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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Министерство спорта, туризма и молодежной политики
Российской Федерации
Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
«Волгоградская государственная академия физической культуры»
Кафедра иностранных языков
Пономарева О.А.
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
Сборник текстов и упражнений
для направления подготовки 034300.62
Физическая культура, профилю подготовки
«Спортивная тренировка в избранном виде спорта»
специализации
ВОДНЫЕ ВИДЫ СПОРТА
Учебно-методическое пособие
Волгоград – 2012
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
ББК 81.2 Англ.
П 56
Рецензенты:
кандидат педагогических наук, доцент кафедры иностранных языков
ФГБОУ ВПО ВГАФК Бабашев А.Э.
кандидат филологических наук, доцент кафедры теории и методики
обучения иностранным языкам ВГПУ Гребенюк Е.Ф.
Допущено к изданию решением ученого совета ФГБОУ ВПО
«ВГАФК» в качестве учебно-методического пособия.
П 56
Пономарева О.А.
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК для направления подготовки 034300.62
Физическая культура, профилю подготовки «Спортивная тренировка в избранном виде спорта», специализации «Водные виды
спорта»: учебно-методическое пособие / О.А. Пономарева. – Волгоград: ФГБОУ ВПО «ВГАФК», 2012. – 114 с.
Учебно-методическое пособие по английскому языку для студентов очной формы обучения специальности 034300.62 «Физическая
культура»
ББК 81.2 Англ.
 Пономарева О.А., 2012
 ФГБОУ ВПО «ВГАФК», 2012
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ПОЯСНИТЕЛЬНАЯ ЗАПИСКА К УЧЕБНОМУ ПОСОБИЮ
Цель и содержание учебного пособия
Учебно-методическое пособие предназначено для студентов специальности «Физическая культура» очного отделения и может быть использовано
как источник дополнительных текстов по специальности.
Цель учебного пособия – помочь студентам в процессе аудиторной и
самостоятельной работы овладеть как навыками чтения текстов по специальности. Приобретенные знания, умения и навыки должны обеспечить будущему специалисту возможность использовать в своей работе специальную литературу на английском языке, т.е. умение самостоятельно читать и переводить английские тексты по тематике, отбирать полезную для работы информацию, а также приобрести умение доступно излагать свою мысль на английском языке при общении с иностранными коллегами.
В данном пособии использовались аутентичные тексты, взятые из зарубежных интернет-сайтов, посвященным видам спорта.
Учебное пособие состоит из двух разделов: In the water sports (виды
спорта «в воде»), On the water sports (виды спорта «на воде»).
I. In the water sports. Первый раздел посвящен Олимпийским видам
спорта «в воде». Данный раздел включает в себя следующие подразделы:
плавание, водное поло, синхронное плавание, прыжки в воду.
II. In the water sports. Второй раздел посвящен Олимпийским видам
спорта «на воде». Данный раздел включает в себя следующие подразделы:
академическая гребля, каноэ/байдарки, парусный спорт.
Каждый подраздел первого и второго разделов содержит тексты, содержащие информацию об истории данных видов спорта, основные правила и требования, спортивное снаряжение, основные техники. Тексты сопровождаются упражнениями на закрепление профессиональной лексики и
упражнениями на контроль понимания содержания текстов.
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IN THE WATER SPORTS
SWIMMING
INTRODUCTION TO SWIMMING
Swimming is an activity that burns lots of calories, is easy on the joints,
supports your weight, builds muscular strength and endurance, improves cardiovascular fitness, cools you off and refreshes you in summer.
Human beings have been swimming for millennia. Stone Age cave drawings depict individuals swimming and there are written references in the Bible
and the Greek poems "The Iliad" and "The Odyssey" dating back 1,500 to 2,000
years. There are even Egyptian clay seals from 4000 BC showing four swimmers doing a version of the crawl, and the most famous swimming drawings
were apparently found in the Kebir desert and were estimated to also be from
around 4000 BC.
Organized swimming began in the 1800s and 1900s with the creation of
swimming associations (for example, the Amateur Swimming Association in
1886) and clubs that competed against each other. There are reports from that
era of swimming clubs in England, France, Germany, and the United States.
High-profile events also contributed to swimming's visibility. For instance, Matthew Webb swam the English Channel in 1875.
Competitive swimming continued to grow in popularity during the 1800s
and was included in the first modern Olympic Games in Athens in 1896. In
1904, the Olympics in St. Louis included the 50-, 100-, 220-, 440-, 880-yard and
one-mile freestyle, the 100-yard backstroke and 440-yard breaststroke, and a
4x50-yard freestyle relay.
By the 20th century, swimming had become mainstream. Indoor pools
were beginning to appear and swimming clubs became increasingly popular for
recreation. Women participated for the first time in swimming in the Olympic
Games in Stockholm in 1912, and Johnny Weissmuller became the first person
to swim 100 meters in less than one minute.
Today swimming is the second most popular exercise activity. Swim
clubs, recreation centers and many other facilities feature swimming pools.
Many high schools and colleges have competitive swim teams, and of course,
swimming is one of the most popular Olympic sports. Millions of people are
swimming each year.
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There are several swimming strokes: breaststroke, backstroke, butterfly,
and crawl (freestyle) are the most popular swim strokes. The breaststroke and
butterfly are more difficult to learn than the backstroke and crawl.
Exercise 1. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following
words and word-combinations:
Сустав, выносливость, сердечнососудистый, освежать, кроль, соревнования, вносить вклад, включать, вольный стиль, плавание на спине, брас,
закрытый плавательный бассейн, баттерфляй.
Exercise 2. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and
word-combinations:
To burn calories, muscular strength, depict, competitive, mainstream, increasingly, recreation, centre, facility.
Answer the questions:
1. How does swimming help your health?
2. How long have human being been swimming? What proves that?
3. When did organized swimming begin?
4. When was swimming included into the modern Olympic Games?
5. What events were included into the Olympics in 1904?
6. When did women first participate in swimming in the Olympic Games?
7. What swimming strokes do you know?
8. What strokes are more difficult?
MEASUREMENTS FOR AN OLYMPIC SIZE SWIMMING POOL
Swimming has been an Olympic sport since 1896, with the 100-meter and
1,500-meter freestyle competitions being held in open water. Since then, additional events, such as the backstroke, butterfly, breaststroke and relays, have
been implemented along with an indoor pool. To organize each event the pool
must be constructed following specific measurements and lane features.
The Federation Internationale de Natation regulates the design, layout and
overall measurements of Olympic-size swimming pools. FINA functions to create consistency between different pools to ensure they meet the required measurements and are recognized by the International Olympic Committee. FINA also oversees swimming, diving, synchronized swimming, water polo and open
water swimming. The committee has a written set of rules that includes every
required measurement for the pool.
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Olympic-size swimming pools are approximately 50 m or 164 feet in
length, 25 m or 82 feet in width, and 2 m or 6 feet in depth. These measurements
create a surface area of 13,454.72 square feet and a volume of 88,263 cubic feet.
The pool has 660,253.09 gallons of water, which equals about 5,511,556 lbs.
During a swimming competition, each athlete is assigned to a marked
lane. An Olympic-size swimming pool features eight lanes with two outside
lanes used as a buffer zone. Each lane measures 2.5 m wide and is marked by a
rope and buoys on top of the water and a lane line painted on the bottom. The
lane lines end 2 m before the end wall of the pool as an indicator to the swimmer.
Other measurements, indicators, ropes and lines are used to track events.
The false start rope, for example, is used to indicate a false start to the swimmers. The rope is placed 5 m from the start line and suspends across the pool
about 1.2 m above the surface. The backstroke turn indicator is a flagged rope
used by the swimmers to indicate the end of the lane. The rope is placed 1.8 m
above the surface and 5 m from the start line.
NOTE:
lbs = pound – фунт ( единица массы = 0, 454 кг)
FINA = Federation Internationale de Natation – международная федерация плавания (ФИНА)
Exercise 1. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following
words and word-combinations:
Брас, эстафета, размер, плавательный бассейн, приблизительно, поплавок, фальстарт, поверхность.
Exercise 2. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and
word-combinations:
Backstroke, layout, oversee, set of rules, to be assigned, buffer zone, rope,
suspend.
Answer the questions:
1. When did swimming become an Olympic sport?
2. What events have been implemented along with an indoor swimming pool?
3. What organization regulates the design and measurements of Olympic-size
swimming pools?
4. How many lanes does an Olympic-size swimming pool feature?
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EQUIPMENT FOR SWIMMING
Swimsuit
Like many other things, technology has entered the swimsuit arena as
well. Fabrics are designed for minimal resistance through the water, they tend to
last a long time, and they resist fading even when used repeatedly in chlorinated
pools.
Goggles
Goggles protect your eyes from chlorine, and they help you keep your
eyes open while you swim so that you can see where you're going.
Bathing caps
Bathing caps can serve several purposes. Some pool managers will require
individuals with long hair to wear caps to keep hair from getting into the pool,
and some people just like to protect their hair from the chlorine in the water.
You may also decide to wear a bathing cap to cut down on resistance in the water.
Flotation devices and other stuff
There are a number of flotation devices and other equipment available to
help you learn how to swim, improve your swimming times if you start to get
competitive, and add resistance to your water workouts to build muscular
strength and tone. Flotation devices help keep you afloat so that you can slow
down and work on your swim stroke without sinking or too much fatigue.
Kickboards
Kickboards are devices made of foam or other materials that float, and
they come in a variety of shapes and sizes. The main purpose is for you to hold
on and stay afloat while your legs do all the work. It's good exercise for coordinating your kicking, and it gives your arms a rest.
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Pull buoys
Like kickboards, pull buoys are flotation devices that come in a variety of
shapes and sizes, but unlike a kickboard, which gives the upper body a rest, pull
buoys are placed between the legs to keep the legs afloat without kicking so that
you can work your upper body. Pull buoys are excellent training devices for
building upper-body strength, endurance, and cardio respiratory fitness. They
can also help you work on your form because you can swim slowly and deliberately without sinking.
Fins
Fins fit on your feet and add propulsion to your kicks. They are great
training for your legs and will help you swim faster. They come in long fins for
beginners who want to work on their stroke and build up leg strength and ankle
flexibility and short fins to help you go faster without overworking your legs.
Hand paddles
Hand paddles attach to your hands and add propulsion to your arm stroke
because they move more water. Hand paddles make a water workout difficult,
and so you should warm up in the water without them first, and then build up
slowly like you would with any resistance exercise workout so that you don't
overwork your arms and shoulder joints.
Gloves
Gloves, like hand paddles, also add resistance for your arms, although
they are smaller than paddles and so the resistance is lighter.
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Water dumbbells
Some manufacturers produce dumbbells made of foam for use in the water. Water creates lots of resistance, and so water dumbbells will make you
stronger if you use them consistently.
Noodle
A noodle is a flexible, tube-shaped flotation device that you can wrap under your arms or around your waist to keep you buoyant so that you can keep
moving in the water. The advantage of being able to keep moving is that you can
work on your stroke without fatigue and increase your strength and endurance.
Aqua jogger
Aqua jogger is a flotation device that you wear like a belt. Like a noodle,
it permits you to keep on moving without fatigue, so that you can work on your
stroke as well as your strength and aerobic fitness.
Exercise 1. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following
words and word-combinations:
Очки для плавания, шапочка для плавания, тренировка, доска для
плавания, ласты, преимущество, выносливость.
Exercise 2. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and
word-combinations:
Resistance, flotation devices, equipment, fatigue, to be afloat, pull buoy,
propulsion, hand paddles, joints, noodle, to wrap.
Answer the questions:
1. What is the use of goggles?
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2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
What is the purpose of bathing caps?
What flotation devices do you know?
What is the purpose of kickboards?
What is the purpose of pull buoys?
What is the purpose of noodle?
LEARN ALL THE SWIMMING STROKES
PART 1
When executing any swimming stroke, there are a number of basic principles to bear in mind that will make the stroke most effective. It is important that
the torso and legs are kept as parallel as possible to the surface of the water. If
they drop, drag against the water will increase and slow the swimmer down. The
hands should be extended as far in front of the head as possible, thereby increasing the length and the speed of the stroke. When swimming front crawl, the time
spent on the side should be maximized, as the shoulders will break the waterline and produce bow waves. The narrower the width and the longer the length,
the less impact water drag will have.
It is also essential that swimmers learn good breathing techniques as this
will allow for greater speed and endurance. Competitive swimmers take in one
breath and gradually let it out over three or four strokes. As swimmers become
more tired, it becomes difficult for oxygen to get to the muscles and thus it is
necessary that competitive swimmers train themselves to keep going on low levels of oxygen. A good training technique is attempting to cross a swimming pool
underwater or by letting one breath last over six strokes.
Swimming Strokes
There are a number of swimming styles that have been developed which
depend upon the position of the swimmer to the water. These styles are known
as strokes and the stroke used will depend upon the purpose of the swim.
Breaststroke
Breaststroke is the oldest known swimming stroke, as evidenced by cave
drawings which have been found depicting Stone Age inhabitants using the mo10
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tion. As the easiest stroke, breaststroke is the most popular style for swimming
recreationally and for fitness, and it is the slowest official stroke used in competitive swimming.
The Breaststroke is performed by leaning on the chest with the arms
breaking the water slightly and the legs staying under water constantly. The
body should be in line with the water surface and the shoulders and hips flat in
the water. The arms are moved in a long circular motion and the legs are kicked
in a movement similar to a frog’s kick, which is what slows the swimmer down.
Breaststroke is difficult to perfect because, unlike front crawl or back stroke, the
legs and arms are used in synchronization. Professional swimmers will use the
abdominal muscles and hips as well as the legs to add extra power to the kick.
Butterfly
Butterfly was originally derived as a faster alternative to breaststroke. One
American researcher discovered that the swimmer is slowed down significantly
in breaststroke by bringing the arms forward under water and instead developed
a technique of bringing the arms forward over water. Butterfly requires more
stamina and strength than the other strokes with both of the arms coming out of
the water at every stroke. As with breaststroke, both hands start in the water in
front of the shoulders.
The hands are then pulled towards the feet until they reach the thighs,
when they are thrown out of the water back to the original position. In order to
lift the arms out of the water, the head needs to stay in the water at all times, except for when a breath is needed. The breath should be taken just as the arms
reach the thighs and taken quickly so as not to disrupt the order of the stroke.
Exercise 1. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following
words and word-combinations:
Стиль плавания, кроль, цель, брасс, плавание на спине, баттерфляй,
плечи.
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Exercise 2. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and
word-combinations:
Drag, bow wave, gradually, chest, hip, abdominal, muscles, stamina, endurance, disrupt.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Answer the questions:
What position of torso and legs should be to avoid increasing drag against
water?
Is it important to learn good breathing?
What is the oldest known swimming stroke?
What is the slowest official stroke?
How is breaststroke performed?
What stroke requires more stamina than other ones?
LEARN ALL THE SWIMMING STROKES
PART 2
Backstroke
Backstroke is the only official swimming stroke to be swum on the back
and the second slowest stroke in competitive swimming. The advantage of backstroke is that it makes breathing easier but it also means that the swimmer cannot see where they are going.
Backstroke mainly uses the arms to move forward, with the legs kicking
in an up-and-down motion to stabilize the body. The arms provide the power in
backstroke and the movement required has three stages – the pull stage, the push
stage and the recovery stage. One arm starts in a straight line above the shoulder
and, once it reaches the water, it should push down towards the feet. The elbow
is bent slightly and the elbow is pulled by the side to the thigh.
The elbow continues to be pushed towards the feet until the elbow is
straightened. This constitutes one complete arm stroke and the arm then goes
back to the original position. In backstroke, each arm does the same thing but
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not at the same time. As one arm comes out of the water, the other arm should
go into it, meaning one is always pushing and pulling as the other comes back
round to its original position.
Front Crawl
Front Crawl, also known as the Australian crawl, uses a similar arm stroke
to backstroke but rests on the breast, giving the swimmer more flexibility in
their arm. Front crawl was first seen in Europe when a number of South American swimmers used it to defeat the British breaststroke swimmers in a competition held in London in 1844. It is the fastest stroke, but can be difficult to learn,
chiefly because it is hard to find a good breathing point. Front crawl is also used
interchangeably with the term ‘freestyle.’ Although freestyle officially means
that any stroke can be swum in competition, swimmers will always choose front
crawl as it is officially the fastest stroke.
In front crawl, the body should be as close to the water surface as possible
with the hips and legs behind the shoulders at all times. The leg movement requires a long and fast kicking motion, ensuring the whole of the leg is moving
up and down. The knees are to be bent slightly and the feet should make a small
splash. As with backstroke, the arm movement in front crawl consists of a push
and pull stroke and a recovery stage.
The arms provide the power for the stroke with one arm following the
other, through and over the top of the water. One hand should start in front of
the head, stretching as far as possible with the hand pointing down thumb first,
into the water. The elbow should be bent and the hand pushed towards the feet,
keeping it going until it reaches the top of the leg. The arm should then be lifted
out of the water and back to the original starting point in as controlled a fashion
as possible. Front crawl is difficult because the face is in the water so, to
breathe, the swimmer should turn their head to one side, leaving the side of the
head resting in the water.
Diving
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When swimming competitively, participants begin the race by diving into
the water, in order to get as much power behind them as possible. For the most
effective dive, it is important that the swimmer keep their head tucked as close
to the knees as possible. The hips should be lifted high and the toes curled over
the side of the pool with the knees bent slightly for push off.
Finally, the arms should be placed one on top of the other with the fingers
pointed and the arms stretched down to the floor. When the swimmer pushes off
the starting block it should be with as much power as possible, streamlining the
body so the head reaches the water first. The swimmer should then be able to
move from diving to swimming smoothly, saving as much time as possible.
Exercise 1. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following
words and word-combinations:
Плавание на спине, преимущество, кроль, стиль плавания, плечо, колено, участник, ныряние.
Exercise 2. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and
word-combinations:
The pull stage, straight, elbow, flexibility, freestyle, surface, hip, recovery
stage, splash, to stretch, thumb, toe, starting block.
Answer the questions:
1. What stroke is swum on the back?
2. What is the advantage of backstroke?
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3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
What stages does backstroke include?
When and where was front crawl first seen?
Why do swimmers choose front crawl in freestyle competitions?
Why is front crawl difficult?
How do swimmers begin the race during the competitions?
MEDLEY SWIMMING
PART I
Medley is a combination of four different swimming styles into one race.
This race is either swum by one swimmer as individual medley (IM) or by four
swimmers as a medley relay. (Note: the terms for events are never just "medley"
– they are either referred to as "Individual Medley"/"I.M." or "Medley Relay".)
Individual medley
Individual medley consists of a single swimmer swimming equal distances of four different strokes within one race.
Stroke order
Individual medley consists of four strokes. Usually each stroke has an
equal part of the overall distance, i.e. 1/4 of the overall distance is swum in one
stroke. The strokes are swum in this order:
1.
Butterfly
2.
Backstroke
3.
Breaststroke
4.
Freestyle, with the limitation that freestyle does not include backstroke, breaststroke, or the butterfly. Most swimmers use the front crawl.
Competitions
There are a number of competitions swum regularly in individual medley,
by both men and women. The competitions are limited in that every distance
must consist of at least 4 lengths (100 yd. or m.) or a multiple of 4 lengths (200
or 400 yd. or m.), so that no stroke must change mid-length. Regardless of the
length of the individual medley, each stroke comprises a quarter of the overall
distance.
25 m/yd individual medley: Swum in short course (25 m/yd pool)
competition only. This is not an Olympic event. Must begin with a front flip off
the blocks.
100 m/yd individual medley: Swum in short course (25 m/yd pool)
competition only. This is not an Olympic event.
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200 m/yd individual medley: Swum in both short course and long
course (50 m pool) competitions. This was an Olympic event once in the 1968
Summer Olympics, Mexico City, Mexico. After that, the event was not swum in
Olympic Games until the 1984 Summer Olympics, Los Angeles, United States.
The event has been swum ever since.
400 m individual medley: Swum in both short course and long
course competitions. This has been an Olympic event since the 1964 Summer
Olympics, Tokyo, Japan
Technique
The technique for individual medley events does not differ much from the
technique for the separate events for the four strokes. The main difference is the
turning technique needed at the transition from one stroke to the next stroke.
Each section has to be completed as described by the stroke rules of this section.
