иметь результатом
to depend on – зависеть от
to speak of – говорить о
to feel like – хотеть, собираться
to succeed in – удаваться
to hear of – слышать о
to suspect of – подозревать в
to insist on – настаивать на
to thank for – благодарить за
to keep from – удерживать(ся) от to think of – думать о, и т.д.
She didn’t agree to coming here. Она не согласилась на то, чтобы прийти
сюда.
45
I don’t feel like working.
Что–то мне не хочется работать.
He is looking forward to seeing her. Он с нетерпением ждет встречи с ней.
She looks like leaving.
Она собралась уходить.
2. После сочетаний: глагол to be (am, is, are…) + прилагательное
или причастие с предлогами, чаще of, for, at, например:
to be afraid (of) – бояться чего–л.
to be pleased (at) – быть довольным
to be ashamed (of) –стыдиться чего–л. to be proud (of) – гордиться чем–л.
to be engaged in – быть занятым чем–to be sorry (for) – сожалеть
л.
to be surprised (at) – удивляться чему–
to be fond of – любить что–л.
л.
to be good at – быть способным к
to be tired of – уставать от чего–л.
to be interested in – интересоваться
to be used to – привыкать к, и др.
He was afraid of missing his train.
I’m pleased at your coming.
(I’m) Sorry for disturbing you.
I’m tired of waiting.
He is used to living with his parents.
Он боялся пропустить свой поезд.
Мне приятно, что вы пришли.
Извините за беспокойство.
Я устал ждать.
Он привык жить с родителями.
V. Use the proper preposition and the proper form of the gerund
1. I believe (to discuss) things openly. 2. If you don’t book in advance,
you can’t rely (to find) a hotel room. 3. She succeeded (to get) the visa to the US.
4. We congratulate you (to complete) your work. 5. I apologized (not to answer)
the letter. 6. I’m looking forward (to hear) from you. 7. We are interested (to
start) a discussion group. 8. The man was disappointed (not to admit) to the
meeting.
VI. Use the proper preposition and the proper form of the gerund
The manager insisted (the accountant) (to hand in the balance sheet) in
due time. – The manager insisted on the accountant handing in the balance sheet
in due time.
1. The tenant asked if the landowner objected (he) (to build a new
storage). 2. The fiscal police suspected (the company) (not to pay all its profits).
3. The company must compensate stockholders (not to pay dividends in time), as
these troubles were due (to run the company improperly). 4. The customers were
told (the company) (to open a new modern department store) in their district. 5.
Economists argue that minimum wage prevents (businessmen) (to employ young
workers with little human capital).
46
Unit 7
Essential vocabulary
a persistent rise
неуклонный, постоянный подъем
briefly
коротко, кратко
potential benefits
потенциальные выгоды
hence
следовательно
mild inflation
мягкая, низкая инфляция
may pose few difficulties
особых проблем не представляет
insurmountable
неисчислимые, колоссальные
to pull
тянуть
demand–pull inflation
инфляция спроса
cost–push inflation
инфляция издержек
to occur
происходить
to outstrip
обгонять, опережать,
превосходить
to stretch
натягивать, напрягать
little available labour
мало рабочей силы
there is little scope
мало возможностей
in order to improve their profit margins
чтобы увеличить прибыль
(размеры прибыли)
Text 7
Inflation: What Is Inflation?
Inflation is defined as a sustained increase in the general level of prices for
goods and services. It is measured as an annual percentage increase. As inflation
rises, every dollar you own buys a smaller percentage of a good or service.
The value of a dollar does not stay constant when there is inflation. The
value of a dollar is observed in terms of purchasing power, which is the real,
tangible goods that money can buy. When inflation goes up, there is a decline in
the purchasing power of money. For example, if the inflation rate is 2%
annually, then theoretically a $1 pack of gum will cost $1.02 in a year. After
inflation, your dollar can't buy the same goods it could beforehand.
There are several variations on inflation:
Deflation is when the general level of prices is falling. This is the opposite
of inflation.
Hyperinflation is unusually rapid inflation. In extreme cases, this can lead
to the breakdown of a nation's monetary system. One of the most notable
examples of hyperinflation occurred in Germany in 1923, when prices rose 2,500
% in one month!
47
Stagflation is the combination of high unemployment and economic
stagnation with inflation. This happened in industrialized countries during the
1970s, when a bad economy was combined with OPEC raising oil prices.
In recent years, most developed countries have attempted to sustain an
inflation rate of 2 - 3 %.
Causes of Inflation
Economists wake up in the morning hoping for a chance to debate the
causes of inflation. There is no one cause that's universally agreed upon, but at
least two theories are generally accepted:
Demand–Pull Inflation – This theory can be summarized as "too much
money chasing too few goods". In other words, if demand is growing faster than
supply, prices will increase. This usually occurs in growing economies.
