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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ
ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ
Государственное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
“Оренбургский государственный университет”
М.Ю. КРАПИВИНА
ОСНОВЫ ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОЙ
КОММУНИКАЦИИ
(АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК)
Рекомендовано Ученым советом государственного образовательного
учреждения высшего профессионального образования "Оренбургский
государственный университет" в качестве учебного пособия для студентов,
обучающихся по программам высшего профессионального образования по
специальностям 010503 «Математическое обеспечение и администрирование
информационных систем», 010501 «Прикладная математика и информатика»,
080801 «Прикладная информатика (по областям)»
Оренбург 2008
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
УДК 802.0 (075.8)004.773.3 (076.5)
ББК 81.2 Англ я 73 32.973.202я73
К 7869
Рецензенты
доктор педагогических наук, профессор А.В. Кирьякова
кандидат физико-математических наук, доцент Т.П. Петухова
К 78
Крапивина М.Ю.
Основы профессиональной коммуникации: учебное пособие /
М.Ю. Крапивина - Оренбург: ГОУ ОГУ, 2008 – 195 с.
ISBN
Учебное пособие состоит из 11 разделов, в которых представлены
специализированные тексты, упражнения, коммуникативные задания,
модели ситуаций, направленные на развитие умений ориентироваться в
профессиональной
лексике,
воспринимать
англоязычную
профессиональную литературу, а также активно включаться в общение с
представителями иного культурного реала в сфере профессиональной
коммуникации.
Учебное
пособие
является
частью
учебно-методического
обеспечения к спецкурсу «Основы профессиональной коммуникации»
для студентов математических и компьютерных специальностей.
К
4602020102
ISBN
2
ББК 81.2 Англ я 73
.973.202я7© Крапивина М.Ю., 2008
© ГОУ ОГУ, 2008
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Содержание
Введение…………………………………………………………………………...
1 Unit 1. People and places in computing…………………………………………..
1.1 Where computers are used ……………………………………..........................
1.2 Characteristics and pros and cons of computing……………….. ……………..
1.3 Bits and bytes…………………………………………………………………..
1.4 Language and grammar (Have got - Adverbs - Compounds)………………….
2 Unit 2. Input, output and storage devices…………………………………………
2.1 A Input devices…………………………………………………………………
2.2 Output devices…………………………………………………………………..
2.3 Buying hardware and online shopping………………………………………….
2.4 Language and grammar (Present simple/continuous – Comparative Prepositions - Gerund)……………………………………………………………...
3 Unit 3. Operating systems…………………………………………………...........
3.1 Operating systems and system software……………………………………….
3.2 Installing Linux…………………………………………………………………
3.3 Graphical User Interface (GUI)………………………………………………..
3.4 Language and grammar (Going-to-future - Will-future - Make/do - Will/shall Used to)…………………………………………………………………………….
4 Unit 4. Application Software…………………………………………………….
4.1 Word processing………………………………………………..........................
4.2 Spreadsheets……………………………………………………………………
4.3 Databases……………………………………………………………………….
4.4 Language and grammar (Active/passive - Infinitive/-ing - Prepositions Having things done)………………………………………………………………..
5 Unit 5 Multimedia………………………………………………………….........
5.1 Multimedia encyclopedias……………………………………………………..
5.2 Desktop Publishing (DTP)……………………………………………………..
5.3 Computer and multimedia fairs…………………………………………………
5.4 Language and grammar (Simple past - Phrasal verbs - Used to / be used to Active/passive)……………………………………………………………………..
6 Unit 6. Internet…………………………………………………………...............
6.1 A short history of the Internet…………………………………………………..
6.2 Internet software and hardware…………………………………………………
6.3 The Internet and intercultural communication………………………………….
6.4 Language and grammar (Present perfect/Simple past)…………………………
7 Unit 7. Basic programming……………………………………………………….
7.1 What is programming?........................................................................................
7.2 Programming languages………………………………………………………..
7.3 Website design and databases………………………………………………….
7.4 Language and grammar (Conditionals - Word families)………………………
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8 Unit 8. System administration, help desk and security……………………...........
8.1 A system administrator…………………………………………………………
8.2 Network solutions………………………………………………………………
8.3 Computers and crime…………………………………………………………..
8.4 Language and grammar (Present perfect - If-sentences - Mixed tenses Phrasal verbs - Prepositions)……………………………………………………….
9 Unit 9. Jobs in computing, CV and interview……………………………………
9.1 Selling your business…………………………………………………………..
9.2 Finding a job……………………………………………………………………
9.3 Interview……………………………………………………….........................
9.4 Language and grammar (Comparative - Mixed tenses - Prepositions)…………
10 Business file……………………………………………………………………..
10.1 Telephoning……………………………………………………………..........
10.2 Written correspondence……………………………………………………….
10.3 Meetings……………………………………………………………………….
10.4 Business trips…………………………………………………………............
Список использованных источников…………………………………………….
Приложение А Acronyms and abbreviations………………………………...........
Приложение Б Alphabetical vocabulary……………………………………..........
Приложение В Additional material………………………………...………..........
Приложение Г Tips for scientific and professional communication………………
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Введение
Умение общаться на английском языке как на общепризнанном языке
международного общения необходимо выпускнику вуза, как для личного, так и
для профессионального самоутверждения в условиях глобализации и
экономического взаимопроникновения [1]. Особенно это касается
представителей новых профессий, возникающих с появлением современных
информационных технологий и их программного обеспечения.
Английский язык стал основным звеном в системе межкультурной
коммуникации и настоящим ключом к взаимопониманию представителей
современной эпохи цифровых технологий. Это относится и к основным
терминам
компьютерного
языка,
бесчисленным
профессиональным
неологизмам, и к составлению документации, общению через Интернет, и т.д.
Современный рынок требует специалистов, для которых английский язык
является не иностранным языком, а именно средством общения [3].
Соответственно, изменяются требования к уровню владения английским
языком в сфере профессионального образования и повышения квалификации.
Учебное пособие к спецкурсу «Основы профессиональной коммуникации»
для студентов компьютерных специальностей соответствует новым
требованиям к преподаванию иностранного языка в системе высшего
профессионального образования. Процесс обучения основан на том, что
специализированные знания в области компьютерных технологий и
повседневная способность к общению на английском языке не изолированы
друг от друга, а связаны реальными жизненными ситуациями. Овладевая ими,
студенты приобретают уверенность в своём профессиональном будущем.
Лексика, связанная с компьютерными технологиями, является основой
главных разделов учебного пособия. Глава «Business File» дополнена
ситуациями, возникающими на рабочем месте. Таким образом, специальная
лексика по применению программного и аппаратного обеспечения,
программированию, сетевому окружению, Интернету тесно связана с такими
темами, как телефонные переговоры, деловая корреспонденция, переговоры,
конференции, компьютерные ярмарки, устройство на работу, составление
резюме.
Отдельные тематические главы структурированы следующим образом:
- задания по накоплению базового объёма и активизации специальной
лексики, терминологии;
- лексические и коммуникативные задания на основе профессиональноориентированного текста;
- коммуникативная практика (общение по заданным ситуациям);
- грамматические ссылки и тренировочные упражнения (дополнительно).
Учебное пособие может использоваться для преподавания в высших
учебных заведениях в рамках спецкурса для углубленной языковой подготовки,
а также для студентов, получающих дополнительную квалификацию
«Переводчик в сфере профессиональной квалификации».
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1 Unit 1. People and places in computing
1.1 Where computers are used
1.1.1 Computers are so much a part of our lifestyle nowadays that it is hard to
imagine coping without them [3]. Match the places listed below to the sentences
describing what people use computers for. What other places can you think of?
car- office- factory- bank- school- airport- home- shop
1 To keep records of students, teachers and materials and to teach courses.
2 To store information about clients' money and to control cash machines and to
carry out transactions.
3 To communicate with friends and family via e-mail and to play games.
4 To check orders and to keep track of the inventory.
5 To display oil and fuel consumption data and to provide alternative route
information.
6 To type and print letters, to store files and to communicate with colleagues and
customers.
7 To monitor robots, to calculate production costs and to help design tools and
machines.
8 To regulate air traffic and to provide flight and reservation information
1.1.2 Four different people are talking about how they use the computer (See
Additional Materials 1.1, p.182.). Read and answer the following questions
1 What does the first man work as and what does he use his computer for?
2 What does the second speaker primarily do with his computer?
Is that the only thing he uses the computer for?
3 How does the third speaker use her computer in her free time?
How does she use her computer at work?
4 What role does the computer play in the life of the fourth speaker?
-What's her job?
- Does she have a computer at home?
- What does she use it for?
Communication practice.
Pairwork. Interview your partner about his/her computer habits. Ask the
following questions
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
A
1 Do you have a computer at home? How
old is it? What kinds of peripheral
devices (printer, scanner etc.) do you
have?
2 Do you have access to a computer at
work or school? What kind of computer
is it?
3 How often do you use a computer?
How many hours a day/week ...?
4 What do you use the computer for?
5 Do you play games / surf / do online
banking / send e-mails?
6 What do you like / dislike about
working with a computer?
B
Yes, I do. / No, I don't. It's .......... months
/ years old. I've got a ……., but I haven't
got …....
I'm not sure, but I think it's a …....
Well, I never / seldom / sometimes /
usually / often / always use a computer
when I'm at home.
I use it mainly for writing letters / playing
games/designing ... / ......
Yes, I do. / No, I don't. I often ...
Well, what I like best about it is ..., but I
hate …....
Report back to the group about your partner's computer habits. Useful phrases:
Michael has got...
needs a computer to ….
often uses ...
spends up to...
has access ...
1.2 Characteristics and pros and cons of computing
1.2.1 How does a computer work? To answer this question render this text in
English. Learn the key computer terms underlined in the text.
We work, live and play with them, they have become an indispensable part of
our modern world, but what exactly are computers? Mega electronic devices?
Monster machines? Data processors? Super, number-crunching calculators? Well,
yes, they are all of these and more.
Unique characteristic of computers is their almost unbelievable speed and
complexity. In principle, though, the work they do can be divided into three basic
steps. First, data or information is input or fed into the computer. The machine then
processes or manipulates this data. The final step is the output or displayed result of
this processed information. Software is the term used for the data and programs, the
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"soft" or intangible elements of the system. Data refers to the actual information
(numbers, words, images etc.) the computer is to process while programs consist of
the instructions on how to process that information. The "hard" or mechanical and
electronic parts of a computer system are called hardware. Basically, the hardware of
a computer system consists of three main parts: the central processing unit (usually
shortened to CPU), the main memory and the extra devices, known as peripherals.
As its name implies, the CPU plays a central role which is why it is also often
referred to as the "brain" of the computer. It has the double function of executing or
carrying out the program instructions while also coordinating all the other activities
of the system. It consists of three main parts: the control unit, the arithmetic logic unit
(ALU) and the registers. It is the job of the control unit to examine and interpret a
given program's instructions, activating the different parts of the computer to carry
out their various functions. The ALU is responsible for performing mathematical
calculations and logical operations. Registers are special, high-speed memory units to
store and control data. Two main types are the program counter (PC) which registers
the next instruction to be executed in the main memory and the instruction register
(IR) which contains the current instruction.
The main memory contains the data and programs the CPU is currently
processing or which are waiting to be processed. It is characterized as volatile,
meaning that the data is lost once you switch off the computer. In contrast nonvolatile storage devices such as floppy, hard or optical disks, retain their data and are
used to permanently store both data and programs. The collective name for the
permanent storage devices as well as the vast array of input/output devices is
peripherals. They are generally connected to the CPU by plugging into one of the
appropriate ports on the rear panel of the computer and have a wide variety of
functions. We refer to the configuration of a computer system when talking about all
its main physical units, i.e. its CPU, main memory and any number kind of
peripherals [4].
Answer the following questions on the text.
1What, in your opinion, is a good definition of a computer?
2What are the three basic steps involved in computing?
3What is software as opposed to hardware?
4What is the CPU?
5 What are its three main parts and their functions?
6 What is characteristic of main memory and why?
7 How can you define a peripheral?
8 What does the configuration of a computer refer to?
1.2.2 Computer advertisements
a) Decide which of the following adjectives apply to computers and which don't.
Give reasons
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communicative - time-saving - informative - fascinating - intelligent - frustrating
- helpful -complex - reliable - multi-functional - exciting - creative - dependable elegant - practical -old-fashioned - advantageous - efficient - dynamic - flexible global - handy - harmful -inspiring - logical - boring - maddening - popular - portable
- precise - progressive - innovative -revolutionary - successful - timeless - up-to-date
- valuable - user-friendly - useless - smart
b) Look at the words again and find matching pairs with similar meanings and
pairs of opposites
Example: practical = handy
c) Decide which words reflect a negative attitude towards computers?
Example: frustrating
Info Box: Match and mix when learning new words
Match: Learn two words for the price of one; find a partner for your new word,
a word with the same or similar meaning, a synonym.
Example: global = world-wide
Mix: Find the opposite, an antonym, or a word you can associate with the new
vocabulary item.
Example: potent - weak; black – white
d) Now look at the following collection of computer adverts. Make two lists.
Decide which statements are facts and which are opinions. Note the technical terms
and words giving factual information and data as opposed to expressions with a
highly emotive impact.
Info-Box: Facts and opinions
Facts are the answers to what-questions concerning concrete, objective
information.
Example: The new laptops weigh about 3 kg.
Opinions are the answers to how-questions concerning subjective thoughts and
feelings.
Example: Mobile phones can be a nuisance, but there's no denying their
convenience.
Get the whole World
For the Price of a PC
Viewer 600 – Viewer 800
These top-notch PCs have something you can't find anywhere else: our
knowledge and our know-how. You experience it in our user-friendly systems. The
most modern technology communicates vital information in moments. State-of-the-
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Nuka 1000 Connector
Anytime, Anywhere
Nothing else is needed to get and stay in contact: phoning, faxing, sending
messages, internet, organising. All incorporated in one handy device. Receive an email, edit it, save it or fax it on to a colleague by pushing a few buttons.
And the Nuka 1000 Connector is so small you can slip it into your pocket or
handbag and take it anywhere, anytime.
Innovation
Customer needs call for complex and personalized solutions. Today’s companies
face further challenges due to dynamic markets. Only increasing productivity can
guarantee long-lasting success. Companies need change and employers who are up to
the challenge.
Organisation
Erfrau-Pixville incorporates this change. As the world’s largest IT seller Pixville
is in direct communication with the customer. Its 500 units operate flexibly and
efficiently. Intranet and internet linked, their edge is working to the customer’s
advantage.
Hail, all hail the notebook, honour and glory be its — to the end of time!
But where can you find a worthy chief of notebooks? One that's user-friendly
and which you can upgrade by adding a new processor, hard disk or extra capacity?
A notebook for knock-them-off-their-feet multi-media presentations?
Would you like to find out more about the Outlook-mobile? Drop in on us at
www.otl.mob/pc
What S-5 Internet Software gives you is a Competitive Edge achieved by
finding new markets
Which is why more and more companies are going online. Yet, the right
software is not always available.
To profit most from the internet - its time, service and cost advantages - it must
be an integral part of your business processes and systems. With the S-5 Internet
Software you can have just that - now, today.
Your S-5 internet applications can be installed and start working immediately,
allowing your customers to order and deliver data directly via internet.
Staff and customers can access information and carry out tasks from anywhere.
S-5 gives you speed, flexibility and efficiency and all the freedom you need on
the internet.
Contact our website at: www.sad.com
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Read the following statements. Decide which are opinions and which are facts
1 Compuprint is a world leader in the field of automatic identification systems.
2 Innovative communication technology transfers key information in seconds.
3 The NUKA 1000 Connector is so small you can put it in your pocket and carry
it everywhere.
4 Courage is the driving force of progress.
5 Day trading is a brutal world.
6 Keeping in touch with colleagues, family and friends is important.
7 EWAY connects buyers and sellers on the internet.
8 Nothing should be taken at face value when it comes to government
assurances.
9 New software can block ads from appearing on the internet.
10 The wave of the future is MP3 and digital downloading.
Communication practice. Work in groups of three to five. Decide which
statements you agree with most and which ones you disagree with. Give reasons.
Choose one member of your group to report back
We think it's true that .....
Our group agrees with …..
It's true that …...
Most of us don't agree that …...
We disagree that .….
We believe it cannot be true that…..
1.3 Bits and bytes
1.3.1 Kilobytes, megabytes and gigabytes
bit
byte = 8 bits
kilobyte = 210 bytes
megabyte = 210 kilobytes
gigabyte = 210 megabytes
a) Match the following adjectives with the numbers in the list below
standard – astronomical – tiny – mean – full-scale - infinitesimal
small
1
microscopic
minute
miniature
2
medium
average
middle-sized
3
4
intermediate
large
5
sizeable
huge
giant
6
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b) Find the prefixes with the following meanings in the word square on the right
Example:
5. one million = MEGA
1 one
2 two
3 ten
4 one
5 one million
6 one thousand million
7 small
8 very small
9 many
M
U
L
T
I
M
I
L
K
I
L
O
N
M
D
W
G
N
I
M
E
G
A
O
M
I
C
R
O
B
K
G
I
G
A
I
c) Make a list of words with these prefixes
Example: megabyte
d) Complete the following text with the words in the box [5]
gigabyte - bit - megabyte - tiny - astronomical - abbreviations - number – byte
A computer is basically an enormous collection of (1) electronic circuits that are
either ON or OFF -current is either flowing through the wires or it isn't. A binary
digit or (2) with "1" representing the ON state and "0" the OFF state is simply the
smallest unit or bit of information in the binary system. ON/OFF or 1/0 is the only
language the computer really understands.
A (3) consists of eight bits arranged in eight-digit codes. They are used to
represent the letters, numbers and symbols of the keyboard. A string of letters - really
а (4) °f differently coded bytes - are grouped into words. The words in turn are
arranged into sentences, the sentences add up to so many pages of text and so on. To
keep tab of the (5) amounts of bytes involved we use the units kilobytes (210 bytes),
(6) (210 kilobytes), and (7) (210 megabytes). We measure computer memory, disk
capacity, documents and programs with these units which we generally refer to by
their (8): KB, MB, GB. One KB is 1,024 bytes, one MB is 1,024 KB, and one GB is
1,024 MB.
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Info-Box: Byte or bite?
Many computer words are multi-purpose; they function as special computer
terms as well as ordinary English words. Bit stands for binary digit but generally
also means a small part.
Examples: a bit of this and that, I'm in a bit of a hurry.
A bite, written with "i" but pronounced the same as "byte", is a bitten off piece,
of food usually. Example: Have a bite of my sandwich - it's good.
1.3.2 The ASCII code and pixels [5]
Since there are over 256 different ways to combine 0 and 1 in a byte, using a
standard code to represent the most common characters makes sense. Most computers
use the American Standard Code for Information Interchange, more commonly
known as ASCII and pronounced as "ask-key". The first 32 codes, for example, are
reserved for such common keyboard functions as Tab and Return key. The ten digits,
punctuation marks, the letters of the alphabet and other common symbols are also
represented by standard ASCII codes. Altogether, however, the code only uses 128
bytes to represent characters; the rest can be used for optional purposes.
Pixels: Monochrome and colour
What you get to see on a computer screen - the graphics and characters - are
actually made up by combining large numbers of single, tiny dots known as pixels. In
a bit-mapped display these pixels or dots correspond to bits in the refresh buffer, part
of the computer's main memory. The bits are stored in groups representing the
horizontal and vertical position of the pixels on the screen. They also represent
whether the pixels are on (black) or off (white). In a monochrome system a bit value,
for example 1, corresponds to a pixel on the screen and is seen as being "on"
(black).
A specific combination of the three primary colours, red, green and blue makes
up the pixel in a colour system. The colour palette is the range or num
ber of colours that can be displayed on the screen and depends on the graphics
adapter. This is a device for con verting bits into visual signals, whereby
the more bits per primary colour the wider the range of colours.
Give a summary of the text in Russian
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1.4 Language and grammar
1.4.1 Have got
Info Box: Have got
Have got/has got with the built-in “got” is a fixed element and corresponds to
the Russian "иметь" which is often not translated as it is. We use it to indicate
ownership or that something is available. Examples: I've got a large family – У меня
( _ ) большая семья. Have you got a minute? – У тебя есть минута? In everyday
peech we do sometimes drop the “got” but generally only in positive statements. So
be careful! Example: I have time now.
a) Conduct a survey to find out who has what. Interview as many people as you
can in the time given
Example: Have you got a scanner? How many ... have you got?
- colour printer
- DVD drive
- Internet connection
- MP3 player
- CDs /CD
- mobile phone
- digital camera
- scanner
- …..
b) Report back to the class
Example: George has got a new laptop. Mary hasn't got a mobile phone but she
does have an answering machine.
1.4.2 Daily work routine: Adverbs of frequency
a) Interview your partner about his/her daily routine. Ask questions such as the
following:
How do you get to work/school?
When do you ...?
What do you do first?
Do you use the Internet/make calls/write letters, e-mails, memos/consult with
colleagues?
How often do you ...?
Do you sometimes ...?
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When answering your partner's questions use the following adverbs of frequency
to indicate how often or seldom you perform tasks:
never - rarely - seldom - occasionally - sometimes - generally - usually - often frequently - always
Example: I often make calls.
b) Report back to the class about your partner's work routine. Include the
adverbs of frequency above
Example: Sally often receives e-mails and writes memos but she rarely faxes
anything.
1.4.3 S-Genitive, S-Plural, S-Short form, S-Third Person Singular
- Complete the following text with the correct form: s, es, 's, or s'. Is it s-plural,
s-genitive, s-short form of is/has or s-3rd person singular?
Keyboard [4]
Of all the input device (1) the classic keyboard (2) still one of the most common
one (3). A PC compatible keyboard include (4) alphanumeric key (5), function key
(6) and editing key (7). It (8) numeric keyboard (9) on the right-hand side and
function (10) as both a set of numeric and editing key (11), using the NUM LOCK
key to switch from number (12) to editing task (13). The user (14) need to issue
command (15) or to produce alternative character (16) is fulfilled by special key (17).
The ALT GR key (18) most common application, for example, is to produce the @ in
internet address (19).
1.4.4 Compound words
Info Box:
You can often guess the meaning of a compound word from its parts. Compound
adjectives are usually written with a hyphen while compound nouns as either two
separate words or as one word without a hyphen. Examples: on-line (adjective),
backspace, data processing (nouns)
- Make up compound words using the following words:
Example: megahertz
mega – giga – multi –
mini – tri – mono -
byte – fast – hertz – computer – colour – text – lingual – purpose
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1.4.5 False Friends
Complete the sentences choosing the correct word in brackets [4].
1 Miracle is launching an all out (action/campaign) to win over new customers.
2 The (factual/actual) problem is that we don't have any (actual, up-to-date)
information.
3 My (boss/chief) is (brave/nice) and never makes me (visit/attend) any boring
meetings.
4 I know you don't like (critic/criticism) but this (outline/concept) is full of
typing mistakes.
5 Next time please (control/check) your work before handing it in.
2 Unit 2. Input, output and storage devices
List the devices shown above under the categories: input devices, output devices
and storage devices.
2.1 A Input devices
a) Match the following product descriptions to the input devices shown above
[5]
1 USB interface enables you to connect with a maximum of 130 different
peripheral devices. You can scan and print simultaneously. Extremely fast scan speed,
a full page preview takes only 4 seconds. 36 bit colour, 600x1200 dpi optical
resolution.
2 Easy scrolling, simply roll the wheel forward or backwards, fast scroll
automatically with a single click, 2 buttons.
3 Ergonomically designed, allows you to place your hands, wrists and forearms
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in a natural position for greater comfort while typing.
4 The X10 captures images up to 3,008 x 2,000 - pixels in size.
5 Perfect for flight simulator games, and much more. It comes with turbo switch
and has two buttons. Specifications: new finger tip design throttle and auto control.
b) Match the definitions below to the words in the box. Note: There are two
definitions per device: its regular meaning and its special computer meaning [5]
mouse - scanner - head-set - reader joystick - keyboard
1 an examination instrument, for example radar
2 a small mammal, rodent
3 an input device with keys for letters, numbers and special functions
4 the control stick in an airplane
5 an input device that "reads" images as a series of dots
6 a musical instrument
7 a type of school book for beginners
8 a device made to fit over the ears to receive radio messages
9 a small handheld input device that is rolled, causing the cursor to move around
the screen
10 an instrument for receiving sound waves and relaying them into the
computers memory
11 an input device used in computer games to move the cursor around the screen
12 a handheld input device that scans and stores a limited amount of text for
later processing
c) Complete the following sentences using the input devices from the box below
image recognition - trackball - lightpen - virtual touch screen
- voice recognition system - graphics tablet
1 … is an input device which works like an upside down mouse. It controls the
movement of the cursor on the screen.
2 … is an input device which is more accurate than many other devices. Using a
stylus, a sort of writing pen, you draw on a tablet and the computer reproduces your
drawing on the screen.
3 … is shaped like an ordinary pen and works by detecting light from the
computer screen. You use it by pointing directly at the screen display.
4 With … the screen itself is the positioning reference. You can choose options
by pointing directly with your finger to the position on the screen.
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5 With … the user speaks into a microphone. The computer converts the sound
waves generated into digital form. It then compares the digitized sound waves to
stored patterns of sound and identifies them.
6 … uses a camera equipped system and video beamer. The computer then
converts the light waves (as compared to the sound waves of a voice recognition
device) into digital form. The computer then compares the digitized light waves to its
stored patterns of light waves and identifies them.
d) Which input device is best suited for the following applications? Match the
applications (1.-8.) with the information on the input devices below (a.- h.)
Example: 8. For writing an e-mail - h. I would use a keyboard...
Applications:
Information:
1 For a magazine article with
illustrations for later editing ...
2 For precise architectural
design drawing ...
3 For independent learning by preschool children of the basic
concepts of colours, shapes and
numbers ...
4 For motor-impaired users with
coordination problems who cannot
use a keyboard or mouse ...
5 For note taking in a
newspaper archive ...
6 For an information kiosk at an
international airport...
7 For interactive foreign
language training ...
8 For writing an e-mail...
a) I would use a virtual touchscreen, because it
is easy to use for those who are unfamiliar with
computers.
b) I would use a mouse to click options, a
keyboard to input text and a head-set to listen to
texts and to practice pronunciation.
с) I would use a trackball, because it requires
less coordination skills than the other devices.
d) I would use a lightpen and a touchscreen,
because they require less coordination than
either a keyboard or mouse. For severely
handicapped persons who have little or no
control over their limbs, a voice recognition
device is the better option.
e) I would use a reader which is ideal because
it is portable and its memory capacity should be
adequate for at least one normal sitting.
f) I would use a scanner that lets you change
and edit a text with the least amount of effort.
g) I would use a graphics tablet which is the
most accurate of the input devices and lets you
input drawings and sketches with more ease.
h) I would use a keyboard because it is quick,
especially if you are familiar with it.
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2.1.1 The keyboard
a) Match the different types of keys to their descriptions
1 function keys
2 special keys
3 numeric keypad
4 alphanumeric keys
a) These keys are for issuing commands or making
alternative characters using key combinations
b) In word processing these keys are used to move
the cursor within the document or to insert or delete
text
5 editing keys
с) This is a set of numeric or editing keys. The key
in the upper left-hand corner of the pad is used to
switch from numbers to editing functions
d) These keys instruct the computer, depending on
the program in operation, to perform certain tasks
e) These are the keys with the letters and numbers
arranged as on a typewriter.
b) What do the following keyboard abbreviations stand for and what are they
called in Russian?
ESC – INS – DEL – NUM – CTRL - PG UP - PG DN
2.1.2 Computer devices for disabled people
Read the text and answer the questions [4]
Flexibility and innovation are watchwords in today's work world, seeming to
imply that only the fittest can survive in our fast-paced age of information
technology. And yet modern technology is also making it possible for many
otherwise handicapped or disabled persons to lead much more active lives. A wide
range of adaptive computer technology is available enabling them to work and
communicate independently.
To help the visually impaired or blind computer users there are a number of
technologies such as magnification, screen readers, Braille, and specially equipped
scanners. For those with limited vision there are oversize keyboards with keys four
times larger than usual, as well as magnification software to enlarge the screen text.
Aside from special printers which emboss the raised dots of the Braille script on
paper to enable the blind user to read a printed text by touch, screen readers are also
very useful. These software applications read not only the text within a document
aloud, but also dialogue boxes, error messages and menu selections as well as, more
recently, information on the World Wide Web. Using a scanner and special OCR
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(optical character recognition) software printed hard copy can also be scanned and
then read aloud.
There are also technologies designed for motor-impaired computer users such as
adapted keyboards, head pointers, voice-recognition systems and adaptive switches.
Overlay keyboards, for example, are expanded keyboards with a flat membrane
surface to enable those with no arms or control over their upper limbs to input text
using their feet. Using a head pointer a motor-impaired user can point and activate
options directly on the screen or input text via an onscreen keyboard. These key
boards have the same look and function of traditional keyboards, but activating the
keys is accomplished by the headpointer or, alternatively, a mouse click or by
holding the cursor for a predefined time over the key.
Voice recognition systems allow users a certain amount of "hands-free" control
over the computer. To launch and control applications or to input data the user speaks
the commands aloud. Naturally, when using such systems one needs to consider
training requirements, essential speech recognition software and special hardware
needs. Users with severe spinal injuries might require aid, for example, in adjusting
their headsets for an optimal positioning of the microphone which is critical for good
recognition.
For the severely impaired a variety of adaptive switches enable a user to activate
commands by eye movements, slight muscle movements and even breath control.
The former functions, for example, by combining an onscreen keyboard and a camera
focused on the user's eye. The user controls the movements of the cursor by blinking
or staring at a certain key or link onscreen and thereby activating a command to
control hardware, access the Internet or run software.
1 How can modern technology help disabled people?
2 What computer devices can help people with poor vision?
3 What output forms are available for blind people?
4 How can someone blind or with impaired vision input data?
5 What are overlay keyboards and why are they needed?
6 How does a headpointer function?
7 What makes voice recognition systems attractive for motor-impaired people?
8 What do voice recognition systems require?
Communication practice.
Express your view on the following using the text and your own ideas:
- What innovations might be available for disabled persons in the future?
- What might be needed?
- Do you think any of the current technologies designed for the disabled might
be useful for others?
- If so, which ones and in what ways?
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2.2 Output devices
2.2.1 Printers
a) Read the printer advertisements below and decide if the following statements
are true or false. Correct the false statements [6]
1 All of the printers offered come with a colour printing option.
2 Three different print technologies are available.
3 Only one of the printers on offer doubles as a scanner.
4 The fastest printer is also the most expensive one. The slowest printer is the
cheapest one.
5 Only the laser printers come with network options.
6 The OLP Deskjet ZF is the best choice for printing brochures and flyers.
OLD DESKJET ZF
Easy printing with optional photo colour. Ideal for printing letters, budgets, book
reports and resumes. Mono text at up to 4.55 ppm and dazzling colour at up to 1 page
per minute. Easy setup and hassle-free operation make printing a dream. Pictureperfect results. Print photos with the optional HiP Photo Cartridge on HiP.
VICAR MULTIPASS V50 PRINTER / SCANNER / COPIER / FAX
Multi-function colour printer, scanner, copier and fax. As stand alone device or
connected to PC. Colour Bubble Jet Printing 720 x 720 dpi with PhotoReality. Up to
600 DPI colour scanner resolution. Paper and PC faxing. Colour copy function. Fax
transmission 6spp. 42 pages of memory and 49 speed dials. Built-in OCR software
for colour scanning. 99 page copy function with image reduction facility. Between 1
(colour) and 5 (black text) pages per minute.
Price: £305.00 (Excluding: VAT)
VICAR LBJ 007 16ppm POSTSCRIPT PRINTER
16ppm - up to 1200 x 1200 dpi laser printer. Automatic emulation and interface
switching. Network boards, platform flexibility. Postscript printing. 500 sheet paper
cassette. 4MB Memory, 600 sheets per tray, optional duplexing.
Price: £699.00 (Excluding: VAT)
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SISTER LASER PRINTER SAL- 1410
Sister Laser Printer SAL- 1410. This high specification bin laser printer prints
1200 x 1200 dpi and 10 ppm. Compatible: PCL 6, Postscript 2 Emulation, Epson,
IBM. Expandable to 4MB memory, 66MHz processor. Envolope or poster print
option. Intelligent sleep mode. Semi automatic duplex mode. USB and parallel. 2 x
200 sheet paper input and manual feed. Auto e-mail printing (Pop 3 Network)
Network option.
Price: £299.00 (Excluding: VAT)
b) Complete the following text with the words in the box below
user-friendliness - ink-jet printers - colour print-outs - plotters - resolution images - graphics - speed - drivers - dot-matrix - maintenance costs - memory
A guide for choosing the right printer for your special needs [4]
Good quality output is naturally the first criteria to keep in mind when choosing
a printer. A good indicator of a printer's ability to capture details is its (1). 600 dpi
(dots per inch) generally produces a razor sharp text and decent photographic (2). For
high-resolution pictures and (3) you might want 1200 dpi or more. With colour printouts dynamic range, resolution and accurate colours are what you're looking for.
Another key factor is (4) which is measured in pages per minute with top-of-theline printers claiming to churn out up to 20 ppm. Heavy formatting, graphics,
photographs and, of course, colour slow down the printer's work considerably. Along
with prices ranging from practically pennies to a small fortune, these are the most
obvious criteria. A factor which is sometimes overlooked though important for high
resolution is (5); at least 4 MB for mono and in the range of 192 MB for colour is
required.
In the area of ergonomics, factors such as installation, noise, maintenance and
(6) count: How do I install a new toner cartridge? (And what does it cost?) Will I
wake the whole family if I start printing at midnight? What about repairs and upkeep?
Can I bypass options and just press a button or two if I'm in a hurry?
What other features such as (7) for running the relevant software and interfacing
for networking options and expansion are included? Paper handling is also an issue:
Does the printer come equipped with more than one tray? What is the sheet capacity?
When checking out the documentation have a critical look at the technical data,
glossary, index and error messages. Aside from a guarantee, in the service area there's
the question of a hotline and driver updates via Internet.
Basically we can distinguish between impact - contact is made between paper
and pins, pens or characters - and non-impact printing. The old (8) printers, relatively
slow, loud and with poor resolution, use pins to print dots on the paper. No longer
popular on the PC market, they still maintain a niche in applications where impact
printing is an advantage, for example in issuing carbon copies of invoices.
(9) are
special impact printers which use ink and fine pens held in a carriage to draw very
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detailed designs for construction plans and illustrations. Non-impact printers, though,
now dominate the market with ink-jet printers in the home and laser so printers in
offices. As the name implies (10) project tiny droplets of ink onto the paper. They're
quiet, fast, can achieve high resolutions and are not necessarily expensive. They're
quite popular because they can deliver (11) of high quality. The drawback is the
relatively high (12) as the colour cartridges are expensive and need to be replaced
quite frequently. For reasons of speed, image quality and flexibility laser printers are
preferred by experts. A laser beam scans the image and transfers it to paper with a
special ink powder. Mono laser printers are affordable and maintenance costs
relatively low but the price of colour laser printers limits their purchase to
professionals.
When choosing a printer keep in mind your personal or your company's specific
needs. Decide on your priorities, which options are essential and which features you
can dispense with.
c) Summarize the text. Use the following steps:
1 Read through the text again and choose one or two key words from each
paragraph. Example: Paragraph 1: OUTPUT
2 Go through the text a second time and note down the main points in each
paragraph. Keep the following in mind:
- leave out repetitions (Example: Paragraph 1: PICTURES/GRAPHICS)
- leave out details such as examples (Example: Paragraph 6: IN ISSUING
CARBON COPIES)
- omit unnecessary phrases (Example: Paragraph 8: AS THE NAME IMPLIES)
3 Make sentences from your notes. Use linking words such as but, and, also,
because, that's why, in fact, therefore.
4 Go over your first draft making it more compact (see box below).
5 Write your final summary checking for grammar, spelling and punctuation. As
a final test check to see if all your original "key" words turn up in the final version.
Info-Box: Summarizing (compacting) texts
- Transform relative clauses into "ing" clauses.
Examples: Along with prices that range from ... Along with prices ranging
from ...
- Eliminate relative pronouns when possible.
Examples: Another factor is speed which is measured ... Another factor is
speed measured ...
- Omit unnecessary adjectives or qualifying words.
Examples: (razor sharp) texts, (relatively) slow
- Cut out fillers and any other extra phrases.
Examples: Good quality output is naturally the first criteria to keep in mind
when choosing a printer. Quality output is the first criteria when choosing a printer.
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d) The following instructions for setting default document properties are in
mixed order. Put them in the correct sequence
To set default document properties…
1 From the Printer menu, choose Properties. Or choose the Properties button on
the toolbar.
2 In the Printer Details dialogue box, choose the Job Defaults button.
3 In the Document Properties dialogue box, choose the Options button.
4 Set advanced options in the Advanced Document Properties dialogue box.
5 In Print Manager, select the printer's icon or window.
6 In the Printer Properties dialogue box, choose the Details button.
2.2.2 Storage devices
a) What do these acronyms stand for?
Example: MT - Magnetic Tape
MT- HD - FD - CD-ROM - DVD
b) Read the following statements dealing with the storage devices above. Decide
which statements are true of which devices. Hint: A statement might be true of more
than one device
Example: 1. MT and FD
1 They are sensitive to magnetic fields and high temperatures.
2 They are re-writable.
3 You must format them before you can record information.
4 People use them to store back-up files in archives.
5 They can hold vast amounts of information - more than 4MB.
6 They have the smallest access time values (8-20 ms).
7 We use them to store personal data and files that are subject to frequent
change.
8 They are a good way to store or distribute large amounts of information such
as images, sound, applications and so on.
9 They use optical technology to record and read information.
10 They allow sequential access only and are slower than hard drives.
11 It is a high density optical storage medium with up to 17 GB, double-sided, 2
layered storage capacity.
12 It's a good way to store feature length films.
c) Match the descriptions with the storage devices in the box
hard disks - optical disks - tapes - floppy disks
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1 Relatively slow, small capacity, portable, inexpensive, and universal.
2 Very fast, more capacity than other disks, but also more expensive. Most disks
are not portable.
3 A laser is used to read and write data. Very large storage capacity, not as fast
as some other disks. Read and write disks are expensive.
4 Relatively inexpensive, large storage capacities possible, no random access of
data.
d) Read the following text. List the differences and similarities between CDROM and DVD
in common
disc shaped
differences
track pitch (DVD's 0.74 micron
versus CD's 1.6 micron)
CD-ROM and DVD [5]
As far as looks go, a DVD disc and CD could be twins. Relying on lasers to read
data stored in pits in a spiral track, both are plastic discs 120mm in diameter and
1.2mm thick. While DVDs have seven times as much data capacity as CDs, this
increase is by and large due to a fine tuning of the same basic system.
