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Федеральное агентство по образованию РФ
Государственное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
«САНКТ-ПЕТЕРБУРГСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ
ТЕХНОЛОГИИ И ДИЗАЙНА»
Кафедра иностранных языков
Методические указания по английскому языку
для студентов II курса факультета текстиля и одежды
по домашнему чтению
Составители:
Л. М. Катан
О. А. Ряснова
Санкт-Петербург
2009
УТВЕРЖДЕНО
на заседании кафедры
10.06.2008 г.,
протокол № 9
Рецензент
И.Ф. Григоренко
Цель настоящего издания – сформировать у студентов умение читать и
переводить оригинальную литературу по специальности и развить у них
навыки речи в пределах пройденной тематики. Все тексты и задания
составлены на основе оригинальной лексики, употребляемой современными
носителями языка.
Оригинал подготовлен автором и издан в авторской редакции.
Подписано в печать 11.09.09. Формат 60 х 84 1/16
Печать трафаретная. Усл.печ.л. 3.
Тираж 100 экз. Заказ
Электронный адрес: lang@sutd.ru
Отпечатано в типографии СПГУТД
191028, Санкт-Петербург, ул. Моховая, 26
2
THE 3-D TERM
SUPPLEMENTARY READING
Text 1
Read the article and give the key points of each section:
What is high–tech fiber?
High–tech fiber is an expressive way to indicate that advanced science and
technology have been used to produce this fiber. High performance fibers, such as
the superfiber, high function fiber, which functions as a sensor and actuator, and
high touch fiber which possesses a new hand feel are examples of high-tech fiber.
High performance fiber, which has improved physical properties compared
with conventional fibers, needs to be distinguished from superfibers. In general,
fibers for commodity purposes need to possess appropriate physical properties.
As the three elements of melody, rhythm and harmony can amalgamate to
produce music and move the human heart, so also can the three elements of
materials, shape and microstructure in fiber stimulate human emotion through the
five senses. For example, shingosen (ultra fine fiber) has a characteristic feel which
people had never previously experienced and fall in love with. We may be able to
produce something even more advanced than shingosen, since no synthetic fiber has
yet been produced with a similar feel to animal hair, such as alpaca, angora,
cashmere, vicuna, mohair, and camel.
Chemical fiber is produced by extruding a polymer through a nozzle, so that
the fiber cross-section is more homogeneous. Natural fibers, on the other hand,
possess non-homogeneous cross-sections, indicating that we need to learn much
more from nature. The requirements for fibers are diverse and beyond conventional
concepts. Thus, it is likely that more complex and sophisticated fiber will appear
in the future.
Text 2
Scan the article quickly for information about similar processes in nature and
summarize it.
Learning simultaneous polymerization and spinning from nature
The process of human hair or wool growth is not well understood. However,
human hair or wool grows simultaneously as it is polymerized from amino acids.
3
Since human hair or wool is spun immediately when polymerized, no entanglement
occurs during fiber formation. With synthetic fibers, the polymer melt is stored and
then spun through a nozzle. We should learn how to spin a new type of synthetic
fiber using a similar process to hair production in nature.
The regeneration of human hair is now being investigated. Modern
biotechnology has made it possible to manipulate the cells responsible for hair to
grow in vivo. If the hair growing mechanism can be duplicated, then wool can be
produced artificially by biotechnology in the future.
Spider silk is another interesting material. For a synthetic fiber the tenacity is
inversely proportional to the elongation at break. In order to improve the tenacity,
molecules should be oriented in the direction of the fiber axis. When molecules are
more oriented in a fiber, the tenacity increases but the elongation at break
decreases. Spider silk in warp has a good tenacity close to Kevlar, and the
elongation at break is as high as 35%. Spider silk in weft is coated with adhesive
liquid to catch insects, and elongates surprisingly effectively when wet. The spider
has the means to remove this liquid in order to walk to its prey without adhering.
Now investigations are focused on explaining the structure of spider silk and its
relation to its physical properties.
Text 3
Read the article and prepare the talk on the advantages and disadvantages of
PAN – based carbon fiber for industrial application.
Expansion to geotextiles
After the enormous earthquakes in California, Osaka-Kobe-Awaji in Japan,
and Taiwan, the demands for PAN-based carbon fiber for industry application,
especially in engineering works and construction, have grown quickly. The
necessity of strengthening commercial buildings and bridge piers has increased the
demand for carbon sheet and cloth. Recently, the market for industrial applications,
especially in engineering works and construction, accounts for 50% of carbon fiber
production.
Nowadays high performance fiber, including carbon fiber, is used as a
replacement for iron materials, particularly where rust and etching are a problem.
Using this material also allows a reduction in manufacturing and maintenance
repair energy. While with iron, the material is cheap, labour costs are high
because of the difficulties in fabricating iron plates at the site and the heavy weights
involved.
However, carbon fiber is soft, light and strong in composite with resin. After
incorporating carbon fiber into a bridge pier, for example, and fixing with resin,
the pier becomes very strong and able to withstand earthquakes. The material
4
may be expensive, but the labour costs are less. Moreover, carbon fiber is light
so that it does not overload the original pier. So this construction method now
attracts attention.
Text 4
Scan the article quickly for information about the reinforcing materials for tires
and summarize it.
Application for transportation (bicycle and car)
Superfiber – reinforced rubber is used as the spring belt to replace the bicycle
chain, and for the tire of mountain bikes. Some lightweight racing bicycles have
composite frames.
In order to improve the petrol consumption efficiency, cars have become
lighter and lighter, as superfiber – reinforced rubber is used for tires, belts, and
structure. Steel cord was common for tires, but as highway networks extended, and
faster driving conditions prevailed, heat friction led to many of the steel wire-lined
tires bursting. Thus the reinforcing materials for tires are now composed mostly of
nylon and polyester fiber.
Tires are good examples of mass-produced continuous fiber composites. They
are made of a rubber polymer matrix, reinforced by continuous fiber, which could
be nylon cord, polyester cord, or superfiber. This composite is called RMC (rubber
matrix composite). The tire is made up of sections: tread, carcass, belt, and bead.
Continuous fiber, such as aramid fiber, is used for the structural material of the
carcass, which is the basic foundation of the tire, and is made of the laminated
aligned cord fabrics, whereas cross-ply tires use cross-laminated fabrics and the
radial tires radial – laminated fabrics. As the radial tire becomes more popular, more
aramid – type superfiber is introduced into the carcass. Nylon cord is mostly used for the
cross-ply tire, is suitable for driving on a bad road at a low speed. The radial tire
ensures a stable revolution and high – speed driving, but requires more suppression of
friction and reduction of rolling resistance.
Text 5
Read the article and explain reasons for the KINGLIGHT development.
Domestic and civil engineering
The Winter Olympics were held in Nagano in 1999 and a windbreak and
snowbreak nets were used to enable the jumping to be possible in high winds.
Generally high mountain jumping can be performed safely only when the wind
5
velocity is less than 3 m/sec. However, when the jump location is surrounded by
mountains, the wind blows consistently at not less than 5-6 m/sec. To allow
jumping, therefore, the wind velocity must decrease by a half. Thus the Olympic
Committee asked Teijin to develop a material which is resistant to wind velocities
of 40 m/sec with a lifetime of more than ten years. Moreover, it must have enough
light permeability to prevent a sense of gloom when setup. To do this they
developed a new material, KINGLIGHT, which is now used as a windbreak or
snowbreak net for roads and highways in Hokkaido. The strength of the material is
300 kg/10 cm, and the porosity is 60%. Producing the material in sheet form is not
suitable because of a lack of strength to wind pressure and lack of transparency and
light permeability.
Thus nets have now found a variety of practical uses. There is a regulation in
Japan that the light from an oncoming car must be banned if the angle of the light is
less than 11°. A rough net can shut out light from the opposite carriageway and it is
used on highways in Japan.
Text 6
Read the article and entitle it.
The official definition of nonwoven supported by the European Disposable and
Nonwoven Association is:
Nonwoven is manufactured sheet of directionally or randomly oriented fibers
bonded by friction and/or cohesion and/or adhesion forces, excluding paper and
products which are woven, knitted, tufted, stitch bonded incorporating
binding yarns of filaments or felted by wet milling whether additionally needled
or not. The fibers may be staple of continuous filament or be formed 'in situ'.
Traditional uses are for the many textile products used in operating rooms and
hospital wards generally. Less obvious uses are:
Filtration
• Liquid, for example, blood, body fluids and water
• Air inwards and operating theatres
• Anaesthetic gases
• Odor removal, dressings, ostomy
• Anti – allergic bedding
Clothing
• Disposable gowns for patients
• Re – usable components of uniforms
• Components of shoes/footwear
6
Building
• Insulation for sound, heat
• Flame retardant materials
• Components of furniture
• Carpets
Their use is characterized by their ability to meet the huge variety of needs.
Nonwoven technology allows for continuous production with minimal
intermediate stages, whereas traditional textiles may require several distinct
discontinuation batch processes, for example spinning, winding, beaming, sizing,
before knitting or weaving.
The process for nonwoven is simple, productive, versatile, economic and
innovative. It requires only the formation of the fibrous web and then binding
together of the fibers. Their versatility will surely keep the nonwoven medical
materials at the forefront well into the new millennium.
Text 7
Read the article and explain the meaning of the word “scaffolds” in the title.
Other fibrous scaffolds for tissue engineering
The tissue engineering process starts with a scaffold and a supply of cells. The
cells could be the patient's own cells, a donor's cell or taken from a tissue bank.
These are seeded into a proposed scaffold. The cells themselves attach to the
scaffold and are cultured within a mini bio – reactor. Tissue culture media provide
nutrients for the cells and remove waste products. The cells increase in number and
lay down the new extracellular matrix to form neo – tissue. If bio-resorbable fibers
are used, then these will start to degrade. At the end of culturing the tissue
engineered may require preservation and storage before used as an implant.
In addition to the polysaccharides the most important synthetic group which
have application as bio – resorbable scaffolds are poly (glycolic acid) and poly
(lactic acid). These have an established history as sutures or surgical devices. One
such tissue engineered and now on the commercial market is Dermograft™, a joint
venture between Advanced Tissue Services (USA) and Smith and Nephew, used
for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. These wounds are difficult to heal and can
often lead to serious complications. The scaffold is produced from multifilament
yarn, a 90-10 co – polymer of poly (glycolic acid) and poly (lactic acid). Specially
shaped scaffolds are produced for articular cartilage and meniscal cartilage.
7
Text 8
Read the article and discuss the key points.
Fiber with water and moisture absorbency
Sportswear, in particular, needs to absorb water and moisture after intense
exercise. Synthetic fiber without such function is not suitable for sportswear
because of stuffiness and stickiness. For this reason, development of functional
synthetic fiber with water absorption/hygroscopic properties was a major
objective over a long period.
One of the principles used to give a water absorption property is the use of
capillarity. Two representative examples are in the fiber industry. One depends on
the application of capillary movement, a phenomenon at liquid boundaries
resulting in the rise or fall of liquids in narrow tubes or in a slit between two
leaves. The level becomes concave or convex, and the contact angle becomes an
acute or obtuse angle depending on whether the surface of the capillary tube gets
wet or not. The level of the liquid balances with surface tension and external
pressure.
Text 9
Read quickly through the article and in 20 words or less write that the article is
about.
