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Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации
ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ БЮДЖЕТНОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ
ВЫСШЕГО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ
«САНКТ-ПЕТЕРБУРГСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ
УНИВЕРСИТЕТ ТЕХНОЛОГИИ И ДИЗАЙНА»
Кафедра педагогики и психологии профессионального образования
Английский язык
методические указания
к выполнению заданий
для студентов по направлению подготовки
051000.62 – Профессиональное обучение (по отраслям)
профиль – Экономика и управление
заочной формы обучения
Составитель
О. С. Бинецкая
Санкт-Петербург
2014
Рекомендовано
на заседании кафедры
педагогики и психологии
профессионального
образования
28.01.2014 г.,
протокол № 5
Рецензент
канд. пед. наук А. А. Лагутина
Методические указания знакомит с современным английским письменным этикетом. Студент найдёт в нём исчерпывающую информацию о правилах
оформления писем, конвертов, телеграмм, телефаксов, что не затруднит студента составить свои неофициальные и деловые письма.
Методические указания предназначены для студентов, владеющих основами английского языка.
Оригинал подготовлен составителем
и издан в авторской редакции
Подписано в печать 11.02.14. Формат 60х84 1/16. Печать трафаретная.
Усл. печ. л. 1,2. Тираж 100 экз. Заказ 63/14.
http://www.publish.sutd.ru
Отпечатано в типографии ФГБОУ ВПО «СПГУТД»
191028, Санкт-Петербург, ул. Моховая, 26
ВВЕДЕНИЕ
Изучение иностранных языков в университете является важнейшим
компонентом подготовки специалиста и имеет особое значение в условиях
открывшихся широких международных связей. Владение иностранным языком позволяет студенту своевременно знакомиться с обширнейшей мировой
литературой по специальности, с новыми технологиями и тенденциями в науке. Специалист, владеющий иностранным языком, может устанавливать контакты с зарубежными коллегами, участвовать в конференциях, используя и
расширяя знания, полученные в вузе. Изучение иностранных языков служит
целям гуманитаризации образования технических специалистов, расширяя их
эрудицию в области мировой литературы, искусства, истории. Иностранный
язык помогает студентам понять традиции и образ жизни народов мира.
Цель преподаваемой дисциплины сформировать коммуникативные
компетенции обучающегося, необходимые для решения социальнокоммуникативных задач в различных областях бытовой, культурной, профессиональной и научной деятельности при общении с зарубежными партнерами, а также для дальнейшего самообразования, развития когнитивных и исследовательских умений, повышения общей культуры и воспитания толерантности и уважения к духовным ценностям разных стран и народов.
Задачи дисциплины
 в области аудирования: воспринимать на слух и понимать основное
содержание несложных аутентичных публицистических (медийных) и прагматических текстов, относящихся к различным типам речи;
 в области чтения: понимать основное содержание несложных аутентичных публицистических и прагматических текстов, детально понимать
медийные тексты и письма личного характера, а также выделять значимую
информацию из прагматических текстов;
 в области говорения: вести диалог, соблюдая нормы речевого этикета, и грамматически правильно выстраивать монолог-описание и монолограссуждение;
 в области письма: заполнять бланки. Тезисно конспектировать тексты для чтения, поддерживать контакты при помощи электронной почты,
оформлять СV.
Компетенции, формируемые у обучающегося в процессе освоения
дисциплины
 Основные компетенции:
 Общекультурные компетенции:
 ОК-15 – быть способным использовать на практике методы гуманитарных наук в разных видах профессиональной деятельности;
 ОК-20 – осознавать необходимость знания второго языка;
3
 ОК-21 – владеть навыками публичной речи, аргументации, ведения
дискуссии, полемики;
 ОК-22 – быть способным осуществлять подготовку и редактирование текстов, отражающих вопросы педагогической деятельности;
 Профессиональные компетенции:
 ПК-34 – готовность к формированию профессиональной компетентности специалиста соответствующего квалификационного уровня.
 Дополнительные компетенции:
Не предусмотрены.