The butterfly section has to be ended with both hands touching the wall at
the same time, but has to leave the wall on the back for backstroke. Swimmers
may do this by pulling the knees underneath of their body after touching the wall
with both hands, and then rolling backwards on their back, or swinging one arm
back and rolling over onto the side of the arm swung back. During the roll in the
first method the arms are not stretched, but rather hold close to the body with the
hands a few centimeters in front of the chest. This reduces the
rotational moment and allows for a faster turn. At the end of the backwards roll
the swimmer sinks under water and extends over the head. The swimmer then
pushes off the wall with both legs and starts the regular underwater phase of
backstroke, usually a dolphin kick for up to 15 m before surfacing and swimming normal backstroke.
The backstroke section has to end with touching the wall while lying on
the back. For the subsequent breaststroke the swimmer has to leave the wall on
the breast. Most swimmers prefer to do an open turn, simply driving the feet into
the wall. The swimmer is then under water face down and extends the hands
forward before pushing off the wall with both legs. The swimmer continues with
the regular breaststroke, consisting of a gliding phase, an underwater pull-down,
and another gliding phase before surfacing and swimming normal breaststroke.
A newer, but not required technique for the backstroke to breaststroke turn is
a backflip turn. The swimmer touches on his or her backside with one hand. After touching the wall, the swimmer tucks their knees up to their stomach and
flips around so that their feet are touching the wall pointing down and they can
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push off of the wall on their stomach. Another, arguably faster variation of the
new backstroke to breaststroke turn is very similar to the regular forward flipturn. The swimmer goes into the wall with their leading arm outstretched behind their head. The swimmer then touches the wall and immediately goes into a frontflip and proceeds with the breaststroke portion of the race.
With this turn, it is crucial that the swimmer remains technically on their back
until they touch the wall, which means that the front of the body should be rotated chest-side up more than it is chest-side down, otherwise the swimmer will be
disqualified.
The breaststroke section has to be ended with both hands touching the
wall at the same time while on the breast. A normal breaststroke turn is usually
used to turn and push off the wall. After leaving the wall the freestyle underwater phase is initiated, followed by regular freestyle on the surface after up to
15 m underwater. For medley events, freestyle means any style other than backstroke, breaststroke or butterfly. Some form of front crawl is typically used.
Exercise 1. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following
words and word-combinations:
Комплексное плавание, эстафета, стиль плавания, плавание на спине,
брасс, кроль, вытягивать, фаза, последующий, живот, важный, быть дисквалифицированным.
Exercise 2. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and
word-combinations:
Equal, regardless, individual medley, overall, flip, to roll, to swing, short
course, transition, rotation, surfacing, gliding phase, backflip.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Answer the questions:
What is medley?
What types of medley are there?
In what order are strokes swum in the individual medley?
What distance is the Olympic event in individual medley?
What strokes can be swum in freestyle?
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MEDLEY SWIMMING
PART II
Medley relay
Medley relay consists of four different swimmers in one relay competition, each swimming one stroke.
Stroke order
Medley relay is swum by four different swimmers, each swimmer swimming one of the four strokes. Backstroke is the first event as backstroke is started from the water. If backstroke were not the first event, the starting backstroke
swimmer and the finishing previous swimmer could block each other. The remaining strokes are sorted according to the speed, with breaststroke being the
slowest and freestyle being the fastest stroke. The order of the strokes is as
follows:
Backstroke
Breaststroke
Butterfly
Freestyle, the only limitation the use of a competitive stroke. Most
swimmers use the front crawl.
Competitions
There are a number of competitions swum regularly in medley relay, both
by men and women.
4×50 m/yd medley relay: Swum in both short course and long
course pools. This is not an Olympic competition.
4×100 m/yd medley relay: Swum in both short course and long
course pools. This was the first Olympic medley competition and is swum since
the 1960 Summer Olympics, Rome, Italy. The first Olympic butterfly event itself was first swum in 1956 Summer Olympics.
Technique
The technique for medley relay events does not differ much from the
technique for the separate events for the four strokes. The first swimmer swims
the backstroke normally. The only difference for the following swimmers is that
there is no start signal, but rather the previous swimmer completing his or her
turn by touching the wall signals the start for the subsequent swimmer. It is very
important for the next swimmer off the block to accurately judge the time at
which the swimmer in the water will touch the wall. A fast reaction could result
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in a significant time gain in the race, but a false start (diving early) will result in
a disqualification. Relay exchanges often win or lose a race for a team.
Rules
These are the official rules of the FINA regarding medley swimming:
In individual medley events, the swimmer covers the four swimming styles in the following order: butterfly, backstroke, breaststroke and freestyle.
In medley relay events, swimmers will cover the four swimming
styles in the following order: backstroke, breaststroke, butterfly and freestyle.
Each section must be finished in accordance with the rule which
applies to the style concerned.
Freestyle includes a special regulation for medley events:
Freestyle means that in an event so designated the swimmer may
swim any style, except that in individual medley or medley relay events, freestyle means any style other than backstroke, breaststroke or butterfly.
Additionally, the normal rules of relay events apply:
In relay events, the team of a swimmer whose feet lose touch with
the starting platform before the preceding team-mate touches the wall shall be
disqualified, unless the swimmer in default returns to the original starting point
at the wall, but it shall not be necessary to return to the starting platform.
Any relay team shall be disqualified from a race if a team member,
other than the swimmer designated to swim that length, enters the water when
the race is being conducted, before all swimmers of all teams have finished the
race.
The members of a relay team and their order of competing must be
nominated before the race. Any relay team member may compete in a race only
once. The composition of a relay team may be changed between the heats and
finals of an event, provided that it is made up from the list of swimmers properly
entered by a member for that event. Failure to swim in the order listed will result
in disqualification. Substitutions may be made only in the case of a documented
medical emergency.
Any swimmer having finished his race, or their distance in a relay
event, must leave the pool as soon as possible without obstructing any other
swimmer who has not yet finished their race. Otherwise the swimmer committing the fault, or their relay team, shall be disqualified.
There shall be four swimmers on each relay team.
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Exercise 1. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following
words and word-combinations:
Эстафета, плавание на спине, техника, стартовый сигнал, последующий, фальстарт, замена.
Exercise 2. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and
word-combinations:
Crawl, medley, long course, previous, disqualification, preceding, to
compete, failure, to obstruct.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Answer the questions:
How many swimmers swim medley relay?
What is the stroke order in medley relay?
What medley relay is the Olympic relay competition?
When the team can be disqualified in a medley relay?
How many swimmers can compete in a relay team?
SWIMMING OLYMPIC QUALIFYING
The Federation internationale de natation amateur (FINA) was founded in
1908 is the organization responsible for international swimming competitions,
swimming rules and regulations along with Olympic qualifying events.
Swimming Events
Men's Events
50m freestyle, 100m freestyle, 200m freestyle, 400m freestyle, 1500m
freestyle, 100m backstroke, 200m backstroke, 100m breaststroke, 200m breaststroke, 100m butterfly,200m butterfly,200m individual medley, 400m individual
medley, 4 x 100m freestyle relay, 4 x 200m freestyle relay, 4 x 100m medley relay.
Women's Events
50m freestyle, 100m freestyle, 200m freestyle, 400m freestyle, 800m freestyle, 100m backstroke, 200m backstroke, 100m breaststroke, 200m breaststroke, 100m butterfly, 200m butterfly, 200m individual medley, 400m individual medley, 4 x 100m freestyle relay, 4 x 200m freestyle relay, 4 x 100m medley
relay.
Athlete Quota
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For Individual events a National Olympic Committee (NOC) is allowed to
enter a maximum of two qualified athletes in each individual event if both athletes have meet the A qualification standard for their event, or one athlete per
event if they have met the B qualification standard only.
For relay events an NOC may enter a maximum of one qualified relay
team.
NOC's that do not have qualified athletes may enter a maximum of one
male and one female that are in agreement with the specifications of the qualification system.
Answer the questions:
1. When was FINA founded?
2. What men's swimming events are there?
3. What women's swimming events are there?
4. How many athletes is NOC allowed to enter in each individual event?
5. How many teams may NOC enter for relay events?
OLYMPIC RULES OF THE FRONT CRAWL SWIMMING TECHNIQUE
The front crawl is the swimming technique typically used during the freestyle event in the Olympics. The Federation Internationale de Natation is the organization that sets the standards and rules for swimming in the Olympics and
other swimming competitions. FINA rules dictate everything from the type of
swimsuit allowed to the techniques required during a race.
The FINA rules provide instructions for how to start a freestyle swimming
race. The start of the freestyle event must be a dive. When the starting official
says "take your marks," all swimmers must move one foot to the front of the
starting block in a starting position. The starting official will give a starting signal when all of the swimmers are still. If you start the race before the starting
signal, you will be penalized.
The individual freestyle event is unusual because you can swim any
stroke. Typically, swimmers use a front crawl technique because it is the fastest
stroke. In the front crawl, you kick your feet in a flapping motion and move your
arms like a windmill.
FINA rules regarding what stroke can be used differ when freestyle is included as part of a medley event. In medley events, the freestyle event is combined with the other three strokes – backstroke, breaststroke and butterfly. A
medley event can be a team race, with four swimmers each swimming one type
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of stroke in one lane, one after another. Or it can be an individual medley event,
in which one swimmer swims all four types of competitive swimming strokes.
When assigned to swim freestyle in a medley event, you can swim any stroke
except backstroke, breaststroke or butterfly.
In addition to rules about the start and the type of stroke, FINA has other
rules that you must follow during the freestyle event. What you are swimming
during the freestyle event, some part of your body must touch the wall at the end
of each length of the pool and at the end of the event. Also, some part of your
body must break the surface of the water at all times during the event. The only
exception to this rule is at the start of the race and during turns at the end of each
length of the pool. At the beginning of the race (the start) and when turning at
the end of a length of the pool, you can remain underwater for up to 15 m.
Exercise 1. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following
words and word-combinations:
Кроль, устанавливать стандарт, стартовая тумбочка, стиль плавания,
брас.
Exercise 2. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and
word-combinations:
Event, swimsuit, starting official, freestyle, flapping motion, medley,
exeption.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Answer the questions:
In what event does front crawl usually used?
What organization sets the standards and rules for swimming in the major
competitions?
How is freestyle event started?
What strokes does freestyle event include?
What distance can the swimmer remain underwater at the beginning of the
freestyle race?
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WATER POLO
INTRODUCTION TO WATER POLO
Water polo is a team water sport. The playing team consists of six field
players and one goalkeeper. The winner of the game is the team that scores more
goals. Gameplay involves swimming, treading water, players passing the ball
while being defended by opponents, and scoring by throwing into a net defended
by a goalie. Water polo, therefore, has strong similarities to the land-based game
of team handball. The frequency of 'man-up' (or 'power play') situations also
draws comparisons with ice hockey.
Seven players from each team (six field players and a goalkeeper) are allowed in the playing area of the pool during game play. Visiting team field players wear numbered and usually blue caps, and home team field players wear
usually white caps (though any other contrasting colors are now allowed); both
goalies wear red caps, numbered "1". Both teams may substitute players while
the ball is in their possession. During game play, players enter and exit in the
corner of the pool, or in front of their goal; when play is stopped, they may enter
or exit anywhere.
The game clock is stopped when the ball is not 'in play' (between a foul
being committed and the free throw being taken, and between a goal being
scored and the restart). As a result, the average quarter lasts around 12 minutes
'real time'. A team may not have possession of the ball for longer than 30 seconds without shooting for the goal unless an opponent commits an ejection
foul. After 30 seconds, possession passes to the other team. However, if a team
shoots the ball within the allotted time, and regains control of the ball, the shot
clock is reset to 30 seconds. Each team may call 2 one-minute timeouts in the
four periods of regulation play, and one timeout if the game goes into overtime.
During game play, only the team in possession of the ball may call a timeout.
Dimensions of the water polo pool are not fixed and can vary between 20
x 10 and 30 x 20 meters. Minimum water depth must be least 1.8 meters (6 feet),
but this is often waived for younger age groups. The goals are 3 meters wide and
90 centimeters high. Water polo balls are generally yellow and of varying size
and weight for juniors, women and men. The middle of the pool is designated by
a white line. Before 2005, the pool was divided by 7 and 4 meter lines (distance
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out from the goal line). This has been merged into one 5 meter line since the
2005–2006 season. Along the side of the pool, the center area between the 5 meter lines is marked by a green line (if marked at all). The "five meters" line is
where penalties are shot and it is designated by a yellow line. The "two meter"
line is designated with a red line and no player of the attacking team can receive
a ball inside this zone, in other words you cannot be in the red if the ball is not.
One player on each team is designated the goalkeeper, assigned to block
any shots at goal. The goalkeeper is the only player who can touch the ball with
both hands at any time, and, in a shallow pool, the only player allowed to stand
on the bottom.
Players can move the ball by throwing it to a teammate or swimming with
the ball in front of them. Players are not permitted to push the ball underwater in
order to keep it from an opponent, or push or hold an opposing player unless that
player is holding the ball. Water polo is an intensely aggressive sport so fouls
are very common, and result in a free throw during which the player cannot
shoot at the goal unless beyond the "5 meter" line. If a foul is called outside the
5 meter line, the player is either able to shoot, pass or continue swimming with
the ball. Water polo players need remarkable stamina because of the considerable amount of holding and pushing that occurs during the game, some allowed,
some unseen or ignored by the referees (usually underwater).
Water polo is a game requiring excellent eye-hand coordination. The ability to handle and pass the ball flawlessly separates the good teams from the great
teams. For example, a "skip" or "bounce" shot is fired intentionally at the water
with considerable force so it will bounce back up. The ball usually hits the water
within a meter of the net, where the goalie cannot anticipate and block the shot.
Another shot, called a "lob" is thrown with a large vertical arc.
A defender will often foul the player with the ball as a tactic to disrupt the
opponent's ball movement. Play continues uninterrupted in most cases, but the
attacker must now pass the ball or continue swimming instead of taking a shot.
(An exception allows players to quickly pick up the ball and shoot if fouled outside of the five meter mark.) However, as in ice hockey, a player caught committing a major foul, is sent out of the playing area with his team a mandown for 20 seconds, but may return sooner if a goal is scored or his team regains possession. If the foul is judged to be brutal, the player is ejected for the
remainder of the game, with substitution by another teammate after four minutes
have elapsed. A player, coach or spectator can also be ejected for arguing with
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the referees. During a man up situation resulting from an ejection foul, the attacking team can expect to score by passing around to move the goalkeeper out
of position. A player that has been ejected three times must sit out the whole
match with substitution. Water Polo is a very difficult sport.
Exercise 1. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following
words and word-combinations:
Полевой игрок, вратарь, отведенное время, размер, выносливость,
подсчет очков, замена, тренер, зритель.
Exercise 2. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and
word-combinations:
To score a goal, to substitute, average, quarter, ejection, foul, defender, to
disrupt.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Answer the questions:
How many players are there in the water polo team?
What number do goalies have?
How long a team may possess a ball without shooting?
What are the dimensions of the water polo pool?
What skills do players must have?
When a player must be substituted for the whole game?
HISTORY AND BASIC SKILLS
The history of water polo as a team sport began as a demonstration of
strength and swimming skill in late 19th century England and Scotland, where
water sports and racing exhibitions were a feature of county fairs and festivals. Men's water polo was among the first team sports introduced at the modern
Olympic games in 1900. Water polo is now popular in many countries around
the world, notably Europe (particularly in Serbia, Russia, Croatia, Italy, Montenegro, Greece and Hungary), the United States, Canada and Australia. The present-day game involves teams of seven players (plus up to six substitutes), with
a water polo ball similar in size to a soccer ball but constructed of waterproof
nylon. Water Polo was influenced by a man named Stephane Licina, who also
played the sport.
The rules of water polo were originally developed in the late nineteenth
century in Great Britain by William Wilson. The first games of 'aquatic football'
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were played at the Arlington in the late 1800s (the Club was founded in 1870),
with a ball constructed of Indian rubber. This "water rugby" came to be called
"water polo" based on the English pronunciation of the Balti word for
ball, pulu. Early play allowed brute strength, wrestling and holding opposing
players underwater to recover the ball; the goalie stood outside the playing area
and defended the goal by jumping in on any opponent attempting to score by
placing the ball on the deck.
Water Polo is a team water activity requiring swimming skills. Players
must play both offense and defense, treading water or wrestling before turning
back for the opposing team's possession. The front crawl stroke used in water
polo differs from the usual swimming style in which water polo players swim
with the head out of water at all times to observe the play. The arm stroke used
is also a lot shorter and quicker and is used primarily to protect the
ball. Backstroke is used by defending players to look for advancing opponents
and by the goalie to track the ball after passing. Water polo backstroke differs
from swimming backstroke; the player sits up a bit in the water, using eggbeater
leg like motions with short arm strokes to the side instead of long arm strokes.
This allows the player to see the play and quickly switch positions. It also allows
the player to quickly catch a pass.
As all field players are only allowed to touch the ball with one hand at a
time, they must develop the ability to catch and throw the ball with either hand
and also the ability to catch a ball from any direction, including across the body
using the momentum of the incoming ball. Experienced water polo players can
catch and release a pass or shoot with a single motion.
Treading water: The most common form of water treading is generally referred to as "egg-beater", named because the circular movement of the
legs resembles the motion of an egg-beater. Egg-beater is used for most of the
match as the players cannot touch the bottom of the pool. The advantage of eggbeater is that it allows the player to maintain a constant position to the water
level, and uses less energy than other forms of treading water such as the scissor
kick, which result in the player bobbing up and down. It can be used vertically
or horizontally. Horizontal egg-beater is used to resist forward motion of an attacking player. Vertical eggbeater is used to maintain a position higher than the
opponent. By kicking faster for a brief period the player can get high out of the
water (as high as their suit –below their waistline) for a block, pass, or shot.
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Reflexes and Awareness: At higher levels of the sport the pace of
play rapidly increases, so that anticipation and mental preparation is important.
"Field sense" is a major advantage in scoring, even if a player lacks the speed of
an opponent.
NOTE:
Balti – балтистанский (Балтистан (Baltistan), самая сев. провинция
индо-британского вассального госуд. Кашмир)
Exercise 1. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following
words and word-combinations:
Передавать пас, борьба, отвоевывать мяч, забить гол, защита, нападение, вратарь, опытный.
Exercise 2. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and
word-combinations:
Exhibition, to introduce, soccer, to involve, aquatic, brute, originally, to
tread water, egg-beater.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Answer the questions:
When did the history of water polo begin?
When was water polo introduced at the modern Olympic Games?
How many players are there in the water-polo team?
Who developed the rules of water polo?
What strokes are used during a water polo game?
In what way do players hold water?
POSITIONS
There are seven players in the water from each team at one time. There
are six players that play out and one goalkeeper. Unlike most common team
sports, there is little positional play; field players will often fill several positions
throughout the game as situations demand. These positions consist of the center
(or hole set), the point (who also usually plays center back or hole defender), the
two wings and the two flats.
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Offense
The offensive positions include: one center (a.k.a. two-meter offense, hole
set, set, hole man, bucket, pit player or pit-man), two wings (located on or near
the 2-meter), two drivers (also called "flats", located on or near the 5-meter),
and one "point" (usually just behind the 5 meter), positioned farthest from the
goal. The wings, drivers and point are often called the perimeter players; while
the hole-set directs play.
The most basic positional set up is known as a 3–3, so called because
there are two lines in front of the opponent's goal. Another set up, used more by
professional teams, is known as an "arc," umbrella, or mushroom; perimeter
players form the shape of an arc around the goal, with the hole set as the handle
or stalk. Yet another option for offensive set is called a 4–2 or double hole; there
are two center forward offensive players in front of the goal. Double hole is
most often used in "man up" situations, or when the defense has only one skilled
hole D, or to draw in a defender and then pass out to a perimeter player for a
shot ("kick out").
The center sets up in front of the opposing team's goalie and scores the
most individually (especially during lower level play where flats do not have the
required strength to effectively shoot from outside or to penetrate and then pass
to team-mates like the point guard in basketball). The center's position nearest to
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the goal allows explosive shots from close-range ("step-out" or "roll-out",
"sweep," or backhand shots).
Defense
Defensive positions are often the same positionally, but just switched
from offense to defense. For example, the center forward or hole set, who directs
the attack on offense, on defense is known as "hole D" ( a.k.a. set guard, hole
check, pit defense or two-meter defense), and guards the opposing team's center
forward (also called the hole). Defense can be played man-to-man or in zones,
such as a 2–4 (four defenders along the goal line). It can also be played as a
combination of the two in what is known as an "M drop" defense, in which the
point defender moves away ("sloughs off") his man into a zone in order to better
defend the center position. In this defense, the two wing defenders split the area
furthest from the goal, allowing them a clearer lane for the counter-attack if their
team recovers the ball.