Frontier of health and comfort fibers
Recently, highly moisture absorptive and highly moisture releasing nylon
Was developed independently by Toray and Unitika. Originally nylon itself had
many good characteristics, but it was inferior in moisture absorbency. When nylon
was used for clothes the lack of moisture absorbency caused stuffiness, stickiness
and was uncomfortable. Both companies solved the problems and developed
materials by completely different approaches. Unitika developed HYGRA and used
it for sportswear and geotextiles.
Toray developed a new polymer material for nylon fiber, 'QUUP', with
superior utility and highly moisture absorptive/releasing property, about double that
of conventional yarn. It was achieved by a new polymer alloy technology
development. A nitrogen-based special polymer was mixed with regular nylon
molecules to give a fiber with high water absorptive and water releasing properties.
The comfort of wearing QUUP used garments is very similar to that of cotton, and it
has the added distinctive features of a soft and smooth touch and superior color
intensity, while retaining the conventional functionality of nylon. QUUP is used for a
wide range of applications, including pantyhose, underwear and sportswear. The price
of the material is more expensive than ordinary nylon by about 20%.
8
Text 10
Read the article and complete it with the background information on new
millennium fibers for sportwear.
Hollow fiber for light swimming costume
Lightweight and heat – insulating materials have been developed by using
hollow fibers for the past ten years. Hollow fibers have now been applied to
swimming costumes to provide lift for the body in water and prevent it from being
cooled. A hollow fiber is produced by a specially designed spinneret where
respective fiber cross-sections correspond to the shape of a spinneret. Because of
the hollow, the apparent density of a hollow fiber is less than one, and its heat
conductance is small. Consequently, fabric made if a hollow fiber floats on water
and insulates heat.
9
EXTRA – REARING
General Tasks
1. Define the main parts of the text (the introduction, the main body, the
conclusion).
2. Summarize the contents of the each part of the text.
3. Give the main points of the text.
4. Mark the sections with the most essential information.
5. Mark the sections with the least essential information.
6. Make up the detailed plan of the text.
7. Retell the text according to the plan.
8. Summarize the text.
Text 1
Natural versus synthetic fiber
The main difference between natural and synthetic fiber is in structure.
Synthetic fiber is produced by extruding a polymer through a nozzle and
subsequent drawing. The resulting fiber has a simple structure. The fiber structure
of most synthetic fibers is characterized by the shish kebab structure, as in the
example of polyethylene.
Natural fibers such as cotton, wool, and silk have a non-even nonhomogeneous surface. Those fibers also possess a multi-phase structure, which
results in specific functions. The simple structure of a synthetic fiber could be
suitable for high performance, but not for high function applications.
The silkworm eats mulberry leaves, which are converted by enzymes into two
proteins (fibroin and sericin) in its body. Recent research has described how it drags
out silk thread to make a cocoon, but the mechanism for how it produces the two
proteins is still unknown. Moreover, the chemical structure of silk is complicated
and the cross-section of its filament is not circular. Silk possesses a specific luster,
warm touch, deep color, and moisture-absorption characteristics, which no
synthetic fiber possesses.
The chemical structure of wool, a protein produced by sheep, has a
complicated and cunning bilateral structure. Wool is cool in summer and warm in
winter. The complicated wool structure gives wool this property, and also good
resilience, high bulkiness, and water repellency. No artificial fiber can compare
with wool with respect to those properties, which makes wool so suitable for
clothing.
10
A similar argument can be applied to cotton, made up of cellulose
photosynthesized from carbon dioxide in air and water. It is a
homopolysaccharide with a relatively simple chemical structure. However, its
morphological structure is ingenious such that no synthetic fiber can compare with
cotton with respect to its moisture absorbency, dyeability and moisture
maintainability.
Lentinan, a similar simple but branched fibrous polysaccharide, can be
extracted, separated, and purified from a type of fungi, a polypore. It has anti-tumor
activity because it increases the level of body immunity. This polysaccharide
(Lentinan®) is now commercially available from Taitro Pharmaceutical
(Manufactured by Ajinomoto) as an anti-tumor agent.
Why is synthetic fiber different from natural fiber? Why cannot synthetic fibers
emulate natural fibers? One of the reasons is that their mode and speed of formation
are quite different. Silk thread is produced from the silkworm mouth at the rate of 1
m/min. Wool or cotton has a much slower growing rate of around 106 m/min. The
spinning speed of a synthetic fiber is steadily increasing with the development of
fiber manufacturing technology, and has now reached the speed of the jet plane.
Silkworms, sheep or cotton produce natural fiber in order to protect their bodies, so
need to maintain enough function to cope with the environment where those living
creatures live. Synthetic fiber, on the other hand, beats natural fiber with respect
to its physical performance (tensile strength, heat resistance, durability at extremely
low temperatures, etc.) and production efficiency (spinning speed, etc.).
Natural fiber and synthetic fiber can be classified as high-function fiber and
high performance fiber, respectively. Synthetic fibers were developed initially as
copies of silk, wool, or cotton. At present, there is no way to produce high
function natural fiber with a speed comparable with synthetic fiber.
Synthetic fibers are no longer copies of natural fibers such as silk, wool, and
cotton. To create synthetic fiber possessing new functions that even natural fibers
do not have, research needs to develop a new method of simultaneous
polymerization and spinning since wool is produced in such a way. Synthetic fiber
indeed surpasses natural fiber, to some extent, as exemplified by ultra-fine fiber,
high tenacity/high modulus fiber, water-absorbent fiber, and heat-resistant fiber. A
new paradigm shift such as the application of biotechnology is needed to develop
super high function fiber.
Text 2
Artificial fiber by biomimetics
Most synthesized materials including synthetic fibers have been developed by
science and sometimes by chance in the past, whereas natural materials are
11
produced as a consequence of biological processes. These approaches have now
been integrated.
From homogeneous intelligent materials to nonhomogeneous intelligent
materials
As has been indicated 'biomimetics' (the art of learning from the bio-system)
could be the key to developing new materials. Applying information from
biomimetics has in fact led to the development of new chemical fibers.
Biomimetics is expected to lead to the next generation of materials. Nonhomogeneous materials can be developed with this technology, whereas only
homogeneous material such as chemical fibers was the main target of the twentieth
century. For example, new functions may emerge from mimicking the insect shell
wing composed of liquid-crystal protein reinforced with chitin, which cuts out
infra-red radiation in a hot desert. Bamboo is a natural fiber-reinforced composite
material composed of alternating parts of stalk and joint. Its cross-section reveals
the distribution of fibrous materials, where the outside is dense and hard while the
inside is coarse and soft. A bamboo has a non-homogeneous structure (with density
gradient) from the same material, and is thus resilient to very windy and heavy
snow conditions. Professor T. Kikutani (Tokyo Institute of Technology) has
succeeded in producing a composite with the same density gradient by mimicking
the cross-section of bamboo.
There are many examples of materials having density gradients around us in
nature. A cap of a turbo shell is an example of a composite reinforced with microparticles. In this example, the composite is made of a protein matrix and calcium
carbide micro-particles. The density of the cap decreases gradually from the surface
to the inside. The cap should grow as a turbo (Turbo cornutus) grows, and protects
it from enemies. The disk-shaped cap has an amorphous layer structure, and grows
in its radial direction as the turbo grows. No artificial system yet follows this type
of processing, but we may expect to develop new processing methods for plastic
materials in this way. The control of the non-homogeneous structure seems a key
technology to developing the intelligent fiber.
One of the most demanded characteristics is the ultimate strength of materials
as exemplified by high tenacity/high modulus fiber. In order to explore the ideal
potential of the polymer material, we should increase the molecular weight of the
polymer to almost infinity and reduce the molecular defects. The new spinning and
processing technology to achieve this should also be innovative enough to cope
with the control of molecular orientation with predetermined precision. In nature,
we find proteins of high molecular weight over 2,000,000, but the molecular weight
of synthesized polyamide is at most 200,000. There is therefore much to gain by
learning the mechanism where by nature synthesizes extremely high molecular
weight polymer and spins high-oriented fiber with precision.
12
Text 3
Development of biodegradable fiber
In the last century, synthesized polymer material products made from fossil
resources resulted in mass production and mass consumption, which caused the two
serious problems of exhaustion of resources and waste material. The problem of
waste material takes place since the synthetic fibers drop out of material circulation
(carbon circulation) since they are not biodegradable. The problem of resource
exhaustion is caused by the consumption of raw materials, for synthetic fibers are
dependent on fossil resources such as petroleum. It is expected that the extent of
petroleum resources will tend to decrease after the peak of mass production at the
beginning of this century, and it is said that it could be exhausted in the medium
term. It is a problem for synthetic fibers whose raw material depends on the fossil
resources.
In the relationship between humans and plants, natural fibers, such as silk,
cotton, and wool, have their own excellent properties. The synthetic fibers do not
have these excellent properties. Nylon, polyester and polyacrylonitrile have
appeared as a substitutes for silk, cotton, and wool, respectively, since they are
tougher than the natural fibers. However, they do not have functions as excellent as
those of the natural fibers. So natural and synthetic fibers have to be used in the
fields where they can show their best properties. In addition to functions and
performance, the environment should be also considered when one develops
materials and technologies. The most important thing that one should consider is a
'sustainable society'. In developments of ecological products and technologies in
the synthetic fiber industry, there are, of course, 'problem areas' and 'defensive
measures'.
'Problem areas' are UV-cut fibers for the prevention of the depletion of the
ozone layer, several filters for water and air cleaning, oil barriers for prevention of
sea pollution, water-swelling fibers for prevention of tropical forest decrease and
desertification, etc.
'Defensive measures' are recycled fibers, counter penetration membranes for
global warming prevention, biodegradable fibers for waste material decrease,
environment beautification, etc. Much thought and effort will be required to
introduce them into society.
Natural recycle system of biodegradable polymers
Biodegradable polymers are expected to be adaptable to carbon recycling
systems like the natural organic materials in the last century. Recyclable
carbohydrates obtained from plant resources such as corn as a raw material are
degraded by enzymes to glucose, which can be fermented by bacteria into lactic
acid. The resulting lactic acid can be polymerized to poly (lactic acid). This
polymer can be shaped into fibers - films which are biodegradable materials.
13
Hydrolysis takes place in the polymer in compost or at the beginning of the
degradation process in the natural environment. In the second half of the process,
hydrolysis by enzymes secreted by microbes changes the polymer into watersoluble oligo-lactic acid or lactic acid monomer, which enters the microbe cell to
change finally into carbon dioxide and water. The carbon dioxide can be used to
synthesize carbohydrates in plants.
Fiber from corn
A biologist at Du Pont developed a new type of bacterium by combining the
DNA of two kinds of bacteria. When the bacterium was fed with corn, it produced
milky liquid known as 3G, which could react with terephthalic acid to produce 3GT
resin. Then the resin is spun to give 3GT Fiber. Du Pont started commercial
production of 3G on a scale of 3000 l/day from October 2000 to produce a
windbreaker. They intend to construct a 3G plant with the capacity to produce 300
000 I/day. The product is soft, good in elastic recovery, can be dyed at room
temperature, and the cost is cheap enough to compete with nylon and polyester.
Future usage will be extended from the field of life materials to industrial uses.
Each country now gives attention to this new fiber.
Text 4
Thermotropic liquid crystalline spun Vectran® fiber
Kuraray produce the polyarylate superfiber Vectran. Polyarylate contains
aromatic aryl groups. By controlling the molecular structure, polyarylate melts at a
certain temperature and forms thermotropic liquid crystals. Vectran is melt-spun
from such polyarylate.