Nonetheless, there are a number of essential differences. On a DVD the tracks
are placed closer together, i.e. the track pitch (distance between each) is tighter: 0.74
micron or less than half of a CD's 1.6 micron. The pits, where the data is stored, are
also much smaller, allowing more pits per track. A single layer DVD's minimum pit
length is 0.4 micron versus 0.834 micron for a CD. Both its reduced track pitch and
smaller pit size contribute to giving DVD-ROM discs seven times the storage
capacity of CDs. Smaller pits require that the laser produce a smaller spot which is
the real technological innovation. The DVD achieves this by reducing the laser's
wavelength from the 780nm (nanometers) infrared light of a standard CD, to 635nm
or 650nm red light. Simply by changing the focus of the read laser, the DVD
specification also allows information to be scanned from more than one layer of a
DVD. It's possible to use a translucent layer with an opaque reflective layer behind
carrying more data. Capacity is not quite doubled since the second layer is not quite
as dense as the single layer but a single disc can deliver 8.5GB of data.
In standard-density CDs as well as single- and dual-layer DVDs the information
is always stored first near the hub of the disc. With DVDs, though, the discs' second
data layer can contain data recorded “backwards”, or in a reverse spiral track. This
means it takes only an instant to refocus a lens from one reflective layer to another. A
single-layer CD which stores all the data in a single spiral track naturally takes longer
to relocate the optical pickup to another location on the same surface.
DVDs are also double-sided discs. To help focus the laser on the smaller pits
and reduce the depth of the layer of plastic the laser has to travel through to reach the
pits, manufacturers needed a thinner plastic substrate than that used by a CD-ROM.
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However, the resulting discs - 0.6mm or half as thick as a CD-ROM - were too thin to
remain flat and withstand handling. In consequence the manu facturers bonded two
discs back-to-back - resulting in discs that are 1.2mm thick, effectively doubling the
potential storage capacity of a disc. The structure of the data put on the DVD disc is
more efficient. The early development of CDs required some heavy-duty and
relatively crude error correction systems to guarantee the discs would play. This error
detection uses bits which cannot then be used to carry useful data. The DVD's more
efficient and effective error correction code (ECC) leaves more room for data.
2.2.3 Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting printers
Match the problems (1- 7) with the best method to solve them (a- g)
1 A paper jam occurs.
2 The output is smudged or has markings.
3 The printer keeps producing print-outs - endlessly.
4 Your printer refuses to accept a printing job.
5 The quality of your print copies is very poor.
6 The printer produces "hieroglyphics".
7 You can't get your mouse and printer to both function at the same time.
a) Clean the printer.
b) Check if the peripheral devices are plugged into the right ports.
c) Inspect the paper "transport" for any stray or crumpled pieces of paper.
d) Replace your toner cartridge.
e) Check if the printer is online, connected, has run out of paper, ink toner etc.
f) Check if the printer driver is correctly installed.
g) Set the printer to "offline" and check the print queue.
Troubleshooting scanners
Match the problems (1- 7) with the best possible solution (a- g)
1 The source text consists of a number of sheets stapled together.
2 The source text is part of a bound book.
3 The source text is on glossy paper.
4 The source text has a dark background.
5 The source text is a copy.
6 The source text has a number of columns.
7 The page includes graphics.
a) Select LIGHT TEXT from the scan setting menu
b) Change the column setting to AUTO DETECT.
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с) Select DARK BACKGROUND from the scan setting menu
d) Remove the staples so that the paper can lie flat.
e) Cover the side of the book you don't wish to scan.
f) Change the scanner setting to recognize image.
g) Avoid using such sources.
2.3 Buying hardware and online shopping
2.3.1 Buying hardware
Compro Prestige 700 Review
More and Less for your Money [4]
The history of portable technology is the history of executive status symbols
eventually becoming mainstream consumer products. This is true of the first laptop
computers, mobile phones and PDAs. Compro is making it happen again with their
line of "thin and light" notebooks.
Weighing just 3.3 pounds and less than an inch thick, the new Prestige 700 is
lighter and just as thin as most of the competition's products. What makes it more
attractive than competitive products, though, is its rock bottom price of only
$1,299. It comes with a 1200MHz Pentium III processor, 256MB of memory, and
a 40GB hard disk. An added attraction is that the external floppy and CD-ROM
drives do not cost extra.
We upgraded our test unit with an external DVD-ROM instead of CD-ROM
for a total of $1,499. For a pre-installed Small Business Edition software there is
an added charge of $99.
Since frequent fliers first fell for Sun's ultrathin Zombie and Tokio's Portage
notebooks, those vendors haven't made their products much cheaper. The Prestige 700
has a 12.2-inch, active-matrix screen and costs about as much as the Zombie Z16 with
a 10.3-inch display or Portage 21 with an 11.3-inch display. The Compro device
comes with a built-in modem and Ethernet ports. It even boasts two USB ports and an
IEEE 1394 port which lets you store data at a higher speed. More important than the
lower cost is the increased convenience of having a notebook that is no bigger than
last year's top of the range PROFI edition notebook.
It is a computer that is equally comfortable to use on your lap as on a desk or
lounging with your feet up. While it isn't powerful enough for heavy-duty CAD or
graphics applications, it is more than adequate for office tasks and even DVDs or
games. The lack of parallel and PS/2 ports means you have to use the USB route to
connect a printer, mouse, or full-sized keyboard but we can live with that.
Dislikes? Yes, unfortunately. Laptops tend to have lightweight batteries, but
Compro's lithium-ion cell is quite weak. While we don't expect the five hours or so of
a desktop replacement, our Prestige 700 repeatedly faded after an hour. That's more
than weak and the sole reason for our award of four and not five stars.
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a) Read the above review of a new
notebook and decide if the following
statements are true or false
1 Innovative technological devices tend to
be exclusive at first.
2 The new Prestige 700 weighs more than
competitive products in the same price class.
3 The Prestige 700 is thinner than other
similar products.
4 Compro's new notebook product is
cheaper than those of Sun's and Tokio's.
5 The external floppy, CD-ROM and
DVD-ROM drives for the Prestige don't cost
extra.
6 There is an extra charge of $99 for pre-installed office software.
7 The Prestige 700 has a smaller screen size but is cheaper than competitive
products.
8 You have to use the USB route to connect to the Internet with the Prestige 700.
9 The Prestige 700 is just as small as the PROFI edition notebook.
10 You can run just about any kind of application on the Prestige 700.
b) Judy and George are discussing their purchasing plans (See Additional
Material 2.1, p.182). Read and answer the following questions
1 What is Judy planning on buying?
2 What is she going to use it for?
3 When are the workshops taking place?
4 What advice does George give her?
5 Is Judy planning an immediate purchase?
Communication practice.
Discuss with your partner your own computer purchasing plans in the near or far
future. Ask each other questions such as:
1 What are you planning on buying?
2 Where are you going to buy it?
3 Why are you going to buy a new ...?
4 How much are you planning on spending?
Report back to the class.
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2.3.2 Online shopping
a) Read the following letters to the editor. They are by readers in response to a
magazine article about online shopping. Then answer the following questions
1 Who thinks shopping online can be fun?
2 Who is concerned about the competition for local shops? Why?
3 What kind of products seem to sell well online, according to one reader?
4 Who feels online shopping is overrated?
5 What is the purpose of shopping in general, according to one reader?
6 What is a key factor in successful merchandising, according to one reader?
FAX
From Gerry Farley, Seattle, Washington
Virtual shopping may be fun, but it comes with an invisible cost. Buying a CD
on the NET doesn’t help your local retailer pay the rent or salaries. Local stores
might suffer and have to close which will lead to poorer local selection and service.
More and more people are deserting local merchants to send consumer dollars to
businesses who have no interest in or commitment to the buyer or community.
Gerry Farley
Jennifer Bassinger, New York City
In your article about the Internet’s being the newest way to shop (Sept. 4) you
write that computers are going to replace shopping malls because they make buying
things cheaper and faster. Not so. The entire point of shopping is to spend leisure
time with friends and do something needed at the same time. Finding the one right
thing to purchase is not just a task to be completed as quickly as possible. It’s an
entire way of life.
Email from Megan Silver, Santa Monica
I’m online and I can tell you that online shopping just isn’t living up to its
potential. Faster? Nothing is faster than walking out of the store with the
merchandise in your hand. Cheaper? It ought to be, but mostly it isn’t. Better? Not
according to your “meters” rating the online-shopping experience in six categories.
Net shopping is clearly better in only two out of six categories. The one thing the
Internet does sell very well is hype. Looks like you were buying.
Megan Silver
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Mark Shapiro – Montreal
The only products that are successful on the Internet are those that one can just
as easily buy from some type of vending machine – books, CDs, soft-ware,
computers. All the Internet does is create a new form of distribution because
vending machines are not big enough and cannot hold enough variety. It is not by
accident that supermarkets have people at the check-out counters, stores in malls
have salespeople to help us, and mail-order catalogues with 800 numbers let us talk
to a sales rep. the Internet is going to take off only after companies can offer
efficient customer service. We like dealing with real people when we shop.
Mark Shapiro
Communication practice.
Work in pairs. Read the letters again and decide which letter comes closest to
your own opinion. Which points do you agree with, which points do you disagree
with? Exchange your reasons with your partner (See tips for discussion).
2.4 Language and grammar
2.4.1 Tenses: Present continuous or present simple?
a) Match the questions to the correct answers below.
1 What are you doing?
2 What do you do?
3 Does it scan colour photos?
4 Is it scanning the colour photos?
5 Does the computer fair take place in November?
6 Is the computer fair taking place in November?
7 When do you start work?
8 When are you starting work?
9 Where's he going on vacation?
10 Where does he go on vacation?
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
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This year? Hawaii, I believe.
Yes, every year.
I'm trying to connect the printer.
Of course, and the range is pretty decent, too.
As soon as I finish my training.
I'm a programmer.
Of course, just look at the monitor.
I'm pretty sure it is, but I can check it out for you.
Oh, his family has a cottage on Martha's Vineyard.
I have flexi-time but generally between 8 and 9.
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Info-Box: Present continuous
The following groups of verbs do not normally form a continuous tense:
• Verbs expressing feelings or desires (like, hate, fear, want etc.)
• Verbs of perception (see, hear, feel, taste)
Exception: when we use 'to see' to mean 'to meet with', or 'feel' to mean 'state of
health '.Examples: I am seeing him today (= meeting).
She's feeling out of sorts (= in poor health).
• Verbs expressing opinions (think, feel, believe, expect)
Exception: when we use 'think' to mean a mental activity, and 'expect' to mean
'to await'. Examples: Let me concentrate - I'm thinking. We're expecting (= await)
the guests to arrive at any moment.
• Verbs of possession (have, belong to, own, possess etc.).
Exception: when we use 'have' in one of its special meanings (= eat, drink,
celebrate etc.) Examples: We're having a party on Saturday (= celebrating).
What are you having (= What would you like to drink)?
b) Choose the correct form of the verb: present simple or continuous
Example: 1.12. Anita: I hear you are leaving us.
Anita: I (1. hear) you (2. leave) us.
Benny: That's right. I (3. fly) to New York on the 8th.
Anita: Hey, that's great. And what you (4. do) there?
Benny: A friend (5. have) an online-tour guide service in Manhattan and I (6.
help) out for the summer.
Anita: And what he (7. pay) you?
Benny: Oh, I (8. not get) paid - it's for the experience. I (9. want) to learn more
about online-tour service marketing. I (10. think) about specializing in that field.
Anita: Oh, really? What (11. like) you about advertising? (12. not feel) you it's
manipulative?
Benny: Well, it can be, of course, but that (13. not concern) me at the moment.
Anita: I don't believe what I (14. hear). You always (15. talk) about consumer
rights and then you say something like that.
Benny: I guess we (16. feel) differently about things.
2.4.2 Comparing and describing hardware
- Put the adjectives in brackets into the comparative or superlative form.
Example: DVDs have a (high) density than CD-ROMS.
DVDs have a higher density than CD-ROMS.
1 Generally speaking, the (high) the resolution of the monitor, the (accurate) and
(intensive) are the colours.
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2 This information on the two graphics tablets is actually (detailed) than I need
it to be: (little) is sometimes (much).
3 For (far) information on our hardware consult our website at www.ptmag.con.
4 The (simple) an explanation is in a manual, the (good).
5 Clearly one of the (important) features of the new laser printer is its enormous
speed.
2.4.3 Placing Prepositions
a) Choose the right preposition from the box for the following sentences
off - about - at - in (2x) - of (2x) - by
Terry: There must be a message for you on your answering machine; I can see
the light blinking on and (1).
Carol: Thanks, it must be from Sue (2) the video conference. It's scheduled for
this afternoon (3) three.
Terry: That's (4) less than a half hour.
Carol: I'm aware (5) the fact but I don't know if I can get away (6) time. You
couldn't fill in for me (7) any chance?
Terry: No way, I'm under a lot (8) pressure at the moment myself.
b) Match the following words to their fixed prepositions
of - about - on - to - in
- count - depend - rely - insist - interested
- involved - succeed - concerned - worried - talk - proud -accused - fond - used look forward – accustomed
c) Finish the following sentences using the correct preposition and the gerund
form of an appropriate verb
Example: 1. We look forward to hearing from you soon.
1 We look forward ... (hear) from you soon.
2 He's used ... (work) long hours.
3 Are you interested ... (buy) a new notebook?
4 They finally succeeded ... (connect) the printer properly.
5 The customer insisted ... (pay) the scanner by cheque.
6 The computer hotline had difficulty ... (find) the error.
Info-Box: The gerund
The gerund should not be confused with the continuous form of the verb though
they2.4.4
bothInstructions
end in "ing". The gerund usually emphasizes an activity and is really a
verbal noun.
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The explanations below deal with a digital camera. Convert the explanations
into clear step-by-step instructions.
Example: 1. Connect the camera to the computer.
2. Turn on ...
After connecting the camera via a cable to the computer, turn on your computer
and open up Photoshop from the icon on your desktop. From the Photoshop menu
select the file import Twain 32 Source and click it on. After that follow the menu
path: source - XR Digitial Camera - File -Import - Twain 32. This should land you in
XR Digital Vision.
Now's the fun part. First of all, click on the contact sheet which is really just a
collection of all the pictures from the camera. Choose the picture you want by
clicking with the mouse or choose more than one picture by using the shift key on the
keyboard. After that select download and choose from download either image
window or disk. All you have to do now is wait a bit, close XR Digital Vision by
going to File, and then the image comes up on your screen like magic!
Info-Box: Acronyms and abbreviations
An acronoym is made up from the first letters of the name of something.
Example: DVD = digital versatile disk
An abbreviation is the shortened form of a word. Example: Mr = Mister
3 Unit 3. Operating systems
Look at the illustration. What do you think the function of the operating system
(OS) is? Why is the OS so important? What other devices or elements of a computer
system can you identify?
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3.1 Operating systems and system software
a) Read the following text and complete it with the words in the box below [6]
operating - software - user - execute - resources - application - word processing files -system – translating
After concentrating on the hardware aspects of computing we are now going to
focus on the information provided by programs and data, also known as (1).
Programs vary in complexity but are basically sets of instructions or
commands. They cause the computer to (2) certain operations and jobs. Generally
we distinguish between two main types: system and (3) software. (4) programs and
spreadsheets are examples of application programs. These are programs developed
for specific purposes to perform certain tasks.
We call the programs which control the basic functions of a computer and keep
the system running system software. They include (5) utilities which are small
programs designed to improve a system's performance such as anti-virus, file search
or backup programs. There are also language translators, for example compilers for
(6) instructions into machine code as well as (7) systems.
Ruling with an iron hand, the operating system governs the hardware and
software (8) of a system. Communicating directly with the computer it consists of a
set of programs and (9) which control all the elements the average (10) sees.
b) Go back and read over the text again. Define and, if possible, give examples
for the following terms:
1 software
2 system software
3 application software
4 operating system
с) Kevin Graham, a computer trainer, is talking about different operating
systems (See Additional Material 3.1, p.183). Read and complete the sentences below
using your own words
1 The companies which make computers usually ...
2 You need an operating system to ...
3 When using MS DOS operating system you communicate with the computer...
4 The COPY command ...
5 The OS/2 operating system has ...
6 You use different routines to ...
7 Windows 95 and Windows 98 are not really
8 Windows NT is ...
9 With Windows NT you can ...
10 UNIX is written ...
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11 Linux and UNIX are both ...
12 Surprising about Linux is ...
13 You can get Linux ...
14 Linux is ...
d) Make a list of all operating systems you can think of. What do they have in
common? What applications are they used for?
3.1.1 BIOS - Basic input output system
a) Read the following text and decide if the statements below are true or false
BIOS stands for basic input output system and its routines are generally stored
in ROM. Operating between the hardware and higher software levels, BIOS works
directly with the hardware and peripheral devices of a computer. It deals with quite
elementary operations such as writing individual bytes onto the monitor or a disk.
Making efficient use of this built-in software is the secret to successful programming
and system administration.
1 BIOS are hardware devices.
2 It's easy to access and change BIOS routines.
3 BIOS performs very basic tasks.
4 Learning to program BIOS is important for system administrators.
b) Match the verbs on the left, often found in BIOS, with their equivalents on
the right
Example: 1 inspecting - c. to examine
1 inspecting
2 entering
3 terminating
4 existing
5 skipping
6 reading
7 updating
8 logging
9 forwarding
10 running
11 processing
12 mounting
13 using
a) to pass over
b) to understand
с) to examine
d) to register
e) to work
f) to employ
g) to end
h) to work on
i) to be
j) to write down
k) to pass on
l) to make modern
m) to start
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c) Put the following instructions to reset a BIOS Clock in the right order
1 Push the F10 key to save the changes, then push any key to return to the BIOS
Setup window.
2 The BIOS menu will be displayed. Use the ARROW key to select Setup and
then push the RETURN key.
3 Turn on the power switch.
4 Push the ESC key to return to the BIOS menu. Push the ESC key a second
time to reboot the CTS.
5 The BIOS Setup Window will be displayed. The current date and time are
displayed in the top left corner. Using the ARROW keys, NUMERIC keys, and
the ENTER key, set the date and the time.
6 Wait for the memory test to be completed, then push the CTRL, ALT, and S
key simultaneously.
d) OS commands are often abbreviations of English words. Can you guess what
they stand for? Complete the sentences below with the appropriate form of the
following verbs
Example: 1. The command DEL deletes files and programs.
display - delete - change (2x) - create - copy - save - initialize
1 The command DEL ? files and programs.
2 The DISKCOPY ? all the files from one floppy disk to another.
3 BACKUP ? the contents of the hard disk on floppy disks for reasons of
security.
4 REN ? the names of your files.
5 CHDIR ? your current directory.
6 FORMAT ? a floppy disk.
7 MKDIR ? a sub-directory.
8 DIR ? a list of the files of a disk or directory.
e) Five IT students are talking about their plans after finishing their training (See
Additional Material 3.2, p.184). Which of the students talk about the following
subjects?
1 visiting English speaking countries
2 making money
3 reading in English
4 finding a job
5 working at home
6 working in an English speaking environment
7 moving to a new location
8 finishing their training
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9 working for a company
10 family members
Communication practice.
Now interview your partner about his/her future plans. Ask questions such as the
following:
1 When are you going to finish your training?
2 What are you going to do first?
3 Are you planning on relocating?
4 Do you think you'll need English on the job? What for?
3.1.2 System utilities
Available for backup, file search, and virus protection among other things,
system utilities are small programs. With them you can take advantage of a
computer's potential and improve its performance.
Study the following example of a system utility and answer the questions below.
USERDEL
userdel removes a user and, optionally, a user's home directory and any
subdirectories from the system.
userdel -r
Files in the user's home directory will be removed along with the home directory
itself. Files located in other file systems will have to be searched for and deleted
manually.
userdel will not allow you to remove an account if the user is currently logged
in. You must kill any running processes which belong to an account that you are
deleting. You may not remove any NIS attributes on a NIS client. This must be
performed on the NIS server.
1 What does userdel do?
2 What does the userdel command change? Which entries does it erase?
3 What will happen if you type in userdel -r?
4 Does this command affect files not located in the home directory? What do
you have to do with them?
5 Under what circumstances will userdel not function? What do you have to do
in such a case?
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3.2 Installing Linux
a) Rewrite the text below as a step-by-step procedure summarizing the five main
points [4]
1 First resize ...
2 Then ...
3 After that ...
4 Now...
5 Finally ...
On most systems the hard drive is already dedicated to partitions for other
operating systems. You'll need to resize these partitions in order to make space for
Linux. If you're going to run a dual-boot system, it's strongly recommended that you
read one or more mini-HOWTOS, which describe different dual-boot configurations.
Newer Linuxes start by running a screen-oriented installation program which
tries to interactively walk you through these steps, giving lots of help.
You will probably get the option to try and configure X right away so that the
installation program can go graphical. If you choose this route, the installation
program will quiz you about your mouse and monitor type before getting to the
installation proper. Once you get your production Linux installed, these settings will
be saved for you. You will be able to tune your monitor's performance later, so at this
stage it makes sense to settle for a basic 640x480 SVGA mode. Just follow the
prompts in the program. It will take you through the steps necessary to prepare your
disk, create initial user accounts and install software packages off the CD-ROM.
b) Translate the above text
Info-Box: Efficient reading
Before you start reading a text try to guess what it might be about from the title
or attached pictures. Try and recall what you already know about this topic. What
ideas or words do you associate with it? Are you looking for specific information?
You don't need to read every word but can skim over the text and skip to the parts
you are most interested in.
Is grasping the main idea of the text more important? Reading for gist and not detail
should then be your focus. Decide which words or phrases are paramount and which
are not as essential. Knowing the parts of speech, for example, nouns, adjectives,
prepositions and so on can be very helpful. In the sentence "he's a (reliable), quite
(conscientious), very (considerate) and hard-working employee" you don't have to
understand all or even most of the words to get the idea. You should recognize,
though, that the words in parentheses are adjectives and along with "hard-working"
project a positive image.
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3.3 Graphical User Interface (GUI)
a) Read the following description of the snapshot of the GUI and complete the
text with the words in the box below [5]
icons - applications - options - scroll bars - file - square -X - hardware - date menu - mouse - software
A graphical user interface is an operating environment based on graphics. By
simply pointing and clicking with the mouse the user can activate the different
features of a computer system.
In the upper left hand side of the screen there is a collection of labelled (1). They
represent various (2) devices such as the printer or floppy disk drive, (3) such as
Workoffice or Internet as well as other options. You can activate them by clicking
with your (4).
On the right hand side of the picture you can see two windows one just above
the other. They allow the user to work on a number of documents or (5)
simultaneously. Across the top are menu bars with a selection of (6): file, edit, view
and so on.
Along the right hand side are the (7) which allow you to scan up and down,
viewing the contents of the currently active (8). Clicking one of the three symbols in
the upper-right-hand corner directly manipulates the window. Clicking the dot
minimizes the window but it's still active. Clicking the (9) enlarges the size of the
window to encompass the whole screen and the (10) closes that window. Along the
left hand side of the screen there are two pull-down menus displaying various
options. Clicking on the К in the very lower-left-hand corner of the screen activates
the first (11). The arrows along the right indicate subdirectories that the user activates
by moving the pointer in the direction indicated.
Back to the bottom: Moving from the left to the right along the lower menu bar,
let's have a look at some further features. You can switch desktops by either choosing
the folder to its right or one of the four numbered bars a little further along. The
folder with the little house represents the user's home directory. Activating the lower
icon of the two to its right lets you lock your display while the top icon lets you log
out. Making a jump to the far right, you'll see the time and (12) on display.
b) Match the following icons displayed on the right with their functions
1 home directory
2 KDE online browser
3 lets you write small notes
4 utilities
5 mail client
6 sound control
7 find utility
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8 text editor
9 calculator
c) Answer the following questions concerning the GUI
1 What does the abbreviation GUI stand for?
2 Name at least four features of a typical GUI (hint: the acronym WIMP gives
you clues).
3 What is the purpose of icons? Are they always labelled?
4 Explain how to enlarge, close and minimize a window.
5 Name at least three options that can be found in an internet sub-directory.
6 Is there sometimes more than one way to activate a feature?
Give an example.
3.4 Language and grammar
3.4.1 Tenses: Going-to-future
a) Rewrite the following plans using the "going-to-future"
Example: 1. John is going to move to Toronto in November for his new job.
1 John plans on moving to Toronto in November for his new job.
2 They're scheduled to fly to the Boston Computer Fair in November.
3 The boss intends to give her a raise.
4 What do you intend to do about the trouble with our new operating system?
5 The company's plan is to take over the software industry.
6 Where do they plan to set up their new branch?
b) Match the sentences on the left with those on the right closest in meaning.
1 I'll help to set up our stand at the a) I'm offering to help right now.
fair.
b) I would like to know if you plan to
2 I'm going to help set up our stand talk to him.
at the fair.
с) I know because she told me she plans
3 I'm sure she'll come.
to.
4 She's going to come.
d) They live dangerously.
5 Are you going to talk to him e) If you ask her she should say yes.
about it?
f) I intend to help when the time comes.
6 Will you talk to him about it?
g) What they're doing at the moment is
7 They'll get into trouble one of dangerous.
h) I would like you to talk to him.
these days.
8 They're going to get into trouble.
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c) Choose the correct future form of the verb:
Will infinitive/will continuous/present continuous/present simple/going to
1 Classes (start) next month on the third.
2 I (start) a computer crash course next month on the third.
3 I (take) a computer course next semester.
4 Perhaps I (take) a computer course next semester.
5 I (must take) a computer course some day.
6 I (take) at least three computer courses next semester.
7 Okay, since you insist, I (take) the computer course with you.
8 I think we (get off) to a good start, (before actually starting)
9 I think we (get off) to a good start, (after actually starting)
3.4.2 Idioms: make or do?
Info-Box: "Do" and "make"
We use "do" for activities and in the sense of finishing or carrying out tasks.
Example: I do sports / do my homework. We use "make" when talking about
producing, preparing or creating something. Those are the general rules but there
are many variations so that a student has no choice but to learn the different
combinations by heart.
Complete the following sentences with the correct form of -do- or -make-.
1 The printers are ... a lot of noise - please ... something!
2 She usually ... a good job, but I can't... out this report at all.
3 We are ... progress but there's still a lot to ... .
4 ... some kind of sports helps keep you fit, of course, but I think some people ...
an obsession of it.
5 Look, I don't want to ... any difficulties but your... that repeatedly ... me
nervous.
6 Please don't... it anymore.
3.4.3 Used to ...
Choose the correct word or phrase from the box below to complete the
sentences.
used to - am/is/are used to - am/is/are using - use - use of
1 I no longer get sore muscles when I go to the fitness center because I ...
exercising.
2 We ... be with that provider but are now with AWOL.
3 Scientists still ... Fortran for research purposes.
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4 What's the ... waiting any longer?
5 ... you ... the new machine yet?
6 We ... a new voice recognition system to upgrade security.
7 What operation system ... he ... at the moment? No idea, but I do know he ...
use MODUS.
8 I can't get... using my new password.
3.4.4 Helping verbs: will/shall
Info-Box: There is sometimes confusion in connection with when to use
"shall" versus "will". We now use "shall" almost exclusively to make proposals or
ask advice.
Example: Shall we go for a drink? What shall I do now?
For the future we use "will" as a general rule, the exception being the use of
"shall" with "I" or "we" to make rather formal promises or sweeping statements.
Example: We shall overcome.
Complete the following sentences with "shall" or "will". In two examples either
word is possible. How does the use of "will" in contrast to "shall" change the
meaning of the sentence?
1 Let's go, ... we?
2 I'm pretty sure we ... get there in in time.
3 I ... never speak to him again as long as I live.
4 How ... I ever get out of this mess?
5 She ... not listen no matter what I say.
6 ... we say five for the meeting, then?
3.4.5 Facing the future
a) Write down at least five statements dealing with the future of computers in
general
Example: By the year 2010 I think voice recognition will be the most common
means of input. Discuss your predictions with the rest of the class. What points does
everyone agree, disagree on?
b) This time write down five statements giving your opinion on the future of
cybernetics
Example: In the future I'll probably do most of my shopping online.
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Communication practice.
Now discuss your personal prognosis with a partner (or the class as a whole)
What similarities/dissimilarities are there?
3.4.6 Suffixes
a) Think up new words using the following root words and suffixes
Example: select – selective
update - impulse - select - print - execute - reduce - compare - read - economic promise
able
(ic)al
ing
ible
ive
b) The suffixes -minded I -some I -free I -less I -ful can often be added to form
new words. Using the word in brackets form an appropriate adjective
1 Oh, be (care), it's rather hot.
2 It's really (awe) that you could come, man. (Am. English)
3 On this point we're pretty (like).
4 (Care) rather than (care) is the way I'd describe his happy go lucky manner.
5 There's an (awe) lot of work to be done so let's get focused.
6 Is the bonus (tax)?
7 People working with the public must be (tact).
8 I admit he's (hand) but unfortunately very (narrow).
3.4.7 False friends
Choose the correct word in brackets.
1 My colleague is going through a divorce and is having a lot of
(family/familiar) problems at the moment.
2 What an (embarrassing/fatal) mistake to make - she's his boss, not his
assistant!
3 Are you (familiar with/knowing about) the new operating system?
4 We're (ready/finished) with the first project. - Congratulations! I (find/think)
that's great.
5 He's got to (go/drive) to Houston on business (first / at first) and then on to
Austin.
6 Their son goes to (gymnasium/high school) and after school gets a (good/well)
workout at the local (gymnasium/sports hall).
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4 Unit 4. Application Software
Which of the options listed below do you think would be included in which
software package?
1- sandbox to download applets
- anti-virus program
- personal firewall
- cookie manager
2- filters
- frame-handling
- image editing
- web and paper output
3- 1,000 fonts
- 12,000 clip-art images
- word processing
4- new menus and toolbars
- totals figures automatically
- size: notebooks 1 million rows x 18,000
- column x 18,000 sheets
5- tabs to switch slides and slideview modes
- quick play slide mode
6- search function
- password management
- networking facilities
- update function
4.1 Word processing
a) Explain the function of the following word processing menus
Tools - Insert - View - Format - File - Edit
b) The following advertising letter features a number of word processing options.
Complete the letter by matching the numbers to the terms in the box below
justification - hyphenation - mail merging - search and replace - word processing
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WORDPOWER [4]
Are you still stuck in the dead-end technology of typewriting your letters,
memos or reports?
Merge with the new millennium (1) О provides a flexible way of creating and
editing all your documents and text files. Its ability to store, retrieve and change
information makes it a powerful performance tool.
Our newest line of WORDPOWER software offers standard features such as
Search and replace, mail merging, automatic hyphenation and justification as well as
formidable format capabilities and a wide variety of view and typeface options.
(2) allows you to track down any given word or phrase anywhere in a text and to
change, delete or do whatever you want with it.
(3) can make or break your market penetration. With WORDPOWER more than
just a "personalized" salutation to an otherwise obvious form letter is possible. By
combining a number of files you can designate what information - names, addresses,
birth dates, known preferences - goes into which blank spaces to appeal directly to
your individual customers.
WORDPOWER's automatic hyphenation and justification give your text a sleek,
streamlined appearance. Using a comprehensive dictionary, the automatic (4)
constantly monitors and checks words as you input them. If a word is too long when
you come to the end of a line the automatic hyphenation kicks in, splits the word,
adds a hyphen and places the rest of the word on the next line. (5) spaces your words
evenly across a line so that the text is flush with the margins.
WYSIWIG = What You See Is What You Get with WORDPOWER for optimal
screen viewing of a wide variety of type styles. The display of different typefaces and
format options also facilitates document planning and even more complex layout
applications.
Win the world with WORDPOWER!
c) Complete the definitions below using terms from the letter above
(1) is the manipulation of words and text using a computer in order to produce
documents for printing or storing.
(2) allows you to find a particular word, symbol or phrase in a specific file and
substitute it for another one automatically.
(3) combines a database file with a word processor in order to be able to send
"personalized" standard letters to any number of people.
(4) is the automatic division of words into syllables using a short dash so that the
lines of your text are of equal length.
(5) spaces the words and letters in a line of type so that the text is flush with the
margins and your document has a sleek appearance.
(6) allows you to view directly on the screen what you will afterwards have in
print.
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d) Work in pairs. Using the clues in the box below take turns describing the
WORDS. Can your partner guess the right WORD?
Example: It's written in plain text bold and underlined. Number 4? That's right.
1 word
2 word
3 "word"
4 word
5 [word]
6 (WORD)
7 WORD
8 ["word"]
9 (WORD)
10 word
underlined - italics - bold - CAPITALS -"quotation marks" – highlighting (parenthesis) - [brackets] - enlarged -plain text
4.2 Spreadsheets
a) Look at the spreadsheet below and answer the following questions (Table 1):
1 What does this spreadsheet provide information about?
2 What are the three basic elements of a spreadsheet called?
3 How many rows are there altogether?
4 How many months does a column represent?
5 What does the cell at the intersection of the fourth column and the fifth row
tell you?
6 When do you think a number of new shares were bought? What makes you
think so? Where did the money come from?
7 Is there any quarter in which expenses exceeded earnings?
8 Are there any seasonal fluctuations in expenditures? Can you think of any
explanations?
9 You have just received delayed payment for a consulting job completed in
December. Which cell(s) will be affected?
10 What formula do you need to compare quarterly earnings and expenses?
Table 1
А
1
1
2 mortgage
3 utilities
4 clothes
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В
2
1st
2950
675
2550
С
3
2nd
2950
555
1340
D
4
3rd
2950
589
1666
E
5
4th Quarter
2950
635
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Continued table 1
1
5 food
6 Fees / enter
7 Transport
8 Misc.
9 Total Expenses
10
11 interest
12 stocks
13 rent
14 fees
15 salary
16 Total revenue
17
18 total
2
2200
350
1355
1678
11758
3
4
2199 1989
501
670
1256 776
1189 1550
9990 10190
5
1905
220
5250
1510
14668
3050
1224
1500
2400
6700
14874
3150
1550
1500
3100
6700
16000
233
4447
1500
120
7200
13500
245
3987
1650
660
7500
14042
3116
6010
3310
-626
Communication practice.
Discuss the advantages or possible disadvantages of the different forms of
graphical representation given below. Consider the various types of information and
data you deal with in your daily work life. Which diagram is best suited for
presenting which type of material?
bar chart - flow chart
line graph - grid - matrix
organigram - pie chart
4.3 Databases
a) Fields, records and files are the three basic elements that go towards making
up a database, but they also have multiple meanings in the English language. You
have a twofold task: first, decide which of the following dictionary definitions best
describes their functions in a database. Secondly, in each record one of the fields
contains misplaced data. Assign the misplaced information to the correct record [5].
A field is:
1 a stretch of land on a farm
2 an open area where a game is played or an activity takes place
3 a collection of papers on one subject
4 a unit of information
A record is:
1 a collection of interrelated data elements
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2 a branch of knowledge
3 the best yet done; the highest/lowest figure ever reached
4 a circular piece of plastic on which sound can be stored
A file is:
1 a section of information stored on disk - a document or an application
2 a written statement of facts or events
3 a steel tool with a rough face which is used for smoothing surfaces
4 a collection of digitally or analog stored data
b) Find the missing words of the text below in the following word square [4]
S
O
R
T
K
N
R
К
E
D
E
L
E
T
E
L
СT I
F I L
С0 R
AYO
YВO
XUS
T RI
NP О
0 NF
E MI
D0 E
UT L
ARD
E RS
E VE
AS L
Designed to store, organize and (1) large amounts of information, databases play
a key role in today's fast-paced business world. It's not only quicker but more fun to
enter information via a (2) rather than writing it down on an indexed filing card with
a pencil or biro. Databases are composed of three basic elements. First, the data is
entered via (3), one for each piece of information. For a person you might have one
field for the first name – Larry, a second for the surname – Mayer, another for age 25.
A (4) consists of a number of fields containing information about a certain
person or product. Grouped together, a collection of records is called a (5).
The advantage of databases is that they can be easily updated simply by
changing fields. Should an employee move house you just call up the person's record
and change the address field. However, you can change records not just one at a time,
but collectively for the whole or a certain (6) of a file. It is also possible to add new
records or (7) old ones, for example, if an employee should die or retire.
With a database it is also a lot easier to (8) through a number of records looking
for particular information. A library, for example, can quickly locate missing books
by searching the ID card number field of its lenders, the book code field and the due
date field simultaneously.
Using mail, the merging library can then combine this information from their
database with a letter document to send personalized reminders to their readers to
return the books. The database Q can not only vary the number of fields on a record
but the (9) can also be customized to fit specific purposes or tastes.
c) Design your own mini-database for one of the following. Decide on at least
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five fields per record. Consider various sorting and layout options you might include
Example: photo collection
fields: holidays, countries, people, hotels, beaches, birthdays ...
sort: alphabetically (countries), chronologically (birthdays)
Photo collection - recipes - friends and relatives - music collection
Communication practice.
In pairs ask your partner about his/her database. Ask questions such as the
following:
What kind of database have you got?
What do you use it for?
4.4 Language and grammar
4.4.1 Active and passive
a) Convert the following active sentences into the passive
Info-Box: Active/Passive
The passive puts the spotlight on the person or thing something is happening to
rather than the agent of an activity. Example: Active: People really like John.
Passive: John is well liked. Note: John, the object of the active sentence becomes the
focus or subject of the passive sentence. The subject or agent of the active sentence,
people, can be dropped, as is often the case in passive sentences. Another minor
change is 'well' instead of 'really liked' because it sounds better in the passive.
1 In the future we won't need a keyboard to input data.
2 My voice mail program automatically downloads incoming messages.
3 They must take measures to protect the system against viruses.
4 The authorities don't seem to be doing anything about it.
5 People are buying more and more merchandise online.
6 Somebody might help us if we asked.
7 What can anyone do to help?
8 Some guy always takes care of all the travel arrangements.
b) List the following passive sentences under these categories:
Database
Spreadsheets
Wordprocessing
programs
Language
learning
software
Route
planners
Accountancy
programs
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Example:
Database
Spreadsheets Wordprocessing
programs
information are used for
different
is stored
displaying in- types and
digitally
formation in sizes of
the form of a fonts can
table
be used
Language
learning
software
vocabulary
can be
practiced
Route
planners
Accountancy
programs
maps can
be
displayed
calculations
are made
- tax laws are explained
- more attractive documents can be made using drawing and graphics tools
- grammar exercises are featured
- visual representations, for example, in the form of pie charts, can be produced
- information can be retrieved more easily
- changes can be made in any number of records at one time
- fields can be added or deleted from any number of records in one or two easy
steps
- the width of columns can be changed
- listening exercises can be listened to
- alternative routes are suggested
- tax forms are provided
- spelling and grammar mistakes can be checked
4.4.2 Infinitive or 'ing'-form?
Choose the infinitive or ";'ng"-form of the verbs in brackets of the following
sentences.