Goalie
The goalkeeper is generally one of the more challenging positions not only in the sport of water polo, but in any sport. A goalie has to be able to jump out
of the water, using little more than one's core and legs, and hold the vertical position without sinking into the water, all while tracking and anticipating a shot.
The goal is 2.8 m2 in face area; the goalie should also be a master of fast, effective lateral movement in the water as well as lightning fast lunges out of the water to block a shot. Another key job that the goalkeeper is responsible for is
guiding and informing his or her defense of imposing threats and gaps in the defense, and making helpful observations to identify a gap in the defense that the
defenders cannot see. The goalkeeper is also the "quarterback", as he or she usually begins the offensive play. It is not unusual for a goalie to make the assisting
pass to a goal on a break away.
The goalkeeper is given several privileges above those of the other players, but only if he or she is within the five meter area in front of his or her goal:
The ability to touch the ball with two hands.
The ability to touch the bottom of the pool. (Pool depth permittingmost competitions state the pool has to be at least 2m deep)
In general, a foul that would cause an ejection of a field player might only
bring on a five meter shot on the goalie. The goalkeeper also has one limitation
that other players do not have: he or she cannot cross the half-distance line. Al29
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so, if a goalie pushes the ball under water, it is not a turnover like with field
players. It is a penalty shot, also called a 5-meter shot, or simply, a "5-meter".
Exercise 1. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following
words and word-combinations:
Полевой игрок, защита, нападение, арка, опытный, вратарь, контратака.
Exercise 2. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and
word-combinations:
Hole set, wing, perimeter player, “man up” situation, to penetrate, to recover the ball, challenging, to lunge.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Answer the questions:
How many players are there in each team?
What offensive positions are there?
What player directs the game?
What defense positions do you know?
What skills must a goalkeeper possess?
What privileges in the game does the goalkeeper have?
What limitation does the goalkeeper have?
STRATEGIES
PART I
Offense Strategy
Starting play of each of the quarters (usually four without overtime)
At the start of each period, teams line up on their own goal line. Three
players go to both sides of the goal; the goalkeeper starts in the goal. At the referee's whistle, both teams swim to midpoint of the field (known as the sprint or
the swim-off). In International competition the ball is placed in the middle of the
pool and is supported with a floating ring. The first team to recover the ball becomes the attacker until a goal is scored or the defenders recover the ball. After
a goal is scored, the teams line up anywhere within their halves of play, but usually along the midpoint of the pool. Play resumes when the team not scoring the
goal puts the ball in play by passing it backwards to a teammate.
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Advancing the ball
When the offense takes possession of the ball, the strategy is to advance
the ball down the field of play and to score a goal. Players can move the ball by
throwing it to a teammate or swimming with the ball in front of them
("dribbling"). If an attacker uses his arm to push away a defending player and
free up space for a pass or shot, the referee will rule a turnover and the defense
will take possession of the ball. If an attacker advances inside the 2-meter line
without the ball or before the ball is inside the 2-meter area, he is ruled off side
and the ball is turned over to the defense.
Setting the ball
The key to the offense is to accurately pass (or "set") the ball into the center forward or hole set, positioned directly in front of the goal (the hole). Any
field player may throw the hole set a "wet pass." A wet pass is one that hits the
water just outside of the hole set's reach. A dry pass may also be used. This is
where the hole set receives the ball directly in his hand and then attempts a shot
at the cage. This pass is much more difficult because if the pass is not properly
caught, the officials will be likely to call an offensive foul resulting in a change
of ball possession. The hole set attempts to take possession of the ball (after a
wet pass), to shoot at the goal, or to draw a foul from his defender. A minor
foul is called if his defender (called the "hole D") attempts to impede movement
before the hole set has possession. The referee indicates the foul with one short
whistle blow and points one hand to the spot of the foul and the other hand in
the direction of the attack of the team to whom the free throw has been awarded.
The hole set then has a "reasonable amount of time" (typically about three seconds) to re-commence play by making a free pass to one of the other players.
The defensive team cannot hinder the hole set until the free throw has been taken, but the hole set cannot shoot a goal once the foul has been awarded until the
ball has been played by at least one other player. If the hole set attempts a goal
without the free throw, the goal is not counted and the defense takes possession
of the ball, unless the shot is made outside the 5-meter line. As soon as the hole
set has a free pass, the other attacking players attempt to swim (or drive) away
from their defenders towards the goal. The players at the flat position will attempt to set a screen (also known as a pick) for the driver. If a driver gets free
from a defender, the player calls for the pass from the hole set and attempts a
shot at the goal.
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Exercise 1. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following
words and word-combinations:
Свисток, забить гол, получить мяч, створ ворот, ведение мяча, потеря
мяча, положение «вне игры», засчитывать гол.
Exercise 2. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and
word-combinations:
Midpoint, to recover the ball, teammate, accurately, hole set, to impede, to
set a screen.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Answer the questions:
How is the game of water polo started?
What do the teams do after the goal is scored?
In what way can players move the ball?
When is attacker ruled off side?
How the referee indicates the foul?
STRATEGIES
PART II
Man up (6 on 5)
If a defender interferes with a free throw, holds or sinks an attacker who is
not in possession or splashes water into the face of an opponent, the defensive
player is excluded from the game for twenty seconds (informally called a 'kicked
out' or an ejection). The attacking team typically positions 4 players on the 2
meter line, and 2 players on 5 meter line (4–2), passing the ball around until an
open player attempts a shot. Other formations include a 3–3 (two lines of three
attackers each) or arc (attackers make an arc in front of the goal and one offensive player sits in the 'hole' or 'pit' in front of the goal). The five defending players try to pressure the attackers, block shots and prevent a goal being scored for
the 20 seconds while they are a player down. The other defenders can only block
the ball with one hand to help the goalie. The defensive player is allowed to return immediately if the offense scores, or if the defense recovers the ball before
the twenty seconds expires.
Five meter penalty
If a defender commits a major foul within the five meter area that prevents
a likely goal, the attacking team is awarded a penalty throw or shot. An attacking player lines up on the five meter line in front of the opposing goal. No other
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player may be in front of him or within 2 meters of his position. The defending
goalkeeper must be between the goal posts. The referee signals with a whistle
and by lowering his arm, and the player taking the penalty shot must immediately throw the ball with an uninterrupted motion toward the goal. The shooter’s
body cannot at any time cross the 5 meter line until after the ball is released. If
the shooter carries his body over the line and shoots the result is a turn over. If
the shot does not score and the ball stays in play then the play continues. Penalty
shots are often successful.
Scoring
A goal is scored if the ball completely passes between the goal posts and
is underneath the crossbar. If a shot bounces off a goal post back into the field of
play, the ball is rebounded by the players and the shot clock is reset. If the shot
goes outside the goal and on to the deck (outside the field of play) then the ball
is automatically recovered by the defense. If the goalie, however, is the last to
touch the ball before it goes out of play behind the goal line, or if a defender
purposely sends the ball out, then the offense receives the ball at the two meter
line for a corner throw or "two meter" much like a corner kick in soccer. When
the goalie blocks a shot, the defense may gain control of the ball, and make a
long pass to a teammate who stayed on his offensive end of the pool when the
rest of his team was defending. This is called cherry-picking or sea gulling.
Defense Strategy
On defense, the players work to regain possession of the ball and to prevent a goal in their own net. The defense attempts to knock away or steal the
ball from the offense or to commit a foul in order to stop an offensive player
from taking a goal shot. The defender attempts to stay between the attacker and
the goal, a position known as inside water.
Exercise 1. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following
words and word-combinations:
Быть исключенным из игры, арка, вратарь, совершить нарушение,
свисток, перекладина.
Exercise 2. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and
word-combinations:
To splash, ejection, formation, to pressure, goal posts, penalty, to regain,
to block.
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Answer the questions:
When is the defensive player excluded from the game?
When is the attacking team awarded a penalty?
How does the referee signals for the player to shot a penalty?
From what distance is the penalty shot?
When is the ball considered to be scored?
RULES AND FOULS
Staring and restarting play
Players take up position on their own goal line (2 meters from the edge of
the pool) about 1 meter (3 feet) apart from either goal post. Only two players are
allowed between the posts. One referee then blows the whistle and throws the
ball into the pool.
After a goal, player may take up any position in their own half. The team
conceding the goal restarts play on the whistle, by one player passing the ball to
a member of their team, who must be in their own teams half of the pool upon
receiving the ball. The line at the halfway point of the pool is called the halfdistance line.
After a stoppage, for injury, or after a simultaneous foul by two opponents, the ball is thrown into the water giving both teams a chance to get possession.
Except in the case of accident or injury, substitutes can only enter the
game during the interval after a goal, before extra time, or after a team member
has been permanently excluded. The team captain must inform the referee of all
substitutions. No substitutions are allowed if a player is removed for violent
play.
Ball rules
Apart from the goalkeeper, players cannot touch the ball with both hands
at the same time, or strike it with a fist. They can dribble the ball (swim along
and pushing it at the same time), lift the ball out of the water, stay still with the
ball, and pass or shoot the ball. If a shot on goal is not made within 35 seconds
of a team getting the ball, a free throw is awarded to the other team.
A goalkeeper may stand, jump from the floor of the pool, walk, use both
hands, and punch the ball. Goalkeepers must not go beyond or touch the ball beyond the half-distance line, but can shoot at the opponent′s goal, providing this
is done from their own half of the pool.
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The ball is out of play when it hits the side of the ball and goes back into
the water, goes out of the pool from the side, or completely crosses the goal line
at the ends of the pool, whether it scores a goal or not.
In the first two cases, the ball is put back in play by the nearest opposing
player who takes a free throw from where the ball went out. If the ball goes out
of play over the goal line, a goal throw is awarded. If a defender sends the ball
over their own goal line, a corner throw is awarded.
Fouls and misconduct
Offences are categorized as ordinary fouls (penalized with a free throw to
the opposing team), and major fouls (penalized with personal faults and players
being excluded from the game).
Ordinary fouls
- take or hold the ball under water when tackled
- swim past the goal line before the game starts
- assist a player at the start
- hold onto or push off from the goal posts or the sides of the pool
- hold onto the rails, except at the start or a restart
- stand or walk on the floor of the pool
- punch the ball
- touch the ball from referee's neutral throw before it gets to the water
- jump from the floor of the pool
- deliberately impede an opponent, unless they have the ball
- play the ball with both hands at the same time
- push an opponent
- be within 2 meters of the opposing goal line, except when behind the
line of the ball
- waste time (including possessing the ball for more than 35 seconds
without shooting at goal
- take a penalty throw incorrectly
Major fouls
- Kick or strike an opponent
- illegally stop a goal inside the 4 meter area (4 meters from the goal line)
- hold, sink, or pull back an opponent not holding the ball
- interfere with the taking of a free throw
- entering the water when either excluded or a substitute
- deliberately splash water in an opponent's face
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- repeatedly commit ordinary fouls
After a major foul, the offending player is given a personal fault and also
ordered out of the water for 35 seconds, until a goal is scored, or until the defending team take possession of the ball, whichever is sooner.
A player is permanently excluded from the game after receiving three personal faults or penalties against them. A substitute cannot replace a player with
personal faults until they are excluded from the game.
Advantage rule
The referees may decide not to stop play after a foul if they decide that the
non-offending team would benefit more by play being allowed to continue.
Exercise 1. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following
words and word-combinations:
Остановка, замена, дополнительное время, угловой бросок, забить
гол, нарушение.
Exercise 2. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and
word-combinations:
To concede, to dribble the ball, to punch the ball, major foul, to impede.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Answer the questions:
In what case are no substitutions allowed?
Who can touch the ball with both hands?
When is a corner throw is awarded?
What ordinary fouls do you know?
What major fouls do you know?
THROWS AND EQUIPMENT
Corner throw
Taken by the attacker nearest the point where the ball went out of play,
from the 2 meter line, at the side of the pool where the ball went out. Only the
defending goalkeeper can be inside the 2 meter area.
Free throw
The player taking it can throw or drop the ball and then dribble it before
passing. The throw must be made so that the other players can see the ball leaving the thrower's hand. At least two players must touch the ball before a goal can
be scored. Any free throw awarded for a foul in the 2 meter area must be taken
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from the 2 meter line opposite where the foul took place. Other free throws are
taken from the point where the offence occurred.
Goal throw
Taken by the defending goalkeeper. It is taken from the goal line, between
the posts.
Penalty throw
Awarded for the following major fouls in the 4 meter area:
- holding, sinking, or pulling back an opponent who is not holding the ball
- kicking or striking an opponent
- committing a foul that prevents a probable goal
- violent acts anywhere in the pool
Any player on the non-offending team except the goalkeeper may take the
penalty throw from any point along the 4 meter line. The ball must be thrown
directly at goal. All players except the defending goalkeeper must be out of the 4
meter area, and no player is to go within 2 meters of the thrower. The goalkeeper must remain on the goal line until the throw is taken.
Little player equipment is needed to play water polo. Items required in
water polo include:
Ball: A water polo ball is constructed of waterproof material to allow it to float on the water. The cover has a special texture so it will not slip
from the hands of a player. The size of the ball is different for men's, women's
and junior games.
Caps: A water polo cap is used to protect the players' heads and
ears, and to identify them. Visiting team field players wear numbered white
caps, and home team field players wear numbered dark colored, or black caps.
Both starting goalkeepers wear red caps, numbered "1" (substitute goalies caps
are numbered either "13" for FINA international play or "15" for NCAA play)
Caps are fitted with ear protectors.
Goals: Two goals are needed in order to play water polo. These can
either be put on the side of the pool, or in the pool using floaters.
Mouthguard: The use of a mouthguard is recommended due to the
extreme amount of contact involved with water polo.
Swimwear: Male water polo players wear swim briefs. Female
players must wear a one-piece swimsuit. Most of these suits do not have straps
as normal suits, but are zipper-backed. This is to prevent other players from
pulling them under or pulling past them while they are swimming.
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Answer the questions:
Who can be inside the 2 meter area?
For what fouls is penalty throw awarded?
What equipment is needed to play water polo?
Is the ball the same size for men′s and women′s games?
What number do substitute goalies have?
SYNCHRONIZED SWIMMING
THE HISTORY OF SYNCHRONIZED SWIMMING
Synchronized swimming is a hybrid form of swimming, dance and gymnastics, consisting of swimmers (either solos, duets, trios, or teams) performing
a synchronized routine of elaborate moves in the water, accompanied by music.
Synchronized swimming demands advanced water skills, and requires great
strength, endurance, flexibility, grace, artistry and precise timing, as well as exceptional breath control when upside down underwater.
Olympic and World Championship competition is not open to men, but
other international and national competitions allow male competitors. Both USA
Synchro and Synchro Canada allow men to compete with women. Most European countries allow men to compete also. In past decade more men are involved in sport and a global biannual competition Men's CUP has been steadily
growing.
Competitors show off their strength, flexibility, and aerobic endurance required to perform difficult routines. Swimmers perform two routines for the
judges, one technical and one free, as well as age group routines and figures.
Synchronized swimming is governed internationally by FINA (Federation
Internationale de Natation).
Promoted by Sara Quin, from the popular indie rock band Tegan and Sara.
Quin combined her favorite sport, swimming, and dancing, into this perfect
sport known today by many as synchronized swimming.
While exclusively a sport performed by men in its first days, it quickly
became a women's sport because the nature of the physical movements are more
suitable to the female physique (i.e. center of gravity). In 1907, Australian Annette Kellerman popularized the sport when she performed in a glass tank
as an underwater ballerina in the New York Hippodrome. After experimenting
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with various different diving actions and stunts in the water, Katherine Curtis
started one of the first water ballet clubs at the University of Chicago, where the
team began executing strokes, "tricks," and floating formations. On May 27,
1939, the first U.S. synchronized swimming competition took place at Wright
Junior College between Wright and the Chicago Teachers' College.
In 1924, the first competition in North America was in Montreal, with Peg
Seller as the first champion. Other important pioneers for the sport are Beulah
Gundling, Käthe
Jacobi, Marion
Kane
Elston, Dawn
Bean, Billie
MacKellar, Teresa Anderson and Gail Johnson. Many of the competitions in
those days were still done in lakes and rivers.
In 1933-1934 Katherine Curtis organized a show, "The Modern Mermaids," for the World Exhibition in Chicago, which the announcer introduced as
"Synchronized Swimming." This was the first mentioning of the term synchronized swimming, although Curtis still used the term rhythmic swimming in her
book, Rhythmic Swimming: A Source Book of Synchronized Swimming and Water Pageantry (Minneapolis: Burgess Publishing Co., 1936).
But it was National AAU champion swimmer, Esther Williams, who popularized synchronized swimming through (often elaborately staged) scenes in
Hollywood films such as Bathing Beauty (1944), Million Dollar Mermaid (1952), and Jupiter's Darling (1955).
Exercise 1. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following words
and word-combinations:
Требовать, произвольная программа, русалка, соревнование, контроль дыхания.
Exercise 2. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and
word-combinations:
Elaborate, timing, biannual, routine, stunt, announcer, to combine, exceptional.
Answer the questions:
1. What skills must a synchronized swimmer possess?
2. Are men allowed to take part in synchronized swimming competitions?
3. What routines do swimmers perform?
4. By what organization is synchronized swimming governed?
5. When did the first synchronized swimming competition take place?
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BASIC SKILLS AND POSITIONS
Sculls (hand movements used to propel the body) are the most essential
part to synchronized swimming. Commonly used sculls include support scull,
standard scull, torpedo scull, split-arm scull, barrel scull, and paddle scull. The
support scull is used most often to support the body while a swimmer is performing upside down. Support scull is performed by holding the upper arms
against the sides of the body and the lower arms at 90-degree angles to the body.
The lower arms are then moved back and forth while maintaining the right angle. The resulting pressure against the hands allows the swimmer to hold their
legs above water while swimming.
Eggbeater
The "eggbeater kick" is another important skill of synchronized swimming. It is a form of treading water that allows for stability and height above the
water while leaving the hands free to perform strokes. An average eggbeater
height is usually around chest level. Using the eggbeater, swimmers can also
perform "boosts", where they use their legs to momentarily propel themselves
out of the water to their hips or higher. "Eggbeater" is also a common movement
found in water polo as well as the "pop-up" movement.
A lift is when swimmers use eggbeater to propel their fellow teammates
out of the water. They are quite common in routines of the older age groups.
Parts of a Lift
There are three separate parts to every lift in synchronized swimming: The
top (or "flyer"), the base, and the pushers.
The Flyer The flyer is usually the smallest member of the team.
Flyers must be agile and flexible, with a preferable gymnastics background if
they are jumping off the lift.
The Base The base also tends to be relatively small. She should
have good leg strength and a solid core (when performing a platform lift, a
strong core is absolutely essential).
The Pushers The pushers are usually the bigger, stronger members
of the team and should be evenly spaced around the lift.
Types of Lifts
Platform Lift:
The platform lift is the oldest form of lift. In a platform, the base lays out
in a back layout position underwater. The top sets in a squatting position on her
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torso, and stands once the lift reaches the surface. The remaining teammates use
eggbeater to hold the lift out of the water.
Stack Lift:
A more modern version of the platform. The base sets up in a squatting
position a few feet underwater, with the pushers holding her legs and feet. The
top then climbs onto her shoulders. As the lift rises, both the base and top extend
their legs to achieve maximum height.
Throw:
A throw lift is set up exactly like a stack lift. However, when the lift
reaches its full height, the "flyer" on top of the lift will jump off of her teammate's shoulders, usually performing some sort of acrobatic movement or position. This is a very difficult lift, and should only be attempted by experienced
swimmers.
There are hundreds of different regular positions that can be used to create
seemingly infinite combinations. These are a few basic and commonly used
ones:
Back Layout: The most basic position. The body floats, completely
straight and rigid, face-up on the surface while sculling at the sides.
Front Layout: Much like a Back Layout, the only difference is that
the swimmer is on his/her stomach.
Sailboat/Bent Knee: Similar to the back layout, but one knee is
bent with the toe touching the inside of the other leg, which remains parallel to
the surface.
Ballet Leg: Beginning in a back layout, one leg is extended and
held perpendicular to the body, while the other is held parallel to the surface of
the water.
Flamingo:
Similar to ballet leg position where bottom leg is pulled into the chest so
that the shin of the bottom leg is touching the knee of the vertical leg.
Vertical: Achieved by holding the body completely straight upside
down and perpendicular to the surface usually with both legs entirely out of water.
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Crane:
While holding a vertical body position, one leg remains vertical while the
other is dropped parallel to the surface, making a 90-degree angle or "L" shape.