РЕЗУЛЬТАТЫ ОБЯЗАТЕЛЬНОГО (ПОРОГОВОГО) УРОВНЯ
ОСВОЕНИЯ ДИСЦИПЛИНЫ
В результате освоения дисциплины у обучающегося должны быть
сформированы
знания:
1) иностранного языка в объеме, необходимом для возможности получения информации профессионального содержания из зарубежных источников (ОК- 15, ОК-20, ОК-22, ПК-34);
2) лексики и грамматики для правильного построения высказываний в
устной и письменной речи (ОК-20, ОК-21, ПК-34);
умения:
1) правильно и аргументировано сформулировать свою мысль в устной
и письменной формах (ОК-20, ОК-21, ПК-34);
2) читать специальную литературу на иностранном языке; переводить
научно-техническую литературу и документацию по вопросам, связанным с
профессиональной деятельностью (ОК-15, ОК-20, ОК-22);
3) осуществлять коммуникацию с зарубежными партнерами (ОК-20,
ОК-21, ПК- 34).
владение:
1) навыками разговорной речи и аудирования на иностранном языке
(ОК-15,ОК-21. ПК-34);
2) навыками извлечения профессиональной информации из иностранной литературы по специальности (ОК-20, ОК-22, ПК-34)..
3) навыками письменной речи на иностранном языке с целью поддержания контактов в социальной сфере (ОК-15, ПК-34).
ТРЕБОВАНИЯ К ВЫПОЛНЕНИЮ ЗАДАНИЙ
Студенту необходимо выполнить самостоятельно блок упражнений под
названием «Writing Files». Данный блок состоит из четырёх упражнений, которые посвящены правильному написанию частного и делового писем. Также
4
в этом блоке рассматриваются примеры правильного оформления написания
факсов, повестки дня, докладной записки, памятной записки.
Студенту необходимо изучить приведенные примеры и написать собственный предложенный вариант.
Таким образом, в тетради должны быть выполнены 4 упражнения (private letter, business letter, fax, memo, agenda). (Упражнение 1 содержит частное
и деловое письма). Работы должны быть сданы за неделю до начала учебной
сессии.
Блок упражнений «Business English» состоит из восьми упражнений.
Данные упражнения посвящены специализированному лексическому материалу, охватывают ряд грамматических тем. Данный блок рассматривается
совместно с преподавателем.
В ряде случаев для точной передачи содержания может потребоваться
специализированный словарь.
BUSINESS ENGLISH
Exercise 1. Match the words below with their definitions.
1. interview
2. advertisement
3. experience
4. appointment
5. qualification
6. application
a. a public notice, usually printed in a newspaper, of goods for sale or services offered; or of goods or services wanted.
b. a letter of an employer asking for employment.
c. an office for which a person has been chosen.
d. something such as a degree or a diploma that you get when you successfully finish a course of study,
e. a formal meeting in which someone asks you questions to find out if you
are suitable for a job, course of study, etc.
f. knowledge and skill gained through timespent doing a job or activity.
Exercise 2. Answer the questions below.
1. How do most companies recruit new staff?
2. What kind of information is usually given in job advertisements?
3. Do the employers try to attract as many people as possible by job advertisements?
5
Exercise 3. Complete the dialogue using the words from the box. There are two
words which you don't need to use.
experience, advertisement, interview, appointment, qualifications, applicant, specification
JAMES: Hello, James Brown speaking.
BRIAN: Good morning. My name is Brian Carpenter. I've just seen an _____(1)_____
in the 'International Herald Tribune'. It said you were looking for a Sales
Manager. I'm very interested in this ___ (2) ______ .
JAMES: Well, would you please give me some details about yourself. What did you
say your name was?
BRIAN: Brian Carpenter.
JAMES: Fine. And what about your ____ (3) ____, Mr. Carpenter?
BRIAN: I got my BSc in Management. I went to Columbia University.
JAMES: OK. Then tell me please about your work ____ (4) ____ .
BRIAN: My last position was a Sales Manager for Brown & Brown. Before that I
worked for Cornway Motors for 8 years.
JAMES: Good. I think, we can invite you for an ____ (5) _____ on Tuesday morning,
10 a.m.
BRIAN: Thank you. Good-bye. JAMES: Good-bye. Thank you for calling.
Exercise 4. Match the expressions in the left column with their translation in the
right one.
1. job opportunities
2. job interview
3. to offer someone a job
4. to take a job
5. to leave a job
6. job satisfaction
7. to apply for a job
8. to do a job
9. to lose a job
10. CV (curriculum vitae)
a. терять работу
b. предлагать кому-либо работу
c. выполнять работу
d. подавать заявление о приеме на работу
e. поступать на работу
f. собеседование при приеме на работу
g. увольняться с работы
h. вакансия
i. резюме
j. удовлетворение от работы
Exercise 5. Complete the sentences using the expressions from the previous task.