Cost–Push Inflation – When companies' costs go up, they need to
increase prices to maintain their profit margins. Increased costs can include
things such as wages, taxes, or increased costs of imports.
Costs of Inflation
Almost everyone thinks inflation is evil, but it isn't necessarily so.
Inflation affects different people in different ways. It also depends on whether
inflation is anticipated or unanticipated. If the inflation rate corresponds to what
the majority of people are expecting (anticipated inflation), then we can
compensate and the cost isn't high. For example, banks can vary their interest
rates and workers can negotiate contracts that include automatic wage hikes as
the price level goes up.
People like to complain about prices going up, but they often ignore
the fact that wages should be rising as well. The question shouldn't be whether
inflation is rising, but whether it's rising at a quicker pace than your wages.
Finally, inflation is a sign that an economy is growing. In some situations,
little inflation (or even deflation) can be just as bad as high inflation. The lack of
inflation may be an indication that the economy is weakening. As you can see,
it's not so easy to label inflation as either good or bad – it depends on the overall
economy as well as your personal situation.
Exercises:
I. Give Russian equivalents for the following:
1. inflation varies considerably in its extent and severity;
2. mild inflation of a few %;
3. rate of inflation;
4. insurmountable problems;
5. demand–pull (cost–push) inflation;
6. the economy is already stretched
II. Find in the text English equivalents for the following:
1. повышение (падение) спроса (покупательной способности) и т. д.;
2. гиперинфляция;
48
3. запросы опережают возможности экономики;
4. предложить товары и услуги;
5. уровень прибыли.
III. Fill in the gaps with the words and expressions from the text:
1. Inflation varies considerably in its and ___.
2. Mild inflation may few difficulties for business.
3. Businesses would have experienced great difficulty in
and their
production while for people to save would have been removed.
4. Demand–pull inflation occurs when
for a nation's goods and
services that nation's ability to
these goods and services.
5. An alternative way that we can look at this type of inflation is to say
that it occurs when injections
withdrawals.
IV. Open the brackets using English equivalents of the given words
1. There are different policies aimed at (ускорение) the process of
(регулирования) of prices and wages.
2. Money is any generally accepted (средство) of payment.
3. Political figures and economists (высказываются) for restraining (рост
денежной массы) and widely discuss the mechanisms through which
this (происхлдит).
4. State planning and central control of the economy often (означает) that
state has monopoly of important goods and services.
5. Large industrialized countries (составляют) a large proportion of
international trade.
IV. Read, translate and act the dialogue
Nick: Hello, Ted. What are you doing?
Ted: Hi, I am reading a text about inflation and deflation.
Nick: What for?
Ted: You see. I am a student m the economics department and I’ll have to
pass my exam in economics.
Nick: Oh, I think it is boring. You are unlucky!
Ted: Yes, a little bit. But I have to understand the economical processes,
terms, development and economic laws.
Nick: What does the word "inflation" mean?
Ted: Let me think. "Inflation" is the rise in prices brought about by the
expansion of the supply of money, credit, etc.
Nick: What does the government have to do in this case?
Ted: It is a difficult question. I can't answer.
Nick: Is there inflation in our country?
Ted: Oh, yes. It is running at about 2.5 percent.
Nick: I think, it is more. Look at the price for transport, food, petroleum,
gas, telephone calls, clothes.
Ted: Maybe, уоu are right. My date is for the 2000 year.
49
Grammar
Выбор между инфинитивом и герундием
1. Инфинитив обозначает более краткое или более конкретное
проявление данного действия.
Герундий, будучи –ing формой обозначает процесс, более
продолжительное и более общее проявление данного действия.
2. Инфинитив по своему происхождению связан с будущим, с
направлением к цели, которую еще нужно достичь.
Герундий соответственно будет ассоциироваться с настоящим и
прошлым.
3. В последнее время, как в американском, так и в британском
английском языке проявляется тенденция к более широкому употреблению
инфинитива за счет герундия.
VERBS FOLLOWED BY THE GERUND OR THE INFINITIVE WITH
CHANGE IN THEIR MEANING
Verbs
go on
+ Gerund
продолжение той же
деятельности:
They went on laughing.
завершение процесса:
She stopped crying and
stop
smiled.
«ненавидеть»:
I hate going by public
hate
transport.
«вспоминать» о прошлом:
remember I remember seeing you
somewhere.
«забыть» = «не помнить»:
forget He forgot calling me but I
reminded him.
«сожалеть» о прошлых
действиях:
regret
I regret saying that you were
mistaken.
«пробовать»:
Try jogging in the morning, it
try
might help.
50
+ Infinitive
смена деятельность в ходе
процесса:
After discussing the exams they went
on to talk about the party.
с инфинитивом цели («чтобы»):
He stopped to smoke.