One of the most novel applications of Vectran was as an airbag for the Mars
Pathfinder. NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) announced a
large space science project (the Origin Plan) in 1996. This project aims to explore
the origins of space, and planned to launch a series of space probes. Mars
Pathfinder was launched from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida on 4
December 1996 in order to arrive on Mars on Independence Day (4 July 1997). The
most difficult part of this project was how to soft-land on Mars. The staff at JPL (Jet
Propulsion Laboratory, NASA) was asked to develop a less expensive soft-landing
device quickly. They innovated and produced a new soft-landing device utilizing an
airbag, which costs US$ 600 million, compared with US$ 1000 million for the
conventional soft-landing device. This airbag is made of four-layered woven fabrics of
Vectran fiber laminated inside with silicon polymer. Various designs were tested at
NASA's Lewis Research Center, including the shape of the airbag, the fabric materials
and the seam. The red surface of Mars is covered with rocks of various sizes and
shapes. Thus the surface of the airbag is loosely seamed in order to adjust its position
14
according to the external load and to absorb the impact shock. Vectran fiber of 200 d
was woven into five-layer high-density fabrics laminated with silicon polymer with
warp directions shifted 45° with respect to each layer. The outer two to three layers
are designed to yield at certain impact strength and to absorb the impact energy. The
fifth layer (innermost layer) is made completely airtight and possesses high strength.
When the Mars Pathfinder (its front is protected with heat-resistant shield) is
separated from the spaceship, it descends into the Martian atmosphere. Several
minutes before soft-landing, the heat-resistant shield is cut off and Mars
Pathfinder descends by parachute. At 300 m above the surface (8 s before
landing), four airbag sets (each composed of six beach-ball-like bags) inflate within
0.5 s at each side of tetrahedral Mars Pathfinder. A retro-rocket device is ignited
immediately and the speed of descent is reduced. Mars Pathfinder falls on to the
Martian surface, bounces up and down several times and then stops. The Vectran
rope then folds the airbags to the space probe surface. This Mars Pathfinder system
is made up of the tetrahedral landing device (the lander) and the rover. Total
weight, including airbags, must be less than 360 kg, because of the limit of load to
the airbags. The landing craft opens to expose its interior when landed, and the rover
is sent to explore the surface.
Text 5
High function fiber
Ultra-fine filtration membrane
As with microfiltration membrane, the ultrafiltration membrane has ultra-fine
holes in the walls. The pore size is 0.01 μm less than the size of germs and viruses.
Industrial application began with the filtration of germs from beer in 1968. It has
been applied subsequently for small particle filtration, purification of liquids, and
now the cleaning of water.
The material used for the ultra-fine filtration membrane requires good
longevity for use in the water supply system. Therefore, high molecular weight
polyacrylonitrile is used. A capsule packing a bundle of hollow fibers called
'Module' is widely used in water supply systems, and used for cleaning water
associated with chemical products. Moreover drink water can be prepared by filtration
of industrial water.
Reverse osmosis membrane
A semi-permeable membrane allows water to pass but does not pass salts.
When sea water is treated, osmosis induces the sea water to move to the pure water
side without the salts, so pure water can be obtained from the sea water. This is
15
reverse osmosis and the membrane used is called the 'reverse osmosis membrane
(RO membrane)'.
Spiral type RO membrane, prepared by rolling the seat-shaped RO membrane into
a swirl-shape, has good dirt resistance and produces large quantities of pure water.
This is the main type of RO membrane for producing drinking water from wellwater and sea water and the preparation of ultra-fine clean water used for the
semiconductor industry. Aromatic polyamide and amides are used for the RO
membranes.
Super high function fiber (the third order function)
A third order function fiber is defined as a super high function fiber designed to
possess high multidisciplinary functions. The third function emerged from an
unexpected combination of fiber science with electric/electromagnetic science,
machinery/structural material engineering or cell biology. The systematic
hybridization leads to a multiplicity of effects and functions. Thus super high
function fiber can be regarded as a 'multi-function fiber' or 'hybrid-function fiber'.
Organic optical fiber is an example of a super high function fiber in the nonclothing field, which emerged by building into the fiber a gradation of refractive
index in a radial direction.
In practice, the function can be classified as multiple function, systematized
function and biomimetic function. For example, the multiple functions include the
water-repellent/vapor permeable fabric (that repels water but allows vapor to
permeate) and the high tenacity/low-modulus elastic fiber (that does not stretch). A
systematized function is represented by the heat storage fiber (that absorbs light and
converts it to heat) and the anti-bacteria/odor-killing fiber (that suppresses bacterial
growth and removes bad smells). Morphotex® (developed by Nissan Motor, Teijin
and Tanaka Kikinzoku) is a good example of a biomimetic fiber and is composed
of multi-layers of polyester and polyamide, and produces color by the interference
effect of light like the Morpho found in the upper reaches of the Amazon in Brazil.
Biomimetic fibers include fiber whose structure is copied from the bioorganisms
and whose function mimics that of bioorganisms.
Toray developed a column to treat blood poisoning with endotoxin-absorbing
fiber. Infection by bacteria can cause blood poisoning, because endotoxin is
produced by the bacteria. Fever, a barrier to blood circulation and a drop in blood
pressure can result. Even death can occur.
The number of patients suffering from blood poisoning is increasing year by
year. In the United States, the number of such patients is 430 000 per year. Blood
poisoning is the main cause of death in intensive care units. Endotoxin is also
known as lipopolysaccharide.
Blood poisoning was once treated by blocking the action of endotoxin.
Medicines which combine with endotoxin were given to patients after successful
16
animal trials. However, the medicines did not act efficiently in human clinical
trials. So medicines are not now used to remove the toxicity of endotoxin.
Toray developed a treatment to remove the endotoxin by circulating the blood
outside of the body using artificial kidney dialysis. In artificial dialysis, hollow
fiber is used to remove low molecular weight compounds in the blood and
endotoxin can be absorbed.
Endotoxin exists in the blood mixed with other essential components, which
must not be removed. Only the compounds causing the disease should be absorbed
and removed, so that the purified blood can be fed back into the body. The main
difference from dialysis is that compounds with high molecular weighs can be
removed by absorption. The compound which combines the causative is called a
ligand.
Polymyxin, an antibiotic, was selected as the ligand to remove endotoxin as the
result of collaborative research with Shiga University of Medical Science.
Although it was known that polymyxin combines endotoxin specifically, it can also
cause renal dysfunction if too large a dose is used. The solution was to immobilize
the polymyxin on to fiber and the fiber packed in a column through which blood
circulating outside of the body could flow.
As new outside the body cycling treatments for other diseases are developed
the following points should be considered:
• Need to identify/determine filtration targets in the blood such as toxin,
excess proteins and cells.
• Devise the ligands which can absorb the targets.
• Optimize a carrier for the ligand. In this way, new medical treatment
methods can be developed by studying materials, including fibers, which
are effective in eliminating target materials.
Mitsubishi Rayon developed the 'fibrous-shape DNA chip' utilizing the
technology which had been used for the hollow fiber in the household water
purifier. Pieces of DNA are placed in a hollow fiber-like ultra-fine straw.
Thousands of these are bundled and fixed into a rod with resin. The chips are
obtained by slicing the rod. This technique has the advantage of ease for mass
production. The DNA chip reacts with blood of a patient and provides the patient's
genetic information, which assists diagnosis.
Text 6
Sport using the high function fiber
High function sportswear
Although Japan imports increasing amounts of textile products, the export of
the fabrics for sportswear has recently been steadily increasing. Sportswear needs
17
to have more specialized functions than ordinary clothing. Thus the trends in
sportswear will give an indication of new fiber material developments. The recent
trend is not towards high performance but comfort.
There is a great demand in high function sports goods. If the performance and
function satisfy the consumer, the cost is inconsequential Golf clubs and fishing
rods are two examples of high function sports goods where carbon fiber is applied.
Carbon fiber has a high Young's modulus and is used in airplanes and space shuttles
in the aerospace industry. Although expensive, golf clubs, fishing rods and tennis
rackets made of the carbon fiber composite attract sports lovers, since the
performance satisfies their requirements.
Necessary performance for sportswear
The various factors of clothing function seem to appear in more emphasized
form in sportswear. Sportswear should be light and fit the body for easy
movement. Durability and abrasion resistance are also required. The protective
function is, of course, a prerequisite. Since heavy sweating during exercise is
unpleasant, sportswear should absorb/evaporate sweat quickly and keep the body
dry. The body should be kept warm in the case of winter sports. All these functions
are also required for conventional clothing, hence the general value of experience in
sportswear.
Functions from the type of sports
An elastic response is required for swimming, aerobics and figure-skating.
Transparency or non-transparency may be important in some cases. Skiing
costumes require both heat insulation and physical mobility. Sportswear functions
vary, as each sport requires different functions. The technology of fiber materials in
clothing design is available to cope with the varied required functions.
The water-repellent/vapor-permeable textile is a typical material for sportswear.
The coating/laminate type and the high-density woven fabric are commercially
available for water-repellent/vapor-permeable textiles. Commercially available quick-dry
textiles are made either from water-absorbing fiber material or with a specially designed
fabric structure utilizing a capillary effect to absorb sweat. Fieldsensor® (Toray) has a
three-layer woven structure, which prevents absorbed sweat from flowing reversibly.
Lightweight fabric is composed of hollow fiber.
Making the fabric surface as smooth as possible can reduce the surface friction of
the fabric. Plain-woven high-density fabric of ultra-fine denier fiber has a smooth
surface. Teflon-laminate surface is water-repellent, and produces even less friction.
Since water- or airflow at the surface will be disturbed less with small surface
dimples (a golf ball is a good example), such dimples are provided on the surface of
swimming costumes and ski-jump coats. Garments made of heat-storage fiber were
used in the Winter Olympic Games in Japan in 1999. Heat-storage fiber is a hollow
fiber filled with zirconium carbide. Zirconium carbide absorbs visible light and
18
converts it into far-infrared radiation. Transparent or non-transparent fiber materials
are developed to respond to the demands from ladies wishing to wear a white
swimming costume. A conventional white fabric becomes transparent when wet.
Bodyshell, however, has a star-shaped core of a different refractive index, which
scatters light randomly.
Ultra high strength has been one of the major goals in the fiber/textile field and
useful in sportswear. Today gel spinning and liquid crystal spinning are two industrial
processes to produce ultra high tenacity fiber, represented by polyethylene and Kevlar,
respectively. High tenacity polyethylene is light and strong. Scissors cannot cut
aramid fiber such as Technola and Kevlar. However, the tenacity of those ultra high
tenacity fibers is about 20% of the tensile strength calculated theoretically from the
ideally extended chain model. Conventional polyester or nylon fiber achieves only
about 5% of the theoretical tensile strength.
Text 7
Collagen: medical applications
Collagen is a major structural protein, forming molecular cables that strengthen
the tendons and vast, resilient sheets that support the skin and internal organs. Bones
and teeth are made by adding mineral crystals to collagen. Collagen provides structure
to our bodies, protecting and supporting the softer tissues and connecting them with
the skeleton. It is composed of three chains, wound together in a tight triple helix, each
chain being over 1400 amino acids long. A repeated sequence of three amino acids
forms this study hydroxyproline structure. Every third amino acid is glycine that fits
perfectly inside the helix. The special amino acid sequence makes the tight collagen
triple helix particularly stable. Every third amino acid is a glycine, and many of the
remaining amino acids are proline or hydroxyproline.