Info-Box: Infinitive and 'ing'-form
Most adjectives are followed by the infinitive form of the verb. Example: He's
afraid to say anything.
However, if the adjective is coupled to a preposition the 'ing' follows. Example: He's
always afraid of saying the wrong thing.
1 After (do) my morning exercises, I always feel ready (take) on a new day.
2 We're sorry about (have) (push) back the deadline but our team just isn't
capable of (work) any faster.
3 Sorry (interrupt) but I'm finding it difficult (follow) your train of thought.
4 Our firm is proud (announce) the upcoming merger with Nevertell.
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4.4.3 Prepositions
Complete the following sentences with an appropriate preposition.
from - after - till - at - in - per - of(2x) - within – during
A spreadsheet consists (1) a number of columns across the top of the sheet and
rows down. The amount of money spent (2) annum (3) $million is along the left hand
side of the graph. Please return the attached form (4) eight days to receive your free
sample copy (5) РАС magazine. You'll be able to contact me anytime (6) the fifth (7)
the Hilltown Hotel. I'm staying there (8) the fair (9) Wednesday (10) Tuesday the
11th.
4.4.4 Having things done
Reword the following sentences using have or get with a past participle.
Info-Box: Having things done
In English if I don't want to do something myself I have or get it done. Two
things to keep in mind:
1 WORD ORDER: The object is placed directly after the have/get and before
the past participle. Example: I have my hair cut on a regular basis.
2 FOCUS: As with the passive, the focus is on the activity itself and not the
agent which can often be dropped.
Example: 1. How often do you have your computer checked for viruses?
1 How often do you check your computer for viruses?
2 I pay a lady to clean my house every other week.
3 Entertaining is a lot easier if caterers prepare all the food in advance for you.
4 If no one can read Czech, a translation bureau is going to have to translate
those letters for us.
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5 Unit 5 Multimedia
a) Which multimedia applications can you think of?
b) Which is the best definition of multimedia? Give reasons
1 Multimedia is a combination of text, graphics, photographs and
sound, with which users interact on a computer.
2 Multimedia means using auditory media in order to communicate.
3 Multimedia is any combination of text, graphic art, sound, animation, and
video that you can access via computer or other electronic means.
5.1 Multimedia encyclopedias [4]
Gathering dust on the shelves of school libraries, the old-fashioned
encyclopedia set is fast going the way of the slide ruler. For research purposes of all
kinds you can get more information and access better resources using a CD-ROM
encyclopedia from the comfort of your own home.
Featuring a variety of options, interactive, multimedia encyclopedias have
numerous advantages over hard-cover encyclopedias. Since multimedia
encyclopedias aren't limited to the pages of a book, the information can be
interconnected and linked. By clicking a word or button you can jump to a related
article, find the definition of a term or the explanation for an un known concept.
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Multimedia encyclopedias also feature search options to enable you to look through
the whole contents of the encyclopedia for a specific word or phrase.
Hard-cover encyclopedias don't allow you to listen to violin music or the sound
of a barking hyena. If one picture is worth ten thousand words, what about a whole
series of animated graphics or film sequences? Using multimedia features - sound,
film and animation - CD-ROM encyclopedias can demonstrate complicated
technical processes more fully: no ordinary encyclopedia article can have the same
impact as a video clip or detailed animation illustrating an actual rocket blasting off.
Most CD-ROM encyclopedias also include interactive activities, 360-degree views,
and moving, multimedia maps as added features. A big advantage of the interactive
encyclopedia is that you can use many of the photographs to illustrate reports by
cutting and pasting them into your documents (don't forget to give credit!).
Conventional encyclopedias also do not offer links to the most important resource,
the Internet. Most of the multimedia encyclopedias include links within the articles
to online sites that provide even more in-depth coverage. These online connections
sometimes allow users to download updates to their encyclopedias featuring more
up-to-date articles and recent resources.
In point of fact, you can't really compare the old volume set in your school's
library and the multitude of resources you can access through a multimedia
encyclopedia which moves in an almost different dimension of reality.
Summarize the article above by listing the six main advantages of a CD-ROM
as opposed to a conventional encyclopedia.
5.1.1 Multimedia file formats
a) List the following file formats under theses categories:
Picture files - Sound/Music files - Video/Movie files - Text files - Compressed
files
- .gif - .jpg - .mid/.midi - .wav - .mpeg - .mov - .zip - .htm/, html
- .pdf - .avi - .mp3 - .tif - .txt - .xml - .js
b) Match the file formats to their definitions [5]
1 You can read these text files in a World Wide Web browser.
2 A compressed text file.
3A popular movie file format for PCs.
4 These files are sound data, which are different from MIDI files that contain
no sound data but lists of commands for MIDI devices.
5 A standard for transmitting musical information between electronic
instruments and computers.
6 A standard format for storing pictures.
7 A standardized image compression mechanism for compressing full-colour or
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grey-scale images.
8 A standardized format for text files.
9 A cross platform file for graphics.
10 It's a multimedia file format whereby the audio and video elements are
interleaved, i.e. stored in alternate segments.
11 A popular compressed music download format.
12 A document which, with the proper reader, is displayed the same way on all
systems.
с) What do the above file extensions stand for?
Example: midi = Musical Instrument Digital Interface
5.1.2 Computer graphics
a) Complete the following text using the words below
animation
charts
manufacturing
publishing
graphics
diagrams
colours
drawings
design
photo-realistic
rendering
shadow images
3-D graphics [4]
Computer graphics is what we call the process of producing pictures and
drawings using a computer. Input is transformed into (1) that can then be displayed
on the screen, incorporated into other documents or printed out. The user can
convert the images or data into a variety of shapes or sizes, and many different (1).
There are a number of applications. CAD, or computer aided design, software is
used to help design buildings and structures, create plans, detailed maps and
complex (3). Computer aided (4) is complex software used to help plan and facilitate
modern production processes. Engineers use another type of special (5) software,
CAE, for designing electrical circuits and other complex devices.
Graphs and (6) can often communicate the necessary information or data more
effectively and quickly while even the most boring statistical reports can be
enlivened and made attractive by means of a few well-placed illustrations or (7)
Very popular are three-dimensional graphics which are used in a wide range of
fields as diverse as architecture, desktop (8), marketing and webpage (9). 3-D
graphics are created by a process called (10), which turns the view of a 3-D model
into a 2-D display image. Such images can incorporate basic lighting or more
sopishiticated effects that simulate (11), reflection and refraction. A series of such
renderings, each with the scene slightly changed, is what we call (12) and can
require as many as 30 renderings for every second. Time is an extremely important
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consideration in all 3-D animation and (13) pictures require high-end rendering
software.
b) Read the following sales presentation and answer these questions [2]:
1 What kind of product is being offered?
2 What are the main features of this product? Make a list.
3 What do you think Ms. Achuthan's job is?
4 Is she going to buy the product?
(Sales rep = SR, Ms Achuthan = MS)
SR: Good morning Ms Achuthan, glad you could fit me in today.
MS: My pleasure.
SR: Well, I promise not to take up too much of your time but I do have a new
package - Design Dream Homes. I think you'll be interested in it. If I could just set
my laptop up here on your desk ...
MS: Be my guest.
SR: All right, now as you can see this new graphics design software features all
the usual facilities, with a broad range of basic drawing and painting tools. Look,
you can see them here in the tool palette of icons on the left.
MS: I can't - oh, yes, the different geometric shapes here - the circles, lines,
arches and so on. They're called primitives, aren't they?
SR: That's right, but Design Dream has 3-D objects as well. You see, if I click
on this icon a menu pops up and you can activate cubes, cylinders, cones, whatever
you want. I'm sure you'll find the cubes very handy for your work.
MS: Pretty good, but can I also scale the 3-D objects? For example, if I decide
to enlarge a bathroom or whatever, can I scale the cube primitive?
SR: Sure, you just click the scaling icon - the one that looks like a magnifying
glass - like you do for regular primitives. You can use it to enlarge the object or
make it smaller. There's even a rotating function ...
MS: Good.
SR: It's this icon here. It allows you to turn the object around and view it from
any angle.
MS: Right. I take it that the arrow icon is still for selecting texts and images,
and the paintbrush for colours and patterns, but what about this box? Is it a primitive
or a function? What's it for?
SR: That's the eraser. It's used for deleting.
MS: Oh yes, I remember now. Whatever part I drag it over just disappears. SR:
I should point out, by the way, that you can also choose colours either from the
menu bar here below or any number of other attributes from the top menu bar. See
how easy it is?
MS: Not bad.
SR: Of course, there are a number of other options available for manipulating
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your objects. All you have to do is click the mouse on the right and a menu pops up.
You can determine your light source and choose a camera angle - options which will
certainly have a positive impact on your presentations for potential customers.
MS: I'm impressed.
SR: Just wait - the best is to come. Dream Design software, created especially
with the professional architect in mind, has a number of other options I'm sure you'll
find very helpful. If you click here you can activate a whole gallery of clip-arts everything from the kitchen sink to the pictures on the wall.
MS: This is great. Wow, there are even models of window frames and doors
and stairways.
SR: And they're not just pretty pictures. You'll notice there are link-ups to the
manufacturers so that you can order the material directly via the internet. A cost
calculation program is also included in the package and this is just the home design
section.
MS: I'm definitely interested, I'd love to have the package but there is the cost
factor. Now what I want to know is ...
с) Define and /or give examples for the following terms:
1 graphics package
2 tool palette
3 primitive
4 3-D objects
5 scaling
6 rotating function
7 eraser
8 attributes
9 clip-arts
10 icon
d) The symbols on the right represent graphic functions. Write sentences about
what they are used to do
Example: 1. Number 5 is used to draw a circle
e) Read how computer graphics have changed the jobs or lives of four people.
Make a grid like the one below and take notes.
Job
1 plastic surgeon
Used to
Now
Likes/dislikes
Patients used to
Using computer- positive attitude is
have ...
aided graphics
implied
I used to explain .. patients now ..
1 Over the years I have helped hundreds of women - and a great many men I
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might add - to a new image. My surgery has rejuvenated their appearance and given
them renewed self-confidence in themselves. But even we doctors can't perform
miracles and patients often have unrealistic expectations. I explain the procedure and
its consequences carefully, show them photos of other post-operative patients, but a
certain percentage suffer acute disappointment, even depression. Nowadays with
computer-aided graphics patients can see themselves and more realistically assess
the advantages of a given procedure. As one of my patients put it, it's like seeing
yourself in a back-to-the-future mirror.
2 I have been in the interior decorating, specifically the conceptual kitchen
planning business for over thirty years and I have to admit that I resisted the use of
computers at first. What did we need them for? CAD just means a lot of extra work,
I thought, but now I'm a convert. Once a customer had chosen a certain basic design,
I used to draw a detailed plan according to that customer's specific requirements and
requests. The wife or husband sometimes changed their minds, though, or there was
a mistake in the measurements. I often had to change the plan or even start from
scratch. It was quite frustrating. Now that's no longer a problem. Changes are easy to
make and 3-D drawings offer a more attractive graphic image with extra features and
options.
3 When I finished my training as a draughtswoman at a vocational school,
computers were still not widespread. My first job was at a small design studio and
we used to do all our work by hand. I liked drawing - that's why I chose the job in
the first place - but you needed a steady hand and lots of patience. My boss then sent
me on a CAD retraining course and now I do practically all my work on the
computer. Of course, there are advantages. You can rotate 3D objects to view them
from all perspectives but there are drawbacks as well. Eye strain can be a problem
and I don't really see that we save that much time. Technical drawings take time no
matter whether you do them on a drawing board or the computer.
4.1 never thought I'd have anything to do with computers. I don't need one for
my work - I'm a coach driver - but now I don't think I could live without one. It's like
this. I've always liked to take photos and friends sometimes even used to ask me to
take the pictures at weddings or christenings. I didn't have a darkroom or anything
and the shop used to make the prints for me but now with a digital camera and the
right hardware and a good graphics program I can do all that myself. I even have a
little side business going now taking and printing out group photos on a portable
printer of the tour parties I drive around.
5.2 Desktop Publishing (DTP)
DTP allows you to design and publish all sorts of printed material using a
personal computer. One of the most important features of DTP systems is that you
can see on the monitor what your document will look like when it is printed
(WYSIWYG). With DTP a user can produce newsletters, magazines and even
books. It combines a number of different operations such as word processors,
graphics design, output, prepress technologies and image manipulation. DTP has a
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number of support applications. The most important are font creation, type
manipulation and layout applications. Font creation applications allow the user to
design and create their own typefaces while type manipulation changes the text to
make it look more attractive.
Layout applications are used to import files from the different applications. The
text, graphics, or images are then arranged on a page. Layout software is very useful
because it can manipulate and control many different data elements.
In the final stage of DTP an imagesetter is needed to print the finished files
onto film. After that they are printed on paper. Just as there are copy shops for
making copies, there are service bureaus which specialize in printing files on
imagesetters. They also have machines to make different sorts of output such as laser
printers and film recorders as well as colour scanning equipment.
a) Answer the following questions on the text
1 What is desktop publishing?
2 What processes are involved in desktop publishing?
3 What kind of support applications are used in desktop publishing?
4 What do font creation applications do?
5 What are type manipulation applications used for?
6 What is a layout application used for?
7 What makes layout software so useful?
8 What is an imagesetter?
9 What is the difference between a copy shop and a service bureau?
10 What other sorts of services do the bureaus often offer?
5.3 Computer and multimedia fairs
a) Read the excerpts from a Multimedia Fair brochure below
Multimedia fair 2003 [4]
IMAGES is a multimedia fair in partnership with the State Library of Vancouver,
the National Gallery of Art, Cinemaxx and HITECH Inc. It is an opportunity for
businesses, agencies and cultural organisations to show the latest developments in the
multimedia field today. It is a chance for professionals as well as the general public to
experience state-of-the-art multimedia products, applications and services. Whether
you are a newcomer to the field of multimedia, out shopping for hardware, or your
company is involved in multimedia projects, IMAGES is the place to make it happen.
The State Library Building of Vancouver is situated at the corner of Swansee
Street and High Street, the main thoroughfare of the city. It is a short walk from the
main railway station. Trams run along both Swansee and High Street. There is a
shuttle bus service on a regular basis to the city airport. We encourage visitors to use
public transport. Car parking on the premises is available for exhibitors only.
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Registration Details The registration desk will be located in Hall 5. Confirmation for booth bookings will take place on the 30th October from 8am to
6pm - Registration for special events and workshops open to the public will take
place daily between 8am and 10am. Registration for exhibitors includes:
- Conference bag including programme, map, exhibitor listing
- One copy of Magic Moments CD, courtesy of HITECH
- Information from various fair sponsors
Payment Payment of booth fees by bank draft or credit card debit must
accompany applications. Registrations will be processed only if accompanied by full
payment.
Entrance fees in cash or by credit card, discounts for seniors and students with
valid identification.
Acknowledgement Your registration will be acknowledged in writing.
Cancellation Policy Cancellations must be in writing.
Refunds can only be made after 31st October 200... .
Name Badges Name badges for exhibitors must be worn at all times for
purposes of identification and security.
Messages The Message board will be located in the foyer of the annex. Callers
wanting to leave a message should ring the switchboard of the State Library
Building on 9884-8000.
Fair Organisers
Janet Velderbush (Fair Administrator), Veronica Kurzmia (Fair Manager)
Contacts: State Library Building of Vancouver
Hall 1:
Education, Training and Services
Multimedia and the Preschooler
Distant Learning and Home Study
Multimedia and Language Training
Software
Visual Presentation and Seminar
Systems
Multimedia in Special Education
Hall 3:
Applications
Desktop Publishing
Architecture
and
Multimedia
Applications
Multimedia in Advertising and Product
Placement
CAD CAM CAE
Hall 2:
Computer Products
Multimedia Application Software
MIDI - Hardware and Software
Computer Graphics Software
Storage Technology
Peripherals and Terminals Networking
Facilities
Multimedia Mobile
Hall 4:
Internet Services and Technology
Internet Service Providers
Webpage Design
Internet Technology
JavaScript
b) Together with a partner study the schedule of events being featured at the
multimedia fair on the next page. Choose at least two events per day you would both
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like to visit. Report back to the group (past tense) on how you spent your time at the
fair
Example:
On Monday we went... because we're interested in ... .
After that we ... since we want to learn ....
On Tuesday we went to a lecture by ... .
Monday, 09-15-2003, 9:30
Multimedia applications and
virtual environments
DigiMed, Mr. Gemot Kahn
Venue: WS Room: Berlin
Tuesday, 09-16-2003,10:40
Core factor in
competition:Multimedia and
e-business
ITM, Ms. Silvia Ulm
Venue: WS Room: London
Monday, 09-15-2003, 10:40
Government, Cultural
Organisations and
Multimedia
Ms. Maria Panni Director of the
Canadian
Multimedia Enterprise Board
Venue: WS Room: Oslo
Tuesday, 09-16-2003, 14:15
Schools, Customers and
Multimedia
Solutions for companies and
institutions
Mr. Adam Jenkins, General
Manager, Multimedia
Monday, 09-15-2003, 14:15
Software workbench:
Multimedia operating
systems
Studio Enterprise, Mr. Michael
Willet
Venue: WS Room: Dublin
Tuesday, 09-16-2003,15:30
Multimedia Demonstrations
Brian Merett
Cinemedia Paper online
Patricia Gilligan
Museum of Vancouver Paper
online
Venue: С Room: Rome
Monday, 09-15-2003,15:30
Case Studies
Mr. Mike Leahy
State Library of
Vancouverpaper Online
Hiliary Page
National Gallery of Art Online
Venue: WS Room: London
Tuesday, 09-16-2003,17:45
Marketing and Multimedia
Mr. Marcel Knieb, Director of
Marketing and Virtual
Museum, Toronto
Venue: WS Room: Oslo
Wednesday, 09-17-2003,10:40
Multimedia and 3D Graphics
ITM, Mr. John
McKinley
Venue: WS Room:
Dublin
Wednesday, 09-17-2003,13:15
Customer Focus: company
profile and strategic orientation
Ms. Baraba Pogi-Pessini, Head,
Department of
Communication Studies
Venue, WS Room: Madrid
Wednesday, 09-17-2003,15:30
Internet solutions for research
and development
Workflow and Knowledge
Management
Mr. Remedios Garcia, Director
of
Telecommunications Need
Research
Venue, WS Room: Brussels
Wednesday, 09-17-2003,16:45
Interactive multimedia
educational materials
INTEREDU AG, Dr. Heiner
Wagner
Venue, WS Room: Madrid
c) Asking the Way
Poor George is all mixed up. Help him by writing the dialogue in the correct
order. (G = George, info = information center) [2]
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1 G: Okay, I think I can find it now. Thanks.
2 info: Okay, don't panic. Now just where is this talk supposed to take place?
3 G: I did, but I must have left it behind at breakfast.
4 info: Sure, what can I do for you?
5 G: Oh, yes, and thanks once again.
6 G: In Berlin - that's the name of the room you see, in Hall 1, but that's the
problem! I can't find Hall 1. I keep going around in circles from Hall 18 to Hall 2
and 3 but no Hall 1!
7 info: Right. Well, let's have a look at the map. Have you got one?
8 G: Well, my, this is a bit embarrassing but I don't seem to be able to find my
conference room and I'm due to give my talk in ... . oh, no! - ten minutes!
9 info: No problem. You can have this one. Now here we are right in the center
and 10 G: Ah, hello, um I'm ... uh, perhaps you could be of assistance?
11 info: Yes, it's a bit misleading but the entrance to Hall 1 is just on the other
side of the cloakroom. Go straight on here and turn right into this lane here.
12 G: Why there's Hall 1 - hidden behind Hall 2. But every time I went that
way I came to a dead end at the cloakroom.
13 info: Professor, your map - and the conference room is just to the left of the
entrance.
Communication practice.
Practice giving directions with a partner. Take turns directing each other to
different points on the fairgrounds. Ask questions such as the following
How do I get to booth 19?
Go straight on. /Go up(stairs) /down(stairs) .../Go past (the information desk) ...
and it's on your right/left.
Can you tell me the way to ...? Turn left./Turn right into ...
Where is...?
It's on the corner/opposite/ near/not far from ...
5.4 Language and grammar
5.4.1 Simple past
Rewrite the following sentences in the past tense, rewording or changing
phrases as necessary.
Example: I'm afraid we only have time for a quick cup of coffee.
Unfortunately, we only had time for a quick cup of coffee.
1 I find keeping a diary when I travel useful.
2 We often meet on Tuesdays for lunch and a chat.
3 Do you also see each other outside the office when you are working on a
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project together?
4 Who knows where we are going to get the financing from.
5 He doesn't like being bossed around.
6 She gets up every morning at seven, has a light breakfast, drives to work,
leaves the office at five o'clock sharp - the routine never varies.
7 Is he the type to make an official complaint before he has a chance to speak
to you or not?
8 They read quite a bit but don't watch much TV as far as I can tell.
5.4.2 "-ing" or "to-infinitive"
Info Box:
Verbs can be followed by "-ing":
Example: I don't mind picking you up first.
Or they can be followed by "to":
Example: They've decided to reorganize the whole department again!
Some verbs are followed by either "-ing" or "to" with virtually no difference
in meaning:
Example: He loved to drink coffee. He loved drinking coffee.
A few verbs can be followed by either "-ing" or "to" but with a difference in
meaning:
Example: She stopped to talk to him. (She broke off whatever she was doing in
order to talk to him.) She stopped talking to him. (She refused or discontinued
speaking to him.)
Complete the following sentences using either the "ing" or "to-infinitive" form
1 He has trouble admitting (make) mistakes.
2 Grace Hopper began (program) one of the very first computers in 1943.
3 Can we really afford (lose) any more money on such unproductive processes?
4 The alarm function on my wristband helps me not to forget (take) my pill
every six hours.
5 They'll have to decide what (do) sooner or later.
6 As expected, he denies even (know) the names of any of the donors.
7 Did you ever try (do) any meditation exercises?
8 Please excuse my (take) so long (get) back to you but I had a horribly busy
morning.
9 That's the bottom line: You have to learn (pretend) (like) the way things are
run here or find yourself a new job.
10 I can't imagine (risk) my career on an off chance like that.
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5.4.3 Active and passive
Rewrite the following history of computing, converting the passive sentences
into the active whenever possible. Don't forget to supply a suitable agent (= person or
institution implementing the action) as necessary.
A Brief History of Computing
Two of the earliest first generation computers were developed during World
War II. The Harvard Mark I was built at Harvard University in 1943 by Howard
Aiken and was used to create ballistic tables for the US Navy. Also built in 1943
was the Colossus by Thomas Flowers in Britain which was designed to crack the
German coding "Enigma".
One of the first totally electronic, valve driven digital computers was ENIAC,
completed in 1946. An important step towards the development of the second
generation computers was the transistor, invented in 1947 at Bell Laboratories.
Transistors were used to replace the less efficient and less reliable valves. Though
the first integrated circuit was invented by Jack St. Clair Kilby in 1958, it was not
until the mid-sixties that the third generation of computers using this technology
were produced in large numbers.
In 1971 the first microprocessors, the 4004, was released by Intel, launching the
fourth generation of computers. Some years later microcomputers or personal
computers, which were small and affordable, began to be produced. Computers were
sold for the first time on a large scale to private persons. While computers today are
much more powerful, the same underlying technology of microchips is used.
5.4.4 "Used (to)"
a) Keeping the same basic meaning, rewrite the following sentences
substituting used/used to/ or (to be) + used to lor the verbs or phrases in italics
Example: As a frequent flyer, she was accustomed to the routine at the airport.
As a frequent flyer, she was used to the routine at the airport.
1 How dare you! I'm not in the habit of being treated like this.
2 He's now a personnel officer but he worked as a teacher for many years.
3 The second generation of computers employed transistors in place of the less
reliable valves.
4 After ten years of living abroad, she was no longer familiar with local
customs.
5 For our first office we bought secondhand furniture.
6 There was once a row of shops along here but they tore them down to make
way for the highway.
7 At one point I had an old Mercedes but it operated on diesel and took a
fortune to run.
8 As a computer programmer she's no stranger to stress and tight deadlines.
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Communication practice.
Interview your partner about his/her past and present computer
habits. Make use of the phrases used to and (to be) + used to
Example: Are you used to surfing much on the Internet?
How many hours a week?
Did you use to spend more time at your computer?
What about multimedia?
6 Unit 6. Internet
chatroom
newsgroup
spam
service provider
link
cookie
newsreader
online booking
browser
search engine
a) Match the
Internet terms
above with the
definitions given
below [5]
1 A button that you can click that connects you directly to another website.
2 A service which allows you to reserve hotel rooms, make travel arrangements
or book tickets in advance via the Internet.
3 Unwanted, unsolicited email, usually for advertising purposes. It's another
word for online junk mail.
4 Software which helps users to search a large database of Internet resources and
web addresses.
5 A program that reads and sends articles to newsgroups.
6 A place on the web where like minded people can engage in real-time
interactive, albeit typed, "conversation".
7 A place on the web where people sharing similar interests can receive and read
messages and get information on their special topic.
8 A company which offers you a connection to the Internet for a fee.
9 Software which helps you to find and display web pages.
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10 A small file which tells a web server if you have visited their site before.
b) Give short definitions for other Internet terms
Example: hacker, surfer...
It's a person who ...
It's a place on the web where ...
It's another word for ….
It's a service/company/ device which ...
6.1 A short history of the Internet
Complete the following TIMELINE by matching information below (A - E)
with the dates (5.- 9.).
1 The late 50 's and early 60's
The ARPA (= Advanced Research
Projects Agency) is established within the
Department of Defense as a reaction to
the so-called Sputnik Scare. The first
theoretical papers and discussion about
networking follow.
2 1969 and the early 70's
ARPAnet is commissioned by the
DoD for research into networking; the
first computers are linked together. The
concept of networking is developed and
spread; the first international connections
occur.
3 The early 80's
Networking develops from having
just one, big time sharing computer
connected to the Internet at each site to
connecting entire local networks.
ARPAnet is broken down into three
different sub-nets, of which one is
reserved for the military and another is
open to the general public.
4 1984 and the mid-80's
Big brother is watching as the DNS
or Domain Name System is first
introduced. There are 1,000 hosts. The
NSF (= National Science Foundation) net
establishes five super computing centers
a) Sees the emergence of a whole
series of new technologies: the vBNS (=
very high speed Backbone Network
Service) established by the NSF, search
engines, mobile code such as JAVA and
JavaScript, and the Internet phone.
b) E-commerce, E-Auctions, Etrade, online banking, and mp3 really
take off. Emerging technologies include
XML (Extended Mark-up Language), net
cell phones and embedded computing
and intrusion detection.
c) Web size passes the 1 billion
benchmark and new domain names
(aero/biz/coop/info/museum/name/pro)
are introduced.
d) The good and the bad: the first
worm affects 6,000 of the now over
60,000 hosts and the IRC (= Internet
Relay Chat) is developed. Germany joins
the rest of the 100,000 hosts on the
NSFnet and is assigned the domain name
.de just in time for reunification.
e) "The world comes on-line" with
the first commercial provider of Internet
dial-up access and the release of Tim
Berners-Lee's WWW (World Wide
Web). The term "surfing the net" is
coined. The benchmark of over one
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allowing for an explosion of connections, million hosts is reached.
especially at universities
5 The late 80’s
6 The early 90’s
7 The mid-90’s
8 The late 90’s
9 The early 21st century
6.2 Internet software and hardware
6.2.1 Internet software
a) Explain the functions of the following web terms:
- scroll bar
- open menu
- toolbar
- links
- menu bar
- address box
b) In pairs take turns describing and having your partner guess the basic
functions of the toolbars
Example: A: You use it to update a page.
B: Refresh? A: That's right.
6.2.2 Internet hardware
a) Read the following sales dialogue and make a list of the hardware mentioned
[3]
S: Do you need some help?
G: Well, yes, I think so. I want to go online and I'm not sure exactly what I need.
I know a modem but otherwise ...
S: Well, the most important thing is a computer, of course. Have you got one?
G: Sure, I've had my computer for almost ten years now. It's in perfect working
condition and I don't need a new one.
S: That's the question. It all depends on just how old your machine is and what
you want to use the Internet for - newsgroups, shopping, chatting, downloading,
getting information, emailing ...
G: Emailing for sure. My daughter has moved abroad and I want to be able to
keep in contact with her. That's why I'm here but to be honest I haven't really thought
much about what else I could use it for. I don't need to shop or bank online.
S: Hm ... I see.
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G: I've heard about downloading, though. What does that involve exactly?
S: Downloading simply means transferring files from one computer to another.
G: Files? Like people's work records?
S: Well, that's possible, of course, but files don't just take the form of text
documents. Files can also be music, photos, software or even film material.
G: You mean you can email music and even films? I find that hard to believe.
Have you ever actually tried it?
S: Of course, I've downloaded - oh - probably hundreds of files, like software,
games, whatever. I use the net practically every day - to email, chat, bank or look up
information about hockey -that's my hobby or stuff for my girlfriend.
G: But it must be expensive.
S: No, not really, not directly, that is. Sometimes a user has to provide a credit
card number to access material but the trend has been to have more and more
freeware - anything from games to the latest pop song - available on the web.
G: Free? Meaning at no cost? There must be a catch somewhere.
S: Well, the problem is that the larger the file the longer the transfer takes and
naturally that can lead to hefty phone bills and service provider charges,
especially
if you download during working hours when the rates are high. But if you've
invested in a good
modem, or better yet an ISDN card and extension, it's not out of this world.
G: And that's all I need?
S: To simply email, yes, but to take full advantage of the web and all it has to
offer you'll probably want to upgrade your system. I'd recommend a hard drive with
at least 10 GB. You'll need a modem naturally. I assume you've already installed
speakers for your system?
G: Speakers? No. Do I need them?
S: Sure, you'll want audio for music, spoken text and voicemail. Yeah, and then
you should have a headset or microphone for inputting sound.
G: Oh dear! It all sounds so complicated.
S: It actually might be cheaper in the long run to invest in a whole new system.
Have you seen our special offer yet? Let me show you. The package includes
everything you need: browser software, speakers, a headset...
b) Answer the following questions on the dialogue
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
How long has the customer had his present computer?
Why does he want to go online?
What does he know about downloading? What is downloading?
Has the salesman ever used the Internet? If so, what has he used it for?
What does the salesman claim about freeware?
What expenses are involved in using the internet?
What does the salesman recommend his customer?
What would you recommend the customer?
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6.2.3 E-mail
a) Look at the email address and identify its different elements by matching the
numbers on the right with the letters below
1) country code – 2) user name or identity - @ means "at" – 3) domain –
4) type of organization
b) Match the Internet codes with the numbers below
es - org - ch - edu/ac - com/со – net
1
2
3
4
5
6
non-profit organization
network provider
Spain
Switzerland
commercial organization
education
Communication practice.
Interview your partner or other people about their Internet habits. Ask
questions such as the following and then report back to the class:
own?
-
How long have you had email?
How often do you use the net?
Have you ever emailed someone in another country?
Have you ever emailed anyone in English? In a language other than your
What is the most distant point you have ever sent an email to?
Have you ever emailed someone you've never met?
6.2.4 Search engines
a) Read the following profiles and then choose at least one website and one
newsgroup from the collection below which you think best matches that user's
needs. Give reasons for your choice [4]
Nicki has worked as a personnel officer of an international corporation for the
past five years, ever since graduating from college where she majored in business
administration. Recently she has been given the responsibility for organizing her
department's booth at an upcoming major job fair. Period romantic novels are her
secret passion and she has even written two short stories herself but hasn't
summoned up the courage yet to submit them for publication.
Benny has been an enthusiastic AD&D role player - Shadow Run, Werewolf,
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Vampire, GURPS - since junior high. He is a diehard trekki fan and avid Terry
Pratchett reader. Life, as far as he's concerned, might be one unending chain of
fantasy if it weren't for the harsh reality of school. Recently he has been assigned a
term paper on polarisation optics which is due in two months.
Marcia is now semi-retired but has worked at one time or another in her varied
life as a cleaner, waitress, school bus driver, nurse's aid, receptionist, tour guide and
so on. She has recently purchased an RV (= recreational vehicle) and wants to spend
a good part of the year travelling and working in the warmer climate zone of the
United States. She loves getting to know and talking to all kinds of people.
Bob loves wheels: motor bikes, oldtimers, jeeps, sports cars - you name it. For
the last 20 years he has travelled down to Florida for the annual motorcycle races at
Daytona Beach. To help finance his admittedly rather expensive hobby he has
established a side line of trading motorcycle parts out of his garage. Bob is a health
food freak and vitamin devotee.
www.americanmotorinfo.com
usa.spis.co.nz/fitz/roleplay/roleplay.html
arizona.com/super/lodging/rv.html
www.romance.net
www.rvamerica.com/data/newchat.html
www.japmcdismantlers.co.nz
www.starwarsclub.org
www.encyclopedia.com/articles
www. daytonabeach .com
www. hrm.jobs. com
www.webcreationssetc.com/Azguide/Phoenix
alt.books.romance.fan.Georgette-heyer
alt.rv
rec.motorcycles.racing
alt.startrek.role-playing
www.naturalhealthdirect.com.au
www.suitel 01 .com/welcome.cfrn/rv-lifestyle
www.romance.novels.com
www.deep7.com
www.opticalres.comwww.dropbears.com/bikelinks/ducati.html
www.likesbooks.com/medevialz.html
www.azoutback.com/brendarv.html
www.kheper.auz.com/future/scifi/StarTrek/Trek.html
www.nourishingfoods.com
www.professionalrecruiter.com
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b) Find out about the following in the Internet. Use different search engines.
Report to the group
1
2
3
4
5
6
The number of internet users in the USA, Europe and worldwide.
Details of the latest hardware on the market.
Translation programs
Cultural events in London this month
Cultural events in your area this month
Computer fairs around the world
6.2.5 Negative aspects of the Internet
a) The following quotes touch on a number of the more controversial or negative
aspects of online communication: spam, hackers, isolation and so on. Which of the
statements do you agree with most, which ones do you disagree with? [4]
The web is about helping people make better decisions about shopping.
Bill Bans, analyst, Time
It comes as no surprise that email is the No. 1 thing people do on the net.
Bill Barrs, analyst, Time
For artists, digital downloading can be both a curse and a blessing.
Time
Consumers won't shoulder the increased costs of an internet without advertising.
The Internet Advertising Bureau, Time
The Internet is far from perfect. Largely unedited, its content is often tasteless,
foolish, uninteresting or just plain wrong. It can be dangerously habit-forming and,
truth be told, an enormous waste of time.
Time
You can't lead a total life online but if it's done right, online communication can
lead to face-to-face contact, not away from it.
David Hughes, Time
b) With a partner brainstorm possible solutions to the different problems. After
five minutes join another pair and compare your ideas. Report back to the group
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6.3 The Internet and intercultural communication
a) Read the following text and answer the questions [4]
Whether right or wrong, globalization, as one writer puts it, sounds unstoppable.
Mass tourism, the interdependency of world markets and the Internet with its cheap
and instant links to even the remotest corners of the globe have all contributed to an
upgrowth in intercultural communication. In the course of their daily working lives
more and more people over the world are confronted with the task of communicating
with people from cultures very different from their own.
English, often not native to either speaker, is most frequently the language
employed, i.e. the lingua franca. Yet the language itself is almost the least of it;
intercultural awareness and tolerance play a central role in making global
communication work.
How we express our needs, desires and feelings, is determined by the cultural
context in which we operate. Caution is called for, though, in jumping to the
conclusion that certain behaviour is typically American, Malaysian or Swedish. We
should also be aware that age, sex, regional differences, economic status and just
simple personality differences also influence our communication patterns.
Certain core competences such as open-mindedness, respect, flexibility, and the
ability to tolerate different habits can facilitate intercultural communication. More
specifically, awareness and respect for the cultural differences, for example in such
areas as gestures, eating habits or time-management are helpful.
b) Answer the following questions
1 Does everyone agree on the importance of globalization? If not, how do
opinions differ? What do you, personally, think?
2 What factors have played a role in the spread of international contacts
between people? What are the consequences? And for you personally?
3 What is meant by the term lingua franca?
4 Aside from being able to speak the other person's language, what do you need
in order to deal with foreigners? Can you think of one example?
5 What factors determine how we speak to other people?
6 What makes it easier to talk to people from other parts of the world?
7 Can you think of any gestures or habits that differ from one country to the
other?
8 In what way does the Internet influence intercultural communication?
Communication practice.
Interview your partner about experiences he/she might have had while meeting
people from different cultures. Ask questions such as the following:
Have you ever been surprised, shocked, confused or frightened by something
you experienced while travelling abroad or in contact with people from other
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cultures?
What happened?
What did you do?
How did the other people react?
Report back to the class.
6.4 Language and grammar
6.4.1 Present perfect
Info Box: Present Perfect or Simple Past?
The Present Perfect, as the term in English implies, has very much to do with the
present. We use the simple past "did" to describe a past activity but the present
perfect to describe the following activities, states, or events:
Experience Example: I've never used one of these gadgets. How does it work?
Development Example: The stock market has lost momentum since January.
News Example: They've appointed him CEO as of next month.
Unfinished past Example: Have you worked here long? / How long have you
been working here? Current information Example: I've finished the report. Here it is.
a) Look at the following examples of present perfect sentences in English.
Decide 1) if the sentence describes experience, development, unfinished past or
current information/news and 2) how you would translate the tense into Russian
1 We've always lived near the centre of town.
2 Stop complaining. I've closed the window like you wanted me to.
3 Mary's gained almost ten pounds since her first trimester.
4 I went to the seminar last week but I haven't had a chance yet to go over my
notes.
5 A: Have you heard? They've fired Fred! B: Who's Fred? I've never met a Fred
around here.
6 Have you seen the latest MegaMobile? They've just released it. It still has
some bugs but they've ironed out most of the problems.
7 I've spent the morning working on the project and haven't had time to get
back to you till now.
8 The company has seen better days but it's been on a downslide now for
months.
b) Choose either the present perfect or the simple past of the verb to complete
the following sentences
1 I just (buy) a new computer. It (be) a real deal. I only (pay) $600 for the whole
system, but I (not be able) to sell my old one yet.
2 You (be) to Cebit?
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3 Yes, I (be) there two years ago.
4 How (be) it?
5 The spreadsheet clearly proves that once again our expenses (exceed) our
revenues.
6 I (do) everything I can think of to cut back on costs.
7 When I first (start) working in an office we (must) to do all the filing by hand.
The first computers (arrive) in 1990 and since then everything (change); my work
(become) more interesting if sometimes more hectic.
8 They (trace) the latest computer virus to an obscure computer student living
somewhere in Asia. The police (arrest) him and his sister and are holding them for
questioning.