«сожалеть» (в извинениях):
I hate to trouble you, but I have to
tell you something unpleasant.
«вспоминать» = «не забыть»:
He remembered to post the letter.
«забыть» = «не сделать»:
Don’t forget to call me tomorrow.
«к сожалению» (в извинениях):
I regret to tell you that your wife
died.
«пытаться» (прилагать усилия):
Try to get here by noon.
«значить»:
«намереваться», «хотеть»:
mean Being a parent means feeling
She means to buy a new car soon.
responsible.
«бояться», т. к. может
не хотеть что–то делать, так как
be afraid случиться что–то плохое: это опасно или неприятно:
I don’t like dogs. I’m afraid of He was afraid to go to the police as
of
being bitten.
he knew they would hold him.
+of: напоминать о чем–то
прошлом:
напомнить чем - либо сделать:
remind
She reminded me of missing She reminded me to feed the dog.
the date.
I. Match the beginning of the sentences in column A with the right
endings in column B
1. I'm sure we've paid that invoice.. I remember
a. to save the file.
2. Did you remember
b. ringing him on his home number. He might be
there.
3. I've given my PA a list of jobs that need
c. to give Peter my message?
4. There are a lot of hotel rooms available, so you don't need
d. signing the cheque and sending it to them.
5. He lost several hours' work. He switched off the computer but he had
forgotten
e. to book one in advance.
6. I don't mind giving talks now, but I'll never forget
f. doing before the sales conference starts.
7. He wasn't at the office when I phoned, so I think I'll try
g. to enter the Japanese market, but it was extremely
difficult.
8. For a long time, the company tried
h. giving my first presentation. It was a disaster.
II. Fill in the blanks with the verbs in brackets, using the –ing form or
to + infinitive
1. There's nothing wrong with the photocopier. It just needs servicing.
(service)
2. We need ....... (look) at this proposal very carefully before we make a
decision.
3. I'll make a note in my diary so that I will remember ......... (send) you
the information you need.
51
4. I'm not sure if I have met Mr. Martino, but I remember ......... (hear) his
name.
5. I will never forget ......... (walk) into the office on my first day at work.
6. Could you take this file to Mrs. Armstrong? I meant to let her have it
this morning, but I forgot ........... (give) it to her.
7. He found it very difficult to get work because he was unemployed, and
soon regretted .......... (resign) from his previous job.
III. Read the sentences given here. Then choose which meaning is the
correct one
1. I like drinking coffee.
a. I want to drink some coffee.
b. Coffee is what I like to drink.
c. This coffee is very good.
2. I forgot to telephone Mr. James.
a. I do not remember calling him.
b. I did not call him.
c. I do not want to call him.
3. Try calling him in the evening.
a. If you call in the evening, it is possible that you will reach him.
b. Only call him in the evening.
c. It is difficult to call him but you should make the effort.
IV. Underline the correct words
1. We can’t afford to miss/missing this opportunity.
2. Do you fancy to go/going for a drink after work?
3. Are you waiting to use/using the phone?
4. It's not worth to spend/spending more time on this.
5. We decided to closed down/closing down the factory in Belgium.
6. You promised to deliver/delivering by April and it now May
7. I considered to call/calling him, but I decided it was better to write.
8. If we don't decide soon, we risk to lose/losing the whole contract.
9. She agreed to prepare/preparing some figures before the next meeting.
10. I’m sorry there seems to be/being a misunderstanding here.
V. Complete the sentences with the verbs in brackets, using the
passive –ing form or the passive infinitive
1. Our profits are up this year, so I expect to be given (give) a pay rise.
2. You'd better come back later Mr. Schmidt dislikes …………
(interrupt) when he's in a meeting.
3. You deserve........................ (pay) more because you do a lot of
overtime.
52
4. When I am giving a presentation, I don't mind.......... (ask) questions.
5. Most of our sales team in Spain tend ..................... (recruit) locally.
6. The company avoided ....... (take over) by splitting up into several
different groups.
7. She hopes.......... (send) to our Paris office when it opens next year.
8. He took the telephone off the hook because he didn't want...... (
disturb.)
Unit 8
Essential vocabulary
1) специальный счет, с которого снимаются
деньги по чекам клиента;
2) счет, позволяющий в любой момент
вносить и снимать деньги (до востребования)
rate of interest
процент, процентная ставка, норма процента
liabilities
задолженность
assets
актив (баланса)
retail bank
банк, занимающийся обслуживанием мелкой
клиентуры
underwriter
гарант размещения (займа, акций и т.п.)
issue of shares
выпуск акций
intermediary
посредник
merger
слияние, объединение
(коммерческое, промышленное)
acquisition
1) получение; 2) приобретение (действие);
building society
жилищно–строительное общество
management buy–outs выкуп права на управление
withdraw
отзывать, отменять
make profit
извлекать прибыль
automatic teller machines (ATM) банковский автомат
checking account
Text 8
BANKS
A bank is a company that works with the money that the people give it. If
you give your money to a bank, it not only protects it but pays you interest so
that it can work with the money. This is one of the reasons why people save their
money in a bank. Money may also be safer there than at home.