1. I've _____ for several jobs without success.
2. My son has been _____ a job in Tokyo.
3. I've ____ a job at a hotel in the city centre.
4. ______ is a document giving details of your qualifications and the jobs you
have had in the past.
5. I've ____ in this job for five years now.
6. Dan _____ his job after an argument with his boss.
7. Many steelworkers are worried that they'll ________ their jobs.
8. He's attending a job _____ this morning.
9. There are not many job _________ in this part of the country.
10. Workers questioned rated job ______ as more important than high salary.
6
Exercise 6. Read and translate ‘ How to Write a Statement of Purpose’. Write
your own one.
[taken from Now to Write a Winning Personal Statement for Graduate and
Professional School. Stelzer, Richard J. 1993, 2nd ed. Peterson's Guides: Princeton,
NJ and How to Apply to American Colleges and Universities. Brennan, Moya and
Sarah Briggs. 1992. VGM Career Horizons; Lincolnwood, Illinois.]
You can control the impression you give in your personal statement by:
1. being yourself
2. being honest
3. being clear
4. doing your best
5. not being modest
6. expressing all of the above in a neat, well-organized, interesting essay.
Before you start, think about the following questions:
1. What is most important for the admissions committee to know about you?
2. What is most unusual, distinctive, unique, and/or impressive about you?
3. What events or experiences in your background might be of particular interest to those considering your application?
4. Are there any special skills or qualities that you possess that make you
think you would be successful in graduate school and/or in the program for which
you are applying?
Gradaute Students:
Questions to ask yourself:
1. What's special, unique, distinctive, or impressive about you? What details
of your life would help a committee better understand you?
2. When did you originally become interested in the field? What have you
learned about it since then?
3. How have you learned about this field? (classes, readings, work, conversations)
4. If you've worked, how has it contributed to your personal growth and what
have you learned?
5. What are your career goals?
6. Are there gaps or discrepancies in your academic record that you should
explain?
7. Have you had to overcome any unusual obstacles or hardships in your life
(economic, family, physical)?
8. What personl characteristics do you have that would enhance your prospects for success in the field (integrity, compassion, persistence)?
9. What skills do you possess (leadership, communicative, analytical)?
10. Why might you be a stronger candidate than other applicants?
11. What are the most compelling reasons you can give for the admissions
committee to be interested in you?
7
After you finish, ask yourself and/or someone else the following questions
about your essay:
1. Did the opening paragraph capture your attention?
2. Was the statement as a whole interesting?
3. Was it well written?
4. Did it seem positive, upbeat?
5. Did it sound like you?
6. Is it an honest and forthright presentation of who you are?
7. Did it seem to answer the question(s)?
8. Is there material in the statement that seems inappropriate?
9. Were there any typos or other errors?
10. Do you think the statement distinguished you from other applicants?
Ivy College
Department of Business
West Lafayette, IN 47906
January 14.01.14
Mr. Phillip Lester
Personnel Director
Thompson Enterprises
201 State Street
Springfield, IL 62705
Dear Mr. Lester,
As her employer and her former professor, I am happy to have the opportunity to recommend
Kerry Hawking. I've known Kerry for the last four years, first as a student in my class and for the
last year as a research assistant.
How long writer has known applicant and the circumstances
Kerry is an excellent student, with above average grades in our program. On the basis of a CPA
of 5.6 (A=6), Kerry was offered a research assistantship to work on a grant under my supervision. In every instance, Kerry completed her library search assignment within the time agreed
upon. The material provided in the reports Kerry submitted met the requirements for my work
and more These reports were always well written. While working 15 hours a week on this project, Kerry has maintained a class load of 12 hours per semester.
Outstanding characteristics of applicant
I strongly recommend Kerry for her ability to work independently, to organize her time efficiently, and for her ability to write clearly and articulately. Please let me know if I can be of further
service.
Recommendation and summary of qualifications
Sincerely yours,
Signature
Michael Paul
Professor of Business
8
Exercise 7. Study the phrases in the Useful language box. Add one expression
under each heading.
Useful language.
Expressing your feelings
My main concern is...
Showing sympathy
I know how you feel
Making suggestions
One thing you could do is...
Stating common goals
We've all got the same objective.
Expressing satisfaction
Yes, that would be very helpful...
Identifying the real problem
What's really bothering you?
Expressing dissatisfaction
I don't think that would do much
Resolving the conflict
How do you think we should deal with this?