The collagen molecule is a triple helix assembled from three individual protein
chains. The triple helix is further assembled into larger structures known as fibers.
The collagen fibers play an important role in binding platelets under conditions of
blood flow. These type I collagen molecules associate side-by-side, like fibers in a
rope, to form tough fibrils. These fibrils crisscross the space between nearly every
one of our cells. These form a basement membrane (collagen-2), which forms a
tough surface that supports the skin and many organs. A different collagen ('type
IV) forms the structural basis of this membrane.
Collagen has found widespread medical uses. Urology, dermatology,
orthopaedics, vascular and general surgery utilize collagen in various forms ranging
from injectable solutions to sponge-like materials. In addition, collagens extracted
from animal species, primarily bovine, are used in the preparation of a wide variety
of commercial products including:
19
• biological dressings
• tissue culture applications
• dermal injectables.
Collagen is an ideal biomaterial for the development of medical and other
commercial products because it is highly biocompatible, is readily available at high
purity, and can be manufactured in such diverse forms as pastes, gels, films,
sponges, and felt-like sheets using a variety of process methods. In cosmetic
treatments it is able to:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
smooth facial lines and wrinkles
add definition to lip line borders
smooth smile lines
improve 'marionette' lines
decrease frown lines
improve vertical lip lines
fill shallow acne scars
The role of collagen in blood clotting is complex and multi-factorial. Plateletcollagen interactions have received considerable attention because collagen is
considered to be the most thrombogenic constituent of the vessel wall. After injury,
platelets exposed to collagen in the sub-endothelial layer adhere rapidly to the
exposed collagen fibrils. Platelet binding to collagen can occur through a direct
platelet-collagen interaction or can be mediated via von Willebrand factor forming
a bridge between collagen and platelets. Platelets bind to collagen, aggregate,
adsorb, and concentrate clotting factors. Platelet-bound fibrinogen is converted to
fibrin which forms a cross-linked network. The fibrin network which forms reinforces
the otherwise friable platelet plug. The bound, activated platelets are completely
degranulated, releasing ADP, thromboxane, and other secretory products which
facilitate clotting. Since the discovery of the role of collagen in blood clotting, collagen
obtained from animal skin and tendon has been processed into loose fibrillar forms and
felt-like sheets or collagen fleece and used to stop bleeding in an increasing number of
procedures including spleen repair, laparoscopy, oral surgery, and general surgery.
Collagen also plays an essential role in the wound healing process. Acting as a
tissue scaffold, it is used as a carrier vehicle for cells in tissue engineered products for
dermal wound repair and as a carrier vehicle for growth factors in bone repair.
Collagen fibers are one of the best scaffolds for cell migration and proliferation.
Collagen interacts with fibronectin and other adhesion proteins to promote cellular ingrowth which speeds up wound healing. Type I collagen has been shown to attract
fibroblasts in cell culture and appears to cause directed migration of cells. Drugs, cells,
and growth factors use collagen as both the delivery vehicle and structural support for
tissue development and in-growth.
20
THE 4-D TERM
SUPPLEMENTARY READING
Text 1
Read the article and give the key points of each section:
LOOM AND WEAVING: A loom is a machine, hand or power driven
necessary to weave cloth. It consists essentially of parts that make it possible to
have two systems of thread or yarn, called warp and filling, weave or interlace at
right angles to each other. The earliest looms of which we have knowledge
provided a means of hanging one set of threads in a vertical position through which
the crossing threads were interlaced. Apparently, the first improvement consisted of
a means to tighten these threads, either by hanging weights at the bottom end or by
joining their two ends in such a way so as to form a loop over horizontal, parallel
bars.
The following terms used in weaving parlance are synonymous: 1. Warp and
end – the vertical or lengthwise yarns in woven cloth. 2. Filling and pick – the
crosswise yarns in woven cloth.
Horizontal looms were used by the early Egyptians and other civilizations in
early word history. In the simplest form, this type of loom provided for the
tethering of a bar that carried the lengthwise warp ends to a stake in the ground. A
bar at the father end was secured to the person of the weaver, who had a straight set
of warp threads through which it was possible to cross or interlace the filling yarns.
Primitive weavers improvised from simple materials a plain device or
arrangement called a heddle or heald. This device enabled the alternate warp
threads to be raised. Thus a shed was formed – an opening between the raised and
unraised or lowered threads or groups, through which the filling picks could be
more easily passed.
At an uncertain date prior to the Middle Ages, some tribes, in what is now Great
Britain, improved the apparatus by adding a frame – a warp beam. This beam was
used to hold the warp ends and another beam was installed to take care of the
woven cloth as it came from the loom, the cloth beam of roller.
The power loom of today is substantially the hand loom adapted to rotary
driving. The frame is iron instead of wood; the sley or oscillating frame is pivoted
below and driven by a crank; and the picking arm is actuated by a cone that turns
on a vertical rod. The lift of the heddle shafts is controlled by tappets or cams. The
motions are timed accurately in order to give a high rate of speed and production.
21
The weaver, free from supplying power, has merely to apply the filling threads to
the shuttle.
Text 2
Scan the article quickly for information about looms and summarize it under the
give headings:
Major types of looms in use today:
1. AUTOMATIC LOOM: Built for simple or plain weaving of cloth with the
addition of an automatic shuttle device to change the filling as it runs out. This
type of loom makes for production. The machine does not stop while the new filling
bobbin is set in to replace the one that has just run out. With suitable organization
of labor, one weaver may take care of several of these looms. He may care for
forty-eight or more looms at one time.
2. LOOMS FOR FANCY WEAVING: Have parts that are additional to those found on
plain looms. Stripes of color are arranged for in the warping, but the crossing stripes
to form checks and plaids are put into the cloth by the filling bobbin in the
shuttle. There must be as many shuttles as there are colors of filling to be used in
the cloth design. The shuttles are placed in boxes at the end of the sley or warp, and
the mechanism provides that the particular box shall be in position at the instant
or exact time required.
3. DOBBY LOOM: Weaves fancy materials. The dobby loom is built so that it can
take care of many harnesses. Some looms have from twenty-four to thirty frames
in them. The particular heddles on some one harness can be lifted at a given
moment by means of metal projections that engage the holes in strips or bars of
metal plates that are successively present in endless chains form. This is called
the draft chain or pattern chain.
4. DOUBLE-CYLINDER DOBBY LOOM: If it is desired to weave a pattern that
contains a great many picks in the repeat, a large number of bars must be built
for the pattern picks since, even on the double index dobby, one bar represents
only two picks. When patterns of several hundred picks are woven, this becomes
a matter of considerable importance as a long chain always requires much time in
building.
To overcome the difficulty of building long pattern chains, the doublecylinder dobby is largely used.
5. JACQUARD LOOM : Provides for the lifting or raising of individual warp ends
without reference to adjacent warp threads. The loom is a development of the
power loom. In the Jacquard head motion there are perforated cards and the
needles of the cylinder in this head stock select the required warp end or group of
ends. They raise these ends, which are lifted by means of hooks and form the top
22
part of the shed of the warp in order to admit the passage of the filling pick
through the opening formed.
Text 3
Read the article and prepare the talk under the following headings:
a) flyer
b) mule spinning
c) cap spinning
d) ring spinning
SPINNING: Listed chronologically, the four types of spinning are: flyer, mule,
cap, and ring. These are all common to the woolen and worsted industry. Most
cottons at the present time are spun on either the mule or the ring frame. In this
country practically all cotton yarn is spun on the ring frame, while in Europe the
mule is still the more common.
The earliest spinning frame employed the flyer spindle, which resembles the flyer
of the present-day roving frame. The yarn was drawn from the front delivery roll
down to the top of the flyer; it was then twisted around the flyer leg, through an
eye, to the bobbin. As these frames ran at a low speed (up to 3000 r.p.m.) the
yarn that was produced was quite smooth and free of beard. The difficulties with
this method was the low production and the strain put on the yarn by the bobbin
drag.
Mule spinning allows the use of the free spindle and thereby offers a means of
increasing production. The process is not continuous, since there are three distinct
stages of operation, namely: drafting and delivering, twisting and drawing, and,
finally, winding on. The system allows spinning yarns of extreme fineness, and also
with very low twists.
Cap spinning is a continuous process. In place of the flyer, a cap or bonnet is
substituted. The bobbin, in cap spinning, is driven by a spindle-banding; the bobbin
rises and falls within the inverted cap. The yarn comes from the delivery roll and
drags over the lower edge of the cap. Here the bobbin may revolve up to 7000
r.p.m. Since the bobbin is driven, there is only slight tension in the yarn at any
time. Because of the higher spindle speed, the yarn may be a bit fuzzy. Much
worsted yarn is spun on this type of frame.
Ring spinning is the most recent development and offers the best possibilities in
production. Spindle speeds are high and the process is continuous. The use of the
ring and the traveler subjects the yarn to some strain and also reduces the
extensibility of the yarn to some degree, but this is not a serious factor. The bulk of
yarn is spun on this system, since it allows the use of large packages and increased
23
production per unit of floor space. Its range and flexibility make it the most
satisfactory unit of the present day.
Text 4
Scan the article quickly for information about the history of spinning and
summarize it.
SPINNING FRAME, THE RISE OF THE: As the textile industry began to
take on impetus at the time of the Industrial Revolution, it was only natural as more
raw material became available that machines would come into being to care for
the increase. Raw material, manipulation, manufacturing, distribution and
consumption had to be balanced.
In 1764, the first spinning jenny was made by James Hargreaves of Blackburn,
England. This frame could manipulate eight spindles. The invention was accidental.
His wife, Jenny, "or some female," had left her spinning wheel in his path. He
stumbled over it as he came into his house, and, being a carpenter, decided to
repair the broken frame. He noticed the wheel and spindle continued to revolve as
it lay on the floor. His observations and efforts made it possible to make eight
spindles work whereas the spinning wheel had been able to spin one thread at a time.
Thus, an instance of increased production was assured.
His fifth jenny, made in 1766, operated an even hundred spindles, and this was
a great boon to production of yarn. However, he was mobbed by the indignant
spinners, who may or may not have envisioned the economic evils of mass
production and uniform sizes, the factory system and big business.
In 1769, the roller spinning frame was invented by Arkwright. The frame was
driven by water power and factories began to be built on the banks of streams
for water power.
A decade later, in 1779, Samuel Crompton made the spinning mule an actuality.
He took the ideas of Hargreaves, who had spun yarns by means of the carriage, and
Arkwright, who did his spinning by means of drawing rollers. By combining the
ideas, Crompton made a machine that did its work by the use of the carriage and
rollers. The machine was a hybrid, a cross between carriage drawing and roller
drawing. For want of a better name he called it a spinning mule. The name has
been in vogue ever since. He sold his invention for 106 pounds; it was worth a
fortune, but he let it slip between his fingers. In 1812 he received 5000 pounds from
the British Government for his machine had given work to 70,000 spinners,
150,000 weavers, and there were five million spindles revolving in England.
The rise of the mule took place between the years 1765 and 1785. In the latter
year James Watt, a young Scotsman, invented the steam engine, and made it
possible to drive the newly invented machines by steam power. Thus, the slow,
24
tedious hand and water power methods of manipulation were at an end. By 1790,
all of Crompton's mules were driven by steam power. Today, mule spinning
frames have been improved upon to the extent that as many as 1400 pieces of yarn
may be spun at the one time on a single frame.
Text 5
Read the article and tell the difference between types of knitting.