53
Banks also lend money to other businesses and customers. They collect
extra money called banking fees with which they pay interest to savers as well as
salaries for their workers. Banks make a profit because they collect more interest
than they pay to savers.
Without banks the world’s economy would not be able to
grow. Investors would not find the money they need for new projects. Industries
could not buy new machines and modern technology.
What kind of services do banks offer?
Banks provide their customers with a number of services. With a checking
account you can pay your bills. A check is a slip of paper that tells the bank how
much money it should withdraw from your account and pay to someone else.
Today, more and more people use the internet, also a banking service, to pay
their bills. Banks also give their customers plastic cards with which they can get
money from their account everywhere and whenever they want. They can also
use them to pay without cash at shops, gas stations and other stores. Checking
accounts are a comfortable way for customers to handle their money.
For people who want to save money banks offer savings accounts.
Usually, banks pay more interest for savings accounts than they do for checking
accounts. They hope that the customers will leave their money in the bank for a
long time, which is why the bank can work with this money and offer it as loans.
Banks, however, cannot give all of their money as loans. In most countries the
government limits the amount of money that banks can use as loans. They must
always keep back a certain percentage in the form of cash.
People who need money for certain things like buying a house or a car
need a lot of money quickly. The money they borrow from a bank is called a
loan. In most cases they do not pay back all of the money at once but a small part
of it, with interest, every month. If someone cannot pay back a loan the bank
usually can take away valuable objects like cars or houses.
Modern banks offer their customers many other services as well. They tell
them how they can make money with investments in stocks and bonds. Credit
cards are given to customers as a cash–free way of buying things. Almost all
banks have automatic teller machines (ATM) at which customers receive money
from their account. Telephone banking is an easy way to pay your bills by
calling a special telephone number and typing in a certain sequence of digits.
Some banks even deal with insurance.
Exercises:
1.
2.
3.
4.
54
I. Answer the questions
What does banking business consist of?
What are the aims of banks?
What are the types of banks?
Describe the activities of different types of banks.
II. Translate into Russian
Assets, merger, rate of interest, underwriter, liabilities, acquisition,
checking account, building society, issue of shares, management buy–outs, retail
bank, intermediary.
III. Translate into English
Посредник, актив, гарант размещения, выпуск акций, процентная
ставка, задолженность, выкуп права на управление, жилищно–
строительное общество, сбор, коммерческое слияние; банк, занимающийся
обслуживанием мелкой клиентуры.
IV. Fill in the blanks
1. Banks are organizations that carry out the business of banking, taking
… and then using those deposits to make … .
2. A bank aims to make a … by paying depositors a lower … than the
rate the bank charges borrowers.
3. In accounting terms, deposits are considered … and loans are
considered …
4. Retail banks are often referred to as …. banks.
5. Building societies were set up in the United Kingdom to take … in
order to provide long–term loans (mortgages) to …. .
6. …. are the equivalents of savings banks, and are run as a cooperative
nonprofit–making organization.
7. Credit unions are widespread in …. .
V. Read, translate and act the dialogue
Student: Who really owns the bank?
Banker: The stockholders own it.
Student: Are the members of the board of directors stockholders?
Student:
Does the board hire the president and the vice–president to
manage it?
Banker: Yes, that's right. Along with the cashier, the tellers and the
clerical workers.
Student: I think most of your work has to do with checking and saving
accounts and making loans.
Banker: Yes. But we invest money too.
Student: Do you divide all the profits among the stockholders?
Banker: Not all of it. The stockholders receive regular dividends. But
some of our earnings are held in reserve accounts.
Student: I suppose that would be necessary.
Banker:
Here's a copy of our last published statement. You see, the
reserves are shown here as a surplus and undivided profits.
Student: Thank you very much for the useful information.
Banker: It is a pleasure. Good bye!
Student: Goodbye!
55
Grammar
Причастие I и II
Participle I and II
Причастие – это неличная форма глагола, сочетающая свойства
глагола, прилагательного и наречия. В русском языке соответствует
причастию и деепричастию (в английском языке нет отдельной формы,
соответствующей русскому деепричастию).
Формы причастия
Форма
Действительный
причастия
залог
Present
writing
Past
Perfect
having written
Страдательный
залог
being written
written
having been written
Функции причастий в предложении
В предложении причастие I (Participle I) может быть:
1. Определением. В этой функции употребляется только Participle I
Indefinite, которое соответствует русскому причастию настоящего
времени в той же функции.
A smiling girl. Улыбающаяся девочка.