Agreeing action
OK, this is what we'll do
Reviewing the situation
Let's meet next week and see how things are going
Exercise 8. Team building, skills.
Team member
You meet your team leader to discuss your performance at work. You are
unhappy for the following reasons:
• You feel you are working harder than everyone else. You are always the
last to leave work.
• Your hard work is not recognised and appreciated by the team.
• You recently married and are missing your partner and young child.
• You do most of the boring paperwork for letting the apartments while your
colleagues are given more face-to-face contact with clients. You are not happy with
how the workload is being distributed.
• You think the team leader is too young and inexperienced, and is not managing the team well. This is the main reason why you are unhappy.
9
WRITING FILES
Exercise 1. Read, translate, choose 2 different forms of letters and write your
own ones.
Private letters
-Invitation
-Refuse from invitation
-Acceptance of invitation
-Congratulations (anniversary,
edition of a new book)
-Request
-Apologizing
-Condolence
- Disagreement
- Declaration of love
10
Business letter
-Request of information
-Request of applying for job
-Conference invitation
-Complaint of quality
-Acknowledgement of the receipt
-Offering of (goods, service)
-Invitation for a job
-Delivering changing date
-Complaint of delay answer
-Refusal
30 Empire Drive
Manchester M6 2PQ
Mr Graham Davis
Assistant Manager
Transworld Freight pic
74 Dockside
Manchester M15 7BJ 8 March 1983
Dear Mr. Davis
I saw your advertisement for an Export Manager in the Daily Herald of 7 March
and I would like to apply for the position.
I would be grateful if you could send me an application form and further information, about the salary and working conditions.
I look forward to hearing from you in the near future.
Yours sincerely
Geoffrey Andrews
11
Exercise 2. Faxes. Read and translate. Write your own one.
Exercise 3. Memos. Read and translate. Write your own one.
12
Exercise 4. Agenda. Read and translate. Write your own one.
13
УЧЕБНО-МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ МАТЕРИАЛЫ ПО ДИСЦИПЛИНЕ
а) Основная литература
1. К.Н. Качалова, Е.Е. Израилевич. Практическая грамматика английского языка. – М., 2012.
2. В.А. Балабанова, Н.А. Добрынина. Дизайн рекламы. - СПб.:
СПГУТД, 2003.
3. В.К. Мюллер В.К. Англо-русский словарь. – М., 2012 и последующие
годы.
4. Ж.Г. Аванесян. Английский язык для экономистов: учеб. пособие. –
М.: Омега-Л, 2010.
5. Е. А. Корнева. Грамматика английского глагола в теории и практике.
СПб.: Союз, 2005.
6. M. McCarthy. English Idioms in Use. Cambridge University Press, 2008.
7. D.Cotton, D. Falvey, S. Kent. Market Leader. Business English. Pearson
Education Limited, 2001.
б) Дополнительная литература
1. Вербин А.А. Английский язык. Методические указания и контрольные задания для студентов-заочников. - СПб.: СПГУТД, 2005.
2. Вербин А.А. Роботы. Методические указания по английскому языку.
- СПб.: СПГУТД, 2007.
3. Комиссаров В.Н. Практикум по переводу с английского языка на русский. - М.: ВШ, 1998.
4. В.В. Бутник, сост. Современный англо-русский политехнический
словарь. - М.: ВЕЧЕ, 2005.
5. Donovan, P. Basic English for Science. Oxford University Press, 2000.
14
ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ А
TENSE
Present Indefinite (настоящее неопределённое)
Указатели времени
Every day (month, week, year, century, evening, morning), sometimes, usually, as a rule, as usual.
Образование
I
We
You
They
He
She
It
play, write
play, write
play, write
play, write
plays, writes
plays, writes
plays, writes
don’t play, don’t write
don’t play, don’t write
don’t play, don’t write
don’t play, don’t write
doesn’t play, doesn’t write
doesn’t play, doesn’t write
doesn’t play, doesn’t write
Do I play? write?
Do we play? write?
Do you play? write?
Do you play? write?
Does he play? write?
Does she play? write?
Does it play? write?
Past Indefinite (прошедшее неопределённое)
Указатели времени
Yesterday, last week, a night ago, the day before yesterday
Образование
I
We
You
They
He
She
It
played, wrote
played, wrote
played, wrote
played, wrote
played, wrote
played, wrote
played, wrote
didn’t play, didn’t write
didn’t play, didn’t write
didn’t play, didn’t write
didn’t play, didn’t write
didn’t play, didn’t write
didn’t play, didn’t write
didn’t play, didn’t write
Did I play? write?