KNITTING: Producing fabric on more than one needle by a method of
interlooping yarn or yarns. The length-wise rows of loops are known as wales; the
crosswise, horizontal rows of loops as courses.
1. CIRCULAR KNITTING: The fabric comes from the knitting machine in the form
of a tube. The threads run continuously in one direction in loops around the fabric.
2. FLAT KNITTING: Is similar in construction to circular knitting. The
differences are: 1. The fabric comes from the knitting machine in a flat form
just as woven fabrics do. 2. The threads run in loops, alternately back and forth
across the fabric. 3. Flat knit fabrics are capable of being fashioned or shaped in
the knitting.
3. WARP KNITTING: Here, the fabric usually comes from the knitting machine
flat, just as woven and flat knit fabrics do. The threads run in loops in a
lengthwise direction.
KNITTING ELEMENTS: There are two: 1. The sinker, which is a device on
a circular machine used to hold down the fabric. 2. The jack, a tempered steel
blade with either high or low butts whose primary function is to actuate the
movement of latch knitting needles.
Text 6
Read the article and entitle it.
For quite some time, Raschel machines with two latch needle bars played a
minor role in warp knitting. It was rather a universal machine, because the range of
application was very small and was mostly limited to outerwear fabrics to
correspond to the up and down trends in fashion and season.
The various types of double needle bar Raschel machines can be dvided into
three main groups:
Double needle bar Raschel machines with pattern change device up to 16 guide
bars, aiming at and applied for outerwear fabrics, scarves, stoles, shaped tubular
25
fabrics for making-up, fully fashioned pieces for pullovers, T-shirts etc. as well as:
readymade articles such as men's and ladies' panties, trouser pockets and the like.
Technologically — comparable are Raschel machines with 8 resp. guide bars and
pattern change device for processing potyolefine monofil and especially flat threads.
Important are tubular nets as small packings for fruit, nuts, vegetables and apart
from food – stuffs, also for childrens's toys etc. The latest development consists in a
continuous process to oriented film to net tubes which subsequently are collected in
laps of 300 m length, in order, to feed them into automatic packing machines. The
output per hour of such a range with a knitting width of only 27" (68 cm) is 7200 m
net tubes, requiring only one operator.
The third and most important group of the double needle bar Raschel machines
are double plush Raschel machines for the production of plush, velours and velvet.
The fabric is knitted as double fabric and in a subsequent operation is separated on
a plush cutting machine mostly symmetrically, but also asymmetrically. This
development has been initiated with the construction of a machine for the
manufacture of high-pile knit fabrics with a pile neigh of 10 ... 70 mm for imitation
fur, warm lining for garments, toys and blankets such as known in Japan as «boa
blankets». This construction was the basis for a machine for the manufacture of
plush fabrics for furniture with pile height renging from 2 … 6 mm.
Text 7
Read the article and explain reasons for non-wovens applications.
NONWOVEN FABRIC: A web or, sheet of textile-type fibers, bonded together
by the application of narrow stripes or patterns of adhesive material, or by
autogenously bonding the fibers through activation of the surface, either by
chemical action, or heat if thermo-plastic fibers are used. One of the main points in
this type of material is that the expanses of the web have freedom of fiber
movement since the bonding material is in minor proportion to the fiber content or
the adhesion is self-developed from the fibers themselves.
The nature of the fibers is such that they constitute the quality of a sheet of this
type, and the unification material serves only to hold the fibers in place so that
advantage may be taken to the fullest degree of the physical properties of the fiber.
NONWOVEN FABRICS, USES OF: INDUSTRIAL USES: Backing material for
plastic films, quilting, oilcloth, wallpaper, maps; bagging and wrapping fabrics,
bags and containers for certain materials such as desiccants; casket linings,
electrical and cable insulation, filters such as for air, chemical, and dairy uses; highpressure laminates, polishing and wiping cloths, and tea bags.
APPAREL USES: Aprons and bibs, diapers, both facing material and absorbent
liners, interlinings for garments, linings for handbags, shoulder pads.
26
HOUSEHOLD USES: Dishcloths, dust cloths, draperies, napkins, hospital sheeting,
towels, vacuum cleaner bags, and window shades.
Text 8
Read the article and divide it into six sections.
Flocking Procedures
It would be misleading to mention only electrostatic flocking. Spreading, the
original method of flocking, was practiced in the Middle Ages. Fiber dust was
spread onto a substrate covered with a sticky resin. Naturally, the lightweight fibers
fell slowly and only lay on the surface. Later on, this method was improved by
using air to speed up the falling flock. The flock was not aligned, however, and
would lie in an entangled manner on the substrate. Also, blowing the flock on with
air left an irregular and felt-like surface, and adhesion was very unequal. Around
1920, it was discovered that vibration of the material created a double
improvement. It aided the penetration of the fibers into the adhesive, improving
wear resistance, and it aligned the fibers vertically. Vibration was produced by
polygonal beater bars that rotated in an opposite direction to the substrate. In the
early 1930s, after emery paper had been produced electrostatically, it was only a
small step to the application of fibers electrostatically. This brought about the exact
alignment of the flocks and, due to the high velocity (approximately 100-200
cm/sec), sufficient penetration into the adhesive. On the other hand, the
disadvantages of the electrostatic process (Faraday cages, for example) had to be
tolerated. It was later discovered that combinations of techniques could provide
more advantages. Combination electronic/pneumatic flocking is usually used for
extreme cavities, such as automobile glove compartments and the inside of latex
gloves. The fibers are blown through a flat or specially shaped high-voltage
electrode. The mechanical force of the pneumatics, combined with the etectrostatic
charge, has an increased effect on the fibers. This is the only way to flock such
cavities. Electrostatic/vibration flocking is another combination process. This is
sometimes used on flat objects with depressions which cannot be reached by
electrostatic flocking alone (packing materials, for example). With the help of
vibration, these depressions can be flocked easily. For flocking continuous lengths
of material, combined flocking procedures have proved to produce quality superior
to that produced by electrostatic flocking.
27
Text 9
Before reading the article think about the title and try to predict what the article
will be about. Then quickly scan the article to see how accurate your predictions
were.
Air-jet weaving machine for producing filament fabrics
The air-jet weaving machines Type P125 ZA-8 are specially designed for the
production of fabrics from continuous filament man-made fibres. For weft
insertion, besides the air-jet a suction device is used on these machines which acts
on the weft-thread at the end of its flight path, straightening and tensioning it. The
required vacuum is produced by a separate motor. A turboelectric weft monitor
controls the weft threads. The weft detector is built into a special segment of the
vortex unit. A vortex section can be moved within a 30 cm zone according to the
desired reed width of the weaving machine. In model P125 ZA-8 the reed width is
between 95 and 125 cm, and in type P155 ZA-8 between 125 and 155 cm. For
operating the weft insertion jet an air supply of 18 or 20 m/hour is required. At the
reduction valve a pressure of 4.0 or 4.3 atmospheres (4.0 or 4.3 bar) is needed.
Independently controlled selvedge thread packages are used for selvedge
formation. These packages are situated above the warp beam on special holders.
The cloth selvedges are formed by a leno motion. The leno threads are on special
cores which are fitted with an individual tensioning device.
The back-rest performs an oscillating motion synchronised with slay movement.
The extent of the movement is adjustable. An electric six-bank warp-stop motion is
used, the distance between the banks being variable, so that different types of
dropper pinning machines can be used. The warp-stop motion is provided with a
searching device for fallen droppers.
Double-roller temples with the cloth passing under the rollers are fitted.
However particularly for producing fabrics of differing warp thread and weft thread
densities threaded rod or expanding temples can be used. For producing uniform
cloth tension over the full reed width there is a breast beam of new design. It
consists of two parts. One part consists of the temple frame which extends over the
full width of the machine, and the second part is the breast beam itself, which, with
its slightly concave form, compensates the tension difference between the
selvedges and the centre of the cloth. The temple frame carries the mounts for the
temple and can be adjusted horizontally.
Text 10
Read quickly through the article and in 20 words or less write that the article is
about.
28
Schleicher: P2 Electronic Jacquard Machine With Piezo Elements
Schleicher (U.S. rep: Bolliger) has been successful in developing a new
electronic jacquard machine type P2, a revolution in the field of electronic jacquard
technology and unique on the world market so far.
This electronic jacquard machine is based on a completely new and revised
technology. In particular, P2 works without magnets (electronic solenoids), which
have been replaced by piezo elements (piezo-ceramic actuators), thus starting the
second generation of electronic jacquards.
Piezo elements are reliable and do not generate heat. This allows elimination of
ventilators and blowers, which have been the basic evil of electronic jacquard
machines in the past, as the machines were exposed to high wear of individual parts
due to dust and dirt produced by ventilators and blowers. With P2, this is a problem
of the past and – even more important – energy costs can be minimized.
The machine has a new, simplified hook system that guarantees maximun
durability of individual components and is qualified for highest performance
requirements – over 1,000 rpm.
The system of the shedding machine is simple and clear. It allows easy access
and handling, as it is not designed in a modular system.
Machine building has a compact and sturdy shed movement and is 24 knives
deep. P2 is available in sizes of 1,344-6,048 hooks based on increments of 672
hooks.
The new P2 has been perfected in practical operation of 900 rpm in 3-shift
performance.
Text 11
Read the article and discuss the key points.
Vanguard Supreme: 4SJ4/HAC Jersey Machine
When knitting jersey fabrics on a circular machine, it is critical to be able to knit
a full range of stitch formations while still producing defect-free fabrics. Mills also
face ongoing requirements for more production in limited plant space.
Vanguard's goal was to create a total knitting concept for highspeed-jersey that
would include new knitting elements, industrial takeup, and a new cleaning system
to maintain efficiency and eliminate waste.
The main limitation in achieving higher machine speeds is the knitting needle.
The faster a machine rotates, the more the latches cycle. This cycling, along with an
increase in centrifugal force, eventualy leads to premature wear of the hook and
latch area. In order to make this concept a reality it was necessary to ensure that the
needles would produce an equal or greater volume of fabric as those used in
conventional jersey machines.
29
To obtain a speed factor of 1,500 (speed factor divided by diameter = rpm) while
maintaining 4 feeds/in., it was necessary to reduce the needle latch length. A
shorter latch requires less stroke in the cylinder cam. The less the stroke, the gentler
the angles within the cam.
However, one drawback to reducing the stroke is that it also reduces the stitch
range in a monoblock cam. To help maximize the needle stroke, the new machine
incorporated angular sinker technology. By working the sinker on a 20-deg angle,
the knitting line changes its position. Thus, when the sinker is pulled out to its
furthest knitting position the knitting line is at its highest thus increasing the needle
stroke. Angular sinker technology, along with a newly designed 4.5-mm latch
needle, allows for a stitch range comparable to a conventional jersey machine yet
with a lower defect rate.
These faster speeds place increased stress and heat on all of the knitting
elements. To be certain that they would be able to endure the increased stress,
engineers conducted extensive finite element analysis on needles and sinkers. This
even involved altering the sinker dial and top ring to keep sinkers truly vertical and
not "racked" over under high speeds. To reduce the amount of shock transmitted
through the knitting elements; both the cylinder and sinker cams incorporate sine
waves through the transition points. The sine wave ensures a much smoother turn –
around, thus gently gliding the knitting elements through the cam tracks.