The house being built in our street is a new building of
factory. Дом, строящийся на нашей улице - это новое здание
завода.
2. Обстоятельством. В этой функции Participle I Indefinite Active
чаще всего стоит в начале предложения и переводится на русский
язык деепричастием несовершенного вида.
Translating the report he consulted the dictionary. Переводя отчет,
он пользовался словарём.
While
translating
the
report
he
consulted
the
dictionary. Переводя отчет, он пользовался словарём. / Когда он
переводил отчет, он пользовался словарём.
Being built of wood the bridge could not carry heavy loads. Так как
мост был построен из дерева, он не мог выдержать больших нагрузок.
Having built a house he began building a greenhouse. Построив дом,
он начал строить парник.
56
В предложении причастие II может быть:
a. Определением.
Lost time is never found again. Потерянное время никогда не вернёшь
(дословно
не
найти).
A written letter lay on the table. Написанное письмо лежало на столе.
They are reconstructing the house built in the 18th century. Они
реставрируют здание, построенное в 18 веке.
b. Обстоятельством. Перед причастием II в функции обстоятельства
могут стоять союзы if, unless, when. В таком случае английское
причастие
переводится
обстоятельственным
придаточным
предложением, в котором подлежащее то же, что и в главном
предложении.
If built of the local stone, the road will serve for years. Если построить
дорогу (Если дорога построена) из местного камня, она будет служить
долгие год.
I. Give all possible forms of Participle I of the following verbs:
to come, to cover, to read, to write, to look, to wait, to ring, to think, to
sleep, to go, to laugh, to give
II. Translate what is given in brackets using Participle I in the
appropriate form
1. (To be) an important part of distribution process, wholesaling helps
manufacturers and retailers to avoid the risk of fall in demand, for
example due to fashion changes.
2. Part of national spending includes the purchase of (to import) goods
and services.
3. (To hold) stocks of goods wholesalers perform a valuable economic
function (to maintain) the necessary level of goods supply.
4. While some domestic income leaks abroad, foreigners buy
domestically (to produce) goods and services, the country’s exports.
5. Production of equipment (to include) in physical capital, the purchase
of new equipment (to call) investment.
6. Even (to be limited) by import quotas and various export restrictions,
the value of international commerce, that is exports plus imports, (to
increase) steadily throughout the world.
III. Translate from English into Russian paying attention to the use of
participle
1. The government can regulate monopolies controlling the prices or
supplying the products itself.
2. Imposing some restrictions on food prices, government make it
possible for all the people to buy enough food.
3. Governments can influence for whom goods are produced, taking
income away from some people and giving it to others.
57
4. Governments regulate economic activities imposing some restrictions.
5. Reducing our import, we decrease the exports of others.
6. Income is money of all kinds coming in regularly to a person, family or
organization.
IV. Translate from English into Russian paying attention to the use of
participle
1. Having settled the debts, the banks …. Погасив задолженности,
банки
2. Having imposed a high level of taxes, the government ….
3. Having repaid the loan, the firm ….
4. Having examined the labour market, the company ….
5. Having used up its natural resources, the country ….
6. Being used in this way, money ….. Когда деньги используют таким
образом, они
7. Being determined for each particular product, the elasticity of supply
8. Being regulated by the OPEG, oil prices …
9. Being used as a medium of exchange, money
Unit 9
Essential vocabulary
the means of payment
medium of exchange
a standard of value
a unit of account
a store of value
a standard of deferred payment
a barter economy
to swap
to hand over in exchange
a double coincidence of wants
потребностей
a monetary unit
to remind of
to be worthless
an interest–bearing bank account
процентов
to pay interest
58
средство платежа
средство обращения
мера стоимости
единица учета
средство сбережения
средство погашения долга
(отсроченный платеж)
бартерная экономика
обменивать, менять
передать, вручить в обмен
двойное совпадение
денежная единица
напоминать
обесцениваться
счет в банке с выплатой
приносить процентный доход
to erode
hard currency
валюта
soft currency
invariably
commodity money
token money
(дензнаки)
inch
to melt down
tiny costs
legal tender
to supplement
IOU money
IOU сокр. от I owe you
bank deposit
фактически уменьшать
твердая (конвертируемая)
неконвертируемая валюта
неизменно, постоянно
деньги–товар
символические деньги
дюйм (2,54 см)
расплавить
мизерные затраты
законное платежное средство
дополнять
деньги, долговое обязательство
я вам должен (форма долговой
расписки)
вклад в банке
Text 9
MONEY AND ITS FUNCTIONS
The main feature of money is its acceptance as the means of payment or
medium of exchange. Nevertheless, money has other functions. It is a standard
of value, a unit of account, a store of value and a standard of deferred payment.