Bent Knee: While holding a vertical body position, one leg remains
vertical while the other leg bends so that its toe is touching the knee of the vertical leg.
Split position:
With the body vertical, one leg is stretched forward along the surface and
the other extended back along the surface.
Knight:
The body is in a surface arch position, where the legs are flat on the surface, and the body is arched so that the head is vertically in line with the hips.
One leg is lifted, creating a vertical line perpendicular to the surface.
Side Fishtail:
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Side fishtail is a position similar to a crane. One leg remains vertical,
while the other is extended out to the side parallel to the water, creating a side
"Y" position.
Exercise 1. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following
words and word-combinations:
Угол, средний, грудь, продвигать вперед, держаться на воде, предпочтительный, живот, шпагат, рыбий хвост.
Exercise 2. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and
word-combinations:
Scull, upside down, eggbeater kick, boost, momentarily, pusher, layout,
knight.
Answer the questions:
1. What common sculls are used in synchronized swimming?
2. What form of trading water is used in synchronized swimming?
3. What parts of lift do you know?
4. What types of lift do you know?
5. What basic positions do you know?
ROUTINE
Routines are composed of "hybrids" (leg movements) and arm or stroke
sections. They often incorporate lifts or throws, an impressive move in which a
group of swimmers lift or throw another swimmer out of the water. Swimmers
are synchronized both to each other and to the music. During a routine swimmers can never use the bottom of the pool for support, but rather depend on
sculling motions with the arms, and eggbeater kick to keep afloat. After the performance, the swimmers are judged and scored on their performance based on
technical merit and artistic impression. Technical skill, patterns, expression, and
synchronization are all critical to achieving a high score.
Technical vs. free routines
Depending on the competition level, swimmers will perform a "technical"
routine with predetermined elements that must be performed in a specific order.
In addition to the technical routine, the swimmers will perform a longer "free"
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routine, which has no requirements and is a chance for the swimmers to get
creative and innovative with their choreography.
Length of routines
The type of routine and competition level determines the length of routines. Routines typically last two and a half to five minutes long, the shortest being solos, with length added as the number of swimmers are increased (duets,
trios, teams, and combos). Age and skill level are other important factors in determining the required routine length.
Scoring
Routines are scored on a scale of 100, with points for both artistic impression and technical merit. The artistic mark is worth 50% of the total and the
technical mark is worth 50%.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Answer the question:
What can′t swimmers do during a routine?
What opportunity does free routine give to swimmers?
What is the length of routines?
In what proportion are the routines scored?
What are the important factors in determining the required routine length?
SYNCHRONIZED SWIMMING RULES
Officials
Meet Referee
The Meet Referee is responsible for overseeing the competition and to
make sure that it is run in a professional manner, that all Fédération Internationale de Natation (FINA) rules are followed and they will also impose any sanctions or penalties as might be warranted.
Assistant Referee
They are responsible for checking the placement of the swimmers in the
pool and to signal that the swimmer can start their program.
Judges
There are 10 judges. 5 of the judges will give marks for the technical aspects of the routine and 5 will give marks for the artistic portion of the routine.
The 10 judges are placed in pairs, one technical judge and one artistic judge,
around the pool. They will enter their marks on a computer keyboard and all the
marks from all 10 judges will be compiled to make a final calculation.
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Technical Monitors
There are 3 technical monitors and they watch the technical routine to verify that the figures, there are 6 compulsory figures set by the FINA, are performed in order and conform to the FINA rules.
Timekeepers
There are 3 timekeepers and they time the routines.
Assistants
There are two assistants and they compile the judges marks.
Announcer
The announcer will introduce the swimmers, along with announcing the
judge's marks.
Sound Technician
The Sound Technician is in charge of the sound system and music for all
of the routines.
Rules
There are two routines the swimmers perform: one is a technical routine
and the other is a free routine.
Technical Routine
The Technical Routine is made up of compulsory elements in a set order:
seven in the duet, and eight in the team event. Duets are given 2:20 minutes and
teams have 2:50 minutes.
Free Choice Routine:
The Free Routine is where swimmers can present a composition of their
own choice. There are two sets of marks, one is for technical merit and the other
is for artistic merit. Duets have a time limit of 3:30 minutes and teams have a
4:00 minute time limit. 50% of the marks are awarded for technical merit and
the remaining 50% for artistic merit.
The results of the technical and free choice routines are combined (50%
technical and 50% free choice) to arrive at a final ranking.
Penalties and Deductions in Routines
In team competition, during the Free Routine Preliminary, the Free Routine Final or the Technical Routine, a half of point penalty will be accessed
against total score of a team for each member of less than eight persons.
A one-point penalty shall be deducted during Free Routines, Technical
Routines and Free Routine Combination's for the following:
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Swimmers perform on the side of the pool deck before they enter the water. There is a time limit of 10 seconds and if the deck movement time limit is
exceeded there is a one-point penalty.
If there is a divergence from the specified routine time limit, less or more
than. The total time for team part(s) in the Free Routine Combination is less than
two minutes.
A two-point penalty will be accessed for the following:
When a swimmer deliberately uses the bottom of the pool during
their routine.
When a swimmer deliberately uses the bottom of the pool during a
routine to help another swimmer(s).
When an athlete during the deck movements interrupts a routine
and a new start is allowed.
Penalties in Technical Routines
A two-point penalty will be accessed for each required element that is left
out.
A half of a point will be deducted each part of a required element or action that is left out.
If one or more of the swimmers stops swimming before the routine is
completed the routine will be disqualified. If the swimmers stop because of circumstances beyond their control, the Referee will allow the routine to be reswum during the session.
Exercise 1. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following
words and word-combinations:
Контролировать, применять санкции, судья, произвольная программа, техническая программа.
Exercise 2. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and
word-combinations:
Meet routine, to compile, technical monitor, timekeeper, preliminary, deliberately.
Answer the questions:
1. What is the meet referee responsible for?
2. What is the assistant referee responsible for?
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3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
How many judges are there in synchronized swimming competitions?
How many technical monitors are there?
What is the duty of technical monitors?
What time limit do duets and teams have during technical routine?
What time limit do duets and teams have during free routine?
SYNCHRONIZED SWIMMING EQUIPMENT / VENUE
Pool
The pool should be a minimum of 98 feet (30 meters) in length and 65
feet (20 meters) wide. It should be at least 10 feet (3 meters) deep and the water
should be crystal clear.
Speakers
Speakers are placed underneath the water so swimmers can clearly hear
the music and keep time to the music while they are performing their routine.
Because the routines require split-second timing is critical in synchronized
swimming that the swimmers be able to clearly hear the music they are performing to.
Synchronized Swimming Swimmers Clothing
Swimsuit
Synchronized Swimsuit must be one piece and be tasteful and modest.
Swimsuits are allowed to be colorful but they can't be cut too low in the front, or
cut too high on the hips. No decorations are allowed on the suits.
Nose Clip
This is a clip made of metal and covered with plastic and it prevents water
from entering the nose cavity / sinuses when the swimmer is performing underwater movements. It is essential for swimmers when they do movements that require them to be upside down in the water. Most competitors will clip an extra
nose clip to their swimsuit, in case during their routine, the one they are using
falls off.
When first learning to perform Synchronized Swimming beginners often
use swimming caps and goggles.
Some swimmers even wear ear-plugs to keep the water out of their ears.
Hair is worn in a bun and flavorless gelatin, Knox, is used to keep hair in place.
Competitors also wear custom swimsuits and headpieces, usually elaborately
decorated, to reflect the type of music to which they are swimming. The costume and music are not judged (but marks will be taken if the headpiece falls off
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any swimmer while he/she is swimming the routine), but factor into the overall
performance and "artistic impression". Heavy eye make-up is often worn to help
portray the emotions involved with the routine; it is very necessary to accentuate
the eyes of each individual swimmer. Lipstick is often used. Underwater speakers ensure that swimmers can hear the music at all times and also aid their ability to synchronize with each other. Coaches also use these speakers to communicate with the swimmers during practice. Goggles, though worn during practice, are not permitted during routine competition, though exceptions can be
made if a swimmer has a chlorine allergy.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Answer the questions:
What are the dimensions of the pool?
Where are speakers placed?
What are the standards for synchronized swimsuit?
What is the purpose of a nose clip?
What do swimmers do to keep hair in place?
HOW SYNCHRONIZED SWIMMING ROUTINES ARE JUDGED
Watching a synchronized swimming competition for the first time can
leave you wondering how exactly the judges can compare one routine to the
next. You can see them watching intently from the edge of the pool, but what
exactly are they taking into consideration?
There’s no getting around it – synchro is judged subjectively. Luckily,
there is a structure in place to guide the opinion-making process.
Here’s a behind-the-scenes look at judging in synchronized swimming according to FINA regulations.
The Judging Scale
Judges score routines using a numbered scale from zero to 10, broken up
in increments of tenths of a point. But what exactly does a 7.2 mean?
Here’s the breakdown:
0
Completely failed
0.1-1.9
Hardly recognizable
2.0- 2.9
Very weak
3.0- 3.9
Weak
4.0- 4.9
Deficient
5.0- 5.9
Satisfactory
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6.0- 6.9
Competent
7.0- 7.9
Good
8.0- 8.9
Very good
9.0- 9.4
Excellent
9.5- 9.9
Near perfect
10
Perfect
Scoring Categories
Judges are assigned specified categories for different events and, in some
cases, are given very specific ways to breakdown and record their scores. This is
designed to keep them from just giving a less explicable overall opinion score.
Here’s a rundown of what judges are expected to evaluate in each event:
Judging Free Routines
Judges on the panel for free routines are divided into two
groups, technical merit and artistic impression.
Technical Merit Judges
Technical merit judges consider execution, synchronization and difficulty.
Synchronization and difficulty are pretty self-explanatory, but what is execution? Execution is the level of quality and accuracy in arm strokes, hybrids, propulsion techniques and patterns.
The importance of the three technical merit categories varies according to
the event. For duet, team, and combo routines, execution is worth 40-percent of
the technical merit score, while synchronization and difficulty are both worth
30-percent. For solos, the percentages are 50, 20, and 30, respectively.
After watching the routine (and taking notes throughout), the judge enters
a separate score for each category. The computer then weights each one accordingly to calculate a single technical merit score.
Artistic Impression Judges
The artistic impression judges evaluate the choreography, interpretation of
the music, and manner of presentation. They are looking for creative choreography with a lot of variety and to see how much area of the pool the routine covers
(failing to make it down to one end usually results in a deduction). The manner
of presentation is how much the swimmers look like they are in control of their
routine, plus the appearance of effortlessness.
For duet and team competitions, choreography is worth 50-percent of the
artistic impression score, while synchronization and difficulty are both worth
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30-percent. For solos, the percentages are 50, 20, and 30, respectively, and for
combo routines the breakdown is 40, 30, and 30.
Like the technical merit judges, artistic impression judges enter a score for
each category into the scoring computer to get their artistic impression score.
Judging Technical Routines
The two main judging categories for technical routines
are execution and overall impression.
Execution Judges
Execution judges base 70-percent of their score on the quality of the required elements. The other 30-percent is for all of the rest of the choreography
like hybrids, arm strokes and tricks. The judges enter a separate score for each
element and one for the rest of the routine into the computer, which then calculates that judge’s overall execution score.
Overall Impression Judges
The overall impression judges have four categories to consider: choreography, synchronization, difficulty and manner of presentation. Again, a score for
each category is submitted, then weighted and calculated appropriately to come
up with that judge’s overall impression score.
A Little Clearer
Judging will never be entirely objective, nor will the scores be entirely
predictable. But hopefully, this guide sheds some light on the current evaluating
structure and gives you an idea about what those judges are actually thinking –
or supposed to be thinking – about when they analyze your performance.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Answer the questions:
What do technical merit judges consider?
What do artistic impression judges evaluate?
How do execution judges base their score?
What do overall impression judges consider?
DIVING
INTRODUCTION TO DIVING
Diving is the sport of jumping or falling into water from
a platform or springboard, sometimes while performing acrobatics. Diving is an
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internationally-recognized sport that is part of the Olympic Games. In addition,
unstructured and non-competitive diving is a recreational pastime.
Diving is one of the most popular Olympic sports with spectators. Competitors possess many of the same characteristics as gymnasts and dancers, including strength, flexibility and air awareness.
Most diving competitions consist of three disciplines: 1m and 3m springboards, and the platform. Competitive athletes are divided by gender, and often
by age group. In platform events, competitors are allowed to perform their dives
on either the five, seven and a half (generally just called seven) or ten meter
towers. In major diving meets, including the Olympic Games and the World
Championships, platform diving is from the 10 meter height.
Divers have to perform a set number of dives according to established requirements, including somersaults and twists. Divers are judged on whether and
how well they completed all aspects of the dive, the conformance of their body
to the requirements of the dive, and the amount of splash created by their entry
to the water. A possible score out of ten is broken down into three points for the
takeoff, three for the flight, and three for the entry, with one more available to
give the judges flexibility.
The raw score is multiplied by a difficulty factor, derived from the number and combination of movements attempted. The diver with the highest total
score after a sequence of dives is declared the winner.
Synchronized diving
Synchronized diving was adopted as an Olympic sport in 2000. Two divers form a team and perform dives simultaneously. The dives are usually identical; however, sometimes the dives may be opposites. In these events, the diving is judged both on the quality of execution and the synchronicity – in timing
of take-off and entry, height and forward travel.
Scoring the dive
There are rules governing the scoring of a dive. Usually a score considers
three elements of the dive: the approach, the flight, and the entry. The primary
factors affecting the scoring are:
the platform selected (10 meter, 7.5 meter, or 5 meter)
if a hand-stand is required, the length of time and quality of the hold
the height of the diver at the apex of the dive, with extra height resulting in a higher score
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the distance of the diver from the diving apparatus throughout the
dive (a diver must not be dangerously close, should not be too far away, but
should ideally be within 2 feet (0.61 m) of the platform)
the properly defined body position of the diver according to the dive being performed, including pointed toes and feet touching at all times
the proper amounts of rotation and revolution upon completion of
the dive and entry into the water
angle of entry – a diver should enter the water straight, without any
angle. Many judges award divers for the amount of splash created by the diver
on entry, with less splash resulting in a higher score.
To reduce the subjectivity of scoring in major meets, panels of five or
seven judges are assembled. If five judges then the highest and lowest scores are
discarded and the middle three are summed and multiplied by the DD (Degree
of Difficulty – determined from a combination of the moves undertaken, in
which position and from what height). In major international events, there are
seven judges in which case the highest and lowest scores are again discarded
and the middle five are summed, then ratioed by 3/5, and multiplied by the DD,
so as to provide consistent comparison with 5-judge events. Accordingly, it is
extremely difficult for one judge to manipulate scores.
There is a general misconception about scoring and judging. In serious
meets, the absolute score is somewhat meaningless. It is the relative score, not
the absolute score that wins meets. Accordingly, good judging implies consistent
scoring across the dives. However, absolute scores have significance to the individual divers. Besides the obvious instances of setting records, absolute scores
are also used for rankings and qualifications for higher level meets.
In synchronized diving events, there is a panel of seven or nine judges;
two to mark the execution of one diver, two to mark the execution of the other,
and three to judge the synchronization. The score is computed in the same way
as for individual events with seven judges (i.e. highest and lowest deleted, then
the sum of the remaining five reduced by 3/5, then multiplied by the Degree of
Difficulty).
Exercise 1. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following
words and word-combinations:
Прыжки в воду, трамплин, гибкость, сальто, брызги, последовательность, угол.
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Exercise 2. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and
word-combinations:
Platform, recreational pastime, spectators, gender, twist, conformance,
takeoff, score, degree of difficulty.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Answer the questions:
What disciplines do most competitions consist of?
What is the platform height at the Olympic Games?
When was synchronized diving adopted as an Olympic sport?
How many divers compete in one team?
What are the primary factors affecting the scoring?
DIVE GROUPS
There are six "groups" into which dives are classified: Forward, Back,
Inward, Reverse, Twist, and Armstand. The latter applies only to Platform competitions, whereas the other five apply to both Springboard and Platform.
in the Forward Group (Group 1), the diver takes off facing forward
and rotates forward
in the Back Group (2), the diver takes off with their back to the water and rotates backward
in the Reverse Group (3), the diver takes off facing forward and rotates backward
in the Inward Group (4), the diver takes off with their back to the
water and rotates forward
any dive incorporating an axial twisting movement is in the Twist
group (5).
any dive commencing from a handstand is in the Armstand group
(6). (Only on platform)
Dive positions
During the flight of the dive, one of four positions is assumed:
straight – with no bend at the knees or hips (the hardest of the three)
pike – with knees straight but a tight bend at the hips (the median in
difficulty of the three.) The open pike is a variant where the arms are reached to
the side, and the legs are brought straight out with a bend in the hips.
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tuck – body folded up in a tight ball, hands holding the shins and
toes pointed.(the easiest of the three)
free – indicates a twisting dive, and a combination of other positions. In the transition between two positions the diver may for example bend
their legs or curve at the waist, and points will not be deducted for doing so.
These positions are referred to by the letters A, B, C and D respectively.
Additionally, some dives can be started in a flying position. The body is
kept straight with the arms extended to the side, and the regular dive position is
assumed at about half the dive.
Difficulty is rated according to the Degree of Difficulty of the dives.
Some divers may find pike easier in a flip than tuck, and most find straight the
easiest in a front/back dive, although it is still rated the most difficult because of
the risk of overrotation.
Dive numbers
In competition, the dives are referred to by a schematic system of three- or
four-digit numbers. The letter to indicate the position is appended to the end of
the number.
The first digit of the number indicates the dive group as defined above.
For groups 1 to 4, the number consists of three digits and a letter of the alphabet. The third digit represents the number of half-somersaults. The second
digit is either 0 or 1, with 0 representing a normal somersault, and 1 signifying a
"flying" variation of the basic movement (i.e. the first half somersault is performed in the straight position, and then the pike or tuck shape is assumed).
For example:
101A – forward Dive Straight
203C – back one-and-a-half somersaults, tuck
307C – reverse three-and-a-half somersaults, tuck
113B – flying forward one-and-a-half somersaults, pike
For Group 5, the dive number has 4 digits. The second digit indicates the
group (1-4) of the underlying movement; the third digit indicates the number of
half-somersaults, and the fourth indicates the number of half-twists.
For example:
5211A – back dive, half twist, straight position.
5337D – reverse one and a half somersaults with three and a half
twists, in the Free position.
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For Group 6 – Armstand – the dive number has either three, four or five
digits: three digits for dives without twist and four for dives with twists.
In non-twisting armstand dives, the second digit indicates the direction of
rotation (0 = no rotation, 1 = forward, 2 = backward, 3 = reverse, 4 = inward)
and the third digit indicates the number of half-somersaults. Inward-rotating
armstand dives have never been performed, and are generally regarded as physically impossible.
For example:
600A – armstand dive straight
612B – armstand forward somersault pike
624C – armstand back double somersault tuck
For twisting Armstand dives, the dive number again has 4 digits, but rather than beginning with the number 5, the number 6 remains as the first digit,
indicating that the "twister" will be performed from an Armstand. The second
digit indicates the direction of rotation – as above, the third is the number of
half-somersaults, and the fourth is the number of half-twists:
e.g. 6243D – armstand back double-somersault with one and a half twists
in the free position.
All of these dives come with DD (degree of difficulty) this is an indication
of how difficult/complex a dive is. The score that the dive receives is multiplied
by the DD (also known as tariff) to give the dive a final score. Before a diver
competes they must decide on a "list" (this is a number of optional dives and
compulsory dives). The optionals come with a DD limit. This means that a diver
must select X number of dives and the combined DD limit must be no more than
the limit set by the competition/organization etc.
Until the mid 1990s the tariff was decided by the FINA diving committee,
and divers could only select from the range of dives in the published tariff table.
Since then, the tariff is calculated by a formula based on various factors such as
the number of twist and somersaults, the height, the group etc., and divers are
free to submit new combinations.
Exercise 1. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following
words and word-combinations:
Стойка на руках, винт, вышка, прыжок прогнувшись, прыжок согнувшись, вращение.
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Exercise 2. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and
word-combinations:
Inward, reverse, tuck, shin, to assume, somersault, half-twist, degree of
difficulty.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Answer the questions:
How many dive groups are there?
What dive is done only on platform?
What is the hardest dive position?
What indicates how difficult the dive is?
DIVING RULES
PART I
In the Olympic Diving competition both men and women compete from a
high dive, 10-meters high, (32.8 feet) in individual and synchronized events.