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EXTRA – REARING
General Tasks
9. Define the main parts of the text (the introduction, the main body, the
conclusion)
10. Summarize the contents of the each part of the text.
11. Give the main points of the text.
12. Mark the sections with the most essential information.
13. Mark the sections with the least essential information.
14. Make up the detailed plan of the text.
15. Retell the text according to the plan.
16. Summarize the text.
Text 1
Knitting in detail
The knitted wire fabric challenge
All materials available as wire, yarn or fibres can be processed, depending on
the application:
Metals (galvanised steel, aluminium, pure copper, copper alloys, brass,
corrosion
and acid-resistant high-grade steel, high-temperature and heat-resistant highgrade
steel, nickel and nickel alloys, titanium),
Plastic monofilaments (polypropylene, polyethylene, PTFE, ETFE, PYC,
polyvinylidene fluoride, polyester),
Fibrous products (glass staple fibres, glass fibre webs, polypropylene fibres,
aramid fibres, polyester fibres).
The products
The three-dimensional flexibility of knitted wire fabrics gives them very good
elasticity and elongation behaviour. Rhodius knitted wire fabric is a circular-knitted
tubular fabric and is normally laid out as a flat sheet for further processing. These
sheets can be made into packing materials by creasing and folding and into knitted
wire fabric components. They can be supplied as roll goods or made up into tailormade packing materials or components.
31
One challenge for the company is to develop new specialist products based on
knitted wire fabrics - even tailored to the requirements of individual customers and also the constant improvement and care of the products.
To define these precision products clearly, reliable specifications are, of course,
necessary; for example, the material used, the fabric width (approx. 10 to 1000mm
in the case of tubular fabric laid flat), gauge (2 to 33mm) and stitch length (1.6 to
15mm), fabric construction and other technical details such as the weight, packing
density (g/cm3 or kg/m3), wire surface (m2/m3) or free volume in %.
Rhodius knitted wire fabrics for the car industry
The company has been a partner to the car industry for many years, supplying
products made from knitted wire fabrics. The fabrics are used in the flexible
mounting of ceramic monoliths and as filter components in air bag systems. Other
end-uses are knitted wire elements for vibration damping and to equalise relative
movements of flange joints in car exhausts. Knitted wire fabrics used to form air
gaps in heat shields for thermal insulation and noise reduction round off the diverse
product range for the car industry.
Innovative solutions for other end-use sectors
Anti-cutting technology:
For general and work applications in which materials are subjected to extremely
high stresses, flexible, robust knitted wire fabrics are made into hard-wearing and
extremely durable composite materials.
In buses and trains, these composite materials offer an effective protection
against wilful destruction of seat coverings. The materials also offer new potential
for the planning, development and use of products where safety is required with
very high stresses.
Environmental technology:
For this sector, an extensive range of products is available for keeping the air
and water clean. Drop and oil-mist separators as well as filter elements have been
used successfully for many years in separation technology. The company is
contributing towards keeping the air clean with a new generation of catalysers for
the catalytic afterburning of organically contaminated exhaust fumes. Based on
new technology, oxidation catalysers are being made from knitted wire fabrics,
their flexibility allowing them to be made up according to the specific end-use.
Effluent technology:
It is possible to make a contribution towards feeding water back into the natural
and process cycles, thereby preserving it as a vital resource, by using coalescence
separators made from knitted wire fabrics. They work based on the drop
enlargement (coalescence) of the disperse phase on the wire, monofilament yarn or
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fiber with subsequent separation using gravity. They are used as components for
the phase separation of unstable fluid-fluid dispersions (emulsions). Using various
materials and material combinations, the company manufactures efficient filters for
the most diverse end-uses. Coalescence separators are supplied both as knitted
fabric packing and as cartridges for modular construction.
Chemical and processing technology:
The whole product range finds many different applications here. Drop
separators have proved useful in industrial applications as efficient and economical
components for separating fluids and gases. Due to the wide choice of materials, it
is possible to supply tailored knitted wire fabric packing materials for specialist
applications, such as with highly corrosive media.
Machine building and industrial technology:
Knitted wire components have many end-uses, such as securing, vibration
damping, and packing, filtering, bearing, connecting and cleaning. The basis for the
optimum functioning of the various products made from knitted wire fabrics is
choosing the right material or combination of materials. If this is done, knitted wire
fabrics prove very efficient particularly in terms of elasticity, corrosion and thermal
resistance and a long service life.
Other applications:
The varied production possibilities mean that knitted wire fabrics can be used in
a wide range of applications. Knitted shielding fabrics are manufactured for the
electronics and electrical engineering sector. Current flow is also the decisive factor
in the use of knitted fabrics as heating elements. Quite different effects are obtained
by covering fiber packing made from metals, plastics or minerals. Here, mechanical
protection and dimensional stability are of primary importance. A more
extraordinary end-use for knitted wire fabric is as versatile jewellery and
decoration.
Text 2
Controlling the mill of the future
The textile industry, and particularly the staple spinning sector, has made
enormous progress since the introduction of off-line quality control by means of
textile electronic equipment approximately 40 years ago. In the last few years,
microprocessors made it possible to apply on-line quality control at each processing
stage, even at each individual production position. New, high speed spinning and
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weaving machines were introduced which made on-line quality control an absolute
necessity.
The dramatic development in electronics has made integrated chips so powerful
- and at such low prices that on-line control at each production position has become
a reality. Day by day productivity is in creased and machine supervision with a
network of control systems at each production stage has become a 'must'. Product
innovation supports the closed loop control in textile manufacture.
Three factors influence profits in yarn production:
-higher sales prices as a result of better and constant yarn quality.
-lower manufacturing costs as a result of the availability of reliable production
data.
-lower raw material prices resulting from the availability of fiber quality
information.
The present state-of-the-art in process monitoring and quality assurance is still
an off-line system of sampling and testing in the mill laboratory. Autolevellers have
proved their value and are universally accepted. Computer-controlled data
collection is still at an early stage of implementation and is dependent on the ability
of mill personnel to run such installations successfully. Of all high-speed
production machines, on-line quality control of the rotor spinning machine is the
most advanced in terms of data available compared to a simple assessment of
production data.
The most important quality characteristics in spinning are:
-mass variation
-count and count variation
-yarn force and force variation
-yarn elongation and elongation variation
-yarn hairiness and hairiness variation
-yarn twist and twist variation
-number of seldom yarn faults
-raw material characteristics
In weaving preparation, automatic drawing-in is still a process not generally
applied. On the other hand, warp tying is the state-of-the-art in weaving mills
throughout the world. Production data collection is employed in modern mills, but
little effort has been made to introduce on-line quality control in weaving. With
Uster Visotex (automated online cloth inspection system), new opportunities are
offered for controlling the quality of fabrics in an efficient way. So far, however,
manual cloth inspection remains dominant.
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Developments by the year 2000 in process control capabilities will certainly
refer to the application of microprocessor-controlled autolevellers at every stage of
spinning preparation. Spinning will be supervised by means of remote control
installations. Material transportation from process to process will be supervised, but
will not be fully automatic. So far, this has only been realised in pilot projects. In
the weaving mill, weft break piecing will be undertaken automatically, but it would
not seem that the same level of automation can be achieved with respect to warp
breaks. In ring spinning, automatic piecing will play a significant role. And, last but
not least, CIM (Computer Integrated Manufacturing) projects will be implemented
in many staple yarn spinning operations.
The trends towards efficient machine monitoring will continue, and this with
respect to both production and quality monitoring at all stages of processing.
The 'marriage' of process control with board computers on textile machinery will
necessitate an increased collaboration between textile machinery manufacturers and
electronic systems manufacturers. Standardised interfaces will be available in the
years to come. Consequently, Zellweger Uster is an active member of ISO panels
for standardising such interfaces where these refer to textile machinery. This group
is named ISO Technical Committee No. 72, and deals with the "Definition of
Interfaces for Data Processing and Control in Textile Mills". There is still a lot of
work to be done!
Data process control for spinning, winding and weaving will become a standard
in the years ahead. High production machinery and high quality requirements will
necessitate more production and quality supervisory equipment. A full integration
of such equipment into the spinning and weaving mill will be an important step
towards the successful application of CIM systems. The objective will be to offer
this sort of technology at reasonable prices. In every case, automation will
necessitate advanced electronics and high-tech sensor systems.
With respect to the production and preparation of suitable raw materials for high
production and quality processing, we are of the opinion that this should not present
any problems as long as accurate measurement and classification systems for raw
material are available.
The human element will, in the future as in the past, be extremely important as
far as the supervision of textile machinery is concerned. More and more high-tech
machinery will be provided to countries where less qualified operators are
responsible. A higher degree of automation and the application of data systems will
support the decision-making process, i.e. knowledge-based systems will be used
wherever possible. The trend will continue whereby operating personnel will have
more supervisory and maintenance functions. The final target will still be a fullyautomated spinning and weaving operation. Today, even though there is more and
more automation available, progress is still not sufficient to introduce 'ghost shifts'
on a broader scale.
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The spinning and winding machine manufacturers have been able to improve
their machines considerably, so that today's price: performance ratio for a ringspun/wound yarn is approximately the same as that of a rotor-spun yarn. So far, no
other spinning system has achieved the performance levels of ring and rotor
spinning. This can also be said for the new weaving technologies (air-jet, rapier and
projectile). In weaving, we can imagine that in 10 years' time, shuttle weaving will
be superceded by one or other of the more modern shuttleless weaving systems.
Retrofitting of shuttle looms will, in most cases, not be the answer. Furthermore,
we believe that the total number of approximately 4 Million weaving machines
available worldwide will be reduced to less than 3 Million in 10 years' time. This is
due to the four times higher productivity of the more modern weaving machines.
The return on investment of applying sophisticated quality assurance and data
monitoring equipment to production machinery refers to an extremely short
payback period. Production supervision normally refers to something like 5% of the
outlay for the production machines. If production and quality have to be supervised,
this amount could increase to approximately 10%. This higher amount of
investment is necessary - and will certainly be -acceptable - if less second-quality
goods can be attained. Supervision also provides added value in terms of flexibility,
and therefore the chance of obtaining higher prices and quick response to market
needs. Investments in flexibility are already higher than in productivity
improvement. We are therefore not surprised that successful Swiss spinners
achieving a high operating cash flow put productivity into third priority position
after quality and flexibility!
Text 3
Engineering, Manufacturing, and Measuring Domed Woven Fabrics
Abstract
In some technical and apparel fabric applications, fabrics with double curvatures
(e.g., domes) are necessary. In manufacturing textile composites, moulds are often
used to achieve double curvatures where extra strain will inevitably be introduced
into the reinforcement. Helmets for the military and riot police could be made
with seamless fabrics with double curvature to improve protection and increase
production efficiency. Other examples include bra cups in fashion and clothing,
female body armor, and car door lining material, just to mention a few.
Cut-and-sew has been the most commonly used method for producing dome
shapes in the textile and clothing industry, but seams are a big disadvantage in
technical applications, where the continuity of fibers is destroyed. Seams definitely
reduce the level of reinforcement and protection. Physically, seams in thicker
materials causes major problems in items such as female body armor. In addition,
36
cut-and sew creates extra waste of materials and labor. Another method of
manufacturing fabrics with double curvatures is moulding. Mould woven laminates
into double curvature shapes leads to changes in the orientations of the fiber
layers and the yarns, which leads to shear deformation, extension in the yarns,
crimp loss, sliding of fibers, and local wrinkles. Obviously, these could be serious
problems for technical applications. In order to make fabric more mouldable,
elastic yarns are used for some applications such as car door linings, but using
elastic yarns in such fabrics makes it difficult to form sharp concave corners.