9 When you (get) your degree in computer engineering? Oh, I'm still at college
and (not complete) my degree yet - unfortunately!
10 George: (meet) you Anna, Peter?
11 Peter: Sure, we (meet) last summer at that big fourth of July picnic.
с) Write down five statements which are true about yourself in the present tense.
Now, using the present perfect or the present perfect continuous, write sentences
saying how long the statements have been true
Example: I love computer games. I am taking French lessons. I have always
loved computer games. I have been taking French lessons for two years.
Info Box: Present Perfect (Simple / Continuous; for, since ago)
Simple or Continuous?
There is not really a clear line of demarcation between present perfect as
unfinished past and present perfect continuous; both are used to describe an activity
which began in the past and which is still going on. The continuous form of the
present perfect simply places more emphasis on the ongoing, "active" nature of the
proceedings. Thus there is essentially no difference between the statements / have
worked here for years/ and / have been working here for years/. Logically, since the
emphasis in the continuous is on the "action", it is generally not used with intransitive
verbs such as be or exist.
For is used to indicate a passage of countable time.
Example: I haven't seen her for years – Я не видел её (уже) много лет.
Since is used to indicate the passage of a period, i.e., uncountable time.
Example: I haven't seen her since October/her birthday - Я не видел её с
октября / с её дня рождения.
Since is also used as a conjunctive in the sense of because.
Example: Since I was not ready with my report, I decided to cancel the
presentation – Так как мой отчёт был не готов, я решил отменить презентацию.
Ago is an adjective to indicate the past. It is always at the end of the sentence or
phrase and is not used with the perfect tense.
Example: I bought my first digital camera two years ago – Я купил свой
первый цифровой фотоаппарат два года назад.
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d) FOR, SINCE, AGO: Complete the sentences with the correct word
1 The computer was invented more than fifty years... .
2 ...when have you started using this operating system? We've been using it ...
over ten months, ever... it came out less than a year... .
3 Our boss hasn't been the same ... his divorce three years ... .
4 How long have you been working here? I've been here ... four months, ...
April.
6.4.2 Idioms: "Body language"
Complete the following idiomatic expressions with the correct body term from
the box below. Consult the dictionary if necessary.
lip - ear - fingers - eye - throat - head - nerves - face - leg (2x) - thumb - skin – foot
1 This is a cut- ... business.
2 No matter how hectic things get, our new secretary always manages to keep
her....
3 Susan really put her... in it this time! What did she do? She made the boss
lose ... in front of some customers when she took his wife for his daughter.
4 Shake a ..., will you? We don't want to miss the plane.
5 The CEO pays ... service to democratic principles of management but in fact
everyone is completely under her... .
6 Sure, we get on each other's ... from time to time but our differences are only
...-deep.
7 This time our competitors are asking for trouble and are going to get their...
burnt.
8 Before we have any more definite information, we'll just have to play it by ...
9 I'd like you to keep an ... on the GTX stock for me. I think it might be going
places.
10
Is George really leaving the company or was he just pulling my ... .
6.4.3 False friends
Choose the correct word in brackets.
1 In my (meaning/opinion) the (nearest/next) thing to heaven is cold iced tea on
a hot sunny day in the office.
2 The (motive/theme) of Expo 2000 was Humankind, Nature and Technology.
3 My office is (next/near) yours, right (next, near) door, in fact.
4 Has he (noticed/noted down) the account number? We'll need it later.
5 (Muscles/Mussels) are on today's (menu/card).
6 She (thought/meant) Mr. Hyde was a (murder/murderer) and said so: "It was
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(murder/murderer) and I (mean/think) what I say."
7 Andrew asked his (chef/boss) for a pay rise the other day.
7 Unit 7. Basic programming
Answer the questions about the following programming languages:
FORTRAN - COBOL - BASIC - JAVA -C/C++ - JAVASCRIPT
1 Which is considered the easiest to learn?
2 Which was developed for research purposes?
3 Which was developed for business applications?
4 Which was originally designed for programming small electronic devices
such as mobile phones?
5 Which language efficiently controls hardware and can be adapted to many
different computer systems?
7.1 What is programming?
a) Select the best option from the choices below to come up with a good
definition for programming [5]
1 Programming is the (idea/process) of (designing/producing) a (set/list) of
(protocols/ instructions) written in (code/symbols) to make a (computer/machine)
(perform/ entertain) a (specified/difficult) (problem/task).
2 Using a computer (language/set of icons) such as (Basic/Windows) the
(programmer/ engineer) can (control/help) what the computer (thinks/does).
b) Rewrite the following programming steps in the correct order
1 Compile the program
2 Write the code
3 Provide documentation
4 Analyse the problem
5 Get feedback from the users
6 Design the program
7 Test and correct the program
8 Train the users
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c) Match the definitions on the right to the basic programming terms on the left
1 algorithm
2 comments
3 variable
4 data
5 coding
6 debugging
7 structogram/flowchart
a) The process of writing instructions in a specific
programming language.
b) A method to solve a problem systematically step by
step.
с) The graphical representation of an algorithm.
d) Serve to explain other parts of the program.
e) Consists of a name, memory address and a value.
f) Finding, analyzing and correcting errors in a
program.
g) Information whose meaning has been agreed upon.
7.1.1 Program logic
a) Every program logic consists of three main structural elements: Sequence,
Selection and Iteration, more commonly known as looping. Which is which?
1 ... is a series of commands where В automatically and necessarily follows A.
2 ... repeats a given sequence of commands as long as given conditions exist or
until a given condition is fulfilled.
3 ... executes one of two or more possible instructions in a program depending
on whether a given condition has been fulfilled or not.
7.2 Programming languages
a) Read the following brief history of programming languages and use the
information to complete the table (A-F)
Computers aren't exactly linguistic geniuses; the only language they really
understand is machine code, i.e. series of binary digits. Simple enough on the face of
it, but naturally difficult to keep track of things when all those 1 's and O's run into
gigabytes. Assembly languages which use abbreviations such as ADD and MOV to
represent instructions were developed to make it easier. A special program called
assembler then translates the abbreviations or mnemonic codes into machine code.
During the fifties and early sixties a number of new, so-called high-level
languages, as opposed to the earlier low-level languages, were designed. Problem
rather than machine oriented, programs in these languages are not only easier to
write but their use is also not restricted to just one type of computer. Known as
source programs, they are converted into machine code using a compiler generating
the object program. Examples are COBOL (COmmon Business Orientated
Language), FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslation), developed for scientific
programming and BASIC (Beginner's All Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code)
which was originally designed for teaching programming and only later came to be
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used for actual programming work.
Various languages had brief appearances during the sixties and seventies
(Logo, Prolog, APL, PL1, ADA) but it was the programming language С in 1972
which took and was able to hold centre stage with the development of C++, and
OOPL (Object Oriented Programming Language) in the early 80's. Designed for
systems programming, it is an efficient hardware controller and is portable, i.e.
programs written in C++ can easily be changed to run on many different types of
systems.
In the mid-nineties a range of new programming languages entered the scene.
Originally designed for programming small electronic devices, Java is a stand-alone
programming language. Simpler in design and use is Javascript which is embedded
in HTML documents and allows authors to incorporate some functions inside web
pages. Visual Basic is a programming environment which uses the language BASIC
and predefined objects chosen from a toolbox to write general purpose programs.
High-level
languages
Date of
development
Uses
Characteristics
A
1959-61
business/
administration
easy, English-like
syntax
FORTRAN
1954-57
В
support use of
formulas
Logo,Prolog,
APL PL1.ADA
С
1960-70
various
no longer widely used
1964
relatively easy
Visual Basic
С
D
teaching, gen.
purpose
system
programming
C++
C++
early 80s
compact code, simple
structure -»more
difficult
like С but also object
oriented
E
1995
Visual Basic
1994
teaching, general
applications
F
1995
to create
interactive,
animated webpages
system
programming
efficient hardware
controller
webpages,
multiplat-form
applications
basic syntax is
identical to C, even
more object oriented
than C++
easy, uses predefined
objects
script language, object
oriented
Extensions/
associated
languages
С
Basic
embedded in
HTML
documents
b) Answer the following questions
1 What is the difference between low-level and high-level programming
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languages?
2 What is a source program as opposed to an object program?
3 What different tasks do assemblers and compilers perform?
4 How does С differ from C++?
5 How does Visual Basic compare to BASIC?
Communication practice.
Pairwork. Decide with a partner which language you would choose for the
following tasks and/or uses. Give reasons for your choices
Example: We would recommend C++ for... because it's portable and ...
1 Integrating a database with a site.
2 To program remote control devices.
3 To develop an operating system.
4 To teach young students programming.
5 To produce animation of a site.
6 To write database software.
7 To write anti-virus software.
8 To automate system administrative procedures, e. g. creating user accounts.
9 To create an interactive graphics program with sound, video and animation.
10 To write business applications such as accounting programs.
7.2.1 Error alert!
a) Complete the following table on a separate sheet of paper by matching the
definitions, examples, consequences and tactics to the different types of
programming errors
run-time errors
Definition
syntax errors
2 errors that occur
while the program
is running
Examples
Consequences
Tactics
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logic errors
2. program does not run ...
1. avoid: dot your i's
carefully,
deal: read error
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Definitions:
1 grammar mistakes, misspellings, false punctuation
2 errors that occur while the program is running
3 mistakes caused by using a false sequence of instructions
Examples: 1 contradictory or dead-end statements: count = 0
while (count>15)
{do something count++;}
Comment: this statement does nothing because count>15
2 missing closed bracket in line
3 "Segmentation Fault"
Consequences:
1 sometimes causes the program to crash
2 program does not run as expected
3 translator programs reject lines with such mistakes
Tactics:
1 avoid: dot your i's carefully, deal: read error messages carefully
2 avoid: plan program carefully (see structogram), deal: use debugger to trace
program
3 avoid: provide code to check availability of resources, deal: use debugger to
help locate error
b) Complete the following text using the above information and the words in
the box [4]
translator - structogram - message - grammar - illogical - debugger - crash program -sequence - bracket - run - spelling
Run-time errors are errors which occur while the (1) is running. An example
would be "Segmentation Fault" (Windows-bluescreen). They can sometimes cause a
program to (2). One way to avoid run-time errors is to provide code to check for the
availability of resources. If a run-time error occurs you can use a (3) to help you
locate the error.
Syntax errors are mistakes due to faulty (4), misspellings and false punctuation.
An example would be to forget to set a closed (5) at the end of data you wanted to
set in brackets. (6) programs reject lines with these kinds of mistakes which gives
you a chance to repair the damage. Of course, it's better to avoid problems right from
the start by being careful in points of grammar, (7) and punctuation when writing
code. Once a mistake has occurred read the error (8) carefully to rectify the matter.
Logic errors are mistakes caused by using (9) instructions or a false (10) of
instructions. They are especially tricky because the program can still (11) but it
won't be doing its job properly. An example would be to write instructions that
depend for their execution on conditions that, based on logic, simply cannot be
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fulfilled. To avoid such problems one should plan a program carefully in advance
with a good (12), for example. Once an error occurs you can use a debugger to help
trace the source of the trouble.
7.2.2 Program planning and design
In the following interview Mary is talking about a program she wrote. Match the
questions with the answers [3].
1 How long did it take you to write?
2 Did the program have a lot of bugs?
3 What did you do? How did you solve the problem?
4 How many lines long is the program?
5 Which language did you use?
6 What was your program written for?
7 Why did you write this program?
8 Is the program used for any other purpose?
9Why did you choose COBOL?
10 Did you have any problems with Y2K?
Mary: At the school I teach at they needed a program to help plan and organize
the teaching schedule - who's to teach which classes, where and when.
Mary: Oh, yes, it's also used by the payroll department to calculate the number
of hours taught each month by the individual teachers.
Mary: I wrote the program mainly in COBOL with some code in С
Mary: I know COBOL's gone out of fashion but it was the obvious choice, best
suited for such business applications, in my opinion.
Mary: It's only 10,000 lines long, a fairly small program, in other words.
Mary: That's hard to say - about three months altogether including the planning.
I was only able to work on it part-time.
Mary: No, I'm glad to say it didn't. Only three bugs were discovered after
delivery.
Mary: Yes, because when I originally wrote the program I never expected they
would still be using it at the millennium. I was wrong.
Mary: I was lucky. The way the program is used made it possible to work
around the millennium bug. All I had to do was to change certain dates in the data. I
didn't have to end up changing the code.
7.2.3 COBOL-CODE
Study the lines of COBOL-Code below and answer the questions.
Example of output:
1 New York 12 ************
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2 Mexico City
15***************
3 Berlin
4 ****
4 London
10 **********
1 Find the statements which start the outer and the inner loop respectively.
2 Which lines contain commands that lead to the computer performing
calculations?
3 Which command brings the program to an end?
4 Which command transfers data within the RAM?
5 Which command transfers data from the file CITIES into RAM?
6 Find the statement which leads to the output of data.
7 What do you think is the purpose of the above sequence of statements?
000010
000020
000030
000040
000050
000060
000070
000080
000090
000100
000110
000120
000130
000140
000150
000160
000170
000180
000190
000200
000210
000220
000230
000240
000250
PROCEDURE DIVISION.
BEGIN.
OPEN INPUT CITIES
OUTPUT PRINTFILE
MOVE ZERO TO LINE-NR
READ CITIES AT END GO TO FINISH END-READ.
LOOP.
PERFORM UNTIL CITYNAME = HIGH-VALUES
MOVE SPACES TO PRINTLINE
ADD 1 TO LINE-NR
MOVE LINE-NR TO PRINT-NR
MOVE CITYNAME TO PRINT-NAME
MOVE POPULATION TO PRINT-POP
COMPUTE FINAL-VALUE ROUNDED = POPULATION
PERFORM VARYING J FROM 1 BY 1 UNTIL J >
MOVE"*" TO BAR (J)
END-PERFORM
WRITE PRINT-BUFFER FROM PRINTLINE AFTER 1
READ CITIES
AT END MOVE HIGH-VALUES TO CITYNAME
END-READ
END-PERFORM.
FINISH.
CLOSE CITIES PRINTFILE
STOP RUN.
7.2.4 Computer task
Design a plan (= structogram) for a program to solve the task below. If you
already know a programming language well write the script code and see if you can
get the program to run. Task: Calculate the average grade of the class' last English
test.
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7.2.5 Software problems
Read the discussion dialogue between the senior developer and the applications
engineer of a software firm about one of their firm's newest products (See Additional
Material 7.1, p.185). Decide if the following statements are true or false.
1 Hothouse is a firm which produces design software.
2 Sleekware was written for a single, specific purpose.
3 Tom blames faulty hardware for Sleekware's printing problems.
4 Jerry reports that the people at Hothouse are completely dissatisfied with the
Sleekware program.
5 Tom is annoyed that the Hothouse people didn't follow his hardware
recommendations.
6 The Hothouse people were eager to buy Sleekware.
7 There is nothing Tom can do or suggest to help Jerry with the problem.
7.3 Website design and databases
7.3.1 Website design
a) Put the recommended steps for designing a web page in the correct order [5]
1 sketch a rough plan or design
2 encode HTML
3 check and correct content
4 make final checks
5 find cliparts and/or graphics
6 upload website online
7 set objectives
8 create content, e.g. write texts
b) Make a rough outline or design of your own personalized website and
present the results in the form of a short oral report, possibly with back-up visual
aids, to the rest of the class. Alternatively, you could design a website for a cause or
organization you are especially interested in
Consider the following points:
- What are my objectives? What impression would I like to give to visitors to
the site?
- Should the focus be on my professional or personal life?
- How should the content be organized? Would a longer text or smaller sections
be better?
- What types of graphics - photos, cliparts, sketches - would be most
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appropriate? Decide whether they would provide additional impact.
- How many and what types of links could be included?
- For the presentation itself what visual back-up material might be useful? A
sketch of the layout? Sample graphics?
7.3.2 Databases and web pages
a) Hiroshi Shimomura, a computer specialist, is talking about integrating databases with web pages. Read the following interview and take notes of the seven
questions and seven answers, jotting down key words [4]
Interviewer: What do databases have to do with the Internet?
Programmer: Everything! E-commerce is about more than just presenting
attractive web pages - it's really about using and interacting with databases.
Interviewer: Could you give me an example?
Programmer: Sure, your online product catalogue is a typical database. Product
descriptions, prices, and availability are retrieved from the "catalogue", that is to say,
the database, and offered to customers.
Interviewer: What happens when a customer decides to order a product?
Programmer: To complete a purchase the customer has to enter their credit card
number, name address and, of course, the name and /or number of the product they
want to buy. In other words, the database then becomes a two-way street; it not only
provides information but also records relevant data.
Interviewer: How can you go about establishing an online database?
Programmer: Basically, two steps are involved: setting up the database and then
integrating it with the web page. The first step is easy - you can choose one of the
commercially available database software packages and just enter your data, the
product list, prices and so on.
Interviewer: And the second, integration stage?
Programmer: That's a little trickier. There are several database connectors on
the market but they all have their weak points, which became apparent to me while
working on a recent e-commerce project.
Interviewer: And specifically? What are the disadvantages of the commercial
connectors?
Programmer: Well, first of all they would have required my learning a new
proprietary language. Secondly, we would then have needed to buy the software to
translate that language In other words, it would have meant spending a lot of time and
money unnecessarily.
Interviewer: So how did you solve the dilemma?
Programmer: I particularly wanted to avoid learning a new language so I
decided to write my own preprocessor which I've named SIREN.
Interviewer: And what's the basic concept of SIREN?
Programmer: It's actually quite simple. The preprocessor executes SQL and
inserts the result as a Java Script object.
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b) Read the text which describes how SIREN functions in more detail.
Summarize the text by listing SIREN's properties/advantages and the five main steps
involved in its execution
SIREN is not a fully developed programming language. Instead, it is an
example of a string search. You can write some surprisingly useful codes by
searching for a string and then doing something when you find it. SIREN searches
for the string "<!—!". When it finds the string, SIREN assumes that the next set of
characters represents a command. If SIREN recognizes the command, it continues
searching for additional strings that serve as parameters to the command. After it
collects all the parameters, SIREN executes the command.
Because SIREN uses CGI, it sends all its output to cout. Unless SIREN
encounters the "<!—!" string, it copies the HTML file directly to cout. Only when it
encounters a command does SIREN do anything other than copy characters. When
SIREN executes a command, it collects the results of the command and sends them
to cout as well. Because most, if not all, browsers support JavaScript, there is really
no need to invent a new language. JavaScript is a wonderful, object-oriented
language. With it, one can manipulate the data, display it in a variety of ways, and
interface directly with other standard languages such as Java.
Lastly, SIREN is extremely portable. Using CGI, it will run on virtually any
web server. With additional (but not complicated) programming, SIREN can run as
an ISAPI DLL or Apache module. While not as attractive as an ISAPI DLL or an
Apache module, CGI remains a powerful and flexible technology for moving
information between browsers and web servers.
7.4 Language and grammar
7.4.1 Conditionals
a) Put the verbs in the following conditional sentences into their correct form
1 Where (be) we without computers today?
2 If he (work) just a bit harder, he would now be graduating with the rest of the
class.
3 If I had known then what I (know) now, I (buy) shares in one of the new startup companies and (be) a rich woman/man.
4 I (ask) him, if I were you.
5 He wouldn't have shut down the system unless he (have) a good reason.
6 Who (think) such a thing possible 20 years ago?
7 He (be) a lot richer, if he had discovered the goldmine first. Yes, but I don't
think he (be) any happier.
8 If you (use) a spreadsheet program, you (complete) the table easily.
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Info-Box: If-sentences
There are three types of "if"- or conditional sentences consisting of two parts:
the condition (in the sub-clause) and the statement (in the main clause).
In type I the condition is likely, in type II possible but not likely and in type III
not possible at all but merely speculative. To illustrate, let's take the condition of
having children or not.
Type I If I have children I'll raise them to be decent citizens. (= Though I don't
have any children as of yet, it's quite likely that some day I will, and when I do, I am
planning on raising them to be good citizens.)
Type II If I had children, I would raise them to be decent citizens. (I don't have
and am not planning on having kids, but if I did - it's theoretically possible - my
ideas about what I could/would do are ...)
Type III If I had had children, I would have raised them to be decent citizens.
(= I never had children but that doesn't stop me from speculating about what might
have been concerning the unalterable past.)
There is also a mixed hybrid of Type II and III conditional sentences which
establishes a bridge between the present and the past.
III
II
If they hadn't married so young, they would be happy now.
II
III
If you weren't so stubborn (but you are and always were), you wouldn't have
slammed the receiver down on him (which you did and now it's too late).
As a rule "would" is used to form the conditional (II,III) and corresponds to the
Russian “бы".
Two exceptions:
“would” used to describe past activities performed on a regular basis
(= used to).
Example: When I was a student I would cycle everywhere to save the bus fare.
‘wouldn't” used to express refusal
Example: He wouldn't take no for an answer, so I finally agreed.
b) Decide if would/wouldn't in the following sentences are true conditionals or
not. When possible, substitute with one of the following appropriate phrases: used
to/refuse to
1 If I ever made a big profit on the market, I would like to take a year off to
travel around.
2 I tried everything but the program wouldn't run.
3 Where would they be without us?
4 We would discuss matters in depth whenever we had time.
5 If she had had more self-confidence, she would have been more successful.
6 Even if I could, I wouldn't try to stop him.
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7 If you asked, I'm sure George would help you with your project.
8 When she was hot on the trail of a suspect, she would work all night and
wouldn't eat or drink a thing.
7.4.2 Word families
With a partner try and come up with as many variations as you can for the
following base words. Afterwards, join another pair and compare results.
Example: code - coding - coder; decode - decoder - decodable
program - base - bug - compile - browse - hack
7.4.3 Acronyms
Often confusing but admittedly convenient at times, acronyms and
abbreviations abound in the computer world. Do you know what all the letters in the
ones below stand for? With a partner see how many you can identify correctly
within a set time period -without looking back at the previous units or the glossary.
ALU
BASIC
BIOS
BIT
CAD
CAM
CAE
CD
CDCGI
l/F
MB
PL/1
WAN
COBOL
FTP
I/O
MIDI
PPP
WWW
CPU
GB
IP
MODE
RAM
PIN
bps
GUI
IRC
MP
SIMMS
ROM
DOS
HDTV
ISDN
MPEG
SNA
SQL
DTP
HTML
ISP
NUI
SMTP
VGA
DVD
Hz
IT
OCR
TCP/IP
VR
FAQ
HTTP
LAN
OS
URL
ppi
8 Unit 8. System administration, help desk and security
Which of the metaphors in the box best expresses the function of a systems
manager's job, in your opinion? Give reasons for your choices.
orchestra conductor - traffic cop - school director - judge - football coach restaurant chef
Example: I think an orchestra conductor is a good metaphor for a systems
manager, because they both have to control a number of people, musicians in the
case of the conductor as opposed to users for the systems manager, as well as what
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they are doing. You could compare the musical instruments to hardware while
software ...
8.1 A system administrator
a) Read the following interview with Jason about his work as a systems
administrator [4]
Q: How long have you been working as a systems administrator?
J: In this job? Just over one year now. In my former job, at a small start-up
company, I was a sort of computer jack-of-all-trades. I did some systems
administrative work, among other things, but not a whole lot really. It was only after
I got this job here that I got involved in networking. I was hired, in fact, to more or
less set up the present system from scratch.
Q: Sounds challenging.
J: It was, still is sometimes, though now a lot of my work is routine.
Q: How large is your network?
J: We started with only 5 workstations and have now got about 60. The
workstations are organized into 8 or 9 user groups with a data transfer rate of
approximately 100 megabytes per second.
Q: What topology did you choose?
J: With this size network, and the turnover, a star topology on a client-server
basis was the only logical choice.
Q: What sorts of servers does your system have?
J: I'd have to stop and think. Well, there are the two main file servers, of course.
The one is primarily for all the financial software - the payroll, spreadsheets and
databases - while the other is for, well, everything else. Let's see - and then there's
the mail server and the Internet server.
Q: They're not one and the same?
J: No, the mail server is for communication within the organization while only
about 10 employees have access to the Internet.
Q: What about printing?
J: Oh yes. There are some 20 local printers connected to individual
workstations, of course, as well as about six what I would call real print servers,
including one super laser printer.
Q: How much programming work does your job involve?
J: Very little real programming as such, but I often have to write smaller scripts
in connection with system management, data back-up or Internet service evaluation.
Q: Security is always a big network issue.
J: That's right. I do a common virus check update every other week on the file
servers, but I don't have to issue new passwords every few months the way I would
if I were working for a major corporation.
Q: Is encryption relevant?
J: It's in planning - right now I'm on the lookout for some good software.
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Q: Last question: Do you enjoy your work?
J: Sure, I wouldn't do it otherwise. It's not always so exciting, but I wouldn't
trade it for one of those high-pressured jobs even if you doubled my salary. Actually
if I had stuck it out at my previous job, I would be on my way to becoming a
millionaire by now.
Q: What! And you wouldn't want to be one?
J: Of course, who wouldn't? But 70 or 80-hour working weeks, no vacation, no
real weekends, no private life - it wouldn't be fair to my family.
Q: Thanks for talking to us.
J: You're welcome, anytime.
b) Find the correct answers to the following questions
1 What kind of organization does Jason probably work for?
a) a start-up company
b) a big corporation
c) a charitable association
2 What are his main duties in his present job?
a) setting up and maintaining a LAN
b) nothing specific - he acts as a computer jack-of-all-trades
c) programming code
3 How large is the network Jason is responsible for?
a) It has about 10 workstations plus servers.
b) It has close to 70 nodes.
c) There are about a hundred devices altogether.
4 Does everyone on the network have access to mail?
a) No, only about 10 users can send mail to each other.
b) b) Yes, all the users are connected to the Internet.
c) Yes, via an in-house mail server but only about 10 employees have Internet
access.
5 What does Jason do to maintain network security?
a) He regularly does a virus update on the file server.
b) He issues new passwords every other month.
c) He has installed an encryption software for sending and receiving emails.
c) According to the interview reproduce the facts about the items below
1 workstations
6 employees with access to the Internet
2 megabyte (data transfer rate) 7 print servers
3 user group
8 local printers
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4 file servers
5 years in the new job
9 working hours per week
10 virus update
Communication practice.
Interview your partner about a network they are part of or familiar with. Report
back to the class. Ask questions such as the following:
1 How large is the network?
2 What's its topology?
3 What services does it offer?
4 Do you need a password to access the system? Is it user defined or assigned?
5 What would you change or add to the network and why?
8.2 Network solutions
Communication practice.
Study the profiles of the three work groups below and follow the stages
Stage One: Choose one of the three work groups below and in groups of 3-4
hold a meeting to discuss proposals on how to best meet current as well as near future
computer needs. At the "meeting" each group member should take over one of the
following roles:
IT manager/secretary: Your job is to coordinate the discussion, take notes and
present the final report.
Software specialist: You are responsible for proposing software solutions, i.e.
specific software program packages.
Hardware specialist: You should make suggestions to meet the hardware needs
of the work group.
(Either as a separate role or the tasks can be divided among the other members
of the group.)
System administrator/trainer: You should consider the networking needs and
outline a training programme for the work group.
Stage Two: After a specified time each of the different specialists should meet
with their opposite numbers, i.e. all the IT managers together, all the software people
in another group and so on, to exchange ideas and tips.
Stage Three: Each of the specialists then reports back to their original group.
The group then works out the final draft of their computer plan and presents it to the
whole group.
WORK GROUP 1
A law firm specializing in international commercial law contracts and insurance
wants to completely reorganize and computerize their office. The legal staff consists
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of four partners, two junior partners, a legal aid assistant and a trainee from abroad.
Till now two full-time secretaries, a receptionist, and a part-time filing clerk have
kept the office running but they are sadly overworked. From the proposed
computerization of the firm they hope to see a reduction in their workload. On the
other hand, there is some fear, in particular on the part of the older secretary and the
filing clerk, that they will become redundant or that they won't be able to cope with
the new technology. The latter is also the secret fear of the oldest senior partner,
which expresses itself as skepticism regarding the cost efficiency ratio of the
conversion. The firm occupies the entire three floors of a roomy 100 year old villa
with old-fashioned panelling, wooden floors and winding staircases.
WORK GROUP 2
Four recent graduates of an international school for interpreters have decided to
go into business for themselves. They would like to offer a broad range of foreign
language services: language learning classes, private tutoring, translations, technical
writing, and interpreting. To have an advantage in an already crowded and
competitive field they want to make the new information technologies an integral part
of their business right from the start - as part of their marketing strategy, as a teaching
aid and as a means of communicating with students/clients. They've been lucky and
found reasonably priced office space to rent - three large rooms and a number of
smaller "tutoring" rooms. Their resources are limited and they have to keep an eye on
expenses.
WORK GROUP 3
A group of three medical doctors - two anaesthetists and a diagnostician - along
with a psychologist and a social worker have been assigned the task of setting up a
clinic for terminally ill patients. Though well-funded, initial plans are for a project on
a smaller scale with just 6 double and 3 single occupancy rooms as well as outpatient
facilities. In addition to the initiators, plans are for a nursing staff of six, four
additional outpatient health care workers and 3 office workers.
8.2.1 Supply chain management
a) Read the text about supply chain management below [4]
Around the world firms are breaking with traditional methods of doing business;
radical changes are occurring as more and more companies are beginning to think,
plan and work in new ways. Start-up companies, E-commerce and online wheeling
and dealing are just some of the more popular catchwords. Even more fundamental,
though, is the shift from production to processing as the main orientation for many
companies.
Nowhere is this more apparent than in the growing field of supply chain
management. Though essentially a further development of the traditional field of
logistics, it has the added dimension of not limiting itself to a single company. Its
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main task is to optimize the complete supply chain, saving time and costs. From the
first inquiry to the final invoice, supply chain management encompasses all steps that
might be involved in a commercial-manufacturing process: submitting a tender,
making up an order, arranging for delivery, invoicing and dealing with complaints.
Companies requiring parts and supplies at a moment's notice such as automobile
and computer manufacturers, as well as hospitals, are pioneers of the new logistics
concept. Factory owners, for example, might be producing the necessary components
for a new semiconductor at plants in Peking or Pennsecola while customers at the
other end of the chain in Europe or South America are demanding delivery. It is the
job of the supply chain manager to oversee and coordinate the entire production
processing chain, from the purchase of the silicon wafers, through the testing and
mounting of the semiconductors, to the delivery of the finished chips.
A large part of the routine work is naturally done using powerful computer
systems which make use of new concepts and processes. Whenever a bottleneck or a
break in the chain occurs, it is up to the supply chain manager to sort things out - it
doesn't matter whether the problem is due to a machine breaking down some-where
in Hong Kong or a customer who is dissatisfied with the finished product.
Negotiating with customers and suppliers, integrating them into a smooth system, is a
major part of the supply chain manager's work. This includes the flow of goods as
well as the networking of their information systems to enable mutual exchange of
data. In other words, supply chain management is a two-track system with traffic
moving in both directions.
b) Now answer the following questions
1 How are businesses changing the way they work?
2 What is the difference between logistics and supply chain anagement?
3 What are the seven possible steps in a commercial transaction?
4 What does the job of a supply chain manager entail?
5 In what way(s) do you think supply chain management might be important for
a hospital?
c) Give a short summary of the text in Russian
d) With a partner create a scenario including all the steps as outlined above
Example: You need some new office supplies. Initial enquiry:
Step 1: We call, email or write to two or three office supply companies and ask
them to send us their brochures and price lists.
Step 2: We're not happy with the prices and enquire about discounts for the
purchase of more than so many items etc. We see what offers come in.
Step 3: After looking over the offers ...
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8.2.2 System administration and installation
a) Match the following networking terms with their definitions
Example: 1. kernel: F is an essential part of an OS responsible for resource
allocations, low-level hardware interfaces and security.
1 kernel
2 trace route
3 dump
4 time-sharing
5 hop
6 host
7 server
8 protocols
9 client
10 monitor
11 account management
12 tuning
13 webmaster
14 handshaking
15 audit
A is a computer connected to a network.
В is the effort to optimize the performance of a system.
С is a tool to determine the path of a network connection.
D is an OS feature which allows several users to share a single
CPU multi-tasking for multiple users.
E is the jump or connection from one server to another in a
network (compare trace route).
F is an essential part of an OS responsible for resource
allocations, low-level hardware interfaces and security.
G is a computer which runs programs that provide services for
other computers (clients).
H is a file that represents the memory content a program had
when it crashed.
I is a computer which accesses programs run by a server (see
7).
J are the rules governing how data is transmitted, in particular
in a network.
К is to supervise or coordinate network activities.
L is the person who is responsible for establishing and running
a web server and/or the web pages of a website.
M is the process of collecting information about and evaluating
group and individual access to network resources.
N is prearranged agreements regarding hardware or software
activities in order to establish and maintain synchronization.
О is a control program that manages the allocation of system
resources.
b) Now give definition of the following in English
1 Data error
2 Duplicate file name or file not found
3 Exception error 12
4 File not found
5 Invalid parameter
6 Not ready writing
7 Write protect error
8 System Halted
8.2.3 A helpdesk
a) What is a helpdesk? What takes place in the five stages (pre-dispatch,
dispatch, in queue, in service, closed) of a typical transaction? Look at the word path
below and then write a 50-70 word description of a helpdesk, its uses, procedures and
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software requirements
HELPDESK
HIGH-TECH SUPPORT
SOFTWARE
DIRECT
HARDWARE
FORWARD
DIRECT
FORWARD
SOFTWARE NEEDS
LOG-IN
PROBLEM
SUPPORT
PATHS
INFORMATION
MANAGEMENT
WHO? WHAT? HOW LONG?
Communication practice.
Read the following dialogues between a help desk and different customers.
Render (reconstruct in your words) what paths were taken in each of the three cases.
Decide also whether the callers are satisfied with the service and why or why not.
Exchange your opinion with the group
Dialogue 1
A1: Power Printer - providing high quality service and technologies expertise
for our customers 24 hours a day. Customers interested in our full range of products
and services: press 1. Customers with questions concerning support services and
training opportunities: press 2. Customers who would like to place an order with our
Power Printer Store: press 3. Businesses and Institutions seeking advice regarding
system solutions: press 4.
C: Okay, here we go, key one.
A2: Products and Service for Power Printer. Please hold the line, a
representative will be with you shortly
A3: Good Morning. How can I be of service?
C: Uh, I'm interested in a firmware upgrade for our XYC20 print server.
A3: Yes, sir and your location?
C: Pardon?
A3: Your location, sir. Your address so I can give you the name and directions
to the nearest authorized support provider.
С: Of course. I live in Round Rock, Texas, just north of Austin.
A3: Round Rock, one moment, please. - The nearest provider is located at
Hawthorne Suites, 1260 Service Road in North Austin. That's 1260 Service Road
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right along highway 12.
C: 1260 Hawthorne Suites, OK, I've got that, thanks.
Dialogue 2
A1: Power Printer Corporation Headquarters. Good morning.
C: Hello, my name is Ralf Eberwein and I'm calling to complain about a printer
I purchased ...
A1: Excuse me, sir, but I'm afraid you've got the wrong number. You need to
contact our help desk centre. The number is ...
C: I'm not interested in any damned number - all I want is help, now!
A1: I understand, sir. Let me connect you to the help desk centre directly.
A2: Power Printer - providing high quality service and technologies expertise
for our customers 24 hours a day. Customers interested in our full range of products
and services: press 1. Customers with questions concerning support services and
training opportunities: press 2. Customers who would like to place an order with our
Power Printer Store: press 3. Businesses and Institutions seeking advice regarding
system solutions: press 4.
C: Oh no, here we go again.
A3: Support Services for Power Printer. Please hold the line, a representative
will be with you shortly.
A4: Good afternoon. What can I do to help you?
C: Look, now don't try and give me any run around. I bought a printer from you
people two months ago and all I've had is trouble.
A4: What's the problem?
C: It's the sheet feeder - it keeps turning out crooked sheets.
A4: I see, well let me give you the address of our nearest support ...
C: No! I've left the printer at my local support centre to be repaired twice
already. When I go to pick it up everything's fine but after a day or two I'm back
where I started from -every other print job comes out all wrong. I don't want another
incompetent repair job. I want a replacement or my money back plus compensation
for all the trouble I've had.
A4: I see. And the support provider can't help you?
C: They claim they're only authorized to make repairs but not to reimburse me
and certainly not to compensate me.
А4: Well, in such a case you'll have to contact our corporation headquarters in
Atlanta. Hold the line while I put you through ...
A1: Power Printer Corporation Headquarters. Good morning.
C: I don't believe this!
Dialogue 3
A1: Power Printer - providing high quality service and technologies expertise
for our customers 24 hours a day. Customers interested in our full range of products
and services: press key 1. Customers with questions concerning support services and
training opportunities: press 2. Customers who would like to place an order with our
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Power Printer Store: press 3. Businesses and Institutions seeking advice regarding
system solutions: press 4.
C: Oh, dear. Should I press one or two? I guess I'll press one.
A2: Good morning. How can I help you?
C: Oh, uh, the thing is I heard you offer courses, you know - training courses.
A2: Yes, we do, but I'm afraid you've been connected to the wrong desk. Let me
put you through to our support help desk.
A3: Support Services for Power Printer. Please hold the line. A rep ...
C: Maybe, I should be pushing some button or other. I hate ...
A4: Good afternoon. What can I do for you?
C: Oh, I hope I'm in the right place now.
A4: What is it you wanted to know?
C: I'm calling about your training courses.
A4: That's fine, then. Now if you could just let me know what type and level of
training you're interested in, and your location, I can tell you when we are offering
the next course in your area.
C: Okay, well I live just outside Milwaukee - that's in Wisconsin you know and I need some basic training in system administration. I have a degree in electronic
engineering and basic computer knowledge.
A4: We're offering an intensive two week course in system administration for
professionals at the end of August in Madison.
C: August? I was hoping for something sooner.
A4: Let's see. There is a series of four weekend training sessions which is taking
place over a period of two months starting the weekend after next.
C: That sounds ideal.
А4: Good, but the only problem is that it's in the Chicago area.
C: Chicago? Hm, what part?
A4: One moment, let me click on the orientation map - it looks like it's just north
of O'Hare airport. Is that helpful?
C: Very. Okay, I'm sold. What do I have to do now.
A4: If you'd just give me your email or regular address I'll forward all the ...
8.3 Computers and crime
8.3.1 Computer viruses
a) Read the following text and make up headlines for the seven paragraphs
Computer viruses [4]
1 Analogous to biological viruses, a computer virus is a program that searches
out and "infects" other programs. It does this by embedding a copy of itsel in the boot
sector of a disk or in other widely used programs such as spread sheets or database
software. The virus itself is executed when an infected file is activated or when the
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computer is started from an infected disk.