They do the same events from the 3-meter (9.8 feet) springboard. In World
Championships there is also a dive in the individual event from a 1-meter (3.2
feet) springboard. In other diving competitions, diving boards that are 5-meters
(16.4 feet) and 7.5-meters (24.6 feet) in height are sometimes used.
It should be noted that diving is regulated by the Federation Internationale
de Natation Amateur (FINA).
Olympic Diving Competition
Divers will be called upon to perform a figure, or a series of figures, and
each of these has an assigned degree of difficulty. The divers attempt to perform
these figures as flawlessly as possible and enter the water with as little disturbance as possible.
There is a degree of difficulty assigned to each dive. The range goes from
1.2, the easiest, to 3.7, which is an exceptionally difficult dive. The degree of
difficulty is used in the semifinal round and the degree of difficulty is not allowed to go over, for all dives, 7.6 in platform diving and 9.5 in springboard
diving. There is no degree of difficulty limit in the preliminary or final rounds.
Competition phases
In the Olympic Games there are three competition rounds: a preliminary,
a semifinal and a final.
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3-Meter Springboard
In the 3-meter springboard events, the divers will execute dives chosen
from five different dive groups: forward, backward, inward, reverse, and twisting dives. The competition rounds are as follows:
Preliminaries
The men's 3-meter preliminary competition will be made up of six dives
with no limit in the degree of difficulty. There is one dive out of each group
(front, back, reverse, inward and twisting dives) and then one additional dive
chosen from any of the above mentioned groups. The women's 3-meter preliminary competition will be made up of five dives out of each dive groups, also
with no limit in the degree of difficulty. The 18 best divers will advance to the
next round: the semi-finals.
Semifinals
In the semifinals the divers will compete in reverse order of the ranking
they received (their total scores) at the end of the preliminary round. In the 3meter semifinal competition, for both men and women, the divers will do five
dives from the different groups. In the semifinals there is a limitation on the total
degree of difficulty and it must not surpass 9.5. The 12 best divers go on to the
finals.
Finals
The men's 3-meter finals competition will be made up of six dives with no
limit in the degree of difficulty. There is one dive out of each group (front, back,
reverse, inward and twisting dives) and then one additional dive chosen from
any of the above mentioned groups. This is the same as in the preliminary round.
The women's 3-meter final competition will be made up of five dives out of each
dive groups, also with no limit in the degree of difficulty.
The points scored in the final competition round are added to points
scored in the semifinal competition round (dives with limited degree of difficulty) to get a final score. The three divers with the highest point totals will be
awarded the Gold, Silver and Bronze medals. Unless there is a tie and then the
divers will share the medal they have tied for.
10-Meter Platform Events
Preliminaries
The 10-meter platform events follow the same procedure for both men
and women as in the 3-meter events. The men's platform preliminary competition round is made up of six dives from different groups with no limit to the de57
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gree of difficulty. The women's platform preliminary competition round consists
of five dives from different groups with no limit to the degree of difficulty.
Semifinals
In semifinals, both the men and women divers will perform four dives
from different from 6 different diving groups and the total degree of difficulty
can't be more then 7.6.
The diving groups that the divers have to choose from are: front, back, reverse, inward, twisting and handstand dives.
Finals
The men's platform final competition round is made up of six dives from
different groups without limit of degree of difficulty. The same as in the preliminary rounds. The platform final competition round is made up of five dives
from different groups without limit of degree of difficulty. The same as in the
preliminary rounds.
In the Olympic Games there are 7 judges and scores range from zero to
ten. When the seven judges give their scores, the highest and the lowest scores
are eliminated. The five remaining scores are then added up and the total score
is then multiplied by the difficulty factor for each dive and then by 0.6, which
gives the final result. A tie is declared when two divers get the same total score.
Exercise 1. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following
words and word-combinations:
Трамплин, безупречно, выполнять прыжки, соревнование, равный
счет, полуфинал.
Exercise 2. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and
word-combinations:
Platform, to assign, preliminary, exceptionally, limit, to surpass, forward,
reverse, twisting dive.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Answer the questions:
What is the height of the platform in the Olympic Diving Competitions?
What are the limits of the degree of difficulty?
In what rounds is the degree of difficulty used?
How many competitions are there in The Olympic Games?
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5. How many dives are made at the men's and women's springboard and platform finals?
DIVING RULES
PART II
Synchronized Diving Competition
The synchronized diving competition has two divers, diving simultaneously from the springboards or platform. The divers are judged on how they perform their individual dives and how well the two divers synchronize their performance as a team. The divers attempt to carry out their movements with perfect coordination in take-off, their height and distance from the board, speed of
rotation, plunge, and angle at which they enter the water. The competition consists of five different rounds of dives. Two rounds of dives will have a degree of
difficulty of 2.0 each and the other three rounds of dives will have no limit of
degree of difficulty. In each round, the two dives must be performed in the same
position and they are required to have the same number of half somersaults.
When performing a combination of twisting dives, the divergence in the twist
can't be more than one and a half twist.
Dives
Before a competition divers will submit a dive list or diving score sheet
and this will list the dives that the diver is planning on performing. These dives
must conform to the competition rules and a competition secretary will review
each divers dive list to make sure they do conform to the rules.
There are 5 types of dives that can be performed in the Springboard competition and they are: forward, backward, inward, reverse, and twisting dives. In
the Platform competition there are 6 dives that can be performed: forward,
backward, inward, reverse, twisting and handstand dive. The handstand, also
called an arm stand, dive is only be performed in the platform competition. Below is an explanation of each of the dives.
Forward Dive: The diver will be facing forward so the water is in front of
them and when diving they will rotate toward the water.
Backward Dive: The diver will have their back to the water. When diving
they will rotate toward the water.
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Reverse: The diver will be facing forward so the water is in front of them,
but when performing their dive they will rotate toward the platform or springboard.
Inward: The diver will have their back to the water and when performing
their dive they will rotate toward the platform or springboard.
Handstand / Arm Stand: A diver will start their jump by performing a
handstand on the end of the platform. As mentioned above the handstand dive is
only to be performed in the platform competition. The handstand must be held
for 5 seconds.
Twisting: Simply means that the diver will add a twist to any of the jumps
described above.
Forward dive
Inward
Backward dive
Twisting
Reverse
Handstand
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Divers Body Position
There are four body positions divers are allowed to use when performing
dives.
Straight: The diver will keep their body straight, feet are together and toes
are pointed. There is no bending at the knees or hips. The divers arms can either
be raised above their head or held along the side of their body.
Tuck: A divers hips and knees are bent and their knees are under their
chin with their quadriceps up against their torso. Their feet and knees are together and their toes are pointed.
Pike: The divers hips are bent but their legs remain straight. There should
be no bending of the knees. The feet are together and the toes are pointed. The
divers arms can be held out to the divers side, they can be underneath the divers
calves or thighs, or they can be held out to the side.
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Free: The diver is allowed to perform a movement of their choosing in
combination with any of the above positions.
Currently there are about 75 different dives on the springboard and about
100 different dives on the platform and all of these dives use one of the 5 types
of dives and one of the 4 body positions described above.
Officials
Referee
The referee makes sure that the divers dive the dives that are on their dive
list. The referee will give the diver a start signal.
Judges
In major competitions, 7 judges will judge the competition and in nonmajor events 5 judges will judge the competition.
Announcer
An announcer will announce to the spectators, the name, country, if relevant, and any other necessary information about the diver. They will also announce the dive that is being performed, the degree of difficulty this dive and
after the dive is competed they will announce the final score. Most competitions
will have a scoreboard that will also provide information about the diver and the
overall standing of the competition.
Scoring table
The judges do the scoring and the scores are feed into a computer that will
tabulate the final score and post it on the scoreboard. If there is a problem with
the electronic scoring then scorers at a scoring table will manually tabulate the
score.
Exercise 1. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following
words and word-combinations:
Одновременно, скорость вращения, сальто, стойка на руках, вращаться, группировка.
Exercise 2. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and
word-combinations:
Synchronized diving, to carry out, take off, angle, degree of difficulty,
inward, straight position, pike.
Answer the questions:
1. What is judged at the synchronized diving competitions?
2. How many rounds does the competition consist of?
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3.
4.
5.
6.
What types of dive can be performed in the springboard competition?
What types of dive can be performed in the platform competition?
How long must the handstand be held?
What body positions are divers allowed to use?
SCORING
Individual Diving
During major competitions, 7 judges are usually on hand to judge the
competition. When 7 judges are present the two highest and the two lowest
scores will be discarded and the score will be calculated using the 3 scores that
are left. When it happens that more than 2 scores are equal, only two of the
scores will be canceled. When there are 5 judges present then two scores will be
discarded, the highest and lowest. The score is calculated by adding the 3 scores
together, and multiplying this total by the degree of difficulty for the dive and
this will be the final score of the dive.
Example: 8.0, 7.5, 7.5, 7.5, 7.5, 7.5, 7.0 = 22.5 x 2.0 = 45.0
Synchronized Diving
In synchronized diving, when two or more judge's scores are equal, either
of the equal scores may be canceled.
Points
Judges award points on a scale of 0 to 10. Here is how the point scale is
divided.
0 points means Complete Failure
1/2 to 2 points is Unsatisfactory
2 1/2 to 4 1/2 is Deficient
5 to 6 points is Satisfactory
6 1/2 to 8 points is Good
8 1/2 to 10 points is Very Good
Judging Dives
In major diving competitions including the Olympics there will be a panel
of seven judges to judge the competition. The largest part of the score will be
awarded for the technical impression that is conveyed by the dive and divers of
an aesthetically and visually pleasing execution.
There are 5 criteria that are used to be in scoring dives.
Approach
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The forward approach is the walk or run up to the end of the platform or
springboard. The approach is the first impression the judges will have of the
diver. So the diver needs to convey a sense of having flow and being smooth in
their approach. This means not having movements that are erratic and / or disjointed such as wild arm swings or shuffling in the movement of the feet.
Takeoff
The take-off refers to the diver springing or jumping from the end of the
platform or springboard to begin their dive.
A diver will be assumed to be ready to perform their dive when, on a
standing dive, the diver is standing on the end of the board, their body is straight
and their head is upright and eyes are looking straight out. The diver will be assumed to be ready to perform a dive that has an approach when the diver is
standing straight, head is upright and they are prepared to take their first step.
The Hurdle is the final act of a diver's approach to a forward facing takeoff. The diver’s final step starts on one foot, the jump to the end of the board,
which ends on two feet, and then the diver can leave the board. On a springboard dive that has a running approach, the takeoff must be from both feet at the
same time.
When a diver is performing a running platform dive they are required to,
for a two-foot take off, take three steps and a hop and for a one-foot takeoff,
they are required to take a minimum of four steps. Points will be deducted from
a diver score for not following this rule.
On a forward takeoff from the springboard, the dive can either have an
approach or be standing.
If a diver should dive off the side of a diving board or touch the end of the
board, will lead to points being deducted from a divers score.
When diving from the springboard and using either a backward or standing front dive, the diver is required not to bounce on the board and doing so will
lead to points being deducted from a divers score.
If a diver should begin their dive and then stop, this is a balk. A balk will
lead to points being deducted from a divers score. If a second balk should take
place on the same dive, the dive is judged to be a failed dive.
Elevation
The elevation of a jump is the height a diver attains when they jump from
either the springboard or platform. The elevation of a jump is more of a factor in
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the springboard competition simply because the springboard will propel the diver into the air.
Execution
Execution refers not only to the technical expertise that a diver brings to a
dive but also the body position of the diver. The dive should be graceful and polished.
Entry
On entry into the water the divers body should be straight, this is true for
both feet first and headfirst dives. The entry into the water should be vertical and
if everything is done correctly the amount of water that splashes up when the
diver enters the water will be very little.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Answer the questions:
How many judges usually judge the competitions?
What criteria are used in scoring dives?
What is the forward approach?
How is the dive started on a springboard?
In what way must the diver perform a running platform dive?
How must divers perform the entry into the water?
DIVING EQUIPMENT
Overview
For competition, diving board standards are set by the International
Swimming Federation. Most public pools and high schools adhere to similar
standards. Diving board standards are designed to maximize safety and you
should never dive if the design or installation of a diving board is substandard.
Types
Springboards and platforms are the two types of diving structures used in
competition. A springboard is a flexible board mounted on a fulcrum that is used
to adjust the springiness of the board. Springboards are set at heights of 1 or 3 m
for competitive diving. Platforms are rigid structures, usually made of concrete.
Competitive diving platforms are set at heights of 5, 7–1/2 and 10 m.
Pool
The layout and size of the diving pool is critical for diving safety. Regulations established by the International Swimming Federation state that a full-size
diving pool meeting international competition standards must have a pair of 1 m
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springboards, a pair of 3 m springboards and a diving platform. The pool must
be at least 60 feet in length and 75 feet 11 inches wide. Pool dimensions can be
adjusted for smaller facilities like high school pools where competition might
require only a single 1 and 3 m boards. The pool sides should be painted light
blue or white. Contrasting markings must be painted on the pool bottom as reference points for divers. A sprayer or other surface agitator is required for international competition. This ensures the water surface is clearly visible to divers.
Depth
For springboard diving, the water depth must be at least 3.4 m for 1 m
boards and 3.7 meters for three meter boards, or about 11 and 12 feet. For platform diving, a minimum depth of 3.7 m is required for 5 m platforms. For 7–1/2
m platforms, the depth must be 4.1 m, and for 10 m platforms, you need a depth
of 4-1/2 m. Pools might be deeper, but not shallower.
Springboards
A regulation size springboard is 4.8 m long and 0.5 m wide. The board
must have a nonskid surface. You should check before you dive to be sure the
surface is clean and in good repair. A poorly maintained board can be slippery
or have uneven footing. At least 2–1/2 m of clearance must be between the
board and the pool wall to either side for 1 m boards. This standard is set at 3–
1/2 m for 3 m boards. The end of the board should project 1–1/2 m over the water. The distance from the tip of the diving board to the far wall should measure
at least 9 meters for 1 m boards and 10–1/4 m for 3 m boards.
Platforms
A platform diving structure must be equipped with a stairway, not a ladder. International Swimming Federation standards recommend, but do not require, the platforms at different heights be offset to one side. If this isn't possible, at least 2.25 m of clearance must be between a platform and the one directly
above. The higher platform must extend 0.75 m farther out over the water than
the lower one. All platforms must project at least 1-1/2 m out over the water.
The distance from the platform edge to the far side of the pool must be at least
10-1/4 m for 5 m platforms, 11 m for 7–1/2 m, and 13–1/2 m for a 10 m platform.
Water Jets
Water Jets send a continuous spray of water onto the surface of the water.
This disturbance on the surface of the water allows a diver to better judge their
distance when they are making their dive.
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Exercise 1. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following
words and word-combinations:
Трамплин, гибкий, международное соревнование, мелкий, нескользкий, быть оборудованным.
Exercise 2. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and
word-combinations:
Adhere to standards, platform, layout, facility, reference point, slippery,
ladder.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Answer the questions:
At what heights are springboards set for competitive diving?
At what heights are competitive diving platforms set?
How many springboards and platforms must a diving pool have?
What dimensions must the swimming pool be?
What color should the pool sides painted?
What are requirements for the water depth?
What size the springboards must be?
ON THE WATER SPORTS
ROWING
INTRODUCTION TO ROWING
Rowing is a sport in which athletes race against each other on rivers, on
lakes or on the ocean, depending upon the type of race and the discipline. The
boats are propelled by the reaction forces on the oar blades as they are pushed
against the water. The sport can be both recreational, focusing on learning the
techniques required, and competitive where overall fitness plays a large role. It
is also one of the oldest Olympic sports.
While rowing, the athlete sits in the boat facing backwards (towards
the stern), and uses the oars which are held in place by the oarlocks to propel the
boat forward (towards the bow). This may be done on a river, lake, sea, or other
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large body of water. It is a demanding sport requiring strong core balance as
well as physical strength and cardiovascular endurance.
Whilst the action of rowing and equipment used remains fairly consistent
throughout the world, there are many different types of competition. The many
different formats are a result of the long history of the sport, its development in
different regions of the world, and specific local requirements and restrictions.
There are two forms of rowing:
In sweep or sweep-oar rowing, each rower has one oar, held with
both hands. This can be done in pairs, fours and eights. Each rower in a sweep
boat is referred to either as port or starboard, depending on which side of the
boat the rower's oar extends to. Usually the port side is referred to as stroke side,
and the starboard side as bow side; this applies even if the stroke oarsman is
rowing on bow side and/or the bow oarsman on stroke side.
In sculling each rower has two oars (or sculls), one in each hand.
Sculling is usually done without a coxswain, in quads, doubles or singles. The
oar in the sculler's right hand extends to port (stroke side), and the oar in the left
hand extends to starboard (bow side).
The two fundamental reference points in the rowing stroke are the catch,
immediately prior to the oar blade's placement in the water, and the extraction
(also known as the finish or the release) where the rower removes the oar blade
from the water. From the catch, the rower places the blade in the water, and then
applies pressure to the oar by simultaneously pushing the seat toward the bow of
the boat by extending the legs. As the legs approach full extension, the rower rotates his or her torso toward the bow of the boat and then finally pulls the arms
towards his or her chest. The shoulders should not hunch up at any point during
the drive. At the very end of the stroke, with the blade still in the water, the
hands drop slightly to unload the oar so that spring energy stored in the bend of
the oar gets transferred to the boat, which eases removing the oar from the water
and minimizes energy wasted on lifting water above the surface (splashing). The
aforementioned stages of the stroke where pressure is applied to the blade
through the water comprise the drive of the stroke.
The recovery phase follows the drive. The recovery involves removing the
oar from the water, and coordinating the body movement to move the oar to the
catch. The coordinated body motion that begins at the finish consists of the following: the rower pushes down on the oar handle (or oar handles if the rower is
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lease, the rower rapidly rotates the oar to cause the blade of the oar to become
parallel to the water (a process referred to as "feathering the blade") at the same
time as pushing the oar handle away from the chest. After feathering and extending the arms, the rower rotates his or her body forward. Once the hands are past
the knees, the rower compresses the legs which moves the seat towards the stern
of the boat. The leg compression occurs relatively slowly (compared with the
rest of the stroke) which affords the rower a moment to "recover", and allows
the boat to glide through the water. Near the end of the recovery, the rower
squares the blade (rotates the blade to perpendicular to the water), and then repeats the stroke again, beginning with the catch.
In a multi-person boat, the above motion must be executed in precise synchrony with all other rowers in the shell. Coordinated timing at the catch is imperative to avoid "checking" the boat, or slowing its forward progress. Ideally,
all rowers arrive at the catch at exactly the same moment, and immediately apply pressure on the oar with the oar in the water which minimizes jerk at the
catch. To accomplish this, the oar must be in the water slightly in advance of the
rower's arrival at the catch where the seat reverses direction. When this action is
completed correctly a bit of water, called "back splash" is splashed.
There are two schools of thought with respect to the appropriate breathing
technique during the rowing motion: full lungs at the catch and empty lungs at
the catch.
With the full lung technique, rowers exhale during the stroke and inhale
during the recovery. In labored circumstances, rowers will take a quick pant at
the end of the stroke before taking a deep breath on the recovery that fills the
lungs by the time the catch is reached.
In the empty-lung technique, rowers inhale during the drive, and exhale
during the recovery so that they have empty lungs at the catch. Because the
knees come up to the chest when the lungs are empty, this technique allows the
rower to reach a little bit further than if the lungs were full of air. Additionally,
this technique allows the thighs to compress the chest, collapsing the lungs further than normal, thus inducing greater air (and oxygen) volume exchange during each breath.
The distinction between rowing and other forms of water transport, such
as canoeing or kayaking, is that in rowing the oars are held in place at a pivot
point that is in a fixed position relative to the boat, this point acting as a fulcrum
for the oar to act as a lever. In flat-water rowing, the boat (also called
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a shell or fine boat) is narrow to avoid drag, and the oars are attached to oarlocks
at the end of outriggers extending from the sides of the boat. Racing boats also
have sliding seats to allow the use of the legs in addition to the body to apply
power to the oar. Like racing kayaks or canoes, most racing shells are inherently
unstable. The rowing boats require oars on either side to prevent them from rolling over.
Exercise 1. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following
words and word-combinations:
Академическая гребля, весло, сердечнососудистый, выносливость,
баковый гребец, парная гребля, рулевой.
Exercise 2. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and
word-combinations:
To race, to propel, oarlock, bow, equipment, starboard, oarsman, handle,
shell, to exhale, to inhale, flat-water.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Answer the questions:
In what direction does the athlete sit while rowing?
What skills is the athlete required to have?