Busgen's work on shape weaving is one of the major efforts to make 3D domed
fabrics, but it requires a high-cost weaving machine, so the fabrics are
unnecessarily expensive. The research described in our paper attempts to create an
easy, economical way to make domed woven fabrics. We also attempt to develop
methods to evaluate the domed effect and mouldability.
Engineering and Manufacturing Domed Fabrics
PATCHY DESIGN
We began our research by exploring dome forming using a mixture of weaves
with long and short float lengths, inspired by honeycomb weaves, which resulted
in uneven fabrics. It was very interesting to see what effect a patched design
would have on the fabric surface. One of these patchy designs with different
weaves for different parts in the design; the plain weave, the tightest, is arranged
in the middle, and a five-end satin, with the longest average float length and thus
the loosest weave of the three types, is used for the outer ring. The weave for the
middle ring is a 2/2 twill. In a fabric with the same warp and weft densities, the
plain patch tends to occupy a larger area and therefore will grow out of the fabric
plane; the part of the fabric with the five-end satin tends to be squeezed, thus
enhancing the domed effect. Consequently, the height difference between the
lower and higher planes forms a dome. These patches were then arranged across the
width of the fabric in different formations to even out the warp tension. The ideal
situation is to supply warp ends from a creel, in which case the tension for these
ends is controlled individually.
The patchy design method has been moderately successful in forming the desired
dome shapes in fabrics. This method is a quick, easy, and economical way to
produce fabrics that require relatively small domed effects. However, it appears
that for fabrics requiring larger domed effects, the patchy design method is
difficult because it depends only on the combination of weaves. To create
fabrics with more obvious domed sffects, we have developed an add – on device
to the loom, which alters the take – up rate across the width of the fabric.
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Text 4
Camera – Based Measurement of Textile Card Web Density
Abstract
This research is part of a large project supported by the National Textile Center,
which aims to significantly shorten the current process sequence of short-staple
yarn manufacturing by spinning yarn directly from sections of a carded web. This
new process will require better monitoring and control of the linear density of a
section of card web. The control will come after the carding process by adjusting
the width of each strip automatically in order to compensate for changing web
areal density. Making small changes to these widths requires detailed information
on cross-machine areal density. Previous technologies employing sets of
photodiodes and LEDS do not have sufficient resolution for this. Work at North
Carolina State has concentrated on measuring fiber loading on various card
cylinders and modeling card transients, but has not measured the actual web
density output from the machine.
The purpose of the work presented here is to develop a high-resolution
measurement system of actual web density and not a study of the carding process
itself. Current short-staple yarn processes require only that the overall card web
density be consistent. Cross-machine web density variation is not particularly
important. In nonwoven processes, multiple card webs are layered to average out
the variation in an individual web. In this new process, however, the web is
divided into multiple strips that will be spun directly into yarn without the benefit
of the averaging common to former processes. Thus, monitoring of web density in
both the machine and cross-machine directions is important in forming a yarn with
acceptable variation.
An inexpensive, reliable method of measuring carded web density is critically
needed to monitor and control this new process. Typical technologies that might
be used to measure density are beta gauge, gamma gauge, laser scanning,
ultrasound, infrared absorption, etc. Most of these require significant web density
in order to absorb enough radiation to work properly. The card web has a very low
density (about 13 g/m ) that provides very little absorption. In the absence of an
inexpensive method for measuring card webs, the research discussed in this paper
focuses on determining whether a digital image processing system can be used to
measure card web density.
If the web strip linear density is to be known with sufficient accuracy to be
within 1 or 2%, the cross-machine areal density must be known to that resolution
or better. If a 2-inch web strip is used, the resolution should be 50 to 100
divisions per inch. Line-scan cameras are available with thousands of pixels to
cover the 40-inch width of a typical card web, which is more than adequate for our
purposes. Vision systems are becoming simple and relatively inexpensive, and
38
therefore we chose this technology to measure carded web density. Of course, we
had to determine the correlation between light reflected from the web and actual
weight.
A vision system would be placed at the output of the carding machine, with the
web held "flat" and illuminated by a line of light. A line-scan camera focused on
the web would then produce an image. We conducted a study to determine the
relationship between web density and the light reflected from the web to the
camera. The output (pixel values) from the video image is correlated with the
weight, determined gravimetrically, for a given fiber web section.
Text 5
Tapestry
What is Tapestry?
Tapestry weaving uses a simple plain weave structure to create decorative wall
or floor textiles.
A tapestry artist uses designs ranging from life like figures to abstract forms.
Tapestry is
sometimes referred to as picture weaving. Tapestries can be made in sizes
ranging from huge wall murals to small intricately woven pieces used for clothing
decoration.
Technique of Tapestry Tapestry can be woven on many different styles and
sizes of looms. The weaver can work on the front or the back of the cloth. The weft
threads are carried through the warp by the weaver's hand. Many different weft
yarns can be used in one row of weaving. This is known as the discontinuous weft
technique and gives tapestry weaving its unique picture like quality.
Tapestry Cartoon The tapestry cartoon is a drawing of the design to be woven
in a tapestry.
The cartoon can be in outline form or a detailed painted picture. The cartoon is
usually attached to the back of the weaving. The weavers follow the shape and
colour pattern of the cartoon as they weave the cloth.
Greek and Roman Tapestries
Although no tapestries remain from Greek and Roman times, evidence of their
existence is found in works of art and literature from this period. Tapestries from
this era are believed to be large and used for wall decoration.
Egyptian Tapestries
The earliest surviving examples of Egyptian tapestry are found in King's
Thutmose and Tutankhamen tumb - dated 1400BC.
39
Coptic Tapestries
The Copts were Christian descendants of the ancient Egyptians. Coptic tapestries
are believed to date from the 4th century AD. The weavers of Coptic tapestries
introduced the technique of allowing the weft to follow a curved line. This was a
unique development in adapting weaving technique to emphasise the design of the
tapestry.
Oriental Tapestries
In China silk tapestries called k'o-ssu have been woven for thousands of years.
Sometime during the late 15th to the early 16th century tapestry techniques were
brought from China to Japan.
Fingernail Tapestry
In Kyoto textile artists weave a type of tapestry called tsuzure nishike or
fingernail tapestry. The
weavers work the silk threads with tiny groves carved in their fingernails.
French Gobelins Tapestry
In the 17th century a group of Flemish weavers purchased buildings from the
Gobelins family. From the 1660's to present day, the Gobelins name has been
associated with tapestry weaving. Structured as a traditional guild workshop,
students have been apprenticing with tapestry masters for hundreds of years.
Despite its difficult history, The Gobelins Workshop has produced many
exquisite works of tapestry art.
Text 6
BTSR's New Hi – Tech Factory
From its founding in the single room of a high rise apartment block in the 1970s
where the originators developed relatively simple stop motions for sock machines,
BTSR has grown into a leading exponent of sophisticated yarn control systems for
applications across the whole textile industry spectrum. Their products now
control yarns from 8 denier Lycia to the robust yarns used in the manufacture of
carpets and tyre cord.
The new manufacturing unit of 6,000 square metres houses a state-of-the-art
development division, administration and accounting units, alongside the new high
technology manufacturing centre where the latest in automated printed circuit
production and automatic component assembly is applied.
40
This not only gives high and sophisticated production of the latest yarn control
systems but also ensures accurate repeatability coupled with positive reliability in a
particularly demanding market.
The new unit is located in a parkland setting which mirrors the emphasis the
management places on the environment. The philosophy is: "if you expect the best
from your employees in terms of productivity, ingenuity and originality, the least
you should provide is the best base and conditions. Only then can you expect to
give a high technology market such as this the developments required and to keep
the company as a market leader in its field".
BTSR's product range is based on the well-tried "Smart System of Yarn
Control". This is made up of a family of sophisticated "self-learning systems"
which can be tabulated as follows:
Smart 64-H: the original system for small diameter hosiery machines with a
repeatable cycle of operation. The unit controls the yarn feed and repeatability of
yarn changes throughout the cycle of the sock or stocking by stopping the machine
if it detects a yarn break or the yarn running out of its pre-set sequence.
Smart 200-K: this system is similar to the Smart 64-H but is aimed at the nonrepeatable sequence large diameter knitting machines with a high number of yarns
being controlled by the single information processor.
Smart 200-TW: a system similar to the 200-K but enabling the yarns to be
controlled for breakage or absent yarns during its running cycle with particular
adaptation to multiple end yarn winding, beaming and warping machines.
Smart 200-T: this system is specifically designed for winding or twisting
machines. Where a multiplicity of yarns is being wound or twisted together it will
detect if a yarn is broken or not running.
Smart 200-KB: this system is designed to stop motion if the yarn breaks on a
winding machine but also as a quality control scanner by controlling the density of
yarn being wound and the acceptance or rejection on the number of preprogrammed imperfections or slubs allowed per pre-determined unit length of yarn
under surveillance.
Smart 200-TT: this system is designed to control twisted yarns by counting the
twists per unit length. It works as a sophisticated quality control method combined
with an effective machine stop motion.
Smart 200-TS: this is designed to control the tension of the yarn on a machine
and checks the spirality of the yarn between the acceptance limits programmed into
the central unit. It controls the yarn tension and, when used on a spinning or
covering machine, acts as a stop motion if any of the component yarns are missing.
AST: a yarn compensator for use on a hosiery machine. It is designed to cushion
the shock loading from the cone of yarn under adjustable limits. If the tension is too
great, it stops the machine before creating a press off and allows the operator to
correct the fault without causing a faulty article.
41
TSD: this is a high precision "Tension Sensor Device" which controls and
displays the exact tension of the yarn. It can be pre-set to control the tension under
all operating conditions regardless of machine speed or yarn package variation. Its
increase in quality control and saving of yarn makes it ideal for use in applications
incorporating elastane yarns.
Text 7
Shawl Weaving in Paisley
Paisley is world famous for the teardrop or pinecone pattern which appears on
many items of clothing. "Paisley Pattern" is in fact a misnomer. The teardrop shape
can be traced back some 2000 years. Known in Britain as Celtic art, it died out in
Europe during the Roman period, but continued to flourish in India. In Kashmir, it
was used on shawls. Brought back here by members of the East India Company, the
shawls became very fashionable, but they were prohibitively expensive.
They were therefore imitated by British textile designers, who sold them at a
tenth of the price. Soon, they were all the rage. In Paisley, weavers were swamped
with orders.
In 1766, as Enid Gauldie points out in her booklet "Spinning and Weaving",
published by National Museums of Scotland, there were 1767 handloom weavers in
the town. After the introduction of shawl manufacture in 1803 the number grew to
7000.
From then until about 1870, when the fashion passed and ladies' tailored coats
and jackets replaced shawl wearing, Paisley weavers were occupied with the
making of shawls in silk gauze, muslin and fine wool of very striking colour and
pattern.
Paisley had already, in the 18th century, established a reputation for silk
weaving. In 1781, out of 6800 handlooms in the whole district, 2000 were weaving
linen and 4800 silk. The Paisley weavers had the skill to take advantage of the very
demanding new fashion when it came and they were already equipped with looms
suited to the needs of the industry.
The fashion in the early 1800s, we are told at the Paisley Museum, was for the
straight, narrow Empire line for which the flowing lines of the shawl proved the
perfect accessory. A lady at that time would be described as being "well draped"
rather than "well dressed". The shawls were about 8 feet by 4 feet, and were worn
in many artistic ways - draped loosely behind the back, trailed along the ground,
carried in the hand, or hanging over the arm.