Did we play? write?
Did you play? write?
Did you play? write?
Did he play? write?
Did she play? write?
Did it play? write?
Future Indefinite (будущее неопределённое)
Указатели времени
Tomorrow, next year, in a year, the day after tomorrow
Образование
I
We
You
They
He
She
It
will play, write
will play, write
will play, write
will play, write
will play, write
will play, write
will play, write
won’t play, won’t write
won’t play, won’t write
won’t play, won’t write
won’t play, won’t write
won’t play, won’t write
won’t play, won’t write
won’t play, won’t write
Will I play? write?
Will we play? write?
Will you play? write?
Will you play? write?
Will he play? write?
Will she play? write?
Will it play? write?
15
Present Continious (настоящее продолженное)
Указатели времени
Now, at the moment, at 5 o’clock now, at this moment
Образование
I
We
You
They
He
She
It
am playing ing
are playing ing
are playing ing
are playing ing
is playing ing
is playing ing
is playing ing
am not playing ing
are not playing ing
are not playing ing
are not playing, ing
is not playing ing
is not playing ing
is not playing ing
Am I playing? ing?
Are we playing? ing?
Are you playing? ing?
Are they playing? ing?
Is he playing? ing?
Is she playing? ing?
Is it playing? ing
Past Continious (прошедшее продолженное)
Указатели времени
At 5 o’clock yesterday, at this time yesterday
Образование
I
We
You
They
He
She
It
was playing ing
were playing ing
were playing ing
were playing ing
was playing ing
was playing ing
was playing ing
was not playing ng
were not playing ing
were not playing ing
were not playing ing
was not playing ing
was not playing ing
was not playing ing
Was I playing? ing?
Were we playing? ing?
Were you playing? ing?
Were they playing? ing?
Was he playing? ing?
Was she playing? ing?
Was it playing? ing?
Future Continious (будущее продолженное)
Указатели времени
At 5 o’clock tomorrow, at this time tomorrow
Образование
I
We
You
They
She
He
It
will be playing ing
will be playing ing
will be playing ing
will be playing ing
will be playing ing
will be playing ing
will be playing ing
won’t be playing ing
won’t be playing ing
won’t be playing ing
won’t be playing ing
won’t be playing ing
won’t be playing ing
won’t be playing ing
Will I be playing? ing?
Will we be playing? ing?
Will you be playing? ing?
Will they be playing? ing?
Will she be playing? ing?
Will he be playing? ing?
Will it be playing? ing?
Present Perfect (настоящее совершенное)
Указатели времени
Just, already, yet, never, ever, since, for, recently, lately, so far, up to now, today, this week, or
ages
16
Образование
I
We
You
They
He
She
It
have played, 3f
have played, 3f
have played 3f
have played 3f
has played 3f
has played 3f
has played 3f
haven’t played 3f
haven’t played,3f
haven’t played 3f
haven’t played 3f
hasn’t played, 3f
hasn’t played 3f
hasn’t played 3f
Have I played? 3f
Have we played? 3f
Have you played? 3f
Have they played? 3f
Has he played? 3f
Has she played? 3f
Has it played? 3f
Past Perfect (прошедшее совершенное)
Указатели времени
By 5 o’clock yesterday, when + Past Indefinite, see Pr.Perf
Образование
I
We
You
They
He
She
It
had played 3f
had played 3f
had played 3f
had played 3f
had played 3f
had played,3f
ha played 3f
hadn’t played 3f
hadn’t played 3f
hadn’t played, 3f
hadn’t played 3f
hadn’t played 3f
hadn’t played 3f
hadn’t played,3f
Had I played? 3f
Had we played? 3f
Had you played? 3f
Had they played? 3f
Had he played? 3f
Had she played? 3f
Had it played? 3f
Future Perfect (будущее совершенное)
Указатели времени
By 5 o’clock tomorrow, when + Pr. Indefinite
Образование
I
We
You
They
He
She
It
will have played 3f
will have played 3f
will have played 3f
will have played 3f
will have played 3f
will have played 3f
will have played 3f
won’t have played 3f
won’t have played 3f
won’t have played 3f
won’t have played 3f
won’t have played 3f
won’t have played 3f
won’t have played 3f
Will I have played? 3f
Will we have played? 3f
Will you have played? 3f
Will they have played? 3f
Will he have played? 3f
Will she have played? 3f
Will it have played? 3f
Present Perfect Continuous (настоящее совершенное продолженное)
Указатели времени
For, since, for a long time
Образование
I
We
You
They
He
She
It
have been playing
have been playing
have been playing
have been playing
has been playing
has been playing
has been playing
haven’t been playing
haven’t been playing
haven’t been playing
haven’t been playing
hasn’t been playing
hasn’t been playing
hasn’t been playing
Have I been playing?