What types of rowing are there?
What stages of rowing are there?
What is the distinction of rowing from canoeing or kayaking?
HISTORY OF ROWING
Even since the earliest recorded references to rowing, the sporting element
has been present. An Egyptian funerary inscription of 1430 BC records that the
warrior Amenhotep (Amenophis) II was also renowned for his feats of oarsmanship. In the 13th century, Venetian festivals called regatta included boat races
among others.
The first known "modern" rowing races began from competition among
the professional watermen that provided ferry and taxi service on the River
Thames in London. Prizes for wager races were often offered by the London Guilds and Livery Companies or wealthy owners of riverside houses. The
oldest surviving such race, Doggett's Coat and Badge was first contested in 1715
and is still held annually from London Bridge to Chelsea. During the 19th century these races were to become numerous and popular, attracting large crowds.
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Prize matches amongst professionals similarly became popular on other rivers
throughout Great Britain in the 19th century, notably on the Tyne.
Amateur competition in England began towards the end of the 18th century. Documentary evidence from this period is sparse, but it is known that the
Monarch Boat Club of Eton College and the Isis Club of Westminster
School were both in existence in the 1790s. The Star Club and Arrow Club in
London for gentlemen amateurs were also in existence before 1800. At
the University of Oxford bumping races were first organized in 1815
when Brasenose College and Jesus College boat clubs had the first annual race
while at Cambridge the first recorded races were in 1827. Brasenose won Oxford University's first Head of the River and claim to be the oldest established
boat club in the world. The Boat Race between Oxford University and Cambridge University first took place in 1829, and was the second intercollegiate
sporting event (following the first Varsity Cricket Match by 2 years). The interest in the first Boat Race and subsequent matches led the town of Henley to
begin hosting an annual regatta in 1839.
Founded in 1818, Leander Club is the world's oldest public rowing
club. The second oldest club which still exists is the Der Hamburger und Germania Ruder Club which was founded 1836 and marked the beginning of rowing as an organized sport in Germany. During the 19th century, as in England,
wager matches in North America between professionals became very popular
attracting vast crowds. The Detroit Boat Club was established as the first rowing
exclusive club in 1839 in the US. In 1843, the first American college rowing
club was formed at Yale University. The Harvard-Yale Regattais the oldest intercollegiate sporting event in the United States, having been contested every
year since 1852 (excepting interruptions for wars).
FISA, the “Fédération Internationale des Sociétés d’Aviron” in French (or
the English equivalent International Federation of Rowing Associations) was
founded by representatives from France, Switzerland, Belgium, Adriatica (now a
part of Italy) and Italy in Turin on 25 June 1892. It is the oldest international
sports federation in the Olympic movement.
FISA first organized a European Rowing Championships in 1893. An annual World Rowing Championships was introduced in 1962. Rowing has also
been conducted at the Olympic Games since 1900 (cancelled at the first modern
Games in 1896 due to bad weather).
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ROWING RULES
Description of Olympic Rowing
14 different boat classes are raced in the Olympics: eight sculling events
where two oars are used, one in each hand and also six sweep-oared events
where a rower uses both hands to row one oar. The sculling boat classes are the
single – crew of one, the double – crew of two and the quadruple – crew of four
there is also a lightweight double. The sweep row categories include the pair, the
four, the lightweight four, which is a men only event, and the eight with coxswain. The lightweight events: the lightweight women's double and the lightweight men's double and four, the average weight of members of a men's crew
can't be over 70 kilograms (154 pounds) and for women, the average weight of
each crew member must not exceed 57 kilograms (125.4 pounds). All these races are over a distance of 2,000 meters or (6,562 feet).
Olympic Rowing Events
The Men's Olympic Rowing events are:
Single sculls, Double sculls, Lightweight double sculls, Quadruple sculls,
Pair, Four, Lightweight four, Eight with coxswain.
Women's Olympic events are:
Single sculls, Double sculls, Lightweight double sculls, Quadruple sculls,
Pair, Eight with coxswain.
Olympic Rowing Competition
Rowing races cover a distance of 2,000 meters (6,562 feet) in river, canal
or lake-type competition venues in six lanes. The crews will qualify through
predetermined rounds. There is the preliminary round (heats), the repeat round
(repechages), the semi-finals and then the finals. The "A" final will determine
the first six places and the "B" final will determine the 7th through 12th positions. The number of rounds per event will depend on the number of boats that
are taking part.
Officials
There are a number of officials who supervise races.
There is the Starter who gives the starting signal who also signals when
there has been a false start.
6 Aligners are located on the starting dock and hold on to the shells to
keep them in place.
An Alignment Judge who makes sure that all the shells are properly
aligned.
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The Umpire rides in a boat and follows the crews down the course and if a
boat veers out of their lane he will hold up a red flag indicating that this boat has
been disqualified. He will hold up a white flag to indicate the race is proceeding
normally.
Safety officials are stationed along the course in the event a boat and its
rowers have difficulties.
The finish-line judge is in charge of the floating dock where medals will
be awarded.
The photo-finish judge declares the winning boat in the event of a photo
finish.
There is also a Judge who does identity verification of the crews before
they get into their boats; the weighing-in of the athletes; the weighing-in of
boats. He makes sure there are no illegal products that might assist the boat in
moving through the water; he is in charge of security around the docks and, in
general, all the issues directly related to the competition, the athletes and their
equipment.
Olympic Categories of Boats
As noted above there are two categories of rowing competition boats:
Sculling where the rower holds one oar in each hand:
1) Single Scull (one rower) abbreviated 1x; 2)Double Sculls (two rowers)
abbreviated 2x; 3) Quadruple Sculls (four rowers) abbreviated 4x;
4)Lightweight double sculls abbreviated L2x.
And Sweep rowing, where the rower uses both hands on one oar:
1) Pair, abbreviated 2-; 2) Four, abbreviated 4-; 3) Eight, abbreviated 8+;
4) Lightweight Four Men, abbreviated LM4-.
Athletes Categories
In Rowing there are two categories of athletes:
1. Open which is open to all rowers no matter their weight
2. Lightweight in which men can't weigh more than 72.5 kilograms (159.5
pounds) and women can't weigh more than 59 kilograms (129.8 ponds). The average weight of the crew for men can't be over 70 kilograms (154 pounds) and
for women 57 kilograms (125.4 pounds).
Coxswains: The minimum admissible weight of a coxswain, no matter the
boat or event category, is 55 kilograms (121 pounds) for men and 50 kilograms
(100 pounds) for women.
The age categories of rowers are:
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1) Youth - men and women, up to 18 years of age; 2) Men's and Women's
B, up to 19 to 22 years of age; 3) Men's and Women's A, over 23 years of age;
4) Veterans, over 27 years of age as long as they no longer compete in the men's
or women's A category.
Exercise 1. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following
words and word-combinations:
Весло, грести, средний, предварительный, полуфинал, рулевой, соревнование.
Exercise 2. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and
word-combinations:
Scull, sweep, crew, event, admissible, quadruple, venue, heat, equipment,
lightweight.
Answer the questions:
1. How many boat classes are races in the Olympics?
2. What sculling boat classes are there?
3. What sweep row categories are there?
4. What distance do rowing classes cover?
5. What athletes’ categories are there?
6. What are the weight limits for the Lightweight events?
7. That is the minimum admissible weight of a coxswain?
ROWING EQUIPMENT
The Boats
Boats or shells were traditionally made from wood, but are now mostly
fabricated from carbon fibre and plastic. They are 59.7 – 62.2cm wide while
lengths are shown in the diagrams below. A small fin is fitted at the bottom for
stability. A rudder is attached to the fin or the stern (except on sculling boats). A
white ball is attached to the bow (safety measure, photo-finish). A washboard
prevents waves from splashing water aboard. Seats are fitted with wheels which
slide on runners or tracks.
The seat's rowers sit on slide on a steel runner. Because of this rowers are
able to use their legs as well as their arms when rowing and this means that the
power they generate will result in fast speeds. This is certainly true when rowing
is compared to kayaking or canoeing, where only the upper body can be used to
move the boat.
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Boats used in Rowing Competitions
There are eight boat classes, of which five are for sweep-oared rowing in
which the rower uses one oar with both hands, and three are for sculling in
which two oars are used, one in each hand. Some classes carry a cox who either
sits in the stern or lies in the bow to steer the boat.
Sweep Boats
-
+
-
+
Pair
2
rowers
Average length: 10.4 m (34
ft)
Minimum weight: 27 kg (59 lbs)
Coxed
pair
2 rowers with cox
ft)
Average length: 10.4 m (34
Minimum weight: 32 kg (70 lbs)
Four
4
rowers
Average length: 13.4 m (44
ft)
Minimum weight: 50 kg (112 lbs)
Eight
8 rowers with cox
Average length: 19.9 m (62
ft)
Minimum weight: 96 kg (221 lbs)
Scull Boats
x
x
Single
1
rower
Average length: 8.2 m (27
ft)
Minimum weight: 14 kg (30.8 lbs)
Double
scull
2
rowers
1
(3
Average length: 0.4 m 4
ft)
Minimum weight: 27 kg (59 lbs)
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x
Quadruple scull
4
rowers
Average length: 13.4 m (44 ft)
Minimum weight: 52 kg (114 lbs)
Oars
In the past oars were made of wood and they had a symmetrical blade. But
today oars, like rowing shells, are made out of carbon fiber and they have
asymmetrical blades and they are also hollow in order to reduce weight. The average length of sweep oar is 12.4 feet long (3.8 meters). The oars for sculls are
not as long at 9.7 feet (2.98 meters). The blades on the Sweep Oars are very
thin; the blade required must have a minimum thickness of five millimeters.
Scull Oars are allowed to be as thin as 3 millimeters at the edge.
Crew Clothing
Most rowers will wear a jersey top and shorts. The jersey will have the
colors of the country they are from, or the team or club they are rowing for.
Boat Equipment
Below is a list of the equipment you will find on rowing shells.
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Backstops: The point the seat (slide) stops moving forward toward the
bow.
Boot: This device holds the boat bow in place before the start of the race,
and then releases the boat and drops below the water when the starting signal
goes off.
Bow Ball: This is a white plastic or rubber ball that is attached to the bow
tip of a shell. It is used in helping to determine a winner in photo finishes and it
also helps to protect the bow of the boat against damage in case a ramming occurs.
Button: A collar that is put around the shaft of the oar so that it will not
slip through the oarlock and into the water. The button can be moved up and
down the oar, in order to increase or decrease leverage.
Card: Each shell or boat has a card, which has the number of the craft.
The card is attached to the bow of the boat.
Deck: The areas at the bow and stern of a shell.
Foot Stretchers: These are attached to the bottom of the boat and it is
where the rower rest their feet so they will not move when he / she is rowing.
The rower's shoes are usually attached to the foot stretchers.
Frontstops: The point the seat (slide) stops moving back toward the stern.
Gate: This is a bar across the oarlock that prevents the oar from coming
out of the oarlock. It can be removed to take out or put oars in the oarlock.
Gunwale: The upper edge of the shell. This is a strip of wood that runs the
length of a shell.
Oarlock: This is the U-shaped piece of equipment on a boat's gunwale,
which holds the collar of the oar.
Outrigger: This is a metal structure, which is used to support the oarlock.
This is also sometimes called a rigger.
Pin: There is a metal rod that the oarlock is supported by.
Rib: This is a U-shaped piece of molded wood, aluminum or carbon fiber
that gives support to the hull. The Ribs are placed between the keel and the
gunwale.
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Rigging: The arrangement of the riggers (oars and rowers) and stretchers
in a shell.
Rowlock: The structure on a boat's gunwale that supports the oar. It is attached to the pin at the end of the outrigger. It is also sometimes called a swivel.
Rudder: A rudder is usually made of steel and it is located in the stern of
the boat, it is in the water and is used to steer the boat.
Skeg: This is a small flat piece, usually made of plastic but it can be
wood, which is fastened vertically to the bottom of the shell near the stern. This
is used to help the shell stay on course. It is also known as a fin.
Sleeve: This is a jacket on the shaft of an oar where the button is placed
and it is used to fasten the blade to the oarlock.
Slide: This is the seat where the oarsmen sit. It gets its name because it
slides along the bottom of the shell to help the oarsmen get more power into
their stroke.
Splashguard: Located toward the bow of the shell, helps to keep water out
of the shell.
Tiller Ropes: These are ropes that are used by the coxswain to control the
rudder.
Toe: This means to use a foot-controlled rudder.
Race Courses
There is equipment required to hold a rowing regatta and below is a list of
this equipment.
The Starting Docks is where the boats start the race from and it is also
where the aligners are stationed when holding the shells in place.
There is a Starting Zone that covers the first 328 feet (100 meters) of the
race and within this zone, and only in this zone, can a race be stopped due to
problems. Starting Zone Buoys are yellow or orange and they mark the first 820
feet (250 meters) of the course.
In addition to Starting Zone Buoys there are Course Buoys, which are
white and they mark the middle of the course, they begin right after the first 250
meters (820 feet) and the end right before the last 250 meters (820 feet). And
then we have Finish Zone Buoys, which mark the final 250 meters (820 feet) of
the course and like the Starting Zone Buoys they are yellow or orange in color.
There are 6 Lanes, which is one for each boat that is in a race. Boats are
required to stay in their lanes during a race. The two outer lanes are 16 feet (5
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meters) in from the sides of the pool or course. The width of the lanes varies between 41 to 49 feet (12.5 and 15 meters).
There are White Markers that are placed outside of the pool or course at
500-meter (1640 feet) intervals.
The Finish Line is marked by two red flags that have been attached to two
buoys. These buoys are 16 feet (5 meters) outside of the course. A boat has finished the race when the bow of the boat passes over the finish line.
An electronic Scoreboard will show the times and results of a race. A
Floating Dock near the finish line will be where medals are awarded. There
should also be Grand Stands to allow spectators to view the races.
Exercise 1. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following
words and word-combinations:
Корма, нос судна, рулевой, каноэ, средний, весло, экипаж, лопасть,
палуба, уключина, стартовая зона.
Exercise 2. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and
word-combinations:
Sweep, scull, rudder, to steer, stern, quadruple, blade, handle, outrigger,
port, starboard, buoy.
Answer the questions:
1. What width do the boats have?
2. For what purpose is a white ball attached to the bow?
3. What is the length of the oars for sculls?
4. What is the length of the sweep oars?
5. What buoys are used in a rowing regatta?
COMPETITIONS
PART I
Rowers may take part in the sport for their leisure or they may row competitively. There are different types of competition in the sport of rowing. In the
U.S. all types of races are referred to as regattas whereas this term is only used
in the UK for head-to-head races which take place in the summer season. Time
trials occur in the UK during the winter, and are referred to as Head races.
Rowing is unusual in the demands it places on competitors. The
standard world championship race distance of 2,000 meters is long enough to
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have a large endurance element, but short enough (typically 5.5 to 7.5 minutes)
to feel like a sprint. This means that rowers have some of the highest power outputs of athletes in any sport. At the same time the motion involved in the sport
compresses the rowers' lungs, limiting the amount of oxygen available to them.
This requires rowers to tailor their breathing to the stroke, typically inhaling and
exhaling twice per stroke, unlike most other sports such as cycling where competitors can breathe freely.
Side by side
Most races that are held in the spring and summer feature side by
side racing also called a regatta; all the boats start at the same time from a stationary position and the winner is the boat that crosses the finish line first. The
number of boats in a race typically varies between two (which is sometimes referred to as a dual race) to six, but any number of boats can start together if the
course is wide enough.
The standard length races for the Olympics and the World Rowing Championships is 2,000 m long, 1,500 – 2,000 m for US high school races on the east
coast and 1,000 m for masters rowers (rowers older than 27). However the race
distance can and does vary from dashes or sprints, which may be 500 m long, to
races of marathon or ultra-marathon length races such as the Tour du Léman in
Switzerland which is 160 km, and the 2 day, 185 km Corvallis to Portland Regatta held in Oregon, USA. In the UK, regattas are generally between 500 m and
2,000 m long.
Two traditional non-standard distance shell races are the annual Boat
Race between Oxford and Cambridge and the Harvard-Yale Boat Race which
cover courses of approximately four miles (roughly 6.5 km). The Henley Royal
Regatta is also raced upon a non-standard distance at 1 mile, 550 yards
(2,112 meters).
In general, multi-boat competitions are organized in a series of rounds,
with the fastest boats in each heat qualifying for the next round. The losing boats
from each heat may be given a second chance to qualify through a repechage.
The World Rowing Championships offers multi-lane racing in heats, finals and
repechages. At Henley Royal Regatta two crews compete side by side in each
round, in a straightforward knock-out format, with no repechages.
Head races
Head races are time trial / processional races that take place from autumn
(fall) to early spring (depending on local conditions). Boats begin with a rolling
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start at intervals of 10 – 20 seconds, and are timed over a set distance. Head
courses usually vary in length from 2,000 m to 12,000 m, though there are longer races such as the Boston Rowing Marathon and shorter such as Pairs Head.
The oldest, and arguably most famous, head race is the Head of the River
Race, founded by Steve Fairbairn in 1926 which takes place each March on the
river Thames in London, United Kingdom. Head racing was exported to the
United States in the 1950s, and the Head of the Charles Regatta held each October on the Charles River in Boston, Massachusetts, USA is now the largest rowing event in the world.
These processional races are known as Head Races, because, as with
bumps racing, the fastest crew is awarded the title Head of the River (as in "head
of the class"). It was not deemed feasible to run bumps racing on the Tideway,
so a timed format was adopted and soon caught on.
Time trials are sometimes used to determine who competes in an event
where there is a limited number of entries, for example the qualifying races for
Henley Royal Regatta, and rowing on and getting on for the Oxford and Cambridge Bumps races respectively.
Bumps races
A third type of race is the bumps race, as held in Oxford (known
as Torpids and Summer Eights), Cambridge (known as the Lent Bumps and
the May Bumps), between the London medical and Veterinary schools
(the United Hospitals Bumps) on the Tideway and at Eton College and Shrewsbury School (which are the only schools in Britain to continue
this tradition). In these races, crews start lined up along the river at set intervals,
and all start at the same time. The aim is to catch up with the boat in front, and
avoid being caught by the boat behind. If a crew overtakes or makes physical
contact with the crew ahead, a bump is awarded. As a result damage to boats
and equipment is common during bumps racing. To avoid damage the cox of the
crew being bumped may concede the bump before contact is actually made. The
next day, the bumping crew will start ahead of any crews that have been
bumped. Bumps races take place over several days, and the positions at the end
of the last race are used to set the positions on the first day of the races the next
year. Oxford and Cambridge Universities hold bumps races for their respective
colleges twice a year, and there are also Town Bumps races in both cities, open
to non-university crews. Oxford's races are organized by City of Oxford Rowing
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Club and Cambridge's are organized by the Cambridge shire Rowing Association.
Stake races
The stake format was often used in early American races. Competitors
line up at the start, race to a stake, moored boat, or buoy some distance away,
and return. The 180° turn requires mastery of steering. These races are popular
with spectators because one may watch both the start and finish. Usually only
two boats would race at once to avoid collision. The Green Mountain Head Regatta continues to use the stake format but it is run as a head race with an interval start. A similar type of racing is found in UK coastal rowing, where a number of boats race out to a given point from the coast and then return fighting
rough water all the way.
Exercise 1. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following
words and word-combinations:
Досуг, выносливость, вдох, выдох, экипаж, цель, избегать, рулевой,
признать поражение.
Exercise 2. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and
word-combinations:
Time trial, motion, lungs, heat, repechage, knock-out, bump, crew, spectator, to steer.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Answer the questions:
What types of races are there?
What demands does rowing place on competitors?
How is side by side racing called?
What length do head races usually have?
How do bump races look like?
How do stake races look like?
COMPETITIONS
PART II
The Regatta
Competition format
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Rounds
Description
1
Heats – the initial round of racing through which crews attempt
to qualify for the next round of racing. Every crew who has not
qualified for the next round of racing has a second chance to
advance in the repechages round.
2
Repechages – in cases of up to 24 entries in one boat class and
in cases of 37 to 54 entries, every crew who has not qualified
for the next round of racing in the heats has a second chance to
advance through the repechages round.
Quarterfinals – in cases where there are between 25 and 36 entries in one boat class, 24 crews advance to the quarterfinal
through the initial round of heats.
3
Semifinals (if an event has less than 12 boats competing, there
are no semifinals).
4
A, B, C and D Finals (There are no more than six boats per final. The top six boats in the qualification rounds compete in
the A Final, the following six in the B Final, etc. Only the rowers who finish in the top three places of the A Final win a medal.)