The Medium of Exchange
Money, the medium of exchange, is used in one–half of almost all
exchange. Workers work for money. People buy and sell goods in exchange for
money. We accept money not to consume it directly but because it can
subsequently be used to buy things we do wish to consume. Money is the
medium through which people exchange goods and services.
In barter economy there is no medium of exchange. Goods are traded
directly or swapped for other goods. In a barter economy, the seller and the
buyer each must want something the other has to offer. Each person is
simultaneously a seller and a buyer. There is a double coincidence of wants.
Trading is very expensive in a barter economy. People must spend a lot of
time and effort finding others with whom they can make mutually satisfactory
swaps. Since time and effort are scarce resources, a barter economy is wasteful.
Money is generally accepted in payment for goods, services, and debts and
makes the trading process simpler and more efficient.
Other Functions of Money
Money can also serve as a standard of value. Society considers it
convenient to use a monetary unit to determine relative costs of different goods
59
and services. In this function money appears as the unit of account, is the unit in
which prices are quoted and accounts are kept.
To be accepted in exchange, money has to be a store of value. Money is a
store of value because it can be used to make purchases in the future.
Houses, stamp collections, and interest–bearing bank accounts all serve as
stores of value. Since money pays no interest and its real purchasing power is
eroded by inflation, there are almost certainly better ways to store value.
Finally, money serves as a standard of deferred payment or a unit of
account over time. When you borrow, the amount to be repaid next year is
measured in money value.
Different Kinds of Money
Golden coins are the examples of commodity money, because their gold
content is a commodity.
A token money is a means of payment whose value or purchasing
power as money greatly exceeds its cost of production or value in uses other than
as money.
A $10 note is worth far more as money than as a 3x6 inch piece of high–
quality paper. Similarly, the monetary value of most coins exceeds the amount
you would get by melting them down and selling off the metals they contain. By
collectively agreeing to use token money, society economizes on the scarce
resources required to produce money as a medium of exchange. Since the
manufacturing costs are tiny, why doesn't everyone make $10 notes? The
essential condition for the survival of token money is the restriction of the right
to supply it. Private production is illegal.
Society enforces the use of token money by making it legal tender. The
law says it must be accepted as a means of payment. In modem economies, token
money is supplemented by IOU money. An IOU money is a medium of
exchange based on the debt of a private firm or individual.
A bank deposit is IOU money because it is a debt of the bank. When you
have a bank deposit the bank owes you money. You can write a cheque to
yourself or a third party and the bank is obliged to pay whenever the cheque is
presented.
Exercises:
I. Answer the questions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Why do people accept money?
What are the functions of money?
What are different kinds of money?
What's a barter economy? Why is trading expensive in a barter
economy?
5. What does IOU stand for?
60
II. Give Russian equivalents to the following:
1. exchange labour services for money;
2. a double coincidence of wants;
3. exchange labour services for money;
4. a double coincidence of wants;
5. spend a lot of time and effort;
6. make mutually satisfactory swaps;
7. a barter economy is wasteful;
8. commodity generally accepted in payment for goods;
9. prices are quoted and accounts are kept;
10.its purchasing power is eroded by inflation;
III. Fill in the gaps with the words and expressions from the text
The crucial feature of money is its acceptance as … or ....
People buy and sell goods ... for money.
In a barter economy goods are traded directly or … other goods.
People must spend a lot of ... finding others with whom they can make
mutually ....
5. Society considers it convenient to use ... to determine ... of different
goods and services.
6. The unit of account is the unit in which prices are ... and ... are kept.
7. Money is a store of value because it can be used ....
8. When you borrow, the amount to be repaid next year is measured in ....
9. To use a commodity money, society must either ... other uses of that
commodity or devote ... to producing ... of the commodity.
10. A token money is a means of payment whose ...as money greatly ... its
cost of production or value in uses other ....
11. By ..., society economizes on the scarce resources required to produce
money as ....
12. The essential condition for the survival of token money is ... to supply
it.
13. Society enforces the use of token money by making it ....
14. In modern economies, token money ... by ....
15. An IOU money is a medium of exchange based on …
16. …..is IOU money because it is a debt of the bank.
1.
2.
3.
4.
IV. Find English equivalents for the following
Средство платежа; средство обращения; средство сбережения
(средство сохранения стоимости); единица учета; средство погашения
долга; в обмен на; может быть впоследствии использовано; обмениваться
товарами и услугами; бартерная экономика; измеряться; обесцененный;
платить
проценты;
покупательная
способность;
промышленное
61
использование; потребительское использование; деньги–товар; денежные
знаки (символические деньги); денежная стоимость; ограничение права;
вклад в банке; банковская ссуда; законное платежное средство; долговое
обязательство.
V. Translate into English
Существует несколько функций денег. Во–первых, Деньги являются
средством платежа, или обращения; деньги можно использовать при
покупке и продаже товаров и услуг. Деньги выступают также мерой
стоимости. Общество считает удобным использовать денежную единицу в
качестве масштаба для соизмерения относительных стоимостей различных
благ и ресурсов.