Have we been playing?
Have you been playing?
Have they been playing?
Has he been playing?
Has she been playing?
Has it been playing?
17
Past Perfect Continuous (прошлое совершенное продолженное)
Указатели времени
For, since, for a long time
Образование
I
We
You
They
He
She
It
had been playing
had been playing
had been playing
had been playing
had been playing
had been playing
had been playing
hadn’t been playing.
hadn’t been playing.
hadn’t been playing
hadn’t been playing
hadn’t been playing
hadn’t been playing
hadn’t been playing
Had I been playing?
Had we been playing?
Had you been playing?
Had they been playing?
Had he been playing?
Had she been playing?
Had it been playing?
Future Perfect Continuous (будущее совершенное продолженное)
Указатели времени
For, since, for a long time
Образование
I
We
You
They
He
She
It
18
will have been playing
will have been playing
will have been playing
will have been playing
will have been playing
will have been playing
will have been playing
won’t have been playing
won’t have been playing
won’t have been playing
won’t have been playing
won’t have been playing
won’t have been playing
won’t have been playing
Will I have been playing?
Will we have been playing?
Will you have been playing?
Will they have been playing?
Will he have been playing?
Will she have been playing?
Will it have been playing?
ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ Б
Таблица 1 - Неправильные глаголы
Неопределенная
форма
abide [a'baid]
Прошедшее время
arise [a'raiz]
awake [a'weik]
be [bi:]
bear [Ъсэ]
beat [bi:i]
become [Ьi'к m]
befall [Ьifo:1]
begin [bi'gin]
bend (bend]
beseech [bi'si:t ]
bade [beid]
bind [baind]
bite [bait]
bleed [bli:d]
blow [blou]
break [breik]
breed [bri:d]
bring [bri ]
build [bi:ld]
burn [Ьэ:n]
burst [bэ:sf]
abode [э'boud] abided
[э'baidid]
arose [a'rouz]
awoke [a'wouk]
was [woz], were [wэ:]
bore [bo:]
beat [bi:t]
became [bi'keim]
befell [bi'fel]
began [Ьi’gэn]
bent [bэnt]
besought [bi'so:t]
bid [bid] bid [bid]
bound [bаund]
bit [bit]
bled [bled]
blew[blu:]
broke [brouk]
bred [bred]
brought [bro:t]
built [bilt]
burnt [bэ:nt]
burst [bэ:st]
buy [bai]
cast [ka:st]
catch [k t ]
choose [t u::z]
cleave [kli:v)
bought [Ьo:t]
cast [ka:st]
caught [кo:t]
chose [t ouz ]
clove [klouv] cleft [kleft]
cling [klin]
come[к m]
cost [kost]
creep [kri:p]
cut [k t ]
dare [dea]
dig [dig]
do [du:]
draw [dro:]
dream [dri:m]
drink [drink]
drive [draiv]
eat [i:t]
fall (fo:l)
Причастие прошедшего
Основные значения
времени
abode [э'boud] abided
пребывать; держать
arisen [s'rizn]
awaked [s'weiki]
been [bi:n]
born [Ьo:n]
beaten ['bi:tn|
become [Ьi'к m]
befallen [bi'fblэn]
begun [bi'g n]
bent [bэnt]
besought (bi' so:t]
bidden [bid(n)]
bound [baund]
bitten (bitn)
bled [bled]
blown [bloun]
broken [broukn]
bred [bred]
brou ght (br o::t)
built [bilt]
burnt (bэ:nt)
burst (bэ;st]
bought [Ьo:t]
cast [ka:st]
caught (ko:t)
chosen [t ousn]
cloven [klouvn] cleft
[kleft]
clung [kl n]
clung [кl. n)
came [keim]
come [к m]
cost (kost)
cost [kost]
crept [krept]
crept [krept]
cut (kut)
cut [к t]
durst [dэ:st] dared [dead] dared [dead]
dug [d g]
dug [d g]
did [did]
done [d n]
drew [dru:]
drawn[dro:n]
dreamt [dremt] dreamed dreamt [dremt] dreamed
[dri:md]
[dri:md)
drank [dr nk]
drunk [dr nk]
drove [drouv]