2 Viruses are increasing at an enormous rate. Though there was only one
known virus in 1986, only four short years later they were being discovered at the
rate of one per week. Today computer viruses are on the rise with up to 15 new
viruses found daily and annual growth rates of more than 100%. Naturally, an
increase in the number of viruses in the computer world has led to a rapid spread in
the rate of infections and the number of affected computers.
3 Viruses cannot infect other computers without assistance. While disks used to
be the major source of infection, email attachments are now the bigger headache and,
to a large extent, responsible for the sharp rise in infection rates. As opposed to disks
which are typical for boot-sector viruses, attachments are primarily responsible for
the spread of macro viruses.
4 What exactly do computer viruses do? Some are relatively benign and may
result in nothing worse than "funny" messages or graphics popping up unexpectedly.
Others are anything but harmless and can cause extensive damage, wasting time,
money and countless hours of manpower.
5 Particularly malignant viruses can delete or block access to a user's files or
otherwise cause major damage to software. Virus hoaxes pretending to warn other
users of some dangerous virus on the loose, are almost as bad. They jam email
networks and lead to lost productivity and downtime.
6 Understandably, people tend to react emotionally when threatened with the
loss of files. It is important, therefore, to keep in mind a few points that counter the
general myth building and media sensation surrounding viruses. Viruses don't infect
either write protected disks or compressed files. With the exception of special types
of hardware such as flash memory, they can't infect hardware.
7 Computer viruses can and do cause damage and require effective
countermeasures. Producing and selling anti-virus software has become a lucrative
business. Virus scanning and detecting can be done at intervals or each time a file is
downloaded. With the spread of macro viruses via the Internet, scanning email
attachments is also an important preventive measure.
b) Match the following virus terms to their descriptions below
a) Trojan Horse
b) worm
c) benign virus
d) malignant virus
e) payload
f) macro virus
g)file infectors
h) boot infectors
i) retro virus
j) virus hoax
1 are annoying false alarms that waste time and jam up your mailbox.
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2 is a category of virus which damages a computer system by corrupting files or
destroying data.
3 are viruses which either latch onto or replace .COM and .EXE files as well as
other extensions.
4 are designed to attack anti-virus programs and wipe out anti-virus data files.
5 are programs with a nasty surprise designed to cause harm, in contrast to
viruses they can't make copies of themselves.
6 affect the boot program of the hard drive when the system is rebooted with an
infected floppy in the drive.
7 are script based viruses and are generally spread via email attachments and
Internet downloads.
8 are programs designed to copy themselves from one computer to another, not
from file to file, via a network system - this means they don't need humans to help
spread and are, therefore, especially dangerous.
9 is a category of virus which causes no significant damage.
10 is the part of the virus that triggers the actual events.
8.3.2 Hackers and crackers
a) Put the six blocks of text below into the correct chronological order [5]
1 Even though the "Wild West" days of computer cracking might be coming to
an end, outlaws will always be a part of an ever expanding cyberspace. Users would
therefore be wise to be on the lookout for people who fool machines into granting
them access.
2 Then the government stepped in and started closing in on the crackers, as
they now came to be called. The United States Congress passed the Federal
Computer Fraud and Abuse Act in 1986 which led to numerous arrests. Charges
ranged from crashing net-linked computers, to breaking into computer networks,
phone-tampering, stealing credit cards and using stolen mobile telephone numbers.
Convictions brought anything from heavy fines, mandatory community service to
years of time behind bars.
3 The dubious honour of being the first person to illegally break into a
computer controlled system is generally given to John Draper. Known as "Captain
Crunch" he discovered that the whistle that came in the cereal of that same name
perfectly imitated AT&T's 2,600 MHz dialing tone, allowing him - and soon after
hordes of other people - to make free long distance calls. For a while it seemed as if
there was open season on networks as hackers broke into banking systems,
disconnected phone lines and even hacked their way into government networks.
4 Fortunately there are ways and means to help protect sensitive data such as
bank account information, credit-card numbers and confidential reports. Digital
certificates are files often used to identify servers and users and which function as a
sort of electronic passport. Another important security measure is cryptography, a
means for protecting email messages while en route. Last, but not least, browser
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software can help you dismantle "cookies", small files used to keep track of who has
visited a website how often.
5 As ARPAnet gradually melted into the Internet and PCs became more
affordable and widespread in the early eighties, hacking became the preferred
lifestyle for a whole generation of computer freaks. The 1983 movie "War Games"
based on the real life of hacker Kevin Mitnick introduced the idea of hacking, and
for that matter, personal computers to a broader public for the first time. Cooperative
cells of hackers, codenamed the 414s, Legion of Doom, Masters of Deception or
Chaos Computer Club fought online battles with each other, the world and any
government network they could get their code into. Blocking up each other's phone
lines, monitoring calls and trespassing into each other's private computers were some
of the more favoured pastimes.
6 Originally the word hacking had no criminal meaning at all but was all about
studying and figuring out how the computer world worked. In the early days of
computing, access to the large expensive mainframes was limited, so programmers
wrote "hacks" or shortcuts to complete their given tasks more quickly. A good
example is the operating system Unix which was developed as an open set of rules
to run such machines more efficiently.
b) Finally decode, i.e. put the words of the advice below into the correct order
1 Use - browser - dismantle - your - "cookies" - software - to
2 Don't - unknown - from - open - attachments - sources - email
3 Update - regularly - your - software - anti-virus
4 Keep - secret - a - password - your
5 Encrypt - sensitive - to - want - data - you - email
6 Always - software - for - and - attachments - viruses - check - email
7 Make - copies - files - important - of - backup
8 Don't - virus - believe - hoaxes - and - pass – on
с) Speculate about what could have been avoided if users had observed security
measures
Example: 1. If Dana had made back-up copies she wouldn't have lost all her
files.
1 Poor Dana. She lost all her current files when her computer crashed
yesterday.
2 The government cracked down on computer abuse in the 80's leading to the
arrest of a number of infamous hackers.
3 She didn't bother to check the borrowed disk for viruses and caught a bug.
4 The teacher stupidly used his first name as a password which the students
soon discovered.
5 Many users caught the "Iloveyou" virus because they blindly opened up the
email attachment it came in.
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6 Greg wasted half the morning passing on a warning about a new virus which
turned out to be a hoax.
8.3.3 Cryptography
a) Translate the following text into Russian
b) Compare your translation to your partner's. What words or parts did you
translate differently?
c) Go over the commented version of the translation with your teacher together
Cryptography [5]
Cryptography is the practice and study of encryption and decryption - encoding
information so that it can only be decoded by certain individuals. A cryptosystem is
one for encrypting and decrypting data. This generally involves an algorithm for
combining the original data, called "plaintext", with one or more "keys". Keys are
numbers or strings of characters which only the sender and/or recipient know. The
output which results is called "ciphertext".
The security of a cryptosystem is usually dependent on the secrecy of some,
more or all of the keys and not on the supposed secrecy of the algorithm. A good
cryptosystem possesses a wide range of possible keys so that it is not feasible to
simply try out all of them. This is known as the "brute force" approach. If a
cryptosystem is strong, it will turn out ciphertext which appears random to standard
statistical tests. A strong cryptosystem will be able to withstand cryptoanalaysis, i.e.
all previously known methods of breaking code.
8.3.4 Passwords
a) Study the criteria below and reformulate them into rules for governing the
use of passwords
Example: 1. A password should be easy to remember.
1 be easy to remember
2 be a word from a dictionary
3 contain both numbers and letters
4 include spaces, dots or symbols with a special computing meaning
5 have both capital and small case letters
6 be a common word which is easy to guess
7 be told to your office colleagues
8 be jotted down somewhere near your computer
9 be re-issued at regular intervals
10 be at least 6 characters long
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b) Now consider the consequences if you don't follow the rules. Write one
sentence per rule
Example: If the password isn't easy to remember, you'll soon forget it.
8.4 Language and grammar
8.4.1 Present perfect - simple or continuous?
Info-Box:
There's an unusually fine line drawn in some cases between when to use
present perfect, i.e. I have lived here for ages (= could still be living here), and the
present perfect continuous, i.e. I have been living here for ages (= am definitely still
living here).
The rule of thumb is that the activity must still be going on to use the continuous
form of the present perfect.
Convert the following phrases into sentences to describe your personal situation.
Choose the most suitable verb form, either present perfect or present perfect
continuous.
Example: 1. I have been living in Europe for 20 years.
1 live / Europe / (20 Years)
2 travel / America / (many times)
3 use / computer / since
4 study / English / for-since
5 play / tennis / for-since
6 think about / new job
7 know / this system / for
8 work with / Linux / since
8.4.2 If-sentences
Rewrite these sentences using an if-construction. Make up any details.
Example: Larry forgot his password so he couldn't access the network. If Larry
hadn't forgotten his password he would have been able to access the network.
1 "Captain Crunch" discovered the AT&T tone signal and was therefore able to
make free calls.
2 They made the film War Games based on the real life exploits of hacker Kevin
Mitnick.
3 We didn't get past their firewall because we didn't know the password.
4 Some older people don't like computers, perhaps because they didn't grow up
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with them.
5 He caught the "I think you're sexy" virus when he opened an attachment even
though he didn't know who had sent it.
6 Big Blue stock, now worth $450, went for $20 a share the year I was born.
8.4.3 Mixed tenses
Choose the correct form of the verb in the following text.
1 English is essential in this helpdesk job. If you (not speak) English, you (not be
able) to speak to half the callers.
2 In case I (forget), (remind) me to send copies to the rest of the staff.
3 Of course, it's important! If it (not be) a matter of top priority, we (not put) it on
the agenda.
4 What (like) you to drink? - If you (have) red wine, I (have) a glass, otherwise
just water, please.
5 If she (take) more computer courses when she (be) at college, she (be) in a
better position now to find a good job.
6 If you (ask) me, the company (be) better off if they (downsize) earlier - now it
(be) too late. -Nonsense! They (be able) still make a comeback if they (act) now.
8.4.4 Prepositions
Complete the sentences with the correct preposition
(2x) for - up - of - between - by - (2x) on – in
1 They're offering discounts of ….. to 10% off the regular price list.
2 It's a special offer - two ... the price ... one.
3 Charges ... express delivery vary ... 2% and 5%.
4 Payment is strictly ... a cash basis only.
5 Would you like to pay ... credit card or... cash?
6 We're way over budget and have to cut back ... spending to bring our debt
balance down.
8.4.5 Infinitive or -ing?
Choose the correct form of the verb - infinitive or "ing".
1 You can prevent (get) viruses by using anti-virus software.
2 As part of my IT training I was taught (program) in two languages and trained
(think) logically.
3 He couldn't resist (buy) more stock as prices dropped, though he risked (lose)
all his money.
4 Forget (drive) - (take) a plane is lot easier and quicker.
5 Right now all I'd like (do) is to try (figure out) how this system works and get
it (go) again.
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8.4.6 Idioms: to give
Complete the following sentences with the correct form of the phrasal verb give.
give up - give away - give back - give in - 2x give out
1 If I'd known you needed the scanner manual I would have ... it ... to you
sooner.
2 ... to their every whim is not the answer to raising children properly.
3 He would have made a success of the venture if he hadn't got discouraged
towards the end and ... the whole project.
4 In an effort to attract new subscribers, they're ... three free issues of ONLINE.
5 Cross your fingers and hope the car doesn't ... on us before we reach home.
6 Would you please ... these copies to the others?
9 Unit 9. Jobs in computing, CV and interview
9.1 Selling your business
Below are the descriptions of four IT related products or services. Choose one
or select a product idea of your own. In groups of 3-4 develop a marketing concept
to sell your product. Consider the following points [4]:
1 Who is your key target market: average users, IT specialists, small businesses
or software firms?
2 What should be the main focus/points of your marketing message?
3 Consider cost/efficiency ratio.
1: Computer Consultant Service
- provides customized configuration solutions
- low prices for complete systems, hardware, software,
accessories etc.
- 24-hour technical support
- personal account manager
2: Workshops about the future of technology
- to be held on separate dates in four major cities
- cocktail reception before and after each workshop featuring music and
demonstrations by key technologies
- different focal points: digital entertainment, money and e-commerce, global
communication, technological industry
3: Laptop
- 750 MHz processor
- 128MBSDRAM(upgradeableto256MB)
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- 18-1 GB hard disk drive
- internal 8x DVD Rom drive and floppy disk drive
- 14.1" LCD colour display 1024x768x6A resolution
- Includes: modem, built-in software
- 3.0 Kg, direct 3D, 6 MB video SGRAM, dual screen mode support MPEG2
decoder
4: Digital camera frame
- displays images from flash memory cards (= digital camera film)
- 101 mm x 127 mm screen
- up to 40 image capacity/slide function
- built-in modem for sending to email addresses and other frames
- built-in menu for easy selection
Communication practice.
Now decide on the most suitable advertising media for your marketing message:
Take into consideration not just suitable text, but also what kind of images, music and
layout would be effective. Discuss in groups and present your project
1 a magazine advertisement
2 a TV commercial
3 an Internet advertisement
9.2 Finding a job
9.2.1 Job titles
Job profiles are undergoing rapid revision as our working is becoming ever more
complex and computerized. Choose 3-4 job titles from the selection on the next page.
With a partner consider the following questions:
1 What job duties could the position possibly entail?
2 What sort of qualifications, training or expertise might be required?
3 Would you personally be qualified/want to work in one of the positions? Why
or why not?
Online project manager - key account manager - team assistant - software
developer - IT consultant - front desk manager -customer service - web-master - call
centre coordinator - NT/Oracle administrator - marketing-communications
coordinator - finance specialist - contact coordinator - relocation counselor - office
head - DTP-allrounder - software target integration - senior and junior helpdesk
analyst - senior system trainer - carrier liaison manager - network planning manager junior art director - IT supporter - strategic cable planner - online ad manager
9.2.2 Job advertisements
Study the following job advertisements. List which of the following are required
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/offered in each of the advertised positions [2].
- personal qualities - example: team oriented
- professional abilities - example: fluent in English
- job duties - example: manage sales force
- benefits - example: bonus structure
Jobs in Ireland
German native speakers needed urgently for Telesales-Technical SupportCustomer Service. Friendly manner and call centre experience required. Excellent
prospects in a young, dynamic, multi-national team.
Contact Cornelia at 00535 68 238 8232
Germany based Sales Manager
International Information Center servicing the banking, finance and
telecommunication markets in Europe is looking for a
Requirements include experience in online marketing, information product sales
and customer relationship development. Candidates must be fluent in English and
German. Managing sales and marketing organization skills are desirable.
Responsibilities will include developing and implementing effective sales
strategies and managing sales force.
We offer a competitive salary, company car, generous expense account. Please
forward CV in English to humanresources@iic.au
Service Engineer
SEMIC is a dynamic European distribution company for Semiconductor
equipment specialized in back-grinding, gas abatement and meteorology. We are
currently seeking a for
- installation of new tools
- maintenance of existing machines
- failure and process analysis
We require
- experience with good technical background
- ambitious work ethics
- willingness to travel
- good communication skills in German and English
We offer
- an interesting position in a team-oriented culture
- competitive salary
- project related bonus structure
- training in the USA
Please direct your references and CV to Semic GmbH, Dr. Sandra Buckl,
Hauptplatz 4, D-01307 Dresden
Fairview Technology Inc.
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Fairview Technology is a leading ASIC design service vendor.
Analog Design Engineers
Responsibilities: Design and evaluate high speed circuits, experience with flash,
sigma-delta and other ADCCs, oscillators and voltage references. Candidates should
have experience with CMOS technologies and work effectively in multi-cultural
teams. Requirements: BSEE/MSEE/PHD (or equivalent). Proficient in analog circuit
design and analysis along with CAD/CAE design tools. Good oral and written communication skills.
We offer a competitive salary and good employee benefits:
- internal and external training
- English, Chinese and Japanese language classes
- bonuses
- maternity/parental leave
If you'd like to join the best, please send your application to
Fairview Technology GmbH
Humboldstrafte 215
22083 Hamburg
www.fairview.com.tw
9.2.3 CV and letter of application
a) Each country has its own educational system which makes translating
certificates and diplomas an especially challenging task. Study the following tables
showing American and British educational related terms [4]
(the symbol ~ indicates that the translation is only an approximation and that
there really isn’t an exact equivalent)
American
British
Russian
elementary school
primary school
начальная школа
junior high school
secondary modern school
~средняя школа (5 – 9 классы)
high school
secondary school/
grammar school
~средняя школа (10 – 11
классы)
college/university
university
университет
technical institute
university (formerly
polytechnic)
~технический вуз
normal school
university (formerly
teachers' college)
~педагогический вуз
law school
study law
~юридический вуз
medical school
study medicine
~медицинский вуз
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Certificates and diplomas
apprenticeship/training
apprenticeship/training
обучение/образование
completed junior high
school
(secondary modern) school
leaving certificate
~неполное среднее
образование
trained clerk
qualified clerk/certificate in
commerce
квалифицированный
служащий
high school diploma, nonacademic orientation
G.C.S.E. (= General
Certificate of Secondary
Education)
аттестат о среднем
образовании
high school diploma,
with college entrance
qualification
A (= advanced)-levels
~абитуриент (по результатам
ЕГЭ)
Bachelor of Arts
Bachelor of Arts
~бакалавр гуманитарных
наук
Bachelor of Science (in
engineering)
Bachelor of Science
(academically trained
engineer)
~бакалавр технических наук
Master of Arts
Master of Arts
~магистр гуманитарных
наук
Master of Science
Master of Science
~магистр технических наук
MBA (= Master of Business
Administration)
MBA
~магистр бизнеса
MD (= Doctor of Medicine)
MD
~доктор (медицины)
PhD (= Doctor of Philosophy)
PhD
~доктор (философии)
b) Which of the following points do you think should be included in a letter of
application:
name - age - how much money you would like to earn - nationality - contact
addresses -marital status - ages and sexes of any children - relevant experience detailed description of your present job duties - reason you are applying for the job a list of all the computer language courses you've ever taken - special skills - opinion
of the company
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c) Now write your own CV and letter of application for one of the jobs
advertised
Сommunication practice.
Interview your partner about their first (computer) job and then report back to
the class. Ask questions about the following:
qualifications needed /colleagues / boss /firm
job duties - difficult, interesting, challenging, unpleasant
benefits - pay, holidays, flexitime, amenities
d) Research computer job offers on the Internet and report back to the class.
Consider some of the following questions:
1 Which site(s) did you find most/least useful?
2 If you had a position to offer someone would you place it online? On which
site?
3 Did you (or would you) apply for any of the advertised jobs? What was your
experience?
e) Consider your own personal assets and strengths. Write (anonymously) your
own advertisement seeking employment - 50/60 words - using the following
guidelines:
- Use direct, dynamic language
- Give your advertisements a structured layout
- Include details about key qualifications and experience
- Be brief
f) Collect the advertisements and post them up on the walls of the classroom.
Study the advertisements and discuss which one(s) you found most appealing and
why
9.3 Interview
Communication practice.
What advice would you give a friend going for an important job interview?
Brainstorm with a partner and then share with the group
Don't...
Make sure ...
Prepare a few ...
Wear...
Be...
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Show ...
a) Read the following typical "tricky" job interview questions. How would you,
personally, answer each of them? Practise asking and answering the questions with a
partner, making notes of your best ideas and answers
1 What would you consider to be your strongest asset/worst fault or weakness?
2 Where do you see yourself in ten years' time?
3 Why do you want to leave your present job?
4 How would you characterize your relationship with your colleagues/boss at
your present job?
5 Tell me about yourself.
6 A number of people have applied for this position. Why should we choose
you?
7 What is the most important thing for you in life: family, free time, status or
money?
8 What recent achievements are you most proud of?
b) Read the extracts from five interviews. Match the interview excerpts to the
most suitable job being applied for [2]
(I = Interviewer; A = Applicant)
1 I: Well, that's clear. Now to your qualifications. I see from your CV here that
you have a bachelor of science.
A: That's right - in electrical engineering, but I specialized in design engineering
and took further training in the development and design of tools in the field of applied
graphics.
2 I: Now, if you don't mind, I'd like to switch to English for the next part of the
interview.
A: That's fine with me.
I: Good. Well, now I see from your CV that you've lived your whole life in
Mindersheim. Aren't you a bit anxious about leaving your family and friends to go
and live in a foreign country?
A: Well, I might be but in fact I have a number of acquaintances in the Dublin
area. I've been over there several times and I really like the people, they're so friendly
and warm. I'm sure I'll feel at home quite soon.
3 I: You definitely have the right technical know-how for this position. The
questions is – with such a young family ... your children are, let's see, five and just
under three?
A: That's right.
I: The question is whether you'll be willing or able to travel as much as the job
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requires.
A: I understand your concern, but it's not an issue, I can assure you. In fact, the
prospect of possibly doing some training abroad and perfecting my language skills is
one of the things that caught my eye in your job advertisement.
4 I: Looking at your CV you seem to have plenty of experience in sales and
marketing. What we also need, though, is someone with good people skills. A good
team player and a good team leader.
A: Quite right and I'd like to think I qualify as both, if I may say so. The
experience I acquired as an officer in the army where I was responsible for directing
and managing a complete platoon was invaluable. Since then I've also ...
5 I: So Mr Feldheim, I see you've just finished your training as a systems
support assistant at Erker Vocational Training Centre but have no job experience to
speak of. In what way do you feel qualified for the position being offered?
A: It's true that I have no formal job experience as such, but I have spent literally
thousands of hours not just playing but analysing a wide variety of computer games.
Two years ago I set up my own website called Players Online which offers
information, tips and the latest news for those interested, an invaluable experience.
Communication practice.
Interview Role Play
Take turns playing the role of the interviewer or, alternatively, the candidate for
a computer related job.
1 Working in groups of three write an advertisement for a job that might
reasonably match the expectations and abilities of some or most members of the
class. Make copies or display your finished job ad so that the other members of the
class have a chance to read it.
2 Choose one of the jobs advertised by another group. Apply for the job by
writing a letter of application and submitting your CV. You will probably want to do
this double task as homework and channel it through the teacher to ensure
correctness and a smooth coordination of operations.
3 a) Interviewers: Back in your work groups read through the submitted letters
of application and CVs. Prepare a checklist of questions or topics you would like to
cover in the interview: job experience, further training, health, language skills etc.
b) Candidates: Prepare yourself for your upcoming interview. Once again go
over the points of advice and the tricky questions on the previous pages.
4 Conduct the interviews in rounds as outlined in the scheme below. As
interviewers make sure you take adequate notes.
First round
Each group consists of three people: А, В, С In the first round all the A's are
job candidates. They leave their groups to be interviewed by members of another
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group. The B's and C's stay behind to interview a person from another group.
Second round
In the second round the B's now leave the group to play the role of job
candidates. The A's return to their original group and together with their С partners
interview a B-candidate from another group.
Third round
In the third round it's now the turn of the C's to be the candidates. They leave
the group to be interviewed while the A's and B's stay behind to interview one of the
С candidates from another group.
Fourth round
In the fourth round the original A,B,C work group meets to compare notes.
They inform each other about the different interviews (one member was always
away being interviewed themselves) and choose the best candidate for the job.
Conclusion and discussion
After announcing the successful applicants discuss the following points:
1 Which role did you feel to be more challenging, that of the interviewer or that
of the job applicant?
2 As a candidate what struck you as positive/negative/helpful/intimidating ...
about the different interviewers? Did you feel the simulation was realistic? What
would you do differently in a real life interview?
c) Discuss (or write an essay) about the following questions:
1 Where would you like to be/do you think you'll be in 5/10/15 years from
now? In terms of your career/family life/personal growth?
2 In what ways might the one affect the other? Positively/negatively?
3 In what area would you like/do you think you'll need to invest more training?
Your language/communication skills/computer know-how?
9.4 Language and grammar
9.4.1 Comparative
Rewrite the following sentences using different comparative/contrastive
phrases.
Example:
Far more money is spent on computer training in India than in Pakistan. Not as
much money is spent in Pakistan as in India on computer training.
1 There aren't enough qualified people as needed to fill the required positions.
2 We have about the same number of people working in the sales as in the
billing department.
3 At least twice as many men as women are trained as programmers.
4 In person she looks less youthful than on TV.
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9.4.2 Tenses
a) Choose the correct tense of the verbs in bracket
1 By this time tomorrow we (finish) interviewing all the candidates and (be
able) to let you know who we (choose).
2 I (work) for the firm for less than a month when I (call) into the boss's office
one day. Of course, I (be) nervous but I (let) him see that.
3 Lately, we (witness) more of that kind of aggression among our students and
less of the cooperation we (like) to see.
4 She (want) to study engineering but her parents (be) opposed to the idea. She
(end up) becoming a teacher but (vow) her daughter (have) more choices than she
(have).
b) Complete the following letter using the correct tense of the verbs in brackets.
A variety of tenses, including conditionals and imperatives, will be needed
Dear Yuri,
I (write) sooner but I (be) afraid I (be) awfully busy lately. Please (forgive) me.
The reason I (write) you now is that I (hear) just about a job opportunity I think
(appeal) to you. A small software company I (do) business with (look for) a sales
manager who (be) up on IT and (speak) fluent Czech, German and English. I
immediately (think) of you.
As I (understand) it, the job (require) quite a bit of travelling - on both sides of
the border but a company car (provide).
I know you (look for) a job some months ago and if you (not find) anything yet,
this (be) your big chance. I (enclose) the business card of the person you (contact). I
hope things (work out) - let me (know).
9.4.3 Prepositions
Complete the sentences with the correct preposition.
for - in - of (5x) - to (2x) - at - over – with
1 I have considerable expertise ... the field ... CAD design tools.
2 You would be responsible ... the design and layout ... mixed signal circuits.
3 All the candidates who have applied ... date are ... forty years old.
4 Applicants will be considered on the basis ... their suitability, regardless ... sex,
race, nationality or age.
5 If you are good ... people, like working in a team and are capable ... working to
tight deadlines, write ... us ... megamoney@alp.com
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9.4.4 Qualifiers
Find the best match for the job related nouns and their qualifiers below.
Example: 11. competitive - e salary
1 broad
2 crime
3 leading
4 technical
5 thorough
6 ambitious
7 growing
8 effective
9 interesting
10 excellent
11 competitive
12 confidential
13 team-oriented
14 multi-cultural
15 fluent
16 proficient in
17 experience in
a) enquiries
b) culture
с) the computer industry
d) vendor
e ) salary
f ) area
g) team
h) English
i) training
j) business
к) prospects
i) background
m) design
n) knowledge
о) position
p) outlook
q) strategy
10 Business file
10.1 Introducing, welcoming, small talk
a) Choose a suitable phrase from the boxes below to complete the dialogues [2].
Check yourself (See Additional material 10.1, p. 185)
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Dialogue 1
formal - this - met - I'm - meet - introduce – do
VB: Hello, may I (1) myself? My name is Victoria Baxter from Betasystems.
GD: Pleased to (2) you, Ms. Baxter. (3) Greg Demmer from Longman
Incorporated. I don't think you've (4) my colleague Thomas Wight yet either.
Thomas, (5) is Ms Baxter from Betasystems.
TW: No, I haven't. How do you (6), Ms Baxter.
VB: Oh, call me Victoria, Ms Baxter sounds so (7).
Dialogue 2
flowers - weather - wet- hear – like
A: I (1) you're from Aberdeen, is that right?
B: Yes, I am.
A: What's the weather (2) there at this time of the year? Rather rainy, I suppose.
B: Oh, not so bad. We had our share of (3) days in the past month but the sun
was shining when left for the airport. And what's the (4) been like here?
A: A bit dry actually, not really good for my garden.
B: Oh, so you're a gardener. What do you go in for? Vegetables or more (5)?
Dialogue 3
problem - later - rushed - minute- so sorry- back
A: Have you got a (1)?
B: (2), but I'm a bit (3) at the moment. Could you get (4) to me in a few hours?
A: Sure, no (5). I'll call you (6).
Check yourself (See Additional Material 10.3). Reproduce the dialogues in
pairs.
Communication practice.
Work in pairs. Make up dialogues using the phrases above and in the box below
[3]
Phrases: Introducing oneself
Less formal
Hi, my name's Katya
Hello, I'm Katya/call me Katya.
More formal
Good morning, my name is Ms/Mr
Barth. I'd like to take this
opportunity to introduce myself. I'm
Katherine /John Barth. May I
introduce myself?
My name is Katherine Barth.
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Introducing other people
Less formal
George, this is Susi. Susi, George here.
You two haven't met yet, have you?
George, this is my sister Susi. Susi, this
is George, my new colleague.
More formal
George, may 1 introduce our sales
representative in the Far East, Ms
Baxter? Ms Baxter, this is George
Simmons, head of the purchasing
department. Dr. Hendel? May I
introduce you to my new
administrative assistant, Ms Wiener.
Ms Wiener, I'd like you to meet Dr.
Hendel,
our
financial
chief
executive officer.
Making small talk
Is this your first visit to Russia?
Have you been to Moscow before?
It's been a beautiful/warm/wet/cold day/evening/week/month ... , hasn't it?
So you're from Glasgow/Delhi/Miami .... What's it like there at this time of year?
I hear baseball/football/tennis/basketball ... is big in the States.
That's a nice …/I like your bag/bracelet/jacket. Where did you get it?
Have you ever tried ... ?
Putting people off
I'm so sorry/I hate to put you off but I'm really rushed/busy right now.
Maybe we can discuss the matter next week/later/when I have more time.
Can you get back to me in ... hours/days/weeks/months?
Can I get back to you in ...?
Could we put this on hold for... hours/days/weeks/months?
Let's discuss that later.
10.1.1 Politeness
a) How would you translate the following Russian phrases into English? Match
them to their English equivalents [3]
1 Вы не против, если …
2 С удовольствием.
3 Почему бы нам не …
4 Я бы предпочёл/ мне лучше …
5 Мне очень жаль, но ...
6 Зависит от обстоятельств.
7 Интересно, ...
8 Кстати, …
9 Отличная идея!
10 Боюсь, это не ...
11 Знаю, что вы заняты, но ...
12 Не хотел об этом спрашивать, но …
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a) I hate to ask you, but...
b) Why don't we ...
c) I'd prefer/ I'd rather...
d) Do you mind/would you mind...
e) My pleasure.
f) I'm afraid that's not...
g) I'm sorry, but...
i) I was wondering ...
j) By the way, ...
h) That all depends.
k) Great idea!
l) Speaking of which/Talking of...
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13 Спасибо за предложение.
m) Could you do me a favour?
14 Могу я попросить Вас об одолжении? n) Thanks for the suggestion.
15 Если говорить о ...
o) I know you're busy, but...
b) Make sentences using the phrases above
с) Politeness is more than a matter of simply mouthing "please" and "thankyou"; knowing when and how to change the topic as well as "softening" strategies
when requesting, rejecting and complaining are also important. Use the following
phrases to make up dialogues
Phrases:
Changing the topic:
Softening strategies:
Talking of/speaking of families, books,
politics ...
That reminds me of the time ...
By the way, have you ever... ?
Could you possibly/by any chance lend
me your mobile?
I was wondering if you ...
I'm awfully sorry, but...
Actually, the position has already been filled,
I'm afraid.
d) Study the following phrases and practice making requests and suggestions [6]
Phrases: Requests
Request
Response +
Response -
least formal
1 need help (quick!)
What's wrong? I'm on my
way.
Could you do me a favour, please?
Could you lend/give/help me ...?
Of course/Sure/No
problem!
That all depends.
Do you mind lending /giving ...
Of course not.
I'm sorry, but...
1 know you're busy but... 1 hate to
ask ...
Not at all.
Don't be silly.
Actually,
I am rather busy at the
moment.
Most formal
Would you be so kind as to ...
If 1 can be of service.
Certainly, my pleasure.
I'm afraid 1 can't .../I'm
sorry, but... (always give a
reason)
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Phrases: Suggestions
Suggestion
informal
formal
Positive reaction
Negative reaction
Let's...
You/we could ...
Yeah, great. Sure.
Why not?
No way.
Let's ... instead.
I'd rather...
Why don't you ...?
Shall we...?
That's a good idea!
Thanks for the
suggestion.
I'd prefer to ...
e) Please don't misuse please!
We only use the word “please” in English for requests or polite orders. For the
universal Russian “пожалуйста” and “простите” the following jumbled English
phrases are used. Match them to the correct Russian meaning [3].
1 Спасибо – Пожалуйста.
a)
Please help me.
2 Пожалуйста (подавая, передавая ч-л.)
b) Pardon me! I beg your pardon!
3 Пожалуйста, пожалуйста. (разрешая)
c)
4 Помогите мне, пожалуйста.
d) Here you are.
5 Простите? (не понятно)
e)
Go ahead./Be my guest./Of course
6 Простите! (возмущение)
f)
Pardon? Sorry?
7 Простите, … (обращение к незнакомым)
h) Thank you - You're welcome./Not at
Sorry!
all.
8 Прошу прощения! (за беспокойство)
i)
Excuse me, …
10.2 Telephoning
10.2.1 Incoming and outgoing calls
Phrases: Incoming and outgoing calls
Incoming calls:
ITSALES GmbH. Good morning./
Good afternoon.
Who's calling, please?
Hold the line, please. I'll put you through.
I'm sorry, Mr/Ms ... is not in/in his/her office.
What is it about? Perhaps I can help you.
Outgoing calls:
I'd like to speak to Ms Summer.
When will he/she be back?
Can I leave a message?
Can you tell Mr/Ms that...?
I'll ring back later.
Can I take a message?
Thank you for calling.
I'm phoning about your order No. ... of 1
June.
I look forward to hearing from you.
See you next week! (informal)
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Communication practice.
Work in pairs and make up dialogues using the phrases above.
10.2.2 Making appointments on the phone [2]
Setting up an appointment is usually done on the phone and can be a tricky
business as you need to be able to understand names, dates, places etc.
a) Study the phrases on the next page, look at the following diaries and practice
making appointments with a partner
Example: Hi, Leo, this is Greg. Do you think we could get together sometime
next week? I'll be in Ludwigsburg all day Wednesday but I would have time on
Thursday at around 10 o'clock in the morning.
Student A
3 Mon
4Tue
teleteaching
catch up
emails?
November
5 Wed
6 Thu
7 Fri
8 Sat
08 am
09 am
project
group
meeting
10 am
11 am
noon
01 pm
02 pm
Ludwigsb
urg
9 Sun
Klaus’
birthd
ay
Breakflast
meeting
with staff
return from
Ludwigsbur
d
Videoconference
tennis
Chinese
visitors
Sales meeting
Prepare
presentation
/Chinese
visitors
shopping
Interview
new TA/
candidates (3
or 4?)
03 pm
04 pm
05 pm
06 pm
07 pm
08 pm
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Student B
3 Mon
4Tue
November
5 Wed
6 Thu
7 Fri
08 am
09 am
emails
10 am
11 am
staff meeting
Videoconference/Wagner
Presentati
on for new
IT
trainees
Lunch Dr.
Scheele
noon
Holzhausen
Logistics
01 pm
02 pm
03 pm
04 pm
05 pm
06 pm
07 pm
08 pm
Seminar
Fri-Sat in
Düsseldorf
project
planning
meeting
Videoconferen
ce resale of
production
line 3 to
Czech plant
Teleteaching
Phrases: Setting up a date/time
I'd like to make an appointment with Mr/Ms ...
Would three-fifteen on Wednesday the 4th be convenient?
We could meet on ...
I can (can't) manage Thursday at 10. (What about 10:30?)
I could fit you in on Friday at 11.
Positive response
(in descending order of formality/politeness)
1 Three-fifteen on Wednesday? I'm looking forward to it.
2 That's fine. Three-fifteen on Wednesday, then.
3 Thursday at ten is great.
4 No problem. See you on ...
Negative response
(in descending order of formality/politeness)
1 I hate to inconvenience you but .... Would ... be possible instead?
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8 Sat
9 Sun
Klaus’
birthd
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2 I'm afraid Wednesday at 3:15 is a bit difficult. Could we possibly meet on ...
instead?
3 Wednesday, did you say? That's a problem. How about Thursday at 10
instead?
4 Thursday's no good. Make it Friday at two.
b) The following dialogue is about an appointment. Complete the dialogue
using the correct form/tense of the verbs in brackets. Check yourself (See Additional
Material 10.2, p.186)
Victoria: Hello.
John: Hello, this (be) John Stovers from Training Unlimited. I'd like to speak to
Ms Bucher, please. Victoria: (speak).
John: Good morning, Ms Bucher. I (call) about the letter you (send) us
enquiring about positions for software trainers.
Victoria: That (be) right.
John: Well, I (be) afraid I (not have) any permanent position to offer you at the
moment but we (look) always for qualified personnel, (be) you also interested in
working on a freelance basis?
Victoria: That depends.
John: At the moment I (have) two evening courses - one in DOORS and the
other in ACQUIRE that (start) soon, (be) you interested?
Victoria: Definitely. I (work) with both programs so I (be) sure I (not have) any
problems.
John: Good. Perhaps we (meet) to discuss the details some time - let's say early
next week, (have) you time on Monday at three?
Victoria: Monday at three? That (be) fine.
John: Good. I (show) you the computer classroom you (use) and (introduce)
you to Jeff, our systems administrator.
Victoria: Great. I (look forward) to that.
John: (see) you on Monday at three, then.
Victoria: Yes, thank you. Goodbye.
10.2.3 Problems on the phone
a) Listen to different pairs of students reproducing dialogues on the phone (See
Additional material 10.3, p. 187) Try to catch and write down all the facts, names,
addresses and numbers. Check your notes.
Communication practice.
Work in pairs and practice giving information over the phone. Make up different
names, addresses, etc. Use the phrases below
Sorry, I didn't catch that.
Could you repeat that, please?
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Could you spell your name, please?
Did you say thirteen or thirty?
Could you speak up a bit?
I'm afraid the line is busy.
I'm afraid you've got the wrong number.
10.3 Written correspondence
10.3.1 Business letters
Identify the following parts of a letter [4]:
Example: 1 = company logo
date - company logo - recipient's name and address - sender's name and
department -complimentary close - opening salutation - subject line - body of the
letter - company address
Model business letter
Samens GmbH
Samensstrasse 14
9304S Regensburg
Telephone: 0941-202-3156
Pax number: 0941-202-3859
email: rainer.sehmidt@samens.de
1
2
Mary Reilley
Sales Manager
Softi Sells
2309 Hollywood Boulevard
Los Angeles, CA 31860
USA
3
Raid - Anti-virus software
Dear Ms. Reilley
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In reference to our telephone conversation on October 5th I would like to
confirm my company's interest in your new anti-virus software Raid, order
No. 10736589. We have received and tested the demonstration version you
sent us and are very satisfied with the results.
A retail price of $29.95 per package is listed in the product description you
enclosed. I would like to know what percent discount you offer for orders of
fifty or more. Could you please send me your offer for fifty packages,
including shipping and packaging costs?