Деньги служат средством сбережения. Это, однако, не единственная
форма хранения богатства. Во время упадка в экономике, население, скорее
всего, будет хранить богатство в виде недвижимости или других
дорогостоящих товаров — предметах искусства, драгоценностях.
Деньги, которые, являются долговыми обязательствами государства,
коммерческих банков и сберегательных учреждений, имеют стоимость
благодаря товарам и услугам, которые приобретаются за них на рынке.
Grammar
PARTICIPLE II
Причастие II является страдательным причастием (образуемым
только от переходных глаголов) и соответствует русскому страдательному
причастию прошедшего времени, обозначая законченное действие,
выполненное над каким–либо объектом. По своему значению оно выражает
результат этого действия (как признак или состояние).
Может выражать или действие одновременное с действием,
выраженным глаголом–сказуемым или действие, безотносительное ко
времени, однако в большинстве случаев выражает действие,
предшествовавшее
действию,
выраженному
глаголом–сказуемым.
Причастие II имеет те же синтаксические функции, что и Причастие I:
определения (в основном) и реже – обстоятельства.
The broken cup was on the floor. Разбитая чашка лежала на полу.
The faded leaves fell to the Увядшие листья упали на землю.
ground.
The method used proved to be Применяемый метод оказался очень
very effective.
эффективным.
The program corrected proved Исправленная программа оказалась
useful.
полезной.
62
I. Complete the following sentences using Participle II in the function
of a predicative. Make up your own sentences
1. «I felt utterly ... .» 2. He looked very ... . 3. He was angry because his
plan was not … . 4. Why should you look … ? 5. The children were … .
6. The window remained … . 7. You seem … . 8. Everybody is … .
9. She felt … . 10. You look quite … .
II. Read and translate the sentences into Russian
1. He won’t stop arguing until interrupted. 2. When asked, he answered all
the questions. 3. Unless discussed, the new method must not be used. 4. When
translated, the instruction became perfectly understood. 5. When offered help, he
accepted it with gratitude. 6. When corrected, the article was published. 7. When
produced, the parts will be sent to various plants.
III. Change the following sentences into negative and interrogative.
Remember that you must use the auxiliary verb do
1. I have your taxi kept at the door. 2. She had the slips printed. 3. He had
it all planned before. 4. We had the letter sent there immediately. 5. We had all
the films developed yesterday. 6. He had his bag brought downstairs an hour
ago. 7. I found the door locked. 8. We have our task done. 9. She heard this
name mentioned before. 10. We prefer the letter answered by the chief.
THE NOMINATIVE ABSOLUTE PARTICIPIAL CONSTRUCTION
WITH PARTICIPLE II
Независимым причастным оборотом называется сочетание
существительного в общем падеже или (реже) личного местоимения в
именительном падеже (I, he, she, it, we, you, they) с причастием (любым), в
котором существительное (или местоимение) выполняет роль подлежащего
по отношению к причастию, но не является подлежащим всего
предложения.
The meeting having finished, we После того, как закончилось собрание, мы
continued our talk. (Perfect Part.)
продолжали свой разговор. (обстоятельство
времени)
He coming very late, we had to Так как он пришел очень поздно, нам
start the work at once.
пришлось начать работу сразу же.
63
IV. Point out the Absolute Participial Construction. Comment on its
function, translate the sentences into Russian
1. An increase in price of one percent resulting in supply of more than one
percent, the supply is called elastic.
2. Ceiling prices being controlled by the government, goods may find their
way to the black market.
3. In the next 25 years or so, the average age in the United States increasing,
problems of the aged rather than young people will be of importance.
4. With a financial panic everyone wanting his money at the same time, the
bank is unable to pay.
5. Cheques being accepted in payment of purchases, people feel that a bank
account is as good as or even better than money in their pocket.
V. Fill in the gaps
(monetary policy, interest rate×2, building societies, the Central Bank×2)
1. ….. affects prices, the aggregate level of output and employment being
independent of it.
2. … being the opportunity cost of holding money, higher inflation
reduces the demand for real money.
3. …. now issuing cheque books to their depositors, it is difficult to
decide whether these societies are building organizations or banks.
4. …. acting as banker to commercial banks, the financial system works
steadily.
5. … can affect aggregate demand, equilibrium level of output and
employment adjusting correspondingly.
6. …. having imposed a cash reserve requirement on commercial banks,
banks do lending business with domestic firms through foreign
markets.
64
Библиографический список.
1. Агабекян, И. П. Английский для менеджеров / И. П. Агабекян. –
Ростов-н/Д., 2007.
2. Барановская, Т. В. Грамматика английского языка / Т. В. Барановская. –
М., 2004.