driven [drivn]
Ate [et]
eaten [i:tn]
Fell [fel]
fallen [fo:ln]
подняться; возникнуть
будить; проснуться
быть
нести; родить
бить
стать, сделаться
случиться
начать
согнуть(ся)
умолять, упрашивать
предлагать цену
cвязать; задерживать
кусать(ся)
кровоточить
дуть
(с)ломать
выращивать
приносить
строить
жечь, гореть
разразиться; изорваться
купить
кинуть; лить (металл)
ловить, поймать
выбрать
рассечь
цепляться, льнуть
приходить
стоить
ползти
резать
cметь; осмеливаться
копать
делать
тащить; рисовать
грезить, мечтать
пить, выпивать
гнать, ехать
кушать, есть
падать
19
Неопределенная
форма
feed [fid]
feel [fi:l]
fight (fait)
find [faind]
ly [flai]
forbid [fэ'bid]
forget [fэ’get]
forgive [fэ'giv]
freeze (fri:z]
Fed [fed]
felt [felt]
fought (fo:t)
found [faund]
flew [flu:]
forbade [fэ'beid]
forgot [fэ’got]
forgave [fэ’geiv]
froze [frouz]
get [get]
give (giv)
go [gou]
grow [CJTOLI]
hang [he ]
have [h v]
hear [hieэ]
hew [hju:]
hide [haid]
hit [hit]
hold [hould]
hurt [hэ:t]
keep [ki:p]
kneel [ni:l]
knit [nit]
know [nou]
lay [lei]
lead [li;d]
lean [li:n]
got (got) ]
gave [geiv]
went [went]
grew [grin]
hung (h ) hanged [he d]
had [h d]
heard [hэ:d]
hewed [hju:d]
hid [hid]
hit (hit)
held [held]
hurt [hэ:t]
kept [kept]
knelt [nelt]
knit [nit]
knew [nju:]
laid [leid]
led [led]
leaned (li:nd)
learn [lэ:n]
leave [li:v)
lend [lend]
let [let]
lie [lai)
light (lait]
lose [lu:z]
make [meik]
mean [mi:n]
learnt (lэ:nt) learned
(lэ:nd)
left [left]
lent [lent]
let [let]
lay [lei]
lit [lit]
lost [lost]
made [meid]
meant [ment]
meet [mi:t]
mishear [mis'hia]
mislead (mis'li:d)
mistake [mis'teik]
mow [mou]
pay [pei]
put [put]
read [ri:d]
met [met]
misheard [mis'li3;d]
misled [mis'led]
mistook [mis'tu:k]
mowed [moud]
paid [peid]
put [put]
read [red]
20
Прошедшее время
Причастие прошедшего
времени
fed [fed]
felt [felt]
fought (fo:t)
found [faund]
flown [floun]
forbidden (fэ'bidn]
forgotten [fэ’gotn]
forgiven [fэ'givn]
frozen [f'rouzn]
Основные значения
кормить
чувствовать
сражаться
находить
летать
запретить
забыть
простить
замерзнуть; замораживать
got [got)
получить
given [givn]
дать
gone [gon]
идти, ходить
grown [дгопп]
расти
hung (h ) hanged [he d ] висеть; повесить
had [h d]
иметь
heard [hэ:d)
слышать
hewed
рубить, тесать
hidden [hidn]
прятать (ся)
hit [hit]
ударить; попасть
held [held]
держать
hurt [ hэ:t]
причинять боль
kept [kept]
хранить; держать
knell [nelt]
становиться на колени;
knit(ted) [nit(id)]
вязать
known [noun]
знать
Laid (leid)
класть; положить
led [led]
вести
lent [lent]
опереться, прислониться
learnt(ed) (lэ:nt) (d)
учить (что-либо)
left [left]
lent [lent]
let [let]
lain [lein] ' '
lit [lit]
lost (lost]
made [meid]
meant [ment]
met [met]
misheard [mis'hsid]
misled [mis'led]
mistaken [mis't'aikan]
mown [moun]
paid [paid]
put [put|
read [red]
оставить; покинуть
одолжить
пустить: позволять
лежать
осветить
терять
делать
подразумевать; иметь
ввиду
встретить
ослышаться
ввести и заблуждение
неправильно понимать
косить
платить
класть
читать
Неопределенная
форма
rebuild [ri'bi:ld]
ride [raid]
ring (ri ]
rise [raiz]
run [r n]
say [sei]
see [si:]
seech [si:t ]
sell [sel]
send [send]
set[set]
Sew [sou]
shake [ eik]
shave [ eiv]
Take [teik]
teach (ti:t )
tear [tiэ]
Tell [tel]
think [ I k]
throw ( rou]
understand
[.vnda'stiend]