Our company would also be interested in your selection of adventure game
software. Please send us any relevant material in the way of brochures, price
lists and possible demo versions.
I look forward to hearing from you. Please note my email address above.
Yours sincerely
8
Rainer Schmidt
Purchasing Department
9
7
Info Box: How to write a business letter
1 Include a heading
2 You should plan what you want to write in advance and make an
outline.
3 Your sentences should be short and to the point.
4 You should structure each new point in a separate paragraph. In a
memo it's a good idea to number your paragraphs.
5 Use simple, direct language. Avoid flowery phrases and
circumlocution.
6 Your layout should be attractive and straightforward, not cluttered.
7 Always go over your text checking for grammar, punctuation and
spelling mistakes.
8 Make your letter as direct and to the point as possible. Avoid
unnecessary phrases and asides.
9 Include all the necessary information such as dates, account numbers
and names.
10 Courtesies such as an opening salutation, a complimentary close and
polite phrases are important.
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10.3.2 Enquiry, offer, order
a) Read the following enquiry and write an offer for the product requested [4]
Elmhurst Historical Society
2361 Lake Shore Drive
Elmhurst, IL 60542
Telephone: 630-834 8917
Fax number: 630 - 834 8876
email: hensheppard@elmhurst.go
Electronic Partner Wenland
P.O. Box 3241
New Haven, CT 06515
May 10th, 200__
Gentlemen:
We saw your advertisement for the No-Puss Notebook in today's Chicago
Tribune.
We are a public service agency affiliated with the American Historical Society.
Our activities include mounting exhibits on subjects of historical interest, giving
presentations for schools, clubs and organizations and the publication of a quarterly
journal.
Our society is planning to purchase one or more portable computers in the near
future and is interested in suitable products. Could you please send me a brochure
about the above named product and a price list? I would also appreciate information
about which software is рге-installed, specifically presentation software, and whether
the No-Fuss Notebook comes with a docking station or not.
Unfortunately, costs for the computer resources that are acquired to analyze
and catalogue our vast amount of data have risen while federal aid is no longer
available. We would therefore be especially interested in and appreciative of any
possible discounts or donations your company might be willing to offer us. As a nonprofit organization we would naturally be in a position to give you a receipt for any
such contributions which are tax deductible. We would also welcome the opportunity
to list Electronic Partner Wenland among our benefactors in the quarterly journal
Elmhurst History. Please find the enclosed leaflet with a brief description of the
history, aims and interests of our society. We look forward to hearing from you soon.
Yours truly,
Henrietta Sheppard
Secretary of the Elmhurst Historical Society
encl. leaflet
b) Write enquiries, offers and orders using the phrases below. Make up any
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details
Enquiry
We saw your advertisement for digital cameras in ...
We saw your products at the Computer Fair in April ...
We are interested in ...
We are planning to purchase ...
Please send us your catalogue and price list including your terms of payment
and delivery.
Offer
Thank you for your letter of 15 June enquiring about our new range of DVD
drives.
Please find the enclosed brochure/leaflet/about our new range of products.
For more details refer to the enclosed catalogue/price list.
We are sending a sample kit/demo version by separate mail.
We offer a 10 percent discount/we can quote a 10 percent discount for orders
over 200.
Should you have any questions/need any further information please contact us at
any time.
We look forward to hearing from you/receiving your order.
Order
Please send the items listed on the enclosed order form to the following/above
address.
We enclose our order/are placing the following order:
(details concerning name, quantity, catalogue number, price, and description of
item)
Payment
Please find the enclosed cheque for € ...
As agreed, payment is to be made by cheque/bankers draft/postal order on
receipt of your
invoice/the goods.
Delivery
Delivery by ... is essential.
The order must reach us by ... (at the latest).
10.3.3 Writing a letter of complaint
a) Complete the following letter with the words in the box below
receiving - extension - disconnected - pointless - ignored - confirmed - delivery placed - recent -results - enclosed – considerable
Dear Dr De Rosso,
On several occasions I have ordered software from your firm with satisfactory
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(1) However, due to the gross incompetence and downright rudeness in my most (2)
dealings with SOPTSALES, my opinion of your company has changed for the worse.
On 5 February of this year I (3)an online order for the following software products:
15 x Debian GNU/Linux
10 x РАС Back-up UPS 400
2 x post-it software notes 2.0 Office
Although your database (4) that all of the above products were in stock and
available for immediate (5), this was not the case. Only 5 of the 15 Debian
GNU/Linux ordered were (6)although we were billed for all 15. (See enclosed copy
of our credit card bill for February 20th). Emails sent on 5 March, 21 March and 5
April pointing out the error and requesting reimbursement were completely (7).
Dialing your hotline has been equally (8). Twice I've found myself in a call queue
only to be abruptly (9). On the one occasion I did manage to get through, I was very
rudely treated by a member of your technical staff. He rang off without either
forwarding my call or giving me the (10) number. As the systems administrator for a
small but growing organization I am responsible for the purchase of a (11) amount of
software yearly. Your firm's range of software is attractive but if the current deplorable state of affairs with regard to service persists, I have no other option than to
transfer our custom elsewhere.
I expect to receive full and immediate reimbursement for the money you
overcharged us which amounts to £375.21.
I look forward to (12) your cheque by 1 June.
Yours sincerely,
Jane Howards
cc: Better Business Bureau
b) Write a letter of complaint based on the following guidelines. (Suggested
topics: defective hardware/bug-laden software/non-delivery of goods ordered/nonpayment for services/poor or rude services)
Letter with guidelines
Dear Mr/Ms ...
comment: Be polite but personal - direct your letter by name to a high ranking
person
I find it absolutely unacceptable / 1 was appalled / very shocked to learn
dissatisfied...
comment: Take a firm stance right from the start.
The software is bug-ridden / the locking device is faulty / the noise is deafening
comment: Back up your complaint with hard facts and relevant details.
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I talked to your head office but.../ I was put in a call queue / ignored / wrote to a
number of...
comment: Include the steps you have already undertaken unsuccessfully.
Our company buys ... / I was planning ...
comment: Hint that they risk losing your business which is well worth having.
I look forward to hearing from you by ... at the latest. / If not I will be forced...
comment: Firmly place the ball in their court with a deadline or even threat.
Cc: Better Business Bureau
editor "Consumer Weekly"
10.3.4 Fax and e-mail
a) Though letter writing is still an important business skill, alternative forms of
written communication - faxes and above all emails - are used more and more for the
day-to-day communication within and between companies. Understandably there is a
certain amount of insecurity about what is considered acceptable when faxing or
emailing within a business environment, and opinions can differ
Read the following statements and decide if you agree or disagree. Discuss in
pairs or the group at large.
1 It's okay to leave out a formal salutation such as "Dear Sirs" in a fax or email.
2 The proper form of address in an email is "Hi" or "Hello".
3 Faxes often resemble memos in that they include a header with
To:/From:/Date:.
4 You don't have to bother to correct any misspellings or typos in an email speed is what counts.
5 The writing style of faxes and emails is generally more informal than that of
business letters.
6 Reference to attachments can be found at the beginning of an email message.
7 Nobody cares whether you are polite or friendly when emailing or faxing.
8 A lot of people don't bother to use capital letters in emails.
9 If you are in a hurry or just want to confirm receiving the message, it's okay to
use the answer button to send back a quick answer.
10 Passing on someone's email address to a third party without their permission
is perfectly acceptable.
b) Write emails and faxes [2]
1 Look back to Business Files Making appointments on the phone. Assume you
haven't been able to reach your partner on the phone to arrange for an appointment so
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you decide to send an email/a fax instead. Adopt either Student A’s or Student B’s
schedule and send an email /a fax giving a brief outline of your week's appointments
and suggesting a date.
2 Look at the dialogue in Business Files. Assume you are John Stovers and have
not been able to reach Victoria Bucher on the phone. Send her an email/a fax instead
with information about the courses in question and suggesting an appointment.
3 Look ahead to Business Files Role Play: A business meeting. Send an email/a
fax inviting colleagues to one of the three meetings proposed. Include information
about the date, time, place and subject of the meeting.
c) Rewrite the following phrases the way the English would do in an e-mail:
1 Thirty-one point seven degrees Celsius.
2 On the fourth of July seventeen hundred and seventy-six independence
was declared.
3 First of March.
4 His telephone number is O-seven-one-seven-seven-seven-one-seven-one-one
5 Seventy-seven million dollars.
6 The total amounts to three hundred and thirty-one Euros and seventy-one
cents.
7 One and a half million.
8 Seven thousand seven hundred and twenty-one point seven five kilos.
Helping Hint
English speakers use the following conventions in noting down numbers and dates:
1 Use a comma for four or more digit numbers. Example: $4,000 and not $4.000
2 Use a decimal point before the decimal. Example: 2.5% (= two point five per cent)
3 In handwriting the one is written without the down stroke and the seven without
the horizontal stroke.
4 Don't use a full stop after ordinal numbers. Example: 4(th) July
10.4 Meetings
At a business meeting, whether it's a session with a few colleagues or a formal
gathering, you might hear a range of expressions.
Study the phrases below and list them under the following seven functions.
Note: There might be more than one way to express a certain function [2].
Example: 1 giving opinions
As I see it... In my opinion / experience ...
1
giving
opinions
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2
agreeing
3
disagreeing
4
asking for
clarification
5
interrupting
6
dealing with
interruptions
7
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- There are several issues at hand here: One ..
- Can you give an example?
- Can I just say something?
- As I see it...
- I agree.
- That's right!
- I couldn't agree more.
- Exactly!
- In my opinion/experience ...
- Sorry, but could you repeat that, please?
- I didn't quite understand/get that...
- I'm not sure about that...
- Sorry, could I just finish?
- Let me just finish ...
- I'd like to make two points: First of all I'd say ...
- It depends. On the one hand ..., on the other hand
- Just one thing/question:
- I'm afraid I can't go along with that.
- I'd like to point out three main problems.
- Firstly, ... , secondly ..., and finally ...
10.4.1 Chairing a meeting
a) A chairperson often plays a vital role in the success or failure of a meeting.
Discuss with a partner and make a list of things a good chairperson should do during
a meeting. Share with the group
b) Now look at the following phrases (a) - (h) and decide what the chairperson
would use them to do by matching the phrases with the speech functions (1.-8.)
Example: 1. refocusing the discussion: h) Perhaps we could get back to ...
/concentrate on the matter in hand.
1 refocusing the discussion
2 asking for opinions, information
3 asking for agreement
4 closing the meeting
5 opening the meeting
6 moving on to the next point
7 summarizing
8 outlining the agenda
a) Let's see where we are.../Let me sum up .../The consensus seems to be ...
b) Right, I think we're all here, so, ladies and gentlemen ... I'd like to call the
meeting to order.
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c) What do you think, Sandy?/Mary, have you got anything to add?/And what's
your view?
d) Are we all in favour?/Can we agree?/Can I have a show of hands?
e) The problem we have to resolve is .../There are three items on today's
agenda. First ... We're here to discuss the following points: ...
f) Well, that seems to wrap things up./Right, I think we've covered all the items
on the agenda./I'd like to close the meeting at this point. Thank you.
g)Let's move on, shall we?/Okay. That seems clear. /Now the third item on the
agenda is ... /I think we should stop here and ...
h) Perhaps we could get back to ... /concentrate on the matter in hand.
c) Read the extracts from the meetings and identify the different phases or
functions of the meeting as shown above (See Additional Material 10.4, p.187). Who
is speaking? (e.g. chairperson, participant, secretary, committee chairperson)
d) What would you do/say if the following things went wrong at a meeting?
Match the beginnings of the sentences with the endings.
1 If the chairperson didn't show up ...
2 If, as chairperson, participants kept arriving late ...
3 If the chairperson or one participant monopolized the meeting ...
4 If the meeting dragged on and on ...
5 If no one stuck to the agenda ...
a) ... I would suggest we listen to someone else's opinion for a change.
b) ... I would remind participants of the business at hand/request a second
reading of the agenda.
c) ... I would suggest taking a short break or adjourning the meeting till a later
date.
d) ... I would make a motion to adjourn the meeting.
e) ... I would request members to arrive on time in future.
10.4.2 Business meeting vocabulary
Complete the following business meeting quotations using the words or phrases
in the box below [3].
unanimous - chairman - out of order - agenda - minutes - call - show of hands business -vote – committee
1 1 As ... I would now like to ... this meeting to order. Order, Ladies and
Gentlemen!
2 The first item on today's ... is Ms Douglas' report on the new firewall
installations.
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3 If I could just have a quick ... to see how many are in favour of taking a quick
break.
4 George, I'm afraid you're ... there and will have to yield the floor to Jane.
5 I think we can take the ... of last week's meeting as read and proceed to
today's first item of... .
6 Ian: We're just going around in circles here - I propose that we appoint a ... of
two or three to enquire into the facts of the case and report back to us.
7 The resolution to form a committee of investigation is carried by a ... of ten
for, one against and one abstention.
8 No objections? Good, then we're ... in adjourning the meeting till this time
next week.
Communication practice.
A business meeting.
Hold a business meeting in groups of 5-7. Decide your own reason for the
meeting or choose from one of the topics below. Before you start agree upon an
agenda and who is to play any special role such as chairperson, secretary or
committee chairperson. Keep in mind the various phases and functions of a meeting:
opening, structuring, agreeing/disagreeing, summarizing, closing.
Meeting Idea 1
Your company specializes in developing and marketing software for printing
purposes. A meeting has been called to develop a comprehensive in-company
training program for staff members. Possible discussion points: Who needs training?
What? Trainers? When? Costs? Where?
Meeting Idea 2
You work for a middle-sized pharmaceutical company which wants to expand
into E-commerce. A meeting has been called to discuss the necessary requirements:
e.g. website with integrated database, retraining staff, hiring experts. Consider also
your possible target market, e.g. wholesalers, retailers and individual customers as
well as logistics.
Meeting Idea 3
Your consulting firm has been asked to work on a project aimed at the complete
digitalization of a small town with a population of 30,000. Possible points of
discussion: hardware/software requirements, financing.
10.5 Business trips
Communication practice.
Pairwork
Discussing plans: Make notes on your plans for the coming week, for example,
definite appointments, intentions, possibilities. Discuss them with your partner asking
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questions such as the following:
- What are you doing on Thursday?
- Do you have any plans for Wednesday evening?
- Have you got any important appointments this week?
- Are you going to go home at the weekend?
10.5.1 Booking a flight online
a) Read the online information for flights from Munich to London below and on
the next page [2]
Munich, Germany (MUC) to London, UK (LON)
Lowest Economy/Coach Fares valid for travel through June 200_
Fares shown are for one adult. Any applicable discounts will be deducted after
you choose your flights. These fares include airline-imposed fuel surcharges and
some, but not all, taxes. Additional taxes, airport facility charges will be shown after
your flights are selected. Fares do not include an additional Security Fee of up to a
maximum of $5 per one way or $10 per round trip. The fares may not be available on
all flights and are subject to change without notice. Additional taxes/fees may be
associated with international itineraries of up to $113 or local currency equivalent.
Total fare per passenger, including all charges, will always be displayed to you prior
to final ticket purchase. Please note that fares are subject to restrictions, may not be
available on all flights, and may change without notice. For detailed descriptions of
the fare rules, click on the corresponding rules link.
Latest Return: 1 month
1 Round-Trip not including applicable charges British
Airways offers non-stop service
Earliest Return: Sunday
Price: USD 109.00 Advance
Purchase: See Rules Latest
Return: 1 month
2 Round-Trip not including applicable charges
Lufthansa offers non-stop service and connecting service
Earliest Return: Sunday
Price: USD 109.00 Advance
Purchase: See Rules
Latest Return: 14 days
3 Round-Trip not including applicable charges
BMI British Midland offers non-stop service and connecting
service
Earliest Return: Sunday
Price: USD 109.00 Advance
Purchase: See Rules
Latest Return: 14 days
4 Round-Trip not including applicable charges British
Airways offers non-stop service
Earliest Return: Sunday
5 Round-Trip not including applicable charges SN
Brussels Airlines offers connecting service
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Price: USD 118.00 Advance
Purchase: See Rules Latest
Return: 1 month
Price: USD 174.00 Advance
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Earliest Return: 04 days
Purchase: See Rules Latest
Return: 1 month
6 Round-Trip not including applicable charges British
Airways offers non-stop service
Earliest Return: Sunday
7 Round-Trip not including applicable charges
Lufthansa offers non-stop service and connecting service
Earliest Return: See Rules
8 Round-Trip not including
Air France offers connecting service
Earliest Return: Sunday
applicable
9 Round-Trip not including applicable
KLM Airlines offers connecting service
Earliest Return: Sunday
Price: USD 201.00 Advance
Purchase: See Rules Latest
Return: 3 months
Price: USD 201.00 Advance
Purchase: See Rules
charges
Latest Return: 2 months
charges
Price: USD 235.00 Advance
Purchase: See Rules Latest
Return: 1 month
Price: USD 235.00 Advance
Purchase: See Rules Latest
Return: 1 month
b) Now answer the following questions
1 What charges do the fares listed above include?
2 How high can the extra security fees be?
3 Are the fares as listed guaranteed?
4 When will you be informed about the total charges for any given flight?
5 How can you find out more about fare regulations?
6 Which flight would you choose if you were planning to stay in England for
three weeks? Why?
7 What is the cheapest flight if you are planning to attend a six-week language
course in England?
8 What advantages do Lufthansa and BMI have to offer over other airlines on
this run?
c) When is your next business trip or holiday planned? Plan ahead. Check out
the online offers and try to find the best deal for your next flight or alternative form
of transport, i.e. coach tour or train journey. Report back to the class and include
details such as airline, starting times, price, any restrictions, surcharges etc.
10.5.2 Booking a hotel online
a) Orlando in Florida is a popular conference centre with a wide range of hotels
and facilities. Study the selection of online offerings. Choose the best accommodation
solution for the scenarios below. Give reasons for your choices [4]
Scenario 1: Your company is planning its next international conference in
Orlando, Florida and you have been assigned the task of arranging for the
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accomodation. Your boss, among others, enjoys a game of golf. At least two meeting
rooms will be required.
Scenario 2: A family reunion is being planned for approximately 100 members
with children ranging in age from toddler to teenager. On a questionnaire you sent out
to everyone several older relatives expressed concern about facilities for the
handicapped and a number of families would like to bring their dog. Reasonable
prices were also a matter of concern.
Scenario 3: As part of a company campaign to encourage physical fitness a
contest is being held. The winner with his/her spouse is to be rewarded with a free,
one-week "wellness" holiday in Florida. Choose the most suitable hotel.
Scenario 4: The five heads of the marketing departments of your global multimedia and webdesign company want to meet in Orlando for their annual strategy
workshop. Choose an appropriate venue for them.
CITY LBJ AT VISTA CENTER
8501 PALM PARKWAY, Lake Buena Vista, FL 32836
3 floors, 222 rooms, 86 suites; The room that Works: 308 guest rooms
specifically designed for the business traveller; 2 meeting rooms Dining • Pool •
Meeting Rooms • Internet Facilities • Business Center • Dry Cleaning
MARK ORLANDO
1500 SAND LAKE RD, Orlando, FL 32809
Contemporary art-deco style hotel connected to Florida Mall and 20 Minutes
from Walt Disney World, Rooms with temperature control, ..
Dining • Pool • Golf School/3 Golf Courses • Meeting Rooms • Fitness Room
Business Center • Dry Cleaning • Wheelchair Accessible • No Pets Allowed
CELEBRATION HOTEL
700 BLOOM STREET, Orlando, FL 34747
The Celebration Hotel is a deluxe hotel located on the Disney property in the
Disney-inspired town of Celebration, Florida. The hotel ...
Dining • Pool • Golf • Meeting Rooms • Fitness Room • Business Center • Dry
Cleaning • Wheelchair Accessible • No Pets Allowed
EMBASSY SUITES ORLANDA - LAKE BUENA
8100 LAKE AVENUE, Orlando, FL 32836
Contemporary atrium hotel with many facilities. Large rooms for 4 to 6 people,
all with air conditioning, 2 cable TV's, VCR, fax and ..
Dining • Pool • Tennis Courts • Kids Activities • Meeting Rooms • Fitness
Room • Dry Cleaning • Wheelchair Accessible • No Pets Allowed
ECONO LODGE MAINGATE RESORT
7514 W IRLO BRONSON, Kissimmee, FL 34747
FREE transportation to Walt Disney World - Magic Kingdom, Epcot, MGM
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Studios and Animal Kingdom Hospitality Award Winner 1997
Dining • Pool • Kids Activities • Meeting Rooms • Dry Cleaning • Coffee
makers in all Rooms Wheelchair Accessible • Pets Allowed
ORLANDO SEA WORLD GRAND VACATION
6924 GRAND VACATIONS WAY, Orlando, FL 32821
This resort makes vacationing convenient with six pools, video arcade,
playground, kids' club, table tennis, jogging track, fitness ...
Dining • Pool • Golf • Tennis Courts • Fitness Room/Jacuzzi/Sauna/Massage •
Dry Cleaning • Wheelchair Accessible • No Pets Allowed
b) Read the announcements (See Additional Material 10.5, p.187) and match
them to the best alternative (a,b,c.)
1 On the Underground:
a) Look down to avoid tripping
b) Look up to avoid bumping your head.
c) Look around for the exit sign.
2 On an airplane:
a) Don't get up until it's announced that it is okay to do so.
b) Stay seated until the plane has docked.
c) After the plane has landed you can start getting your luggage down from the
overhead compartment.
3 In a pay phone:
a) Insert 7 quarters into the slot marked "coins".
b) Press down on the "return" lever to get back your change.
c) Dial One-Seventy-five
4 National Park Shuttle Bus:
a) You'll have to hurry because you only have five minutes to take any pictures.
b) You have to get off the shuttle and wait for the next one in 20 minutes.
c) You have the choice of either staying on the shuttle, getting out to take a
quick photo or two or of taking your time and catching a later shuttle.
5 Hotel Hotline:
a) You want to register a complaint so don't press any number.
b) You want to book a weekend in Las Vegas so you press two.
c) You have a question about a charge made to your credit card account so you
press three.
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Список использованных источников
1 Пассов, Е.И. Искусство общения. Many Men – Many Minds.: учебное
пособие / Е.И. Пассов, И.С. Николаенко – М.: Иностранный язык, 2000. – 256 с.
2 Boothman, N. How to connect in business in 90 seconds or less. / N.
Boothman. – New York: Workman Publishing, 2002. – 250 р.
3 Crosling, G. Oral communication: the workplace needs and uses business
graduate employees / G. Crosling, I. Ward // English for Specific Purposes. –
2002.Vol.21. – P.41.
4 Praglowski-Leary, K.D. Englisch fur technische Berufe. Fachkurs
Computer- und IT-Berufe / K.D. Praglowski-Leary, V. Leary. – Ernst Klett Verlag
GmbH, Stuttgart, 2002. – 201 p.
5 Computer Basic Facts. – HarperCollins Publishers, 1995 – 277 p.
6 Андриенко, А.С. Computer Engineering (English for Special Purposes):
методическая разработка / А.С. Андрейченко; под ред. Краснощёковой В.А. Таганрог: Изд-во ТРТУ, 2005. -112 с.
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Приложение А
(рекомендуемое)
Acronyms and abbreviations
3-D
AGP
AIFF
ALU
AMD
ANSI
ASCII
AT
AT&T
AVI
BASIC
BIOS
bit
bps
C/C++
CAD
CAE
CAM
CAV
CD
CD-R
CD-ROM
CD-RW
CGI
COBOL
cps
CPU
CTRL
CU
DAT
DD
DDS
DEL
DIMMS
DHCP
DLL
DNS
DOS
three-dimensional
Accelerated Graphics Port
Audio Interchange File Format
Arithmetic Logic Unit
Advanced Micro Devices
American National Standards Institute
American Standard Code for Information Interchange
Advanced Technology
American Telegraph and Telephone Company
Audio Video Interface
Beginners' All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code
Basic Input Output System
binary digit
bits per second
high-level programming language
Computer-Aided Design
Computer-Aided Engineering
Computer-Aided Manufacturing
Constant Angular Velocity
Compact Disk/Disc
Compact Disk-Recordable
Compact Disk-Read Only Memory
Compact Disk-Rewritable
Common Gateway Interface
COmmon Business-Oriented Language
characters per second
Central Processing Unit
control
Control Unit
Digital Audiotape
Disk Drive
Dynamic Damping System
delete
Double In-line Memory Modules
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
Dynamic Link Library
Domain Name System
Disk Operating System
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dpi
DSHD
DTP
DVD
E-commerce
ECC
ESC
FAQ
FDDI
FD
Fortran
FTP
GAN
GB
GIF
GIGO
GPS
GPU
GUI
HD
HDTV
HTML
HTTP
IBM
IDE
IEEE
I/F
ins
I/O
IP
IRC
IR
ISA
ISAPI
ISDN
ISP
l-time
IT
jpeg/jpg
JS
KB
LAN
laser
LCD
136
dots per inch
Double Sided High Density
Desktop Publishing
Digital Versatile Disk
electronic-commerce
Error Correction Code
Escape
Frequently Asked Questions
Fibre Distributed Data Interface
Floppy Disk
FORmula TRANslation
File Transfer Protocol
Global Area Network
Gigabyte (1,024 megabytes)
Graphics Interchange Format
Garbage In, Garbage Out
Global Positioning System
Graphics Processing Unit
Graphical User Interface
Hard Disk
High-Definition Television
HyperText Mark-up Language
HyperText Transfer Protocol
International Business Machines
Integrated Device Electronics
Institute of Electronic and Electrical Engineers
Interface
insert
Input/Output
Internet Protocol
Internet Relay Chat
Instruction Register
Industry Standard Architecture
Internet Server Application Programming Interface
Integrated Services Digital Network
Internet Service Provider
instruction time
information technology
Joint Photographic Experts Group
JavaScript
kilobyte
Local Area Network
light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation
Liquid Crystal Display
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
MB
mems
Mhz
Midi/Mid
mm
Modem
MP3
MPEG
MS-DOS
ms
MT
NIC
NIS
nm
NNTP
NSF
NUI
NUM
OCR
OOPL
OS
PC
PDA
pdf
PGDN
PGUP
php
PIM
PIN
PIXEL
PL/1
PoP
ppi
ppm
PPP
PS/2
qt
RAM
ROM
rpm
R/RW
RTF
SCSI
SIMMS
megabyte
Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems
Megaherz
Musical Instrument Digital Interface
millimeter
MOdulator/DEModulator
MPEG-1 Audio Layer-3." (standard for compressing audio files)
Motion Picture Experts Group
Microsoft Disk Operating System
milliseconds
Magnetic Tape
Network Interface Card
Network Information Service
nanometer
Network News Transfer Protocol
National Science Foundation
Network User interface
number
Optical Character Recognition
Object Oriented Programming Language
Operating System
Program Counter/Personal Computer
Personal Digital Assistant
Portable Document Format (Adobe Acrobat)
Page Down
Page Up
preprocessor hypertext/personal homepage
Personal Information Manager
Personal Identitfication Number
Picture Element
Programming Language One
Point of Presence/Post office Protocol
pixels per inch
pages per minute
Point to Point Protocol
Personal System Two
quicktime
Random Access Memory
Read Only Memory
rotation per minute
read/read-write
Rich Text Fomat
Small Computer System Interface
Single In-line Memory Modules
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SMART
SMTP
SNA
SQL
SVGA
TCP/IP
TIFF
txt
URL
USB
vBNS
VCR
VDU
VGA
VR
WAN
wav
WIMP
ws
www
WYSIWYG
XML
Y2K
138
Self-Monitoring Analysis And Reporting Technology
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
System Network Architecture
Structured Query Language
Super Video Graphics Array
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
Tagged Image File Format
text
Uniform Resource Locator
Universal Serial Bus
very high speed Backbone Network Service
Video Camera Recorder
Visual Display Unit
Video Graphics Array
Virtual Reality
Wide Area Network
wave
Windows Icon Menu Pointer
workshop
world wide web
What You See Is What You Get
Extensible Markup Language
Year 2000
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Приложение Б
(рекомендуемое)
Alphabetical vocabulary
v = verb
adj. = adjective
n = noun
pi. = plural
Am. = American English
A
abbreviation - аббревиатура
ability - способность
abort (v) - прервать, остановить
abound (v) - иметь в большом количестве, изобиловать
abstention - ограничение, воздержание
abuse (v), (n) - неправильно эксплуатировать, эксплуатация с нарушением
access (v), (n) - доступ
accessible - доступный (syn: available)
accessory - оборудование, дополнительное устройство
accommodation - жильё, временное размещение
accomplish (v) - выполнять
according to - в соответствии с
account management - ведение счетов
account number - номер счёта
account - счёт
accounting - бухгалтерский учёт
accurate - точный
accustomed to - привычный к
achieve (v) - достигать
achievement - достижение
acquaintance - знакомство, знакомый (сущ.)
acquire (v) - приобретать, получать
acronym - сокращение
act (v) as - действовать как
actual - действительный, реальный
actually - в действительности, на самом деле
ad/advert/advertisement - рекламное объявление
adapt (v) - приспосабливать(ся), адаптировать(ся)
adaptive computer technology - адаптивные компьютерные технологии
add (v) up to - добавить до
additional - дополнительный
adequate - соответствующий
adjective - прилагательное
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adjourn (v) - отложить, сделать перерыв
adjust (v) - приспособить
admit (v) - признать, принять
advance - продвигать, развивать, содействовать
advanced - передовой, продвинутый, улучшенный
advancement - развитие, прогресс, успех
advantage - преимущество
advantageous - благоприятный, выгодный, полезный
adventure game - приключенческая игра
advertisement - реклама
advertising - рекламирование, рекламный
advice - совет
affect (v) - влиять
affiliated - дочерний, примыкающий
afford (v) - позволить себе ч.-л., дать, предоставить
affordable - позволительный, доступный
agenda - повестка (собрания)
agree (v) - соглашаться
aid - помощь
air traffic - воздушное сообщение
alert - сигнал тревоги, предупреждение
algorithm - алгоритм
allocate (v) - размещать, распределять
allocation - размещение
allot (v) - предоставлять, выделять
all-out - всеобщий, всеохватывающий
allow (v) - позволять
alphanumeric - буквенно-цифровой
ambiguity - неоднозначность, омонимия
ambitious - честолюбивый, стремящийся
amenity - удобство
amount - количество, объём
amplify (v) - расширять, усиливать (syn: expand, increase)
analog - аналоговый
analogous - аналогичный, похожий
anаesthetist - анестезиолог
angle - угол
animation - анимация
annex - дополнение, приложение; дополнять
announce (v) - объявлять, заявлять
announcement - объявление
annoy (v) - надоедать, раздражать
annoying - надоедливый, раздражающий
annual - годовой, ежегодный
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anonymously - анонимно
answering machine - автоответчик
antonym - антоним
anxiety - беспокойство
anxious - беспокойный; сильно желающий
appalled - испуганный
apparent - очевидный
appeal (v) to - обращаться, апеллировать к
appealing - привлекательный
appear (v) - появляться; оказываться
appearance - внешность; появление
applet - прикладная программа, апплет
appliance - устройство
applicable - применимый
applicant - претендент, кандидатура
application software - прикладное программное обеспечение
application - приложение, программа
applied - прикладной
appoint (v) - назначать
appointment - назначение
appreciate (v) - ценить, быть благодарным
apprenticeship - обучение
approach - подход, подходить, приближаться
appropriate - подходящий, соответствующий
approximately - приблизительно
arch - дуга, арка
archives - архивы
arithmetic logic unit (ALU) - арифметико-логическое устройство
arrange (v) - размещать, компоновать, организовывать
array - матрица, таблица, размещение в определённом порядке
arrest - арест; остановка, замедление
as far as - насколько, поскольку
aside from - кроме
asides - отклонения (syn: digressions)
assemble (v) - собирать
assembler - ассемблер
assembly language - язык ассемблера
assess (v) - оценивать
asset - преимущество, ценное свойство
assign (v) - назначать
assignment - назначение, задание
associate (v) - ассоциировать (ся)
assume (v) – принимать, предполагать
assurance - обеспечение, гарантирование
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asymmetric - асимметричный
at present - в настоящее время
at the outside - вне, снаружи
attach (v) - присоединять, прикреплять
attachment - прикрепление, приложение
attributes - свойства
audio - аудио
audit - аудит
auditory - аудиторский
authorization - авторизация
authorize (v) - авторизовать
auto - авто
autonomy - автономия
availability - доступность
available - доступный
average seek time - среднее время поиска
average - средний
avoid (v) - избегать
awareness - осведомлённость, компетентность
В
backbone - основной, базовый, магистральный
background - подготовка, предпосылка
backspace (key) - кнопка возврата на одну позицию
backup - дублирование, резервирование, поддержка
backwards - назад
badge - эмблема, значок, бейдж
bar chart - столбчатая диаграмма
bar - столбец
barely - просто, только, лишь, едва
bargain - сделка, договорённость
basically - в основном
battery - батарея
be aware of - знать, быть в курсе
be on the lookout for - быть настороже
belong (v) to - принадлежать
benchmark - контрольная точка, задача (для сравнения)
benefactor - покровитель, благотворитель
benefit - выгода, польза; извлечь пользу
benign - благоприятный
beyond - вне, кроме, помимо
Big Blue - Биг Блюю (прозвище фирмы IBM)
billing department - отдел выписки счетов
binary digit - двузначное число
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binary system - двоичная система
bit - бит
bite - укус; сцепление
bit-mapped - клеточный, с побитовым отображением
blame (v) - обвинять, винить
blessing - благословение
boast (v) - хвастаться
bold - зд: полужирный (о шрифте)
bond (v) - зд: соединять, связывать
bonus structure - система премирования (в компании)
book building - компоновка, построение тома
boom - бум, резкий подъём
boot (v) - загружать
booth - киоск, кабина, будка
border - граница, граничить
bored - скучающий
boring - скучный
bother (v) - беспокоить, докучать
bottleneck - критический элемент, «узкое место»
bottom line - итог, практический результат
bound - предел, предельное значение
bracelet - зд: фигурная скобка
bracket - зд: круглая скобка
brain - мозг
branch - ветвь, отрасль
break - разрыв (ать), прерывать, ломать (ся)
breath - дыхание
briefly - кратко
broadcast - передавать, вещать
brochure - брошюра
browser - браузер
brush stroke - мазок кисти
brute force - грубая сила
bubble jet - струйный принтер
buffer - буфер
bug - ошибка, помеха, сбой
bug-laden - перегруженный ошибками
built-in - встроенный
bullet - буллит, маркер абзаца (обычн. жирная точка)
bump (v) - врезать (ся), толкать
burst - разбивка на части
bus network - система шин, магистральная сеть
business administration - бизнес администрирование
button - кнопка
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by accident - случайно
by heart - наизусть
by leaps and bounds - стремительно
bypass (v) - обходить
byte – байт
С
calculate (v) - вычислять, подсчитывать
call (v) for - вызывать
calligraphic - каллиграфический
CAMcorder - записывающая видеокамера
cancel (v) - отменить
cancellation - отмена
candidate - кандидат
canter - кантователь
capability - мощность, способность
capable - способный
capital letter - заглавная буква
capture (v) - захватывать, фиксировать, вводить
carbon copies - машинописный экземпляр
carriage - перевозка; каретка, рама
carrier liaison manager - администратор носителя транспортного соединения
carrier - носитель
carry (v) out - выполнять
cartridge - картридж
case study - анализ отдельной проблемы, ситуации
case - конкретный случай, ситуация
cash machine - банкомат
cash - деньги, наличные
catch (n),(v) - ловить, поймать; уловка
catchword - ключевое (выделенное) слово
category - категория
cause (v),(n) - причина; быть причиной, вызывать
caution - предупреждение, предостережение
cell - клетка, соты
cellular phone - сотовый телефон
cereals - каша, хлопья (блюдо)
certain - определённый, конкретный
chain - цепь
chairperson - председатель
challenge - вызов, трудность
challenging - бросающий вызов, трудный
change (n), (v) - изменение, изменять
channel (v) through - прокладывать канал через
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character - символ
charge - заряжать, загружать
charitable association - благотворительное общество
charitable - благотворительный
chart - график, диаграмма, схема, карта
chat (v) - болтать
chatroom - «чат»-комната
check (v) - проверять, выверять, уточнять
chef - шеф
chief executive officer - генеральный директор, председатель правления
chip manufacturing - производство чипов
choose (v) - выбирать
christening - крещение
chronological - хронологический
chuck (v) - бросить; кинуть; швырнуть
check (v) - внезапная остановка; пауза, перерыв
chef - шеф-повар, главный повар
chief executive officer - главный администратор ( фирмы )
chip manufacturing – место обработки
choose (v) - выбирать, избирать
christening - крещение
chronological - хронологический
chuck (v) – обрабатывать
churn (v) out - делать быстро и много, "штамповать"
ciphertext - шифрованный текст
circuit - цепь, контур; схема
circumlocution – многоречивость, уклончивые речи
circumstance – обстоятельство, случай; условие
claim (v) – требовать, заявлять, утверждать
clarify (v) – очищать, делать чистым/прозрачным
client - пользователь
climb (v) - взбираться, влезать,
clip-art images – изображения в формате «клип-арт»
clipboard – буфер обмена
cloakroom - гардероб, раздевалка, камера хранения
clogged - забитый (засорённый) фильтр
close (v),(adj.) - закрывать, замыкать ( цепь )
clue - клубок, моток, ключ
clumsy - неловкий, застенчивый
clutter - беспорядок; беспорядочность, помехи
coax - убеждать, упрашивать, уговаривать
cocktail reception – приём с напитками, вечеринка
code - кодировать, зашифровывать
codename – имя кода
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coding - кодирование, шифрование
coined - вычеканенный
collection - набор, собирание
college – колледж
column - столбец, колонка, графа
comfortable – удобный, комфортабельный
command - команда, директива
commander-in-chief - главнокомандующий
comments - комментарий, замечание
commercial - коммерческий, торговый; рекламный ролик
commissioned - получивший поручение
commitment - вручение, передача
committee – комитет, комиссия
common - общий, всеобщий; общепринятый
communicative - разговорчивый
community – общество
company logo - фирменный или товарный знак компании
comparable - заслуживающий сравнения, сопоставимый
compare (v) - сравнивать, сверять, сличать
compensation – вознаграждение, выплата, компенсация
competence - способность, знания, компетентность
competition – конкурс, конкуренция, соперничество
competitive - соперничающий, конкурентный
compiler - компилятор, компилирующая программа
complain (v) – жаловаться, выражать недовольство
complaint - жалоба
complete (v) - завершать, заканчивать
compound word - сложное слово
comprehensive - всесторонний, полный,обширный
compressed - сжатый
computer course – компьютерные курсы
computer freak – компьютерный фанат
computer - компьютер
computing – вычислительный; компьютерная сфера
conceive (v) - полагать, размышлять, представлять себе
concept - понятие, идея; общее представление; концепция
concern – забота, интерес; предприятие
(be) concerned about – рассматриваемый, имеющий отношение к чему-л.
concerning - касательно, относительно
conclusion – вывод, итог, результат, следствие
condition – условия, положение, состояние
conduct (v) - руководство, управление, командование
conductor – проводник; кондуктор
cone – конус, предмет в форме конуса
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conference - собрание, конференция, встреча
confidence - вера, доверие, уверенность
confidential – доверительный, конфиденциальный
configuration – конфигурация, очертание, форма
confirm (v) - подтверждать, подкреплять
conglomerate - собранный, объединенный; сгруппированный
conjunction - связывание, сцепление, соединение
connect (v) - соединять(ся), сочетать(ся), объединять
cons (pl.) – недостатки, минусы
conscientious - добросовестный, сознательный, честный
consensus - единодушие, согласие, консенсус
consequence - (по)следствие, результат, заключение
consider (v) - рассматривать, обсуждать
considerably - значительно, много
considerate - внимательный к другим, деликатный, тактичный
consideration - размышление, рассуждение
consist (v) of - составлять из
constantly - непрерывно, постоянно
constitute (v) - составлять
constraint - принуждение; оказывание давления
construction plan - строительный чертёж
consult (v) - обсуждать, консультироваться, совещаться
consultant - консультант, советник
consumption - потребление
contact sheet – список контактов
contain (v) – содержать
contemporary – временный; современник
contest - конкурс, соревнование
contestant - конкурсант, соперник
context - ситуация, окружение, среда, обстоятельства
continue (v) - продолжать(ся), оставаться, сохранять(ся)
continuous – непрерывный, постоянный
contract - контракт, договор, соглашение
contradictory – противоречащий, несовместимый
contrast - контраст; полярность, противоположность
contribute (v) - содействовать, способствовать, сотрудничать
control (v) - регулировать, контролировать, проверять, управлять
control center - командный пункт, центр управления
control unit - устройство управления, блок управления
convenience (at) – пригодность, удобство
convenient - удобный, подходящий; пригодный
conventional - обычный, обыкновенный, традиционный
converse (v) - общаться, поддерживать связь, иметь контакты
convert (v) - конвертировать
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convey (v) - выражать, передавать
conviction - убеждение, уверение
convince (v) - убеждать, уверять
cookie – фрагмент данных о предыстории обращений данного пользователя
к данному WWW-серверу, автоматически создаваемый сервером на
машине пользователя
coordinate (v) - координировать, согласовывать
cope (v) with(out) – справиться, выдержать, совладать
copper - медный
cordless - беспроводный, беспроволочный
corporation - ассоциация, сообщество
correspond (v) - осуществлять переписку, переписываться; соответствовать
corrupt (v) – подкупать; портить
cost efficiency ratio – показатель эффективности затрат
counter - счётчик
countermeasure - контрмера, мера против
country code – код страны
couple (v), (n) - соединять(ся), связывать(ся); пара
courtesy - обходительность, вежливость, любезность, этикет
cover (v) - накрывать, закрывать, покрывать
crack (v) - крэк, ломалка ( программа для взлома защиты какого-л.