Note: The rounds to which rowers advance after each race depends on
FISA’s progression system defined according to the numbers of boats entered in
each event.
Race distance
Standard 2,000 m
Lanes
There are normally eight buoyed lanes, of which six are used at one time
for racing. Each has a width of 13.5m. The best crews in semifinals and finals
normally compete in middle lanes 3 and 4.
The lane position of crews in the heats is determined by a draw before the
beginning of racing.
Tie-Break Rules and Procedures
If there is a dead-heat between crews in a heat, repechages or semifinal
and if only one of the crews goes on to the next round, there must be a re-row
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between the crews involved. If there is a dead-heat between crews in a final and
the tied placing is for a medal position, additional medals will be awarded.
Crew changes
Up to half of the rowers in all crews entered may be substituted. The
member federations must communicate the changes in writing to FISA’s Control
Commission at least one hour before the first heat of the event. A crew which
has already raced in the heat of its event may not make changes in the crew, except in the case of a serious illness or accident. A single sculler who entered and
falls ill or is injured in an accident may be replaced before his/her heat. No substitution may be made once he/she has completed his/her heat.
Penalties / Disqualification Rules
The Board of the Jury may impose the following penalties on rowers, coxswains or persons accompanying them: reprimand, yellow card (applying to the
next round in which the crew is concerned), exclusion (from all the rounds of
the event in question), disqualification (from all events in the regatta) or any
other appropriate measure in order to assure the fairness of the competition.
Exclusion
A crew arriving after the start time or causing two false starts will be excluded. Crews interfering with opponents will be excluded by the umpire.
Exercise 1. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following
words and word-combinations:
Соревнование, четвертьфинал, полуфинал, соревноваться, рулевой,
удаление, арбитр.
Exercise 2. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and
word-combinations:
Repechage, crew, heat, buoy, to be awarded, substitution, reprimand, to
cause a foul.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Answer the questions:
What is the standard race distance?
How many rounds are there in the regatta?
In what lines do the best crews usually compete?
Is it possible to make substitutions in the crew?
What penalties may be imposed on rowers?
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CANOEING/ KAYAKING
ALL ABOUT OLYMPIC CANOEING
Canoeing events have been a part of the Olympic Games since the 1936
Olympics in Berlin. The rapid growth in interest in Olympic Canoeing can be
partially attributed to its appeal as a power and speed sport. Another reason for
its popularity is the fact that the sport is familiar to most people, at least in concept. While the general public may not know the specific rules governing Olympic Canoeing, the concept is one we can all identify with. There are two types of
Olympic canoeing competitions, the flat water Sprint and the Slalom. The flat
water Sprint, as the name implies, takes place on calm and open water. There are
12 sprint events in Olympic competition. Men compete in single and double canoes and single and double kayaks at a distance of 500 and 1000 meters. There
is also a 4-man canoe event that covers 1,000 meters. Women compete in single,
double and four women kayaks in 500 meter races.
The course is divided into nine lanes, each lane being 9 meters wide. Depending on how many entries are in an event, the race is run through a series of
heats, culminating in a semi- final and then final race. The winner of the race is
the one whose bow point, or the tip of the boat, crosses the finish line first. The
canoes that are used for the flat water Sprints are open decked, and the paddler
rows from a kneeling position. The paddle used is a single bladed paddle.
Slalom racing takes place on either a natural course, such as a river, or a
manmade competition area. The course is marked by a series of gates, normally
twenty-five, that the paddler must traverse. This is a white water event. The race
is, of course decided by time, but touching gates with any part of your body or
canoe, or missing gates entirely, adds penalty points to your time. Men compete
in single and double canoe and men's single kayak in the slalom, and women
compete in the single kayak event. Due to the rougher water conditions in the
slalom, the canoe competitors use closed top canoes for this event.
Both the flat water and slalom events require a combination of strength
and endurance. The slalom event also requires the participants to be able to find
the most direct route through swirling water to the finish line. This requires a
good deal of experience, planning, and also a bit of luck.
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Exercise 1. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following
words and word-combinations:
Каноэ, спокойная вода, соревноваться, байдарка, заплыв, опыт,
штрафное очко.
Exercise 2. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and
word-combinations:
Concept, reason, sprint, slalom, double, event, paddler, manmade, white
water, gate.
Answer the questions:
1. When did canoeing become an Olympic sport?
2. How many types are there in the Olympic canoeing competitions?
3. How many sprint events are there in the Olympic competitions?
4. How many lines is the course divided into?
5. How many gates are usually in the slalom racing?
CANOEING AND KAYAKING RULES
PART I
Canoeing Events
There are two major competitive canoeing events: Sprint and Slalom.
You will see these events at the Olympics and at canoeing / kayaking competitions. Below is an explanation of these two major competitive events.
Canoe / Kayak Flat-water Racing (Sprint)
Canoe / kayak flat-water racing is done in calm water and the main objective is speed and getting to the finish line first. Canoeing (flat-water) events start
out with qualifying races (heats) and the winner of the qualifying heat goes directly on to the semifinals. The losers get a second chance and the three or four
fastest in the second round also move into the semifinals. Then from the semifinals a final will held with usually no more than 9 boats taking part in the final.
Sprint Course and Rules
Sprint races are held in large man made facility, usually referred to as a
Basin. The Basin is very large, usually 150 meters wide and can be over 1,000
meters long. 1,000 meters is approximately 62 miles. There are races that are
1,850, 5,000 and up to 10,000 meters in length. 5,000 meters is approx. 3.1
miles. These long races are held in lakes, bays, ponds any body of water that has
the sufficient length but where the wave action of the water will be minimal and
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the water will be as flat and calm as possible. The maximum length in Olympic
competitions is 1,000 meters. A standard basin has nine lanes to allow the maximum number of racers in each heat. The basin will also have a starting jetty
where the canoes and kayaks will line up to start the race. Each competitor will
be assigned a specific lane and the lanes will have markers so the competitors
know which lane is theirs. In those races up to 1,000 meters competitors must
stay in their lane. The lanes will be approx. 9 meters wide (approx. 29 feet). In
the longer races, over 1,000 meters, competitors can go outside of their lane as
long as they don't impede or interfere with other racers. Also in races over 1,000
meters, if there are turns in the course, the racers must take the turns counterclockwise. If two boats are approaching a turn simultaneously then the outside
boat has to leave room for the inside boat if the inside boats bow is even with
the front edge of the cockpit of the outside boat. Boats are allowed to touch
when turning, however the touching can't provide an advantage to one boat over
the other. The same is true with a turning buoy, a boat may touch a buoy, but
can't gain an advantage by doing so.
To start the race, the noses of the boats are lined up and placed in small
cones just above the surface of the water. When the signal to start the race is
given, the cones will drop into the water at the same time, this releases the boats
and the race begins. With this system false starts rarely happen. If this cone system is not available for use then boats will line up with their bows on the starting
line and there will be aligners who will lay on the starting jetty holding the boats
to keep the boats from moving. There will also be an Alignment Judge and their
job is to make sure the boats are lined up evenly and If they are satisfied that the
boats are in fact lined up evenly, they will inform the starter and the starter will
start the race. Another method for starting a race is to have an Aligner hold the
stern of each boat against a starting pontoon so all the boats are equal distance
from the staring line. The starter might say something like "ready" or "attention"
and then they will fire a starting pistol and the race begins. If there is a false start
then another shot will be fired to recall the boats back to the starting jetty. If a
boat false starts twice they will be disqualified.
During a race, boats are not allowed to come within five meters (15 feet)
of each other. This rule is to stop boats from being pulled along in the wake /
wash of a boat that is ahead of them.
Boats taking part in the race can also not receive any assistance from
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side the course to pace or otherwise assist a boat in the race. A boat that is passing another boat must maintain its course, but the boat being passed is not allowed to change their course to interfere with the boat that is passing them.
If a competitor breaks a paddle within 25 meters on the starting line, the
race will be stopped, the race will be restarted and the competitor will be allowed to get a new paddle.
If there is a violation of the rules the Course Judge will raise a red flag at
the end of a race indicating a disqualification. If a white flag is raised, then this
indicates that no rules violation took place and the race result are final.
Canoe / Kayak Slalom Racing (Whitewater)
Canoe / kayak slalom racing takes place either on a river or on a man
made competition course. Canoeists compete at distances of 300 to 600 meters
(approx. 980 to 1970 feet). The competitors will attempt to go through a series
of 20 to 25 gates that will be numbered. The gates are placed around the course
and each competitor must pass through gates going both downstream, with the
current, and upstream, against the current. The poles marking downstream gates
will have green and white stripes and the poles marking the upstream gates will
have red and white stripes. At least 6 gates must be upstream gates
Because many Slalom events are held on rivers, there is no one standard
slalom course. There is a classification system and this is referred to as Class I to
VI. The ratings are based on the water flow and turbulence. The current of the
water should be moving at least 2m/sec. The gates will be held over the water by
wires/cables with the bottom of each gate being 15 centimeters (approx. 6 inches) above the water. The width of the gates can vary with the poles being between 1.20 meters to 3.50 meters (4 feet to 11 feet 6 inches) apart. The poles
will be 3.5 to 5 (1.2 to 2 inches) centimeters in diameter. There will be a cross
bar hanging above and between the two gate poles and a gate number will be attached to this beam so the competitors will know which gate it is and which way
they should go through the gate. If the number has a line through it then they are
entering the gate from the wrong direction. If there is not a line through the
number then they are entering from the correct direction. Competitors must go
through the gates in numerical order.
Exercise 1. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following
words and word-combinations:
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Байдарка, квалификационный заезд, полуфинал, помогать, байдарочное весло.
Exercise 2. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and
word-combinations:
Event, flat-water, basin, facility, starting jetty, buoy, aligner, stern, competitor.
Answer the questions:
1. What competitive canoeing events do you know?
2. How many boats take part in the final?
3. What is the standard length in Olympic competitions?
4. How is the race started?
5. What happens if a competitor breaks a paddle within 25 meters of the starting
line?
6. What does it mean when a red flag is raised?
7. What does it mean when a white flag is raised?
8. At what distance do canoeists compete in slalom events?
9. What color stripes will the poles making downstream gates and upstream
gates have?
10.What does it mean if a gate number has a line through it?
CANOEING AND KAYAKING RULES
PART II
Slalom Rules
Before the competition begins, each competitor is given one practice run
around the course.
In most Slalom racing there are heats, and these consist of two runs, a
semi-final and a final, these are both one run events. A starter's assistant will
hold the boat in place for the start of the race, there will be a 10 second count
down and then a tone / sound will signal for the boat to be released. When the
competitors' body passes through the starting gate an electronic starter is activated and the time begins. The minimum time interval between allowing boats to
start their run and enter the course is 45 seconds.
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Besides making sure that they pass through the gates in numerical order
the competitors must pass through a gate without touching a pole with their boat,
body or paddle. If they do touch a part of the gate they will have a penalty assessed against them.
If a competitor loses or breaks a paddle he may use their spare paddle or
their teammates spare, which they carry in the boat.
If a competitor turns their boat over and then leaves the boat they are disqualified. But if a competitor does an Eskimo roll, rolling the boat completely
over without leaving the boat, this is not considered to have capsized the boat. If
in a team competition a competitor leaves the boat the entire team is disqualified.
If one competitor is going to pass another competitor a section judge will
blow their whistle to signal the competitor who is being overtaken to give way
to the other boat. If either boat hinders or in some manner impedes the other
boat they may be allowed to retake their run. This will be a determination made
by the Chief Judge.
Slalom racing is a race against the clock. When the competitor’s body
crosses the finish line that is when the clock stops, in team competitions, it is the
body of the person in the front of the boat that counts. In Olympic and elite
competitions each competitor will get two runs and both runs will be used to
calculate their score. Then penalty points from both runs will be added to this to
produce their final score. In other competitions, competitors will get two runs
and only the best running time of the two is used. So the formula is Running
Time (in seconds) + Penalty Points = Total Score. Therefore, each second a canoeist uses going through the course counts for one point. So a time of 1:45
would be 105 points (60 seconds + 45 seconds = 105 seconds) and 10 seconds
for penalty points would be a total score of 115. The canoeist with the lowest
score wins.
Penalties
2 Point Penalties
A competitor having correctly gone through a gate but having touched the
gate with their body, boat or paddle will have a 2-point penalty accessed against
them. To repeat, penalty points will be added to the canoeists final time.
50-Point Penalty
A 50-point penalty can be assessed against a competitor(s) for the following infractions:
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Missing a gate
Going through a gate while the body of the competitor(s) is upside down
Going through a gate in the wrong direction
Pushing a gate
A team fails to cross the finish line within 15 seconds. Teammates must
cross the finish line within 15 seconds of each other.
Touching a gate without correct negotiation. An example of this would be
touching the second gate without going through the first.
A 50-point penalty is the maximum penalty that can be assessed against a
competitor.
Each Gate Judge will have colored discs and they will hold up these discs
to signal that a penalty has been assessed. A yellow disc with the number "2" or
"50" will be raised to indicate the number of points to be assessed against the
competitor. Judges also have a red disc that indicates a competitor has been disqualified. This rarely happens and only when a major rule violation occurs.
Officials
Sprint Officials
1) Chief Official: Supervises the race and makes final decision on any
disqualification ruling.
2) Technical Organizer
3) Competition Secretary
4) Starter: (Starts the race and rules on any false starts)
5) Aligners:(There are 9 Aligners and they hold each boat in place)
6) Alignment Judge: (Makes sure each boat is aligned as it should be)
7) 25 Meter Judges
8) Course Judges: (2 course judges follow the competitors in power boats
to make sure that each competitor stays in their lane. A raised white flag by a
course judge means the race was legal, a raised red flag means a competitor has
been disqualified.
9) Turning Point Judges ( In longer races they make sure the competitors
go correctly around the turning buoys)
10) Finishing Line Judges:(9 finish line judges use stop watches to verify
the time of each boat. These times are used as a back up system to the electric
timing system)
11) Timekeepers
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12) Boat Controller (Boat Controllers inspect the boats to see they meet
all of the requirements to be legal for racing)
Slalom Officials
1) Chief Official; 2) Technical Organizer ; 3) Chief Judge; 4) Gate Judges: (There is a gate judge at each gate to make sure that competitors pass each
gate in a legal manner); 5) Pre-start Controller; 6) Starter; 7) Timekeepers; 8)
Chief of Scoring; 9) Finishing Judge; 10) Safety Officer; 11) Safety Personnel
(Respond to emergency situations); 12) Boat Controllers.
Exercise 1. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following
words and word-combinations:
Полуфинал, байдарочное весло, свисток, догонять, вниз головой, пересекать, нарушение, дисквалифицировать.
Exercise 2. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and
word-combinations:
Heat, starting gate, spare paddle, to capsize, penalty, score, gate, teammate, pre-start.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Answer the questions:
What is the minimum time interval between boats at the start?
What happens if a competitor loses or breaks a paddle?
What happens if a competitor leaves the boat in a team competition?
When the clock is stopped in the finish?
How is the total score counted?
For what infractions is a 50-point penalty assessed?
What slalom officials do you know?
What sprint officials do you know?
CANOEING OLYMPIC QUALIFYING
Olympic Canoeing Qualifying and Racing Rules
Individual and teams qualify for the Olympics by advancing in the World
Championships or in continental qualification tournaments.
Canoeing Events
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There are two types of Olympic Canoeing. There is the canoe / kayak flatwater racing and the canoe / kayak slalom racing. The defining characteristic of
each type of race is the paddle each uses. In Canadian canoeing events a single
bladed paddle is used and the canoeist will switch the paddle from one side of
the canoe to the other. In Kayaking the canoeist will use a double bladed paddle
to alternate with one blade being used on the right side of the kayak and the other blade on the left side of the kayak.
Besides the type of paddle used, the number of crew members can differ,
the manner the canoeist sits in the canoe differs and there are some other differences in the equipment used in kayaks and canoes. Flat-water kayaks have a
small rudder in the stern (back). Flat-water canoes and slalom canoes / kayaks
don't have rudders.
Both men and women have events for Kayak flat-water and Kayak slalom
racing. In Canoe flat-water and slalom racing there are only men's events.
Canoe / Kayak Flat-water Racing
Canoe / kayak flat-water racing is done in calm water and the main objective being speed and getting to the finish line first. Canoeing (flat-water) events
start out with qualifying heats and the winner of the qualifying heat goes directly
on to the semifinals. The losers get a second chance and the three or four fastest
in the second round also move into the semifinals. Then from the semifinals a
final will held with no more than 9 boats taking part in the final.
Canoe / Kayak Slalom Racing
Canoe / kayak slalom racing takes place either on a river or on a manmade competition course. Canoeists compete at distances of 250 to 400 meters,
and they attempt to go through a series of 20 to 25 gates, which are two poles
that are numbered. The gates are placed in specific locations so that each competitor must pass through gates going downstream, these are the green gates, and
upstream, meaning against the current, these are the red gates.
A canoeist will have a two-point penalty accessed against them for touching a gate and a fifty-point penalty for missing or not going through a gate. Penalty points are added to the canoeist’s final time. Each second a canoeist uses
going through the course counts for one point. So to make it simple, a 2:00 minute run would be 120 points. If a canoeist touched a gate and missed a gate two
points would be added for touching the gate and fifty points for not going
through the gate, for a total of 172 points. The winner is the canoeist the least
amount of points.
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In slalom racing there are heats, made up of two runs, semi-finals, which
is one run and finals which is also one run. Depending on the number of canoeists, canoeists will usually start on a run at one-minute intervals in the heats and
up to two-and-a-half minute intervals in the finals.
Different Boats and Events
So to review, there are two kinds of boats, Canoes and Kayaks and in different races there will be a different number of crew members.
Canoes
C1 is a one-person crew who kneels and uses a single bladed paddle.
C2 is a two-person crew, both crew members kneel and both use a single bladed
paddle.
Kayaks
K1 is a one-person crew who is in a sitting position and who uses a double
bladed paddle.
K2 is a two-person crew and both are in a sitting position and both use a
double bladed paddle.
K4 is a four-person crew, all four are in a sitting position and all four use
a double bladed paddle.
Below is a list of the Canoeing / Kayaking events in the Olympics and the
names they go by.
Men's Events
Abbreviation
Long Name
C-1 Slalom
Canadian Slalom Singles
C-2 Slalom
Canadian Slalom Pairs
500-Meter C-1
Canadian Singles 500-Meters
1,000-Meter C-1
Canadian Singles 1,000-Meters
500-Meter C-2
Canadian Pairs 500-Meters
1000-Meter C-2
Canadian Pairs 1,000-Meters
K-1 Slalom
Kayak Slalom Singles
500-Meter K-1
Kayak Singles 500-Meters
1,000-Meter K-1
Kayak Singles 1,000-Meters
500-Meter K-2
Kayak Pairs 500-Meters
1,000-Meter K-2
Kayak Pairs 1,000-Meters
1,000-Meter K-4
Kayak Fours 1,000-Meters
Women's Events
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K-1 Slalom
Kayak Slalom Singles
500-Meter K-1
Kayak Singles 500-Meters
500-Meter K-2
Kayak Pairs 500-Meters
500-Meter K-4
Kayak Fours 500-Meters
Exercise 1. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following
words and word-combinations:
Байдарка, гладкая вода, руль, квалификационный заезд, полуфинал,
вниз по течению, вверх по течению.
Exercise 2. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and
word-combinations:
Paddle, blade, crew, equipment, event, racing, manmade, pole, penalty
point, to kneel.
Answer the questions:
1. What types of Olympic canoeing are there?
2. What differs Canadian canoeing from kayaking?
3. What is the difference between flat-water kayaks from flat-water canoes?
4. How many boats take part in the final?
5. What does the abbreviation C-2 mean?
CANOE AND KAYAK EQUIPMENT
Canoeing and Kayak Equipment
There are two kinds of boats used in the sports of kayaking and canoeing.
Both types of boats are used in Sprint (Flat-water) racing and Slalom (Whitewater) racing. Below is a description of the canoes and kayaks that are used in
Sprint and Slalom racing.
Kayaks and Canoes
The type of competition canoes and kayaks are taking part in will be identifiable by a letter and number. The letter C stands for canoe and K for kayak. So
C1 just means a canoe with 1 crew member as K4 would mean a kayak with 4
crew members. Canoes are often referred to as Canadian canoes, so the C can
also stand for Canadian.
Canoes and Kayaks can be made of any material but most are made of
foam, fiberglass, Kevlar and carbon-fiber materials.
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Slalom canoes and kayaks both have flat hulls so they can turn very
quickly and sharply and both are designed to produce speed, handling and versatility.