3. Воронцова, И. И. Английский язык для студентов экономических
факультетов / И. И. Воронцова. – М., 1998.
4. Голицынский, Ю. Б. Грамматика. Сборник упражнений / Ю. Б
Голицынский. – СПб., 2007.
5. Мулюков, И. М. Английский язык для экономистов и менеджеров / И.
М. Мулюков. – Казань, 2006.
6. Рыжков, В. Д. Менеджмент / В. Д. Рыжков. – Калининград, 2006.
http://davaiknam.ru/text/kontrolenie–zadaniya–po–anglijskomu–yaziku–page–16
65
Приложение А
Irregular Verbs
Infinitive Past simple
Past participle
Перевод
be
was; were
been
быть
beat
beat
beaten
бить
become
became
become
становиться
begin
began
begun
начинать
break
broke
broken
(с)ломать
bring
brought
brought
приносить
build
built
built
строить
burn
burnt; burned
burnt; burned
жечь; гореть
buy
bought
bought
покупать
can
could
could
мочь; уметь
catch
caught
caught
ловить,хватать,успеть
choose
chose
chosen
выбирать
come
came
come
приходить
cost
cost
cost
стоить
cut
cut
cut
резать
do
did
done
делать
draw
drew
drawn
рисовать, тащить
dream
dreamt; dreamed dreamt; dreamed грезить; мечтать
drink
drank
drunk
пить
drive
drove
driven
водить (машину etc.)
eat
ate
eaten
кушать; есть
fall
fell
fallen
падать
feed
fed
fed
кормить
feel
felt
felt
чувствовать
fight
fought
fought
сражаться; бороться
find
found
found
находить
fly
flew
flown
летать
66
forbid
forbad; forbade
forbidden
запрещать
forget
forgot
forgotten
забывать
forgive
forgave
forgiven
прощать
give
gave
given
давать
go
went
gone
идти
grow
grew
grown
расти
have
had
had
иметь
hear
heard
heard
слушать
hide
hid
hidden
прятать(ся)
hit
hit
hit
ударять; попадать в цель
hold
held
held
держать
hurt
hurt
hurt
причинить боль
keep
kept
kept
хранить; содержать
know
knew
known
знать
lay
laid
laid
класть; положить
learn
learnt; learned
learnt; learned
учить
leave
left
left
оставить
lend
lent
lent
одалживать
let
let
let
позволять
lie
lay
lain
лежать
light
lit; lighted
lit; lighted
освещать
lose
lost
lost
терять
make
made
made
делать; производить
may
might
might
мочь; иметь возможность
mean
meant
meant
подразумевать
meet
met
met
встретить
pay
paid
paid
платить
put
put
put
класть
read
read
read
читать
ring
rang
rung
звонить
rise
rose
risen
подняться
67
run
ran
run
бежать; течь
say
said
said
говорить; сказать
see
saw
seen
видеть
sell
sold
sold
продавать
send
sent
sent
посылать
set
set
set
ставить; устанавливать
shine
shone; shined
shone; shined
светить; сиять
shoot
shot
shot
стрелять; давать побеги
show
showed
shown; showed
показывать
sing
sang
sung
петь
sit
sat
sat
сидеть
sleep
slept
slept
спать
speak
spoke
spoken
говорить
swim
swam
swum
плавать
take
took
taken
взять; брать
teach
taught
taught
учить
tell
told
told
рассказывать; сказать
think
thought
thought
думать
wear
wore
worn
носить (одежду)
win
won
won
выигрывать
write
wrote
written
писать
68
ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ
Предисловие …………………………………………………….......................3
Text 1. What is management?.........…………………………………...................5
Grammar: Tense revision ……………………….…………….............................7
Text 2. Levels of Management…………………....………….............................12
Grammar: Modal Verbs…. ……………………………………….....................14
Text 3. Areas of Management…………………………………..........................18
Grammar: Active and Passive Voices………….………………….....................20
Text 4. Different Forms of Business………………………………....................23
Grammar: The Infinitive…………………………………………......................25
Text 5. Sole Proprietorship…………………………………………..................29
Grammar: Complex Object…………….……….…………………....................31
Text 5. (Part 2)…………………………………………………….....................34
Grammar: Complex Subject……………………………………….....................37
Text 6. Economics…………………………………………………....................40
Grammar: The Gerund ……………………………………………....................42
Text 7. Inflation: What Is Inflation?....................................................................47
Grammar: The Infinitive vs. The Gerund.…………………………...................50
Text 8. Banks ………………………………………………………..................53
Grammar: Participle I and II………………………………………....................56
Text 9. Money and Its Functions………………………………….....................59
Grammar: Participle II ……………………………………………....................62
Библиографический список.……..…………………………........................65
Приложение А ……………………………………………….........................66
Оглавление .......................................................................................................69
69
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