лицензионного программного обеспечения )
crack down on - взломать
cracker - тот, кто взламывает
crash (v) - потерпеть крах; сломаться
crash course – ускоренный курс
crazy - ненормальный, сумасшедший
crime - преступление; нарушение, правонарушение
criteria - критерии
crooked - изогнутый, кривой
cross platform – перекрёстная платформа
cross reference - перекрёстная ссылка
crude - грубый
crumpled - мятый
cryptography - криптография
cube - куб
currency - денежное обращение, оборот; валюта
current - поток, течение; текущий, настоящий
currently - теперь, в настоящее время; сейчас
curse – проклятие, брань, ругательство
cursor - стрелка, указатель
custom - привычка, обычай
customer service - служба работы с покупателями
customer - заказчик, покупатель, клиент
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customize (v) - переделывать, подгонять
customized - самодельный
customs - таможня, таможенный
cut (v) out - резать, вызрезать
cut – отрезать; отрезанный, срезанный
cutthroat - головорез, киллер, убийца
cutting-edge technology – современные технологии
CV (curriculum vitae) - биография
сyberspace - киберпространство
cycle - цикл; период
D
daily - ежедневный; повседневный
damage – вред, повреждение, поломка, ущерб
damaged - понёсший ущерб, повреждённый
danger - опасность угроза, риск
dangerous - опасный; рискованный
darkroom - тёмная комната
dash - сильный удар, сокрушающий удар
data transfer rate - скорость передачи данных
data - данные, сведения; информация
database - база данных
day trading - дневная сделка
dazzling – поражающий, изумительный
deadline - предельный (крайний) срок
deafening - оглушительный, очень громкий
deal - вести дело, рассматривать вопрос; сделка
debugger - отладчик, программа отладки
debugging - исправление ошибок; отладка
decent - подходящий, пристойный
deception - обман, жульничество, хитрость
decide (v) - решать(ся), принимать решение, делать выбор
decimal – десятичный, десятичная дробь
decline - падение, спад, упадок
decryption - расшифровка; дешифровка
dedicated to - посвященный
deduct (v) - вычитать, отнимать, удерживать
default document – недостаток документов, отсутствие документов
deficiency - отсутствие чего-л., нехватка, дефицит
degree - степень, уровень
delay (v) - задержка, барьер, помеха, препятствие
delete (v) - вычеркивать, вырезать; стирать; исключать
deliver (v) – поставлять, доставлять
delivery - поставка, доставка, вручение, передача
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deluxe - дорогой, роскошный, шикарный
demarcation - разграничение, разделение, установление границ
demonstration – довод; демонстрация
demote (v) - понижать в должности
denomination - имя, название; деноминация
dense - плотный ( о множестве ), сжатый, густой
density - густота, плотность, концентрация
deny (v) – отрицать, отвергать
department - область, отрасль; отдел, департамент
depend (v) on - зависеть от кого-л., чего-л.
dependable – надежный, заслуживающий доверия
dependence – зависимость
depending on - в зависимости от, зависящий от, исходя из
deplorable - плачевный, прискорбный, печальный
depth - глубина
descend (v) - опускаться, снижаться
description - описание
design (v) - проектировать; конструировать; разрабатывать
designate (v) - назначать, номинировать
designed – разработанный, спроектированный
desirable – желательный; искомый
desire - просьба; пожелание; желание
desktop publishing system – настольная издательская система
desktop - настольный
destination - адресат информации
destroy (v) - уничтожать, ликвидировать
detect (v) – выявлять; открывать, обнаруживать
detection - выявление, обнаружение, открытие
determine (v) - решать, определять
development – развитие; разработка (программ)
device – устройство, прибор
diagnostician - диагностик
dialing tone - тональный сигнал набора
dial-up access – наборный доступ, доступ с набором номера
diary - журнал для записей, учетная книга; дневник
dictionary - словарь
difference – разница, различие
digit – цифра, однозначное число
digital certificate – цифровой сертификат
digital - цифровой, числовой
dip - углубление, понижение,
direction – адрес, инструкция
directory - руководство, инструкция, справочник, указатель
disabled - нетрудоспособный, инвалид
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disadvantage - неудобство, невыгодное положение, вред, ущерб
disappear (v) – исчезать, пропадать
disappointment - разочарование, недовольство
disassemble (v) – разбирать, демонтировать
discount - скидка
discourage (v) - не одобрять, препятствовать, отговаривать
discover (v) - открывать, узнавать, находить
discrepancy – разница, различие, расхождение
disk capacity – емкость, объем, мощность компьютерного диска
disk (disc) – компьютерный диск
dismantle (v) - разбирать, демонтировать
dispense (v) with - раздавать, делить, распределять что-либо
display (v) - показывать, выводить на дисплей
dissatisfied - неудовлетворенный, недовольный
distance – расстояние, отрезок, дистанция
distant learning – дистанционное обучение
distinguish (v) - определять, отличать, характеризовать
distribute (v) - распределять, раздавать, распространять
distribution – распределение, раздача, распространение
division - деление, разделение, часть, раздел
divorce - разрывать, отделять, разъединять; разводиться
docking station – установочная станция
documentation - документация, документы, информация
domain - домен, область
donate (v) - дарить, жертвовать
donation - дар, подарок, подношение
donator - лицо, получающее дар, подарок
doom – гибель, кончина, смерть
dot your i's – расставить все точки над i
dot - точка
dot-matrix - точечная матрица
double-sided - двусторонний
download (v) - загружать, пересылать, скачивать
downtime - простой, вынужденное бездействие
draft - набросок, черновик
drag and drop - перетаскивание
drag (v) on - буксировать
draughtsman, -woman – чертежник (ца); рисовальщик (ца)
draw (v) – чертить, рисовать
drawback - недостаток, отрицательная сторона
drawing – рисование, черчение
drive - дисковод, накопитель
driver - драйвер
driving force - движущая сила
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drop (v) in on – заглянуть к к-л., зайти не надолго
droplet - капелька
dual-boot system - двойственная загрузка системы
dual-layer – двойственный уровень
due date - срок, дата платежа
due to – благодаря, вследствие, в результате
dump – выдача, разгрузка, вывод
duplexing - дуплексный (двусторонний) режим, дублирование
dust - песчинка, пылинка, частичка
duty - работа, обязанность
dyadic - двухэлементный
dynamic damping system – динамическое торможение системы
dynamic – динамический
E
E-commerce, auction etc. - электронная коммерция, аукцион и т.д.
eager – стремящийся к чему-л., желающий чего-л.
earnings - заработанные деньги, заработок; прибыль
ease – лёгкость
economic - экономический
edge - кромка, край; грань, граница
edit (v) - редактировать, готовить к печати
edition - выпуск, вариант, копия
education – образование
effect - эффективность, результативность
effort - усилие, попытка, напряжение
elementary/primary school - начальная школа
elevator –лифт, элеватор
emailing – отправка по электронной почте
embarrassing – затруднительный, озадачивающий
embed (v) - вставлять, врезать, вводить
emboss (v) – выделяться, выступать ( на фоне чего-л. )
emerge (v) - появляться; всплывать, выходить
emergency – непредвиденный (экстренный) случай, крайность
emigrate (v) - высылать, переселять, перемещать
emit (v) - излучать, выбрасывать, выпускать
emotive – волнующий, эмоциональный
empathy – эмпатия, сочувствие, сопереживание
emphasis – выделение, выделительный шрифт ( курсив, разрядка )
emphasize (v) - придавать особое значение, подчеркивать
employ (v) – давать работу, нанимать
employee – служащий, работающий по найму
employer - предприниматель, наниматель, работодатель
employment – использование; предоставление работы, занятость
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empty - пустой
emulation – эмуляция; подражание
en route - по пути, по дороге, в пути
enable (v) - включать, запускать
enclose (v) – вкладывать, прилагать
encompass (v) - выполнять, осуществлять
encounter (v) – столкнуться, натолкнуться
encourage (v) – ободрять, поощрять, поддерживать
encryption – шифрование, шифровка
enhancement - повышение, прирост, увеличение
enlarge (v) - увеличивать(ся), расширять(ся), усиливать(ся)
enliven (v) – оживлять, придавать сил
enquiry - запрос
ensure (v) - гарантировать, обеспечивать
entail - давать, назначать, отводить, определять ( кому-л. что-л. )
Enter key - клавиша ввода
enthusiasm - воодушевление, увлечение, энтузиазм
entire - целый, цельный, единый, сплошной
entrance fee - вступительный взнос; плата за вход
entrance - доступ, вход
envelope - конверт
environment - окружение, окружающая обстановка, окружающая среда
equipped with – оснащенный ч.-либо
equivalent - равноценный, равнозначный; эквивалент
erase (v) – стирать; удалять
ergonomic(ally) – эргономический (-но)
ergonomics - эргономика (отрасль науки, изучающая условия организации
труда )
error detection - обнаружение ошибок
error message - сообщение об ошибке
Esc key – клавиша смены регистра, выхода
especially - особенно, в особенности, главным образом
essential – главный, основной
establish (v) - устанавливать, учреждать
Ethernet – локальная сеть
evaluation - оценка, определение
evenly - гладко, ровно, равномерно
event – событие, мероприятие
eventually - в конечном счете, в итоге, в конце концов, со временем
examination – экзамен; исследование, изучение
exceed (v) – превышать, выходить за пределы
exception - исключение
exchange (v) – обменивать, менять(ся)
exclude (v) – исключать, не допускать
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exclusively - единственно, исключительно, только
execute (v) - осуществлять, выполнять, делать, реализовать
executive - исполнительный, управленческий, организаторский
exhausted - израсходованный, использованный
exhaustive - исчерпывающий, всесторонний, обстоятельный, полный
exhibit (v) – показывать, выражать, проявлять
existing – существующий, имеющийся
exit - выход
expand (v) - расширять
expansion - расширение
expect (v) - ожидать; полагать, предполагать
expectation – ожидание; ожидаемый результат
expenditures - расходование, затраты
expense account - представительские средства
expenses - расходы, издержки, трата,
expensive - дорогой, дорогостоящий, ценный
experience –опыт работы, стаж работы
expertise – экспертиза, экспертная оценка
explain (v) - давать объяснения, объяснять
explanation - пояснение, разъяснение
express (v) – выражать
express delivery - срочная доставка
expression - выражение
extension - расширение
external – внешний, находящийся за пределами
extract - вытаскивать, извлекать
eye strain - напряжение зрения
F
face (v) – столкнуться, встретиться
facilitate (v) – облегчать, содействовать, способствовать, помогать
facility – устройство, средство
fact – обстоятельство, факт, событие, случай, явление
factual - фактический, действительный, основанный на фактах
fade (v) – постепенно исчезать, растворяться, обесцвечивать
failure - недостаток, неполадка, сбой
fair - базар, рынок, ярмарка, выставка
fairgrounds – территория ярмарки
fair-haired – светловолосый, блондин
familiar - близкий, знакомый, привычный
familiarity – знакомство, фамильярность
family reunion – семейная встреча, воссоединение
fare - стоимость проезда, тариф, плата за проезд
fast-paced - скоростной
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favour - одолжение, любезность, услуга
feasible - реальный, выполнимый, осуществимый
feature (n), (v) - функция, функциональность, опция; показывать,
представлять
feature length film –продолжительность художественного фильма
federal - союзный, федеральный
fee - вознаграждение, гонорар
feed (v) - кормить, содержать
feedback - обратная связь, ответная реакция
fibre-glass cable – стекловолокнистый кабель (канат, трос)
field - область, сфера, поле деятельности
figure (v) out – вычислять, выяснять, понимать
figure - иллюстрация, рисунок, диаграмма, чертеж, изображение
file (n), (v) – файл, помещать в файл
file search –поиск файла
filler - наполнитель
filly - девушка, девчонка ( обыкн. бойкая и веселая )
filter - фильтр
final (step) - завершающий, заключительный, конечный (шаг)
find & replace – найти и заменить
fine (jur. n) – штраф
firewall - противопожарная перегородка; файервол (программа защиты)
firmware - микропрограммное обеспечение, микропрограммы
flash memory card – карта памяти, флешка
flash memory - флеш-память
flat – плоский, ровный
flatbed – планшетный, настольный
flexitime - скользящий график
flight – полет; рейс
floppy disk drive – дисковод для гибких дисков, накопитель на гибких
дисках
floppy disk - гибкий диск, дискета
flow (v) - поток, течение, движение
flowchart – графическая схема программы, рабочая диаграмма, блок-схема
fluctuation - колебание, неустойчивость
flush focus (n) – выравнивание текста по центру
folder - фолдер, папка, директория
(be) fond of – любить ч.-л.
font - шрифт
fool (v) – дурачить(ся)
foot controlled – регулируемая, управляемая опора
footer – нижний коллонтитул
footnote - подстрочное примечание, сноска
forearm - предплечье
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forecasting - прогноз, предсказание, прогнозирование
forefront - передний план, важнейшее место
foreshadow (v) - предвещать, предсказывать
format - формат
formatting - форматирование
former – бывший, предыдущий
formidable - обширный, огромный
fortunately - счастливо, к счастью
fortune - удача, успех, богатство, состояние
forward (v) (call, mail) – передавать, отправлять (сигнал, почту)
foundation - фундамент, основание
foyer - фойе
frame - структура, схема
frame-handling – система управления
fraud - обман; мошенничество, подделка
freelance – внештатный сотрудник
freeware – программные средства, поддерживаемые самим пользователем
frequent – частый, часто встречающийся, повторяющийся, обычный
friction - разногласия, противоречия, трения
front desk manager – регистратор, администратор
fuel (v) - снабжать топливом
fulfil (v) – выполнять, делать, исполнять, осуществлять, совершать
full-scale – полнофункциональный, полномасштабный
function key - программируемая клавиша, функциональная клавиша
G
gadget - приспособление, устройство
gain (v) - получать, приобретать
gain ground - продвигаться вперед, делать успехи
gallery – галерея, коллекция
galore - достаток, изобилие
gap - промежуток, интервал
garbled - искажённый
gas abatement – уменьшение топлива
gateway - вход
gather (v) - накоплять, приобретать
gathering- сборка; комплектование, накопление
geek - чокнутый, помешанный на чём- либо (особенно о человеке, которого
ничто кроме компьютеров не интересует)
generally - обычно, как правило, в целом
generate (v) – производить, генерировать, делать
generous – обильный; щедрый
gist - суть, сущность, истинный смысл, главный пункт
given - данный, заданный, установленный
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global positioning system - глобальная (спутниковая) система
местоопределения
glossary – глоссарий, терминологический справочник
glossy - блестящий, гладкий
goods –товары
govern (v) - править, управлять, руководить, направлять
gradually - понемногу, постепенно
graduate (v) – оканчивать учебное заведение
grant (v) – предоставлять; дарить
graphics tablet - графический планшет (для оцифровки изображений)
graphics – графика; устройства ввода-вывода графических данных
grasp (v) – схватить, уловить
green card - документ, разрешающий человеку, не являющемуся
гражданином США, жить и работать в этой стране
grid - решетка, сетка
guarantee - гарантия; обязательство, поручительство
guess (v) – предполагать, догадываться, угадывать
guideline - директива, руководящие указания
gullible - доверчивый, легковерный
H
habit – привычка, обычай, традиция
hacker – хакер (знаток компьютера и программного обеспечения)
handheld – ручной, передвижной, переносной, портативный
handicapped - физически или умственно неполноценный
handling – обращение; обработка
handshaking – рукопожатие; средства взаимодействия
handwriting - почерк
handy - удобный ( для пользования ), полезный, легко управляемый
hard disk - жесткий диск
hard-cover - твердый книжный переплет
hardly – едва ли
harmful - вредный, пагубный
hassle-free – трудно-доступный
head controlled – контролируемая рубрика
headache - головная боль
header - заголовок
heading - заглавие, заголовок, рубрика
headline - заголовок, рубрика, шапка
headset - головной телефон
health care worker – сотрудник здравоохранения
health - здоровье
heavy-duty - тяжёлый режим
hefty - тяжелый
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helicopter - вертолет, геликоптер
high density – высокая плотность
high ranking - высокопоставленный
high-level language - язык высокого уровня
highlight (v) - отводить главное место, выдвигать на первый план, выделять
high-pressure - напряженный, активный, высокий
high-resolution – высококачественный, высокое разрешение
high-wire - натянутая проволока
hint - наводка, совет, легкая подсказка
hire (v) – нанимать, принимать (на работу)
hitch (v) a ride/lift – подвезти, подбросить
hoax – обман, ложь, мистификация, неправда
hold (v) the line - не вешать трубку, подождать
home directory – базовый каталог, начальный справочник-каталог
honour - слава, почет, честь
hook (v) up – подключить, подсоединить
hop – пересылка, транзит
horizontal - горизонтальный
host - ведущий узел (в сети)
hotline - телефонная "горячая линия"
HOWTOS – рекомендации по выполнению к-л. операций
hub – подборка ссылок на сайты
human resources - персонал, кадры, штат служащих
hybrid hyperlinks - разнородные гипертекстовые связи
hyphen hyphenation - расстановка дефисов, расстановка переносов
I
icon – значок, иконка
ignore (v) - игнорировать, не учитывать
illogical - нелогичный, непоследовательный
illustration - пояснение, иллюстрация, картинка, рисунок
image reduction – сжатие изображения
image - образ, изображение
imagesetter – система вывода изображений
imagination - воображение
imagine (v) - придумывать, воображать, представлять себе
imitate (v) - копировать, подражать, имитировать
immediate - прямой, непосредственны, ближайший; немедленный
immediately - прямо, непосредственно; немедленно
immunization - иммунизация
impact – влияние; удар
impact printer - устройство контактной печати, печатающее устройство
ударного типа
impaired - ухудшенный; ослабленный; поврежденный, имеющий дефекты
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impatient - нетерпеливый
implement (v) - выполнять, осуществлять; применять
imply (v) - предполагать, подразумевать, значить
impress (v) – поражать, впечатлять; отпечатать
impression – впечатление; печать, печатание
imprint (v) - печатать
improve (v) - улучшать(ся); совершенствовать(ся
in advance - перед, заранее
in common - общее
in order to - для того, чтобы
in stock – в запасе
in the course of - по ходу, в течение
in turn - по очереди
include (v) - включать, присоединять
incoming calls - поступающие вызовы
incompetent – некомпетентный, неумелый
inconvenience - беспокойство, неудобство
incorporate (v) - соединять, объединять, совмещать
incorporated - объединенный, комбинированный
incredible - маловероятный, невероятный
indefinitely - неограниченно; бесконечно, беспредельно
independent - независимый, самостоятельный, отдельный
index – индекс, показатель степени, коэффициент
indicate (v) – показывать, служить признаком; означать
indicator – указатель, признак, индикатор
indispensable - обязательный, необходимый
infamous - бесчестный, постыдный
infant mortality - детская смертность
infect (v) – заражать, влиять
infector – источник заражения
infinitesimal - бесконечно малая величина
infrared - инфракрасное излучение, инфракрасная система
initial - начальный; исходный, отправной, первоначальный
initialize (v) - инициализировать
ink powder - тонер
ink – чернила, печатная краска
ink-jet – струйный, струйное устройство
innovation - инновация, новинка
input (v), (n) - ввод информации; информация на входе
insert (v) – вставлять, включать
insist (v) on – настаивать на
install (v) – устанавливать, вводить в действие, настраивать
instruction register (IR) - регистр команд
instruction - инструкция, правило, команда
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insurance - страхование
intangible – неосязаемый, нематериальный
integral - интеграл целый, полный, целый
integrate (v) - интегрировать
intend (v) – намереваться, значить, обозначать
intention - назначение, намерение
interactive - интерактивный, диалоговый ( режим доступа к ЭВМ )
interconnect (v) - связывать(ся), соединять(ся)
interdependent - взаимозависимый, зависящий один от другого
interface (n), (v) - устройство сопряжения; связующее звено, интерфейс
(между человеком и ЭВМ)
interface switching – граница разъединения
interference - помеха, препятствие
interior decorating – внутренняя отделка, оформление
interleave (v) – прокладывать, прослаивать
intern (Am.) - интерн
internet - Интернет, международная компьютерная сеть
interpret (v) – переводить, объяснять
interpreter - переводчик
interrupt (v) - обрывать, прерывать, мешать
intersection - пересечение
interval - числовой интервал
intimidate (v) – пугать, запугивать, устрашать
intriguing - интригующий, занимательный, увлекательный
introduce (v) – представлять, вводить
introduction – представление, введение
intrusion - вторжение, внедрение
invalid – недействительный, невалидный
invaluable - бесценный, неоценимый
invent (v) - найти, открыть, изобрести
inventory - инвентарь, опись, список, реестр
invisible - невидимый, незаметный, скрытый
invoice - счет, фактура
involve (v) - включать в себя, содержать
iron (v) out – сглаживать, улаживать
issue (v), (n) - исход, выход; выпускать
italics - курсив
item - пункт, параграф, статья, вопрос, номер
iteration - повторение, повтор
itinerary – путь, курс, маршрут
J
jack - разъем, гнездо
jack-of-all-trades - на все руки мастер
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jam (n) - заедание, остановка, перебои
java – язык программирования
javascript - язык сценариев, созданный на основе языка Java
join paragraphs - соединять, объединять; параграф, абзац
joint venture - совместное предприятие
jot down (v) – записать (кратко), набросать
journal - дневник, личный журнал
judge – судья; судить
jumbled – путаница, беспорядок; смешанный
jump (v) to conclusions - поспешные выводы, заключения
jumper - перемычка, соединительный провод, джампер
junction - переход
junior art director – младший художник-постановщик
justice – справедливость, правильность, корректность
justification - выключка строки
К
keep (v) tab - удерживать клавишу табуляции
keep (v) in mind – сохранять в памяти, не забывать
keep (v) in touch
- поддерживать связь (продолжать общаться,
переписываться)
keep (v) records – делать записи, записывать; вести учёт
keep (v) score – вести счет
keep (v) track of sb/sth – следить, наблюдать за ч-л., к-л.
kernel – ядро
key - кнопка
keyboard - клавиатура;
keypad - клавишная приставка
kick (v) in – взломать
knowledge – знание (-я)
L
label (v) - ярлык, этикетка
lack - недостаток, отсутствие, нехватка
language - язык
lap - колени
lapse - упущение, небольшая ошибка, оговорка, описка
laptop - небольшой портативный компьютер (ноутбук)
largely - весьма, значительно, сильно, чрезвычайно
laser beam - лазерный луч
laser printer - лазерный принтер
latch (v) onto – запирать(ся) на
latter - недавний, более поздний, последний
launch (v) – запускать, начинать (производство товара)
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law layer – закон, уровень
layering technology – технологическое расположение слоями
layout –расположение, схема, чертеж, макет, форма
lead (v) to - привести к ч-л.
leader - руководитель, глава, лидер
leaflet - листовка (реклама)
lecture - лекция
legal staff - судебный персонал
legislative - законодательный
leisure time - свободное время
lender - заимодавец, кредитор
lens - линза, оптическое стекло; лупа; объектив
letter of application – заявление о приёме на работу
letter - письмо
level - ступень, уровень
lever - рычаг, средство воздействия
levy (v) - начинать, вести, налагать
liable – обязанный, ответственный
library – библиотека
life expectancy - средняя продолжительность жизни
light waves - световые волны
light pen – световое перо
limb - член, часть, сегмент, деталь
line graph - линейный график
link (v), (n) – связывать(ся); (связующее) звено
Linux – операционная система
literally - буквально, дословно, точно
lithium-ion cell - элемент
location - размещение
lock (v) – запирать
log (v) – регистрировать, записывать, вести запись
log (v) in – входить (в систему)
log (v) out – выходить (из системы)
logic error – логическая ошибка
long-lasting - продолжительный
look (v) forward to - ожидать с нетерпением
look-out - бдительность
loop – контур, цепь, кольцевой регистр, петля, цикл
loose (on the) – терять, лишаться, утрачивать
lounge (n) – жильё, комната
low-level – низкого уровня; невысокий
lucrative - прибыльный, выгодный, доходный, рентабельный
M
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machine code – машинный код; система (набор) команд
macro virus – макросный вирус
maddening – раздражающий, сводящий с ума
magnetic field - магнитное поле
magnification - усиление
mail - почта, почтовая корреспонденция
mail client - почтовый пользователь
merging - слияние, объединение
main – главный, важнейший, основной
maintain (v) - поддерживать, удерживать, сохранять
maintenance - содержание и техническое обслуживание, уход; текущий
ремонт
major (v) (in) – специализироваться в ч-л.