undertake
upset [‘pset]
wake (weik)
wear [wea]
weave [wi:v]
weep [wi:p]
win [win]
wind [waind)
write [rait]
Прошедшее время
rebuilt [ri'bi:lt]
rode [roud]
rang {r ]
rose [rouz]
ran [r n|
said (sed)
saw [so: )
sought (so:t)
sold [sould]
sent [sent]
set [set]
sewed [soud]
shook [ u:k]
shaved [ eivd]
took [tuk]
taught (to:t)
tore (to:)
told [tould]
thought [ o:t]
threw [ ru:]
understood [ ndэ'stu:d]
undertook
upset [ ‘pset]
woke [wouk]
wore [wo:]
wove [wouv]
wept (wept)
won [w n]
wound [waund]
wrote [rout)
Причастие прошедшего
времени
rebuilt (ri'bi:lt]
ridden [ridn]
rung [r ]
risen [rizn]
run [r n]
said [sed]
seen [si:n|
sought (so:t)
sold (sould)
sent [sent)
set (set)
sewn(soun)
shaken [ eikn]
shaven ( eivn)
taken (teikn)
taught (to:t)
torn (to:n)
told [tould]
thought [ o:t]
thrown [ roun]
understood [.uidj'siud]
undertaken
upset [ p'set]
woken (woukn) waked
[wt'iki]
worn [wain]
woven [wouvn]
wept [wept]
won [w n]
wound [waund]
written [ritn]
Основные значения
перестроить
ехать верхом
звонить
подняться
бегать
говорить, сказать
видеть
искать
продавать
посылать
помещать: класть
шить
трясти
бриться
брать
учить (кого-либо)
рвать
рассказать, сказать
думать
бросать
понимать
предпринять
опрокинуть
просыпаться; будить
носить (одежду)
ткать
плакать
выиграть
заводить (.механизм)
писать
Таблица 2 - Модальные глаголы (Эквиваленты модальных глаголов)
Verb
can
may
Перевод
Infinitiv Perfect
Infinitv
You can do it.
You can’t have
done it.
Can it be truth?
1. умение, способность, возможность
2. просьба в вежливой форме в
прошедшем времени,
3. в вопр. предложениях в
Pr.Indefinite перевод предложения начинается со слова « Неужели»
1. разрешение
We may do it. We
2. предположение с сомнением
may have done it.
3. форма Past Indefinite используется в косвенной речи, а также
для выражения укора
Past
You could do
it.
Future
You will be
able to do it.
We might do it. We will be
allowed to do
it.
21
Verb
must
shall
ought to
need
dare
used to
should
would
have to
be to
22
Перевод
1.обязанность, долженствование
2. вероятность совершения действия
намерение, предположение
Infinitiv Perfect
Past
Future
Infinitv
We must do it. We We had to do it. We will have
must have done it.
to do it.
Shall I read it?
Shall I do it?
моральный долг, настоятельный You ought to write
совет, строгая рекомендация
this letter. You
ought to have written this letter.
отсутствие необходимости, неNeed he work so
обязательность
late? We need not
have hurried.
сметь, посметь (в вопросе и отри- How dare you
цании: не сметь), дерзнуть, осме- speak to me? He
литься
dare not tell it to
me
бывало (обозначает повторявHe used to live
шееся в прошлом действие)
in Paris. Did
he?
обязанность (менее сильная, чем He should not
must), совет, рекомендация,
smoke so much.
упрек, порицание, сожаление
You should not cut
your hair.
желание (с глаг. like), вежливая
Would you like to
He should not
просьба
come again?
smoke so much.
You should not
cut your hair.
вынужденность, обязанность
I have to read this I had to read
в силу обстоятельств
book
this book yesterday
долженствование в силу догово- I am to study Eng- I was to study
ренности или плана
lish
English
I'll have to
read this book
tomorrow
I'll be to study
English
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