In the 1820s the fashion changed - and with it, the shawl, which became rather
than rectangular. It kept its place as an essential part of the elegant lady's wardrobe.
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Another change in the 1840s brought the wide crinoline skirts into vogue, and
again the shawl changed its shape. It returned to the rectangle, but now on a much
larger scale. It was difficult to make coats to fit over the crinolines, and so these
large rectangular shawls became the everyday outdoor wear of the fashionable
woman until the early 1860s
It was fashion, however, which eventually proved to be the shawl's downfall.
The year 1870 marked the final change from the crinoline. The bustle-clad lady
could not hide her decorative rear view under an all-enveloping shawl!
The weavers of Paisley were said to be the most intelligent, the most widely read
and the most radical of all Scottish workers. Their wages in the late 18th and early
19th centuries were high enough to allow them some spare time for pastimes such
as gardening. It may be no accident that most of their patterns were based on
stylised flower designs. One pattern often seen has a border of formally styled
carnations or pinks, because the Paisley weavers shared a particular hobby of
growing competition pinks.
From about 1810 to 1850, the change from hand loom weaving in the home to
power loom weaving in factories was gradual but progressive. This was
accompanied by a reduction in weavers' earnings of up to 70%.
In 1812, a handloom weaver could expect to earn in the region of T3 a week, but
by 1825 this had been eroded to 52.5p, to creep up to a maximum of 90p by 1840.
Working conditions were harsh. In 1820, from April to September, weavers in
Paisley worked from six in the morning until ten or eleven at night (depending on
the availability of daylight) and also on Saturday mornings - a total of 86 to 90
hours a week.
Text 8
Organisation and labour
Although on a weaving shed fitted with automatic looms much skilled labour is
necessary, a number of the tasks in weaving require little training or skill. Experience
with automatic looms has proved that it is economical to relieve the skilled weaver
of such ancillary duties as the carrying of weft, re-filling of the weft batteries, the
removal of cloth and the cleaning and oiling of the looms.
The weaver, left free to concentrate upon the performance of skilled work and
general supervision of the looms, can then attend an increased number, and it should
be the aim of the management to allow the weaver to attend the maximum number
consistent with the class of work.
For this purpose it is desirable to make tests in order to find the number of
loom stoppages per hour, the cause of the stoppages, and the time spent by the
weaver in attending to these.
43
From the data thus obtained the management can estimate what will be a suitable
number of looms per weaver. In so doing, it has been found desirable to allow about
10 minutes per hour of weaver's time for general supervision and to base the
estimate upon the assumption that the weaver will only be employed for
approximately 40 minutes per hour. In practice, with single-shuttle looms of narrow
width weaving cotton fabrics, the number of looms per weaver maybe from 20 to 40,
or even higher, according to the class of work, while 12 to 24 looms per weaver are
customary with four-colour box looms.
The amount of ancillary labour for weft-carrying and re-filling batteries depends
upon the class of work, but may be readily assessed by noting the time taken for a
weft bobbin to weave off and that required to re-fill the battery. One battery filler
„can usually attend about fifty bobbin-changing looms, but with shuttle changers,
on account of the smaller capacity of the batteries and the time spent in placing
cops in the shuttles, the number being usually much lower, viz, about twenty.
Looms should be cleaned and oiled before a new warp is placed in position, and
at other times this work must be carried out systematically. It should be the rule that
working parts are to be oiled stricktly in accordance with their requirements, some daily,
others at weekly or other pre-determined intervals. A definite schedule of cleaning and
oiling has to be adhered to.
Text 9
Weaving in Colonial America
Weaving was not allowed by the British in Colonial America. Colonists were
supposed to send unfinished goods like cotton and flax to Britain and buy finished
cloth back from England.
Nonetheless, many people wove cloth in Colonial America.
In Colonial times the colonists mostly used cotton and flax for weaving because
the English would not send them sheep or wool. They could get one cotton crop
each fall. Flax was harvested in the summer.
In preparing wool for weaving, colonists would first shear the sheep with spring
back clippers. This was done while keeping the sheep's feet from touching anything
so it would not try to break free. They would try to cut the wool off the sheep in one
big chunk because that way they would get long fibers. Sheep-shearing was done in
the spring so that the fleece would regrow in time for the winter.
After shearing, wool would be washed in hot water to get out the dirt and grease
(lanolin), then carded, at which point it would be ready for spinning into yarn.
Washing the wool was a delicate procedure, because they didn't want to agitate the
fibres too much in the process, and end up with felt. If the wool was clean enough
44
(little to no vegetable matter), they could wait until after it is spun to clean out the
lanolin, at which point it is easier to clean because it is yarn.
A card is a set of two brushes rubbed against each other with the fibre in the
middle. The process of carding lines up all the fibres in the same direction, making
the wool or cotton ready for spinning.
Cotton was harvested from little stalks. The cotton boll is white, roughly
spherical and fluffy. Its seeds had to be removed before carding, a difficult and
time-consuming process. (Later, a "cotton gin" was invented which took a lot of the
work out of seed removal.) After carding it would be ready for spinning.
Linen is made from flax fibre. To prepare flax for weaving, the stalks would be
broken with beaten with a tool that looks like a paper cutter but instead of having a
big knife it has a blunt arm, then a scutching tool (a blunt wooden knife) is used to
scrape away pieces of the stalk, and then the fibre is pulled through a heckling comb
to get it ready for spinning. A heckling comb is like a brush with metal bristles that
you pull flax stalks through.
After they spun the yarn, it would be dyed with berries, bark, flowers, herbs or
weeds, often gathered by children.
With the yarn made, they would prepare the loom. The strings on a loom run in
two directions. The yarn that is attached to the loom is called the warp, and the
woof or weft is woven through it. The woof is wrapped around the shuttle, and
woven alternately over and under the warp strings.
A plain weave was what most people liked in Colonial times. Almost everything
was plain
woven then. Sometimes designs were woven into the fabric but mostly designs
were added after weaving. The colonists would usually add designs by using either
wood block prints or embroidering.
Text 10
Jacquard weaving
Makes possible in almost any loom the raising of each warp thread
independently of the others. This brings much greater versatility to the weaving
process, and offers the highest level of warp yarn control. This mechanism is
probably one of the most important weaving inventions as jacquard shedding made
possible the automatic production of unlimited varieties of pattern weaving.
The process and the necessary loom attachment are named after their inventor,
Joseph Marie Jacquard (1752 - 1834). He recognized that although weaving was
intricate, it was repetitive, and saw that a mechanism could be developed for the
production of sophisticated patterns just as it had been done for the production of
simple patterns.
45
Originally the jacquard machines were mechanical, and the fabric design was
punched in pattern cards which were joined together to form a continuous chain.
The jacquards often were small and only independently controlled a relatively few
warp ends. This required a number of repeats across the loom width. Larger
capacity machines, or the use of multiple machines, allowed greater control, with
fewer repeats, and hence larger designs to be woven across the loom width.
A factory must choose looms and shedding mechanisms to suit its commercial
requirements. As a rule the more warp control required the greater the expense. So
it would not be economical to purchase jacquard machines if one could make do
with a dobby mechanism. As well as the capital expense, the jacquard machines are
also more costly to maintain, as they are complex and require higher skilled
personnel; also an expensive design system will be required to prepare the designs
for the loom, and possibly also a card-cutting machine. Weaving will be more
costly as jacquard mechanisms are more liable to produce faults than dobby or cam
shedding. The looms will not run as fast, and down time will increase as it takes
time to change the continuous chain of cards when a design changes. Therefore
with mechanical jacquards it is best to weave larger batch sizes.
Bonas Machine Company Ltd. launched the first electronic jacquard at ITMA,
Milan in 1983. Although the machines were initially small, modern technology has
allowed jacquard machine capacity to increase significantly, and single end warp
control can extend to more than 10,000 warp ends. This avoids the need for repeats
and symmetrical designs and allows almost infinite versatility. The computercontrolled machines significantly reduce the down time associated with changing
punched paper designs, thus allowing smaller batch sizes. However, electronic
jacquards are costly and may not be required in a factory weaving large batch
sizes, and smaller designs. The larger machines allowing single end warp control
are very expensive, and can only be justified where great versatility is required, or
very specialized design requirements need to be met. They are an ideal tool to
increase the ability and stretch the versatility of the niche linen jacquard weavers
who remain in Europe and the West, while most of the large batch commodity
weaving has moved to low cost areas.
Linen products associated with jacquard weaving are linen damask napery,
jacquard apparel fabrics and damask bed linen.
Text 11
Spinning jenny
The spinning jenny is a multi-spool spinning wheel. It was invented circa 1764
by James Hargreaves in Stan.hi.ll, near Blackburn, Lancashire in the north west of
England (although Thomas Highs is another candidate identified as the inventor).
46
The device dramatically reduced the amount of work needed to produce yarn, with
a single worker able to work eight or more spools at once.
James Hargreaves was born in Oswaldtwistle, near Blackburn, in 1720. He
received no formal education and was never taught how to read or write. He moved
to Stanhill looking for work and raised a family there, working as a spinner and
carpenter.
Blackburn was known for the production of Blackburn greys, a type of fabric
that combined linen warp and cotton weft. At the time cotton production could not
keep up with demand, and Hargreaves spent some time considering how to improve
the process. The most common story told about the invention of the device is that
his daughter, Jenny, knocked over one of their own spinning wheels. The device
kept working as normal, with the spindle now pointed upright. Hargreaves realized
there was no particular reason the spindles had to be horizontal, as they always had
been, and he could place them vertically in a row.
The name is variously said to derive from the tale above (although Hargreaves
did not have a daughter called Jenny); from the daughter of Thomas Highs (another
craftsman, who is the possible true inventor of the spinning jenny); or from a
corruption of engine (see also cotton gin).
Whatever the inspiration, the basic idea was developed as a machine with eight
spindles at one end, spun from a larger than normal wheel at the other. A set of eight
rovings were attached to a beam that could roll from the spindle end to the wheel
end on a horizontal frame, and the operator could roll it back and forth over the
yarn to draw it out to the proper thickness. A clamp-like device in the roving beam
allowed the operator to then release all the threads at once, to be collected on spools.
The flying shuttle had increased yarn demand by the weavers by doubling their
productivity, and now the spinning jenny could supply that demand by increasing
the spinners' productivity even more. The machines were often operated by
children, who could more easily move about them.
The machine produced coarse yarn that lacked strength, but it was still suitable
for filling out the weft of fabric, using stronger yarn for the warp. Later
developments improved the quality of the yarn, and increased the number of
spindles to eighty or more.
Hargreaves kept the machine secret for some time, but produced a number for his
own growing industry. The price of yarn fell, angering the large spinning
community in Blackburn. Eventually they broke into his house and smashed his
machines, forcing him to flee to Nottingham in 1767. There he set up shop
producing jennies in secret for one Mr. Shipley, with the assistance of a joiner
named James.
Eventually Hargreaves applied for a patent on the jenny in July 1770. By this
time a number of spinners in Lancashire were already using copies of the machine,
and Hargreaves sent notice that he was taking legal action against them. The
manufacturers met, and offered Hargreaves £3000. He at first demanded £7000,
47
and at last stood out for £4000, but the case eventually fell apart when it was
learned he had already sold several in the past.
The partnership with Shipley carried on "with moderate success" until
Hargreaves' death on 22 April 1778. That year Samuel Crompton invented the
spinning mule, combining the spinning jenny with Richard Arkwright's spinning
frame and again dramatically increasing yarn production.
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