make (v) up - составлять, собирать, комплектовать
make a motion – создавать ход
malignant - злобный, злостный, зловредный
mammal - млекопитающее
mandatory – мандатный, обязательный, принудительный
manifest (v) - провозглашать
manipulate (v) – обращаться, управлять
manner - способ, метод, образ действий; манера, поведение
manpower - рабочая сила, живая сила, личный состав, кадры
manually - вручную
margin - прибыль
marital status - семейное положение
maternity/parental leave – декретный (материнский/отцовский) отпуск
mean – средство; средняя величина, среднее число
meaning - значение; смысл
measure (n), (v) – мера, мероприятие; измерять
measurements - измерения
mechanism – механизм; техника
media – пресса, СМИ
memory content – объем памяти
memory parity error – ошибка контроля по чётности при обращении к
памяти
memory – память, машинная память, запоминающее устройство
mention (v) – упоминать
menu - меню
merchandising - коммерческое планирование производства
merge (v) - погружать(ся), поглощать, соединять(ся)
merger – поглощение, слияние, объединение
mesh network - сетчатая схема, ячеистая сеть
message - сообщение, письмо, послание
metaphor - метафора
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meteorology – метеорология, метеорологические условия
micro – микро-, микротехника, микрокомпьютер
microchip - чип, кристаллик с интегральной (микро)схемой
micron - микрон
microsurgical - микрохирургический
millenium – тысячелетие
miniscule – строчная буква
minutes (of a meeting) - протокол совещания, собрания
misdial (v) – неправильно набрать номер (по телефону)
misleading - вводящий в заблуждение, обманчивый
misspelling - орфографическая ошибка
mistake - ошибка; заблуждение, недоразумение
mnemonic - мнемонический
mobile phone - мобильный телефон, сотовый телефон
mobile – мобильный, движущийся, передвижной
mode - метод, методика, способ, режим
modem - модем
module - модуль, единица измерения
monadic - одноместный
monitor (v), (n) – отслеживать, контролировать; монитор
monochrome - монохромный, однотонный, одноцветный, черно-белый
monopolize (v) - монополизировать, приобрести эксклюзивные права
mortality - смертельность, летальность
motor-impaired – мотор замедления, торможения
mounting – установка, сборка, компоновка
mouse – мышь (в т.ч. компьютерная)
mouth (v) - входить
move (v), (n) – двигаться; перемещаться, переезжать; движение
multi-function - многофункциональный
multiple –множественный, повторяющийся, разнообразный
multi-purpose - всесторонний, многоцелевой, универсальный
multi-segmented buffer – многосекторный буфер
multi-tasking - многозадачность
mutual - взаимный, обоюдный, соответственный, общий
N
nano - наносхема ( сверхминиатюрная схема )
narrow – узкий, тесный
nasty - отвратительный, противный, опасный
native country – родная страна
navigate (v) – управлять, передвигаться
necessary - необходимый, нужный, требуемый
needs – потребности, требования, нужда
negotiate (v) - вести переговоры, договариваться, обсуждать условия
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NET - National Educational Television - национальное образовательное
телевидение
network – сеть, схема, цепь
newsgroup - сетевая служба, рассылающая информацию
newsletter - информационный бюллетень (для пользователей)
node – вершина, узел
nonetheless - несмотря на, однако
non-impact – бесконтактный, безударный
printer - принтер, печатающее устройство
non-profit organization - некоммерческая организация
non-stop service – невыключаемая, безостановочная связь
normal school (Am.) - педагогическое училище
notebook - записная книжка; тетрадь
notification - извещение, сообщение; предупреждение
nuisance – досада, неприятность, помеха
number-crunching - перемалывание чисел (о процессе быстрой переработки
больших объёмов цифровых данных)
numeric – цифровой, числовой
O
object oriented - объектно-ориентированный
objection - возражение
objective - цель, задача
obscure - неопределённый, непонятный, незаметный
observe (v) - наблюдать
obsession - навязчивость, болезненная тяга
obvious - очевидный
occasion - случай, случайность
occupancy room - место для размещения
occupy (v) - занимать (место, пространство)
occur (v) - случаться, происходить
offer (v), (n) - предлагать; предложение
office extension - расширение компании
offshoot - боковая ветвь, ответвление
old-fashioned - устаревший, старомодный
omit (v) - пропускать
on the loose - в свободном режиме
online - в сети
onscreen - показываемый на экране
opaque - непрозрачный
per season - в сезон
opening salutation - приветствие
operate (v) - работать
operating system - операционная система
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operation - действие, операция
opinion - мнение
opportunity - возможность
opposite number - противоположное число
optical character recognition (OCR) - оптическое распознавание символов
optical disk - оптический диск
optimize (v) - оптимизировать
option - опция, вариант выбора, пункт меню
optional - дополнительный, добавочный
order - порядок
ordinary - обычный, ординарный
oscillator - генератор
otherwise - иначе, в ином случае
out of order - неисправен, не в порядке
out of this world - не от мира сего
outgoing calls - исходящие звонки
outlet - выход, вывод
outline - схема, план
outlook - взгляд, точка зрения; перспектива
output (device) - устройство вывода
overcharge (v) - перегружать
overlay keyboard - трафаретная клавиатура
overrate (v) - переоценивать
overview - обзор, просмотр, общий вид
P
pace - шаг, темп
packages - пакеты
paintbrush - кисть для рисования
palette - палитра
panel - панель
paper jam - заедание бумаги
paragraph - абзац
parameter - параметр
paramount - главный, первостепенный
parenthesis - круглые скобки
participant - участник
particular - особенный, конкретный
particularly - в особенности, в частности
partner (in a law firm) - партнер
partnership - партнёрство, товарищество
pass (v) (law) - принимать (закон)
passenger - пассажир
passion - страсть
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paste (v) - вставлять (фрагмент)
pastime - досуг
pattern - модель, образец
payload - полезная нагрузка
payment - оплата
payroll department - расчётный отдел
payroll - расчёт заработной платы
peak - пик
peer - равноправный, одноранговый
percentage - процент, доля
perception - восприятие
perform (v) - выполнять, работать
performance - выполнение, работа
period - период; точка (в конце предложения)
peripheral device - периферийное устройство
peripheral - периферийный
permanent position - постоянное положение
permanently - постоянно
permission - разрешение
permit (v), (n) - разрешать, позволять; пропуск
persist (v) - продолжать, удерживаться
personal qualities - личные качества
photographic - фотографический
phrase - фраза
pickup - считывание, устройство для считывания
pie chart - круговая диаграмма
pin - контакт, штифт, штекер
pit - впадина
pivotal - граница интервала
pixel - пиксель
place (v) an order - установить порядок
plain - простой
plaintext - простой текст (без форматирования)
plastered - наклеенный
plastic surgeon - пластический хирург
platform flexibility - гибкость платформы
plug (v) in(to) - вставить в
point (v), (n) - показывать; точка (отделения в десятичной дроби)
pointer - указатель (стрелка-курсор)
pointless - неэффективный; незаострённый (тупой)
polarization - поляризация
politeness - вежливость
pool (v) - накапливать; накопитель, пул
poor - плохой; бедный
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pop (v) up - высвечиваться на экране; внезапно
port - возникать
portable - порт
portal - портативный, переносной
possess (v) - портал
powder - владеть, обладать, иметь
powerful - порошок
power line - мощный, сильный
prearranged - линия питания
precise - заранее подготовленный
precision - точный
predecessor - точность
predefined - предшественник
prediction - предопределённый, предписанный
prefer (v) - прогнозирование
prefix - предпочитать
premises - префикс, приставка
prepare (v) - здания, помещения
preposition - подготовить
pre-press - предлог
preprocessor - подготовка к печати
prescribe (v) - препроцессор, процессор предварительной обработки
presiding officer - председательствующий
pretend (v) - притворяться
preventive - превентивный, предупреждающий
previous - предыдущий
preview - предварительный обзор
primarily - в первую очередь
primary colours - американский флаг
prime - первый, основной, первоочередной;
primitive - премьер
print (v) - примитивный; первобытный
print-out - печатать
prior to - распечатка
procedure - перед, до, раньше; прежде чем
process (v) - процедура
processor - обрабатывать
professional abilities - процессор
proficient - профессиональные способности (умения) опытный, умелый;
специалист
programmer - программист
programming - программирование
progress - прогресс
project (v), (n) - проектировать; проект
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promote (v) - продвигать, содействовать; стимулировать
prompt - подсказка, подсказывать
pronoun - местоимение
pronunciation - произношение
proof - доказательство
proper - нужный, подходящий, соответствующий
properties - свойства
property - собственность
proposal - предложение
propose (v) - предлагать
propriety - правильность, уместность
pros and cons - за и против
prospects - перспективы
protect (v) - защищать
protocol - протокол
prove (v) - доказывать
provide (v) - снабжать, обеспечивать
provider (internet) - провайдер
proximity - близость, соседство
publication - публикация
publish (v) - публиковать
punctuation mark - знак препинания
purchase - покупать; покупка
purpose - цель
push (v) (buttons) - нажать (на кнопку)
Q
quadrant - квадрант, квадратный
quarterly - ежеквартально
query - вопросительный знак
questionnaire - вопросник
quiet - тихий, спокойный
quite - довольно, совсем, очень
quotation marks - кавычки
quote - цитировать, цитата
R
raise (n), (v) - поднимать, перемещать; подъём
random access - произвольный доступ
random - произвольный, случайный
range from ... to - располагаться от … до …
range - линия, направление
rate - скорость, степень
ratio - доля, пропорция, соотношение
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react (v) - реагировать
read laser - считывающий лазер
reading tablet - планшет чтения
realize (v) - понимать; реализовывать
rear - задняя сторона, часть
reason - причина
reasonable - разумный
reassemble (v) - повторно собрать
reboot (v) - перезагрузка; перезагрузить
receipt - получение, приём
receive (v) - получать
receiver - получатель; приёмник; трубка телефона
recently - недавно, в последнее время
receptionist - администратор (гостиницы)
recipe - рецепт; средство, способ
recipient - реципиент
reckon (v) - полагать, считать
recognition - узнавание, распознавание
recognize (v) - распознавать
recommend (v) - рекомендовать
recommendation - рекомендация
reconstruct (v) - восстанавливать; перестраивать
record - запись; записывать, регистрировать
recovery - восстановление; возврат к исходному режиму
recruiter - агент по найму кадров
rectify (v) - выверять, настраивать
reduce (v) - сокращать
redundant - резервный
refer to - относиться к; ссылаться на
(with) reference to - по отношению к
reference - ссылка
reflective - отражающий
refraction - преломление
refresh (v) - обновлять
refund - оплата; возмещение, возврат
refuse (v) - отказываться
regard (v) - считать, рассматривать
regardless - не смотря на
register - регистр
registration - регистрирование
regulation - регулирование; правило
reimburse (v) - возвращать, возмещать
reimbursement - возврат, возмещение
reinforce (v) - усиливать, укреплять
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re-issue (v) - выпустить заново, переиздать
reject (v) - отвергнуть, отклонить
rejuvenate (v) - восстанавливать, ремонтировать
related - связанный с, относящийся к
relationship - отношение, связь
relay (v) - передавать; реле
release (v) - разъединение, отключение
reliable - надёжный
reloadable - перезагружаемый
relocation - перемещение, перераспределение
rely (v) on - полагаться на
remain (v) constant - оставаться постоянным
remarkable - замечательный
remote - удалённый, дистанционный
remove (v) - удалять, убирать
rendering - воспроизведение; визуализация
repeatedly - повторно, вновь и вновь
repetition - повторение
replace (v) - заменять
replacement - замещение
report (v) - сообщать, докладывать
representative - представитель
reproduce (v) - воспроизводить
require (v) - требовать
requirement - требование
research (v), (n) - исследовать, исследование
resemble (v) - напоминать, быть похожим
reset (v) - переустановить
resist (v) - сопротивляться
resolution - разрешение; решение; резолюция
resolve (v) - решать; разрешать
resources - ресурсы
respectively - соответственно
response - ответ
responsibility - ответственность
responsible for - ответственный за
restrict (v) to - ограничить до
restriction - ограничение
resume - возобновлять, продолжать
retailer - торговец, продавец
retain (v) - сохранять, удерживать
retrieve (v) - извлекать
retro virus - ретровирус
return key - кнопка возврата
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reunification - воссоединение
revenue - прибыль
reverse spiral track - спиральная дорожка обратного хода
revise (v) - проверять, исправлять
reward (v) - награждать, поощрять
re-writable - записывающий
right away - прямо сейчас
ring network - кольцевая сеть
rise (v) - подниматься, повышаться
robotics - робототехника
room - место, пространство; комната
rotating function - функция вращения
rotation - вращение
rough – грубый, жесткий
round trip ticket – билет в оба конца
route – маршрут
routines - повседневные дела; рутинные операции
row - ряд
rubbish bin - корзина для мусора
rule of thumb - практический метод
ruler - линейка
run (v) around - располагать текст вокруг рисунка
run (v) low on - почти исчерпаться, закончиться
run (v) out of - закончиться, исчерпаться
run-time error - ошибка при выполнении (программы)
rush - броситься, устремиться
S
safety net - сеть безопасности
salutation - приветствие
sample (copy, product) - экземпляр (копия, образец)
sandbox - «песочница»
satellite broadcasting - спутниковое вещание
save (v) - сохранить
scalable - масштабируемый; расширяемый
scan (v) - сканировать
scanner - сканер
scatter (v) - разбрасывать, разносить; разброс
screen - экран
skepticism - скептицизм
schedule (n), (v) - расписание, составлять расписание
scientist - учёный
(start from) scratch - начать с самого начала (с нуля)
screen phone - видеотелефон
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screen reader - считыватель
script code - код документа
scroll (v) - прокручивать
scroll bars - полоса (линейка) прокрутки
scrutinize (v) - тщательно исследовать, изучить
search (v) - искать
search engine - поисковый механизм
search function - функция поиска
secrecy - секретность
secure - безопасный
security - безопасность
seek (v) - искать
segment - сегмент
segmentation fault - ошибка сегментации
selection - отбор, селекция
self-confidence - уверенность в себе
self-sufficiency - самодостаточность
semi automatic - полуавтоматический
semiconductor - полупроводник
sensitive - чувствительный
sequence - последовательность
serve (v) - служить; обслуживать
server - сервер
service - обслуживание, служба
setting - установка, настройка
settle (v) for - согласиться на
set-top box - настроечное окно; игровая приставка
setup window - установочное окно
set (v) up - устанавливать
severe - жёсткий, суровый
shading shape (v) - затенение формы
share (v) - делить(ся)
shares - доли; акции
shareware - лицензионные программы
sheet feeder - бумагоподаватель
shelf - полка
shift key - кнопка сдвига
shift - сдвигать
shipping costs - оплата за доставку
shipping firm - экспедиторская фирма
shoot (v) ahead - обгонять
shoot - переслать, «скинуть»
shortcut - сокращённая клавиатурная команда
shorten (v) - сокращать
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show of hands - голосование
showcase (n) - витрина
shrink (v) - сокращаться, давать усадку; сжимать
shuttle service - челночное сообщение
side line - боковая линия
significant - важный, существенный
silicon chip - кремниевый чип
silicon wafer - кремниевая пластина
similarity - схожесть, подобие
simultaneously - одновременно
site - место
sketch - набросок, схема, эскиз
skill - умение, навык
skim (v) over - бегло просмотреть, ознакомиться
skip (v) - пропускать
slam (v) down - бросать, швырять
slash - косая черта (знак)
sleek - гладкий, ровный
sleep mode - режим ожидания
slender – тонкий, узкий
slide - скользить, плавно перемещаться
slight(ly) - слегка, незначительно
slip (v) into (pocket) - незаметно положить (в карман)
slogan - девиз, слоган
slot-in-loading - гнездовая загрузка
mechanism - механизм
smart card reader - считыватель смарт-карты
smart - разумный, интеллектуальный
smooth(ly) - плавно, гладко, ровно
snap to clipboard - поместить в буфер обмена
snapshot - снимок, кадр
sniffer - модуль проверки текущего состояния
snip (v) off - отрезать
software - программное обеспечение
sole - основание, единичный
solution - решение
solve (v) - решить
sophisticated - сложный
sort (v) out - отбирать, сортировать
sound control - контроль уровня звука
sound waves - звуковые волны
sound - звук
source text - исходный текст
source - источник
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space (v), (n) - размещать с интервалами; пробел
spam - спам
speaker - динамик; диктор
special character - специальный символ
specification - спецификация, определение
specify (v) - определять
speculate (v) - обдумывать, размышлять
spinal injury - повреждение позвоночника
spiral track - спиральная дорожка
split (v) - разделять, разбивать
sponsor - спонсор
spouse - супруг(а)
spread (v) - распространять(ся)
spreadsheet program - программа построения таблиц
square - квадрат(ный)
stacks - стек; пакет, набор
staff - штат, комплектовать штат
stage - ступень, этап
stake - ставка
stand-alone (device) - автономное (устройство)
standard-density - стандартная плотность
star network - звездообразная (радиальная) сеть
start-up company - новая компания
statement - утверждение; заявление
state-of-the-art - состояние дел
steady - устойчивый
stick (v) to - втыкать, вкалывать
stipulation - условие, оговорка, соглашение
stock exchange - фондовая биржа
storage capacity - ёмкость запоминающего устройства
storage device - запоминающее устройство
storage - сохранение, хранение
store (v) – запоминать
straight - равильный, находящийся в порядке; без ошибок, без изъяна
straightforward - прямой; движущийся или ведущий прямо вперед
stray - отдельный, случайный
streamline (v) - упрощать; модернизировать, рационализировать
string - веревка, ремешок
stroke - удар
structogram - структограмма
stubborn - твердый, решительный, упрямый
stylus - пишущий элемент
sub-category – подкласс, подгруппа
sub-directory – под-директория
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subdivision - подразделение
subject line - предметная строка
subject to - при условии, допуская, если
subject – тема, предмет разговора
submit (v) – подчинять(ся); предлагать
submit a tender - представлять на рассмотрение заявку
subscribe (v) - подписывать(ся)
subscriber – абонент, подписчик
substitute (v) - заменять
substrate - подложка
suffer (v) - сносить, терпеть, испытывать
suggest (v) - предлагать, советовать
suitable - годный, подходящий, пригодный
summarize (v) - суммировать, резюмировать, подводить итог
summon (v) up - вызывать, призывать
supplies – снабжение, поставки, предложения
supply (v) – снабжать, поставлять, доставлять
supply chain – система снабжения, сеть поставок
supply - снабжение
support (n), (v) - поддерживать, помощь
suppose (v) - предполагать
surcharge - завышенная цена
surface – поверхность, наружность
surfing – серфинг, «блуждание по просторам Интернета»
surprise (v) - изумлять, поражать, удивлять
surround (v) - окружать; обступать
survey - вид, обзор
survive (v) - выдержать, выжить
sustain (v) - испытывать; нести
sweeping - подметание, уборка
switch (n), (v) - переключать, включать, выключать
switch (v) off/on - выключать, включать
switchboard - коммутатор; распределительный щит
syllable - слог
synchronization - синхронизация
syntax error - синтаксическая ошибка
system administrator - системный администратор
system software - системное программное обеспечение
T
tab - клавиша табуляции
table - таблица
take (v) off – вычитать; убирать; снимать (трубку); ответвляться
take smth. at face value – принимать ч-л. по номинальной стоимости
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take-off - помеха, недостаток
tamper (v) with - портить
tape - лента
target – цель, целевой; план
task - задача
tasteless - безвкусный
technical term - технический термин
telecommunication - телекоммуникация
tend (v) to do smth – иметь тенденцию, стремится к чему-либо
tension - напряжение
term – срок, определенный период
terminal emulation - эмуляция терминала
terminally ill – смертельно больной
terminate (v) - ставить предел, ограничивать(ся)
terms – условия
text editor - текстовый редактор
thereby - таким образом
thesaurus - словарь; справочник, энциклопедия
thorough – тщательный, полный, завершенный
thoroughfare - проход, проезд
threat - опасность, угроза
threaten (v) - грозить, угрожать
throttle – дроссельный клапан
time sharing - работа с разделением времени; режим разделения времени
time values – значение времени
time-saving – экономный, времясберегающий
tiny - очень маленький, крошечный
toddler - ребенок, начинающий ходить
token (by the same) - одинаковый
token - символ
toner cartridge - тонерный картридж
tool – инструмент
toolbar – панель инструментов
toolbox - инструментальная панель
top of the range – наилучший, превосходный
topic - тема, предмет обсуждения, вопрос
top-notch - отличный, первоклассный
top-of-the-line - старшая модель семейства
topology - топологическая схема, топология
touchscreen - сенсорный экран
toxic waste - токсичные [ядовитые] отходы
trace (v) back – проследить, определить историю, происхождение
trace route – отслеживающая программа
track (v) down - выслеживать
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track pitch - шаг дорожки
trackball - шаровой указатель; шаровой манипулятор
train of thought - ход мыслей
transaction – сделка, операция
transceiver – приемопередатчик
transfer (v) - переносить; перемещать
translucent - просвечивающий; полупрозрачный
transmission - передача, перенос
transmit (v) – передавать
transmitter - отправитель, передатчик
tray – поднос, лоток (приёмный)
treat (v) - иметь дело ( с кем-л.), обращаться, относиться
trekki – фанат телесериала «Star Trek»
trespass (v) – нарушать; посягать, злоупотреблять
tricky - хитрый, ловкий; искусный, находчивый
trigger (v) (off) - инициировать, дать начало, спускать курок
trip (v) up - запинаться, произносить с запинкой; спотыкаться
Trojan Horse - троянский конь
troubleshooting - выявление неисправностей, повреждений
tuning - настройка
turnover - товарооборот
tutor (v) - обучать; руководить, наставлять
twin – близнец; двойник, копия
two-track - двухдорожечный
typeface - гарнитура ( шрифта ), отпечаток
U
unalterable - неизменный, не допускающий перемен; устойчивый
unanimous - единогласный, единодушный
unavailable - не имеющийся в наличии
unbelievable - невероятный, неправдоподобный
undergo (v) - испытывать, переносить
underline (v) - подчеркивать, выделять, акцентировать
underscore (v) - подчеркивать
undo (v) - открывать
unexpectedly – внезапно, неожиданно, непредвиденно
unfortunately - к несчастью, к сожалению
unique – единственный, однозначный,
unit - часть, элемент, член
unnecessarily - незачем, излишне
unpleasant – неприятный
unpredictable - непредсказуемый; не поддающийся прогнозированию
unsolicited - предоставленный добровольно
unstoppable - непреодолимый; непреклонный
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unwire (v) – развязать(ся)
(be) up to smth. – быть занятым ч-л.
upcoming – наступающий, грядущий
update (v) – обновить, усовершенствовать
update – модернизация, корректировка, обновление информации, данных
upgrade (v) - улучшать, модернизировать, реконструировать
upgrowth - развитие, рост, прогресс, совершенствование
upkeep - ремонт, уход, наблюдение, обслуживание
upper - лучший, высший
upside down – вверх ногами, с ног на голову
up-to-date – современный, новейший
urgent - срочный, неотложный, необходимый
user-friendly - удобный для пользователя
utility program - обслуживающая программа
V
vacancy - вакансия
valid identification – действительное удостоверение личности
valid – действительный, валидный
valuable - полезный, ценный
valuables –ценности
value –значение; стоимость, ценность
valve - клапан
variable – переменная; изменяющийся, непостоянный
variety - многообразие, разнообразие
various - различный, разный, разнообразный
vast - обширный, громадный
VCR - видеомагнитофон
vending machine - торговый автомат
vendor - продавец; торговец, продающий товар вразнос
venture - рискованное предприятие
venue - место сбора, встречи (зд: проведения конференции)
vertical - вертикальный
vibration - колебание, дрожание, вибрация
video clip - видеоклип
video conference - видеоконференция
virtual environment – виртуальное окружение
virtual shopping – виртуальная покупка товаров
virtual touch screen - виртуальный сенсорный экран
virtually - фактически, практически, в сущности
virus protection - защита против компьютерных вирусов
virus - вирус
vision - вид, зрение
vital - жизненный
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vocational school - профессионально-техническое училище
voice mail – голосовая почта
voice recognition - распознавание голоса или речи
volatile (memory) - непостоянная (память)
volume - величина, размеры, объём
volunteer (v), (n) - предлагать ( свою помощь, услуги ); волонтёр
vote (v) - голосовать
vow (v) - клясться ( в чем-л. ), торжественно обещать
vulnerable - уязвимый; ранимый
W
wallet - бумажник
warranty – основание, разрешение
waste – отходы, мусор
watchword - пароль
wave - сигнал, колебание, волна
web – сеть (Интернет)
webmaster - web-мастер
webpage - web-страница
web-TV – web- телевидение
well-funded – хорошо финансируемый
wheel - колесо
wheeling and dealing - махинации
whim - прихоть, каприз; причуда
whistle - свист
wholesaler - оптовик, оптовый торговец
widespread - широко распространенный
willingness - готовность
window - окно
wipe (v) out – стереть, уничтожить
wire - проволока
wireless - радио, радиосвязь
with regard to - относительно; в отношении; что касается
withstand (v) - устоять, выдержать
witness (n), (v) – свидетель; видеть, быть свидетелем ( чего-л. )
word processing - электронная обработка текста
workbench - автоматизированное рабочее место, АРМ
workflow - последовательность и темп выполняемых действий
worksheet – список действий, операций для выполнения
wrist - запястье
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Y
Y2K – 2000г.
yet – ещё (пока), всё таки, уже
yield the floor – предоставить слово
Z
zoom (v) – изменять масштаб, увеличивать, детализировать
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Приложение В
(рекомендуемое)
Additional material
Unit 1
1.1
1 "I work for a high-tech company which produces tools for chip manufacturing.
We use computers, of course, to help design our products as well as to calculate
costs. And I personally, as a customer service manager, need a computer to keep in
contact with the people working under me, all my different teams working all over
the country. I reckon I must get and send at least a couple of hundred e-mails a
week."
2 " For me computers are just for fun, mostly anyway. My Dad has set up a
network and my friends and I can play adventure games together like Star Journey,
and Divide and Conquer- it's great! My sister likes chatting, but I think that's a waste
of time. Besides, my Mum gets mad if we spend too much time online. What else is
there? Oh yeah, sometimes I print out book reports or other stuff for school, but, like
I said, I mostly play games."
2 "A computer doesn't save you as much time as you might think - at least
that's my impression. It's really quite amazing all the things you can do with it,
though. I like to travel and take trips to out-of-the-way places so I often use the
internet to find out about cheap offers, hotels, train schedules and things like that. I
still enjoy phoning friends and family but e-mailing is a lot of fun too. But, of course,
as a teacher I need the computer above all as a word processor. Making up exams and
worksheets is a lot easier and it's fun to add in those little pictures, you know, what
are they called, cliparts? That's about it I think. I never play games."
3 "Computers? They're my life, my love! Seriously, I work for a small
publishing house and I never know from one day to the next what I might have to end
up doing. Officially, I'm a systems administrator and that means I'm responsible for
everything to do with our computers. My job is to install new software, train people,
prevent crashes, set up networks - you name it, I do it. What else is there? Well, of
course, I have a computer at home too - for writing things and surfing and e-mail and,
let's see, - oh yeah, for banking too. And, last but not least, I admit I'm a strategy
games junkie."
Unit 2
2.1
Judy: Oh, George - just the person I was looking for.
George: Oh, hi, Judy. What's up?
Judy: Uh, I hear you're a real hardware expert and I'm thinking of buying a
scanner and I wondered if you had a minute.
George: Of course, but I'm not really an expert. What kind of scanner do you
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have in mind?
Judy: Oh no, are there different types? I just want one where, you know, you put
the paper, a text or whatever, in the machine or on top someplace ...
George: On the flatbed.
Judy: Right, if that's what they're called. And then you just push a button, or do
you need the mouse?
George: That depends, but why don't you just tell me what you're planning to
scan? Texts? Photos? Graphics?
Judy: No photos - texts. That's to say, articles with illustrations and well, maybe
when I come to think of it, photos as well. But the text is the main thing.
George: Just what...
Judy: Let me explain. I'm giving a series of workshops this autumn and a lot of
big shots - top managers and people like that - are going to take part. I really want it
to work, impress them, you know. Instead of just making copies I was thinking I
could scan in material, change things around a bit, giving it a personalized note.
George: I see. Well, what you're looking for is a scanner that can run decent
OCR software.
Judy: OCR?
George: Optical character recognition - like voice recognition, only for texts. It's
the software you need to read texts. The better your OCR the less correcting you have
later. When are you doing the first workshop?
Judy: In October. Why?
George: Well, the new models are coming out on the market soon and if you can
wait a bit there's a good chance of picking up a bargain. You could save up to 50
pounds.
Judy: Really? I'm not really in such a hurry.
George: Good, then I'll keep you posted about any deals I come across.
Judy: Great, thanks for all your trouble.
George: No trouble, my pleasure.
Unit3
3.1
"As you probably know already the operating system is usually supplied by the
manufacturer and comes with your system when you buy a computer. You need an
operating system, of course, to control the hardware and software resources of your
system. It's an essential element that can make or break your system. MSDOS is an
older, text based operating system. It lets you communicate with the computer by
typing in commands on the keyboard. Of course, this means the user has to either
learn the instructions by heart or keep looking them up. A typical command is COPY
which does just that - it will copy a file or files from your disk.
The user-friendlier OS/2 allows multi-tasking. All these systems contain
hundreds of routines which are sequences of instructions. With these routines the user
can start up the computer, transfer data from disks to peripherals and control the
RAM space.
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Windows 95 and its updates Windows 98 and Millenium Edition are operating
systems in their own right though not authentically multi-tasking. Like OS/2 the
systems are not text based but use an attractive graphical interface. Though it looks
very similar to its predecessors, the Windows NT OS is multi-tasking. It's a more
stable system and less prone to crashes which is a big plus naturally. Designed for
professional purposes the Windows NT allows you to set up a server for work
stations.
Conceived from the first as a multi-tasking system, UNIX is written in C, a
high-level programming language. Most computers today are capable of running
some version of UNIX. An offshoot of the commercial UNIX system is Linux. Like
UNIX this system is also written in С and is naturally multi-tasking. The remarkable
thing about Linux is the fact that it's free and open-sourced. Without having to pay
anything you can download the whole system, parts of it or updates from the Internet.
Open-sourced means you can read the source code. Written by an international army
of programmers contributing their work on a volunteer basis, Linux is especially
suited for setting up Internet services.
3.2
"I'm primarily interested in making money. That's why I'm going to emigrate as
soon as I finish my training. Where to depends on whether I can get a green card right
away or not. In any case, I'm planning to live in an English-speaking country such as
the US or Canada because good programmers are needed there and can make a lot of
money."
1 "I'm married and we're going to have our second child soon. I'll need more
money so that's why I'm going to look for a secure position in a big company when
I'm done here. If I have to I'll relocate but the closer to my hometown the better. As a
systems administrator I'll need to read English manuals and updates but I don't think
I'm going to have to write or talk much myself in English - at least I hope not."
2 "The first thing I'm going to do when this program comes to an end is to take a
nice long holiday. I'm saving all my money now and depending on how things go, I'll
be on the road for at least three months. I'm going to fly to the States first, where I
happen to have an aunt and, who knows? Maybe I'll even end up getting a job with an
American firm."
3"After my training is completed here I'm going to go back to my native country
and my family. Computer experts are in high demand, so I won't have any trouble
finding a job, I'm sure. English is very important because many people speak
different dialects and sometimes it's the only way to communicate. But I also like
watching English language films and reading English books."
5 "I know it sounds a bit crazy, but I'm planning to start my own business. I'm
going to be a business woman! I'm not sure yet exactly what I'll do - I'm re
searching matters at the moment - but I know it's going to involve working
with the Internet. That way I can earn money and still be at home when my
kids come home from school."
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Unit 7
7.1
Jerry: Uh, Tom have you got a minute?
Tom: Well...
Jerry: Look, I know you're busy and I wouldn't bother you if the Hothouse
people weren't breaking down my door, but...
Tom: That's okay, Jerry. No problem. Come in and have a seat. I suppose it's
about the appliance design software we put together for them, that multi-purpose
program.
Jerry: That's right - Sleekware we called it.
Tom: So?
Jerry: Well, they really like Sleekware's user interface - it's faster and more
stable than the parent program. They only wish they'd had it all along. It would have
saved them a lot of time and hassle. The thing is ...
Tom: Out with it.
Jerry: It's the product planning part of the program. When they try to print their
cost calculations they get garbled output.
Tom: The printing routines we used are absolutely standard and were
thoroughly tested.
Jerry: I realize that but I'm getting a lot of flak from these Hothouse people hotheads would be a better name for them. Can't you do some kind of work around?
Tom: That's not the point. It would be a waste of time and energy to try and
doctor up a piece of perfectly sound software. When we were there the program ran
smoothly and they had no complaints. The question is: Have they changed anything
since?
Jerry: Yes, you remember they said they wanted to invest in a couple of new
printers and print servers.
Tom: And what did they end up buying?
Jerry: Quickie Print.
Tom: Well, no wonder they're having trouble. I recommended Jewel Packets. If
they'd followed my advice and invested a few more hundred in decent hardware they
wouldn't be having these problems. We should have pushed the point more.
Jerry: Maybe, but it was a hard sell. If we'd made it a condition, I'm afraid we
would have lost the contract.
Tom: Could be but it's too late now. My only suggestion at this point would be
to lend them a printer and print server. If the software runs smoothly - and I'm sure it
will - it would prove I'm right and that it's their hardware and not our program that's
at fault.
Jerry: Good, that's a fair offer - I'll get back to you on that.
10 Business File
10.1
Dialogue 1
VB: Hello, may I introduce myself? My name is Victoria Baxter from
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Betasystems.
GD: Pleased to meet you, Ms Baxter. I'm Greg Demmer from Longman
Incorporated. I don't think you've met my colleague Thomas Wight yet either.
Thomas, this is Ms Baxter from Betasystems.
TW: How do you do, Ms Baxter?
VB: Oh, call me Victoria, Ms Baxter sounds so formal.
Dialogue 2
A: I hear you're from Aberdeen, is that right?
B: Yes, I am.
A: What's the weather like there at this time of the year? Rather rainy, I suppose.
B: Oh, not so bad. We had our share of wet days in the past month but the sun
was shining when I left for the airport. And what's the weather been like here?
A: A bit dry actually, not really good for my garden.
B: Oh, so you're a gardener. What do you go in for? Vegetables or more
flowers?
Dialogue 3
A: Have you got a minute?
B: Sorry, but I'm a bit rushed at the moment. Could you get back to me in a few
hours?
A: Sure, no problem. I'll call you later.
10.2
Victoria: Hello.
John Stovers: Hello, this is John Stovers from Training Unlimited. I'd like to
speak to Ms Bucher, please.
Victoria: Speaking.
John: Good morning, Ms Bucher. I'm calling about the letter you sent us
enquiring about positions for software trainers.
Victoria: That's right.
John: Well, I'm afraid I don't have any permanent position to offer you at the
moment but we're always looking for qualified personnel. Are you also interested in
working on a freelance basis?
Victoria: That depends.
John: At the moment I have two evening courses - one in DOORS and the other
in ACQUIRE that is starting soon. Are you interested?
Victoria: Definitely. I've worked with both programs so I'm sure I won't have
any problems.
John: Good. Perhaps we can meet to discuss the details some time - let's say
early next week. Do you have time on Monday at three?
Victoria: Monday at three? That would be fine.
John: Good. I'll show you the computer classroom you will be using and
introduce you to Jeff, our systems administrator.
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Victoria: Great. I'm looking forward to that.
John: See you on Monday at three, then.
Victoria: Yes, thank you. Goodbye.
10.3
Dialogue 1
A: See you on Monday at five, then.
B: Monday at five, right - oh, just a moment, please. I didn't quite catch the full
address. Was it Mediapark 6a or Mediapark 6b? A: Sorry, Mediapark 6a - you
can park in the underground garage and take the
lift straight up to our offices on the 4th floor. B: And it's room 4064, right? A:
No, room 4046, 4-0-4-6. B: Okay, got it, thanks.
Dialogue 2
A: Hello.
B: Uh, I'd like to speak to Ms Winkler in the purchasing department, please.
A: Ms Winkler? I'm afraid you have the wrong number - this is a private line.
B: Oh, I'm sorry. I must have misdialed.
A: Hello.
B: Oh, dear, here we go again. I'm trying to reach a Ms Winkler
at 07031 - 939595. A: This is 07031 - 939595 but I don't know any Ms Winkler.
B: Your number is 07031 - 939595? A: That's what I just said. B: I must have copied
the number down wrong, then. Sorry for bothering you.
Dialogue 3
A: Let me give you their e-mail addresses. B:OK.
A: OK, Sally's is salkoren@t-online.de, Tricia's is tiger85@gmx.de and Bob's is
robmeiner@hummel.com
В: Hold on, hold on. That was way too quick. I think I've got the first one,
salkorman@t-online.de and ... A: Not korman, koren, s-a-l-k-o-r-e-n. B: k-o-r-en with s-a-l before it. A: That's right. And Tricia's -B: I got that one tiger58@qmx.de A: No, tiger85, 8-5, ©gmx.de B: Alright I got that tiger85@qmx.de
but all I got of Bob's address was the
provider - Hummel, the name of the company he works for. A: It's
robmeiner@hummel.com - r-o-b and then his last name, Meiner,
m-e-i-n-e-r. B: Are you sure it's Rob and not Bob? Everyone calls him Bob. A:
I'm positive - his company uses the first three letters of the first name,
in Bob's case r-o-b, short for Robert. B: Okay, thanks for the information.
Dialogue 4
A: And where can I send the brochure to?
B: The address is Prinz-AlbertstraBe 232 in 93152 Neutraubling.
A: I'm sorry, could you repeat that please? Prinz-AlfonsstraBe 232, where?
B: No, Prinz-AlbertstraBe - AlbertstraBe 232.
A: Albert as in a-l-b-e-r-t?
B: That's right. And I live in Neutraubling and the post code is 93152.
A: 9-3-1-5-2.
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B: Right, in Neutraubling. Shall I spell that?
A: Please do.
B: N-e-u-t-r-a-u-b-l-i-n-g.
A: If I could just repeat the whole address: Leslie Hanker, Prinz-AlbertstraBe
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in 93152 Neutraubling. B: Correct. A: You should receive the brochure in
tomorrow's post then.
Dialogue 5
A: Roger? Hi, Doug here. I wonder if you have a minute.
B: Sure. What can I do to help you?
A: I need a couple of phone numbers - well, five to be exact. I need to cancel
today's project meeting and I'm afraid it's too late to email everyone - I just
hope I catch everyone in time. B: No problem. Let's see there's Paul and Gina I've got their mobile numbers
here. Have you got something to write? A: Just wait a second. I want to input
them directly into my digital address book
- OK, I'm ready. B: Do you want their regular phone numbers as well? A: Oh,
yeah, why not. B: Okay, Paul's office extension is 1415 and his mobile number is
0175 921 2260, Gina's ... A: Sorry I didn't quite get all of the mobile number you lost me after 0175 931.
В: 921 - It's 0175 921 2260. Should I repeat it?
A: Thanks, I've got it now: 0175 921 2260.
B: Right, and Gina's number is - it's a long one again - it's 0175 9568639.
I'll repeat. It's 0175 9568639. A: 0-1-7-5-9-5-6-8-6-9-3. B: No! 6-3-9 at the end,
not 693. Look, why don't you give me the names of the
other three people and I'll ring them myself. A: Well, if it's no trouble - that's
very kind of you.
10.4
"Okay. I think everyone's here and we can start. Tom, how about the minutes
from last week's meeting?"
"Everyone should have a copy along with the agenda for today's meeting." "I
only have one sheet. Where's the agenda?" "It's on the back - if you'd just turn it
over." "Oh, yes, I see, sorry."
"Right. Well, as you can see we're here to discuss our new public relations campaign. Point one on the agenda is reinforcing the corporate identity. Can we have a
short input here? Charlene?" "Well, our committee worked out a number of ideas.
First of all ..."
"Therefore, we recommend an orientation seminar for all new employees." "I
second the motion."
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"Right. Are we all in favour? If I could just have a quick show of hands? Let's
see: 6, 7, 8. Did you get that, Tom?"
"Yes, the motion to initiate orientation seminars for new employees was proposed, seconded and unanimously carried as a resolution." "Good. Now to the second
point on our agenda: items to be imprinted with our corporate logo and distributed at
fairs and to the public at large. Any ideas?" "As I see it, it's important to project an
image of solidity, for example with high-quality umbrellas."
"With all respect, what do umbrellas have to do with selling software? Besides,
they're..." "Can I just say something?"
"Could I just finish? Besides, they're way too expensive, in my opinion." "I'm
afraid I have to agree with Bob there. But what about mousepads?" "Now that's an
idea!"
"Well, let's see what we've got so far: umbrellas, mousepads, pens, notepads,
balloons and baseball caps. If no one objects I propose we put the matter to a vote."
"Right. I think that's all we had on the agenda, so let's call it a day. Thank you
for your time and attention."
10.5
1 (On the Underground:) Mind the gap, mind the gap!
2 (On an airplane:) An important announcement: Passengers are kindly
requested to remain in their seats till the aircraft has come to a complete stop.
3 (In a pay phone:) Please deposit one dollar and seventy-five cents.
4 (National Park Shuttle Bus) Our next stop is Weeping Rock, Weeping Rock,
folks. We'll only be stopping here for five minutes but another shuttle will be along in
approximately 20 minutes.
5 (Hotel Hotline) Happy Holidays Hotel Hotline - If you're calling to make a
reservation press one. If you're calling to cancel or change a reservation press two. In
all other cases press three - a representative will be with you shortly.
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Приложение Г
(рекомендуемое)
Tips for scientific and professional communication
Preparation for a Discussion
Many discussions fail because the participants haven't done enough preparation.
Everyone must think, talk and read about the topic before the discussion takes place.
When the topic is announced:
1 Think about it. What is your opinion? On what evidence is it based?
2 Talk to others about it. Discuss it with your friends and parents. If you know
someone who is an authority on the subject, discuss it with him. Be ready to change
your previous opinion in the light of new evidence.
3 Consult reference books, recent publications and magazine articles. Inform
yourself as thoroughly as you can about the topic. Keep an open mind while you are
learning.
Duties of participants in a group discussion
The chairman should:
1 Know the subject thoroughly.
2 Make a brief introductory statement.
3 Introduce the speakers to the audience.
4 Ask questions to stimulate discussion.
5 See that everyone has a chance to speak.
6 Summarize the discussion.
7 Thank the audience and the speakers.
A speaker in a group discussion should:
1 Know the subject thoroughly.
2 Listen intelligently. When you agree with another speaker, listen to increase
your information on the subject. When you disagree, listen to accept a different
viewpoint if it is supported by sufficient evidence.
3 Speak so that everyone can hear.
4 Recognize and acknowledge the truth of what others say.
5 Always be polite. Sarcasm is out of place. Self-control is a mark of maturity
(зрелость). Disagree reasonably - and with factual evidence.
A member of the audience should:
1 Know the subject thoroughly.
2 Listen attentively. Ask yourself: what evidence is offered in support of each
important argument? Take notes as you listen.
3 Join in when the chairman invites the audience to participate. A discussion in
which there is general participation is more stimulating and interesting than one in
which only a few take part.
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4 Focus on the main issues.
5 Speak audibly and distinctly (so that all may hear).
Round-table Discussion
The round table is a form of group discussion in which the participants exchange
views around the table (not necessarily round!) under the leadership of a chairman.
The number of participants usually does not exceed a dozen.
Problems for discussion:
1
2
3
4
5
6
The role of science in modern society.
New trends in university education.
University students of the 21st century, qualities and qualifications.
An ideal university student; an ideal university teacher.
Computer is the modern wonder of the world.
Pros and cons of the total computerization.
Answer the following questions:
1 What is your research problem?
2 What is of special interest in the problem of your research?
3 What is the subject of your research?
4 Why has the interest in this problem increased considerably in recent years?
5 Do you follow/stick to any theory/hypothesis/concept? What is it?
6 What concept is your research based on?
7 How does your research differ from other studies on the same problem?
8 Has your research problem attracted much attention in recent years? Has it
been widely studied?
9 What aspects of the problem have been considered over the last few years?
10 Who was the first to recognize/point out the problem?
11 What aspects of the problem did researchers concentrate on at that time?
1 What is the way to organize a round table discussion?
2 Phrases below will help you to organize a discussion. Study them and use
in the process of group discussion, composing reports and writing abstracts on the
given problem.
3 Study the following information and take part in a round-table discussion.
Phrases for Presentation and Communication
This section contains recommendations on presentation a research paper and a
professional report. Thinking about your Presentation
Answer the questions:
1 What is the topic of the paper you are going to presents?
2 Why are you interested in this particular topic? Do you always prepare for
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presentations?
3 What recommendations for making oral presentations do you find most
helpful?
4 Which ones do you always follow?
5 State your purpose – be specific.
6 Identify the central idea of your presentation.
7 List the main points of your presentation.
8 Think of supporting material for each main point.
9 Decide what kinds of visual aids you will use.
Read and practice some useful speech patterns.
I Introductory Speech Patterns
Mr. Chairman, ladies and gentlemen.
I am greatly honored to be invited to this conference.
In this paper I would like to talk about the concept of ...
The object of this paper is to show ...
To begin with, let us imagine that ...
As many of you know ...
First of all I would like to ...
I am sure I don't have to remind you that ...
I am very pleased to have this opportunity to ...
In my paper I want to highlight ...
In the introduction to my paper I would like to ...
I tell this story because ...
I want to begin my presentation with ...
Let me begin with ...
The first thing I want to talk about is ...
The subject that I will discuss is ...
II List of Phrases to make up an Introduction
1 Formulate the problem and identify the methods of research.
2 Give the historical background of the investigation:
a) During the past decade there has been increasing research into ...
b) In some theoretical studies ...
c) ... were able to provide a fully generalized, compact simultaneous
solution to ... .
d) In particular, they employed ... for ...
e) ... is an important and common problem.
f) It has become a canonical problem in the study of ... providing a valuable
test for simulation methods or theoretical models.
g) In the previous paper ... we used a specific model for ...
h) The paper examines a method for ...
i) Earlier descriptions of the ... assumed that ...
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j) However, detailed experimental studies of ... indicate that ...
k) The most treatments available are restricted to the …
l) Accordingly, we suggest that ...
m) To date a number of different interpolation techniques have been used in ...
n) In Section 2 paper continues with a discussion of ... Section 3 overviews ...
Section 4 then proposes ... and this matter is discussed in Section 5. Finally in
Section 6 we discuss ...
o) Several techniques have been used to investigate …
3 Make a brief review of related literature:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
There is a wide body of literature which suggests that ...
... effects have received much attention.
There were the limited number of studies conducted on ...
The listings of the program may be found in ...
Examples are given in ...
Extensive field studies were undertaken by the scientists at...
4 Justify the need for your investigation:
a) Thus heat transfer regime has received little attention ...
b) It is therefore important to establish the ...
c) Studies on the ... process have been and still are of the interest because of
the ...
d) In spite of significant recent advancement in the fundamental
understanding of... several important aspects of the ... still remain controversial.
e) ... investigations have been proved very valuable in ... but they do not give
a complete picture of ... since they eliminate ...
f) Most of the above investigations concentrated on the general effects of...
and did not look carefully at the ...
g) There is still lack of knowledge of ... Much further research is needed to
understand ...
h) There is still no complete knowledge of ...
i) There are still many gaps in our knowledge of the problems of ...
j) We still know very little about the origin of ...
III Speech Patterns for the Body of the Report
According to this theory...
After this, I need/it remains only to say that ...
Again, I want to emphasize that...
It should be emphasized that ...
It should be pointed out that...
Let me give you my explanation of ...
Let me now turn to ...
Let us consider what happens if ...
Let us have a closer look at ...
Let us imagine that ...
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Let us suppose that ...
Now I come to ...
On the contrary ...
On the one hand ..., on the other hand ...
Primarily ...
This is indeed the case when ...
This in turn implies ...
This is particularly true for ...
IV Closing Speech Patterns
Since I am running out of time ...
As my time is running out...
Before I close I would like to emphasize the importance of ...
Finally I want to say a few words about ...
I end this paper with a description of ...
I leave it to you to judge ...
In closing I want to mention very briefly …
In conclusion, let me say ...
In conclusion, may I repeat... .
Summing up, I would like to ...
The last part of my talk will be devoted to ...
To all this must be added that...
V Formulas for Professional Communication.
Practice the following phrases in a professional problem discussion.
Establishing Contacts
Agreeing
Disagreeing
Expressing surprise
Expressing uncertainly
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I’m glad you’ve asked me that question.
Yes, indeed.
I think you are entirely right.
It appears to me to be true.
I agree that...
That's just what I think.
I am arguing against...
I would object just a little...
I object to...
I wish I could agree with you but...
It is rather surprising...
It is unbelievable...
I am puzzled by...
I wonder about...
I find it hard to believe that...
It seems unlikely that...
I have doubts about...
I am not at all sure about...
I am not yet certain...
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Making contribution
Calling attention
Making assessment
Provoking arguments
Asking for
details/classification
Introducing
opinions/attitudes
Delaying an answer
I am doubtful whether...
I have been rather puzzled by...
I doubt it.
In connection with ... I would like to add
Let me add that...
In addition I would like to mention...
I would add that...
I want to point out that...
I would like to note...
I would like to stress the importance of...
It is worth pointing out that...
I would like to draw your attention to...
I would like to call attention to...
The paper/report raises an important
question ...
This method is particularly important
because...
The paper/report demonstrates how
important it is to...
These results/data are of particular
interest.
Would you agree with...?
There seems to be some contradiction
between your points of view. Does that
mean you think...?
Could you be more specific about...?
I am not clear about...
Could you give us/me some more facts
to back that up, please?
Well, I'd like to say that...
What I think is...
Well, let me see...
Well, now...
That's a good question...
Oh, let me think for a moment...
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