Kayak paddles, in both Slalom and Sprint, use a double-bladed paddle,
which has two curved blades. These two blades are at each end of a shaft, this
allowing the competitor to paddle on either side of the boat. Kayak paddle
blades are set at 90-degree angles to make it easier for the competitor to have the
paddle enter the water at the angle they desire with just the turning of their
wrists.
Canoe paddles have one flat blade that is squared off and have a handle at
the opposite end of the shaft that the blade is attached to.
Sprint (Flat-water) Racing Equipment
Sprint Kayaks
Sprint Kayaks are allowed to have steering rudders, which the kayaker
moves using their feet. The rudders assist with controlling the direction of the
kayak. Kayaks will have a tapered bow and the top of the kayak will be closeddecked except for the cockpit area, which will have a spray skirt to cover it. This
is the same for single, pairs and four person kayaks. The racers sit down on a
seat in the cockpit of the kayak. The paddles will be held by the crew members
when they being used, that is they won't be fixed or attached to the kayak, as
oars are in the sport of rowing.
Sprint Canoes
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Canoes are not allowed to have any steering rudder or any other steering
device. Canoes have a pointed bow and the crew will kneel when they are paddling and the cockpit of the canoe where they kneel will be open-decked. The
amount of open space is a function of the length of the canoe. The crew in Canadian canoes must use single-blade paddles to power the canoe through the water.
Slalom (Whitewater) Canoes and Kayaks
In Slalom (Whitewater) racing the canoes and kayaks look very similar to
each other. In the Sprint (Flat-water) events this is not the case. Both the canoes
and kayaks will be long and narrow, but the canoes will be wider and weigh
more than the kayak. Kayaks will be closed-decked so water can't get into the
boat and they will both have spray skirts that helps to keep the water out of the
boat. Both the canoe and kayak will have a ring on both ends, the stem and
stern, which will have safety straps attached to them. In case of a problem these
safety straps can be grabbed to control the boat. Of course if the competitor has
fallen out of their boat then they might be able to grab hold one of these straps to
help them stay above water. In slalom the canoeists will be kneeling using a single blade paddle. The kayaker will be seated and will be using a double blade
paddle. In Slalom racing both the canoe and kayak can carry an extra paddle so
in the event a competitor loses or breaks a paddle they will have a spare.
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Slalom Kayaks have a design that places the cockpit forward in the kayak
and not directly in the center of the kayak. This is called, unsurprisingly, a cab
forward placement. The result of the cab-forward placement is the bow is shorter but wider the stern is longer and the kayak becomes very maneuverable.
Canoes used in Sprint (Flat-water) Racing
C1 has a one-person crew. Specifications for this boat are:
•
Maximum Length of 5.20 meters / 17 feet
•
Minimum width (beam) 75 centimeters / 2 feet 6 inches
•
Minimum weight 16 kilograms / 35 pounds
C2 is a two-person crew. The specifications for this boat are:
•
Maximum Length of 6.50 meters / 21 feet 4 inches
•
Minimum width (beam) 70 centimeters / 2 feet 3 1/2 inches
•
Minimum weight 20 kilograms / 44 pounds
C4 boat has a four-person crew. The specifications for this boat are:
•
Maximum Length of 9 meters / 29 feet 7 inches
•
Minimum width (beam) 75 centimeters / 2 feet 6 inches
•
Minimum weight 30 kilograms / 66 pounds
Kayaks used in Sprint (Flatwater) Racing
K1 has a one-person crew. The specifications for this boat are:
•
Maximum Length of 5.20 meters / 17 feet
•
Minimum width (beam) 75 centimeters / 2 feet 6 inches
•
Minimum weight 16 kilograms / 35 pounds
C2 has a two-person crew. The specifications for this boat are:
•
Maximum Length of 6.50 meters / 21 feet 4 inches
•
Minimum width (beam) 70 centimeters / 2 feet 3 1/2 inches
•
Minimum weight 20 kilograms / 44 pounds
C4 has a four-person crew. The specifications for this boat are:
•
Maximum Length of 9 meters / 29 feet 7 inches
•
Minimum width (beam) 75 centimeters / 2 feet 6 inches
•
Minimum weight 30 kilograms / 66 pounds
Canoes used in Slalom (Whitewater) Racing
C1 has a one-person crew. The specifications for this boat are:
•
Maximum Length of 4 meters / 13 feet 1 1/2 inches
•
Minimum width (beam) 70 centimeters / 2 feet 3 1/2 inches
•
Minimum weight 16 kilograms / 35 pounds
C2 has a two-person crew. The specifications for this boat are:
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•
Maximum Length of 4 meters / 13 feet 1 1/2 inches
•
Minimum width (beam) 70 centimeters / 2 feet 3 1/2 inches
•
Minimum weight 20 kilograms / 44 pounds
Kayaks used in Slalom (Whitewater) Racing
K1 has a one-person crew. The specifications for this boat are:
•
Maximum Length of 4 meters / 13 feet 1 1/2 inches
•
Minimum width (beam) 60 centimeters / 2 feet
•
Minimum weight 9 kilograms / 29.5 pounds
Safety Equipment
In Slalom (Whitewater) racing, safety equipment is very important. The
danger kayakers face is having their boat capsize and then hitting their head on a
rock, a gate or some other obstacle that is a part of the course. To help protect
the racers, they are required to wear a safety helmet that is made of high impact
fiberglass, carbon or plastic. The racer will also be required to wear a life jacket
around their torso. The torso-designed life jacket is designed so as not to impede
their kayakers arm movements. Most racers will wear a wet suit to help keep
them dry and warm and these are made of tight-fitting water-resistant fabrics.
The Spray Skirt is a device that fits around the cockpit of the kayak and
around the waist of the kayaker and it is also attached to the boat. Its purpose is
to prevent water filling the interior of the kayak. Spray skirts are made of neoprene and are waterproof.
Exercise 1. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following
words and word-combinations:
Бурная вода, гладкая вода, рукоятка, руль, помогать, нос судна, ремень безопасности, спасательный жилет.
Exercise 2. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and
word-combinations:
Equipment, crew, hull, paddle, shaft, wrist, tapered, oar, rudder, gunwale,
blade, capsize, safety helmet.
Answer the questions:
1. How do kayak paddles look like?
2. What angle do kayak paddle blades set?
3. How do canoe paddles look like?
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4. In what way a kayaker can move steering rudders?
5. What safety equipment is used by the athletes?
SAILING
INTRODUCTION TO SAILING
Sailing is the art of controlling a boat with large (usually fabric) foils
called sails. By changing the rigging, rudder, and sometimes the keel or centre
board, a sailor manages the force of the wind on the sails in order to change the
direction and speed of a boat. Mastery of the skill requires experience in varying wind and sea conditions, as well as knowledge concerning sailboats themselves and a keen understanding of one's surroundings.
In most countries people enjoy sailing as a recreational activity or as
a sport. Recreational sailing or yachting can be divided into racing and cruising.
Cruising includes extended trips, short trips within sight of land, and daysailing.
Sailing (also known as yachting up until 1996) has been one of
the Olympic sports since the Games of the I Olympiad, held in Athens, Greece,
in 1896. Despite being scheduled in the first Olympic program, the races were
canceled due to severe weather conditions. Apart from the 1904 Summer Olympics, sailing has been present in every other edition of the Olympic Games.
Over time, different classes (equipment) featured at the Olympics. First,
the classes were specified in tons, later in meters, feet or generic names. For the
discontinued classes, the Vintage Yachting Games were introduced in 2008.
Until 1988, sailing was a gender-independent sport. Even in 1900, several
women participated at the Olympic sailing regattas. In 1988, the first exclusive
women's sailing event was introduced.
Most of the Olympic sailing competitions were done in what is called a
fleet race format. At some Olympics, however, was also the match race format,
or a mixed fleet/match race format.
The International Sailing Federation (ISAF) was founded in 1896 and it is
the organization responsible for international rowing competitions, rowing rules
and regulations along with Olympic qualifying events.
The sport formerly known as Yachting was introduced at the 1900 Olympics, and featured expensive boats as big as 20 tons, often sailed by aristocrats
with grandiose names.
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In recent years, though, the event has tried to play down its image as a
sport for the wealthy. Following the Atlanta Games, the name was officially
changed to sailing, with good justification: most of the boat classes are small
dinghies and sailboards, which can hardly be called yachts.
Boats are now weighed in kilograms, not tons, and the focus is on the sailing and athletic abilities of the competitors, rather than the boats, making today's
Olympic sailing a legitimate sporting spectacle.
Exercise 1. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and
word-combinations:
Ridding, sailor, recreational, yachting, equipment, event, race, sail, rudder, wealthy.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Answer the questions:
What is sailing?
What skills must a sailor possess?
In what year did sailing become an Olympic sport?
In what way were the classes specified?
What organization is responsible for rowing competitions?
SAILING RULES
Description
Sailing events take place on a watercourse that use marker buoys to map
out the course sailors must follow and complete in order to get credit for finishing the race. Competitors will be racing against each other.
Sailing Rules
Olympic sailing rules follow the rules of the International Sailing Federation (ISAF) and the organizations Racing Rules for Sailing (RRS).
The sailors score will match their final position. 1 point for first place, 2
points for second place and so on. The winner will be the sailor(s) with the lowest aggregate score in all races, after their worst score has been thrown out.
Olympic Sailing Courses
The Sailing courses will consist of four waterways. These courses are designated with marker buoys that are put out daily during the Olympics. Weather
conditions, meaning wind strength and direction, will determine where the
buoys are placed and how they might need to be repositioned on a daily basis.
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There are Olympic sailing officials at sea who monitor the weather and place the
buoys appropriately.
Olympic Sailing Qualifying
Approximately 35% of each event's entry quota will gain Olympic qualification based on finishing results from that event's World Championships prior
to the Olympic Games. Using the final results, National Olympic Committees
(NOC) will be ranked in order of their highest finishing and competitors who are
qualify will sail in the Olympics for that NOC.
Approximately 45% of each event's entry quota will gain Olympic qualification based on finishing results from that event's ISAF World Championships.
Approximately 20% of each event's entry quota will gain Olympic qualification based on finishing results from that event's ISAF World or Continental
Championships. The host nation will directly qualify a boat in each event.
Exercise 1. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and
word-combinations:
Buoy, sailor, credit, score, weather conditions, quota, to gain, qualification, appropriately.
THE BOAT CLASSES
There are nine Olympic Sailing Classes (Boats): Mistral Class Sailboard –
Sailboarding or Windsurfing Men / Women.
Sailboarding became an Olympic event at the 1984 Olympic Games in
Los Angeles and for both men and for women at the 1992 Games in Barcelona,
Spain. The Mistral type boats are 4.24 meters (13ft 11in) long and 1.3 meters
(4ft 3in) wide. The mainsail area is 7.4sq. meters, 79sq. feet. Competitors are
allowed to weigh between 50 -70 kilograms (110-154 pounds)
Centerboard and Keels both act to keep the boat from moving sideways.
The difference is that the keel is fixed and has ballast. A centerboard is moveable and it is the weight of the crew that acts as the ballast.
470
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An Olympic-class boat since the 1976 Montreal Games, 470s are named
for their length - 4.7m, or 470 centimeters. Women began racing 470s in Olympic competition in 1988. 470s have a jib and mainsail and are distinguishable
from other smaller boats by their large spinnaker and trapeze.
Laser
The world's most popular sailboat didn't make its Olympic debut until the
Atlanta Games in 1996. Its single-sail, centerboard design was created by sailor
and yacht designer Bruce Kirby, who represented Canada in three Olympics and
designed two America's Cup boats. Men will race the Laser, known for its especially fast turns, at the Beijing Games.
Laser Radial
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This one-person boat will make its debut for female competitors at the
2008 Summer Games. A variant of the standard Laser, the Laser Radial has a
reduced sailing area and shorter mast, making it easier for light sailors to sail in
heavy winds.
Windsurfers
Windsurfing was introduced as an Olympic event in 1984, with women
joining the ranks in 1992.
While windsurfers are known for their stunts and wave-jumping, Olympic
windsurfers are only concerned with speed, and the goal is the same as every
other sailing class: finish first.
Star
The Star is the "grand old lady" of Olympic sailing. It was first introduced
at the 1932 Los Angeles games and has made an appearance at every Olympics
since. It is the only double-keeled (fixed centerboard) boat in the Olympic boat
classes. The Star is the second-largest boat, but has the largest mainsail area at
22.35 square meters.
Yngling
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This boat made its Olympic debut for women at the 2004 Athens Games.
The Yngling (pronounced ING-ling) is a small, sleek keelboat designed to be
sailed by three "average-sized" people.
Besides being very light and easy to sail, the Yngling's main claim to
fame is that it is virtually unsinkable – even when filled with water.
49er
The 49er is a light double-handed dinghy that made its debut at the 2000
Olympic Games. Many of the principal features of the 49er are relatively new to
the sailing world. It uses a double trapeze, and its shape causes much less drag
than any other boat. It has an asymmetrical spinnaker out on a pole beyond the
bow of the boat.
One potential hazard is its instability: it is prone to capsizing and breaking
down in winds exceeding 20 knots.
Finn
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In 1949, Richard Sarby designed the Finn, a single-handed dinghy described by experts as perhaps the purest athletic experience in world-class sailing. It has a reputation for being fast and easy to sail. The Finn has a huge sail
area and a bigger broad beam, meaning that a bigger, stronger sailor usually gets
the best results from this boat.
First introduced in 1952, the Finn remains the oldest continuous class in
Olympic sailing and is basically unchanged from its original design.
Tornado
Tornados are the fastest boats in Olympic sailing. Designed in 1966, this
multi-hulled class can reach speeds of up to 30 knots.
It is not an easy boat to maneuver, and can be extremely challenging to
sail. It's also visually dramatic: it often skims along with one hull in the water
while sailors perch high above the water on the other. The Tornado became an
Olympic class in 1972.
Answer the questions:
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1. How many Olympic sailing classes are there?
2. When did sailboating become an Olympic event?
3. Why does 470-class boat have such name?
4. What is the most popular sailboard?
5. When did Laser Radical make its debut?
6. When was windsurfing first introduced?
7. What is the only double-keeled boat in the Olympic boat classes?
8. What sailboat is designed to be sailed by three people?
9. When did 49er make its debut?
10.What is the oldest class in Olympic sailing?
11.What is the fastest boat in the Olympic sailing?
12.When did Tornado become an Olympic class?
OLYMPIC SAILING:
TYPES OF RACING SAILS USED IN THE OLYMPIC GAMES
There are four primary types of sails used in the modern Olympic Games
split into two types: mainsails and headsails.
Sailing was first featured in the 1900 Olympic Games in Paris. Since then,
new equipment developments and technologies have forced changes and adaptations within the sport. But while boats and training techniques have changed
since the sport was first contested, the sails used within the Olympic sport have
remained largely the same.
Racing Sails: Headsails Vs. Mainsails
Olympic sails can be divided into two categories: headsails and mainsails.
A mainsail is the larger sail that is attached behind the mast. It is the main
source of power for the boat. There are very few variations to this sail when it
comes to Olympic competition.
Headsails however vary a bit more. The headsail is the sail that sits in
front of the mast, on the opposite side of the pole from the mainsail. There are
three main types of headsails: Genoa sails, jib sails and spinnaker sails.
Types of Headsails Used in Olympic Competition
A Genoa sail, sometimes referred to as the Genny sail, is used to gain
speed in moderate winds. The Genoa sail extends past the mast and overlaps a
bit with the mainsail. The Genoa sail was invented and first used in 1927 by
Swedish sailor Sven Salen, who invented the different sail because he wanted
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something that could more easily handle the unpredictable winds of the Gulf of
Genoa.
A jib sail is smaller than the other two types of headsails and is used in
high-wind conditions. The jib is no larger than the foretriangle and it does not
extend past the mast. Genoas and jibs often are confused, as a Genoa can be
considered modified jib.
A spinnaker sail, which is sometimes called a kite, is a large, balloon-like
sail used in downwind sailing. The spinnaker sail billows away from the mast
and is often very colorful. It can be either symmetrical or asymmetrical, and it
can be used with or without a jib.
Through years of practice and training, Olympic- and elite-level sailors
are able to determine which sail is ideal for the wind conditions and which sail
will help them win the race. But sailing is not only for elite-level athletes – with
the proper sailing equipment and enough training, anyone can be a recreational
sailor.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Answer the questions:
What categories is Olympic sail divided into?
In what way mainsails differ from headsails?
When was the Genoa sail invented?
In what conditions is a jib sail used?
In what conditions is a spinnaker sail used?
ELEMENTARY PARTS OF A BOAT
Before you actually start sailing, it is very important that you make yourself familiar with the parts of which a boat is built and how they are called. The
following terms are in some cases centuries old and might sound a bit funny.
However, the culture of seamanship is a crucial part of everybody’s sailing experience.
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The Hull
The “Hull” is the body of the boat. Dinghy hulls are most commonly
made of glass fiber these days, although you might come across some of wood
or plastic. They contain buoyancy tanks, most commonly in the left part (Port
tank), right part (Starboard tank) and the bottom (Central tank) of the hull.
The outer ring of the hull is called bow. Most dinghy hulls have a bow
that is pointed. Some smaller dinghies often used for early sailing lessons have a
square-shaped bow that is called pram bow. It helps to improve the buoyancy
forwards. Most dinghies have a foredeck that covers the front bow-area and slim
sidedecks for the flanks. In addition to that, a bench or thwart runs across the inner part of the hull. Larger dinghies often have side benches that run parallel to
the sidedecks.
Cruisers are generally larger and heavier than dinghies, which adds to
their stability. Cruiser hulls sometimes come in aluminum, ferro-cement of steel.
The hull contains at least one cabin to provide shelter for the crew.
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The outer edges of the hull – or the bow, actually – are called gunwale or
gunnel. The pointy front of the bow is called stem. The back corners of the bow
are called stern quarters and the bow’s backend is called stern.
Keel, Centerboard and Daggerboard
On the bottom of the hull, diving into the water, you will find a keel if solidly attached to the hull. In smaller dinghies, this structure can be removed, in
which case it is called a centerboard or daggerboard. In either case, it helps to
keep the boat aligned by reducing side drift or, as with heavy keels, through its
sheer weight.
Centerboards and daggerboards have the advantage that they can be adjusted by the depth in which you allow it to penetrate the water.
The Rudder
The structure that is used to steer a boat is called rudder. It is normally
controlled over a long stick-like extension that is linked to it and is called tiller.
In dinghies, the tiller is often extended with another stick to allow access and
control of the rudder from the thwart. It is – most originally – called tiller extension and linked with the tiller with a universal joint for maximum freedom.
The rudders in dinghy boats can be either fixed or have a lifting blade.
The latter one is in particular useful for very small boats that get pulled ashore
very often. Fixed rudders are lighter and stronger and generally favored for racing dinghies. However, beginners find them more challenging to use in shallow
waters. Cruiser boats generally have fixed rudders. It is normally controlled
from the cockpit through a pedestal.
The Rig
Extensions from the hull that are fixed and mounted are called the rig,
generally consisting of mast, boom and sails. The rig is the structure of a boat
that catches the wind and transmits the power into the hull. Rigs come a great
range of varieties, not only between dinghies and larger yachts, but also within
the same category between different models and series.
Boom: The boom is a vertical pole that is attached with a flexible link to
the mast and holds the mainsail by its foot. It is normally made of aluminum.
Standing Rigging: Normally, the mast and boom are supported by a
number of attached ropes and wires that are called the standing rigging. The extent to which a boat has a standing rigging can vary a lot to the extent that is
doesn’t have any – this is the case with boats that are designed to be navigated in
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a fashion as simple as possible, in particular single-handed yachts. In these
yachts, the mast is standing freely.
Running rigging: The ropes that allow you to control the sails and that
connect the sails to the mast and hull are collectively called the running rigging.
The control of the running rigging is achieved through a number of different
types of fitting.
Most dinghy boats – especially those that are most commonly used by beginners – are rigged in a way called Bermuda sloop. The Bermuda sloop consists
of mainsail and a jib towards the front. In this arrangement, both sails are triangular in shape. In order to increase the speed of the boat – and to make it look
better – many sailors like to attach spinnaker sails, especially for sailing downwind.
Sails: Modern sails are usually more or less triangular is shape and made
of a woven material called Dacron. They are reinforced in parts that have to
stand the hardest pressures – obviously the corners and fittings that attach them
to mast or boom. Each side of the sail is referred to by a specific name: the leading edge is called luff, the back edge is called leech and the bottom edge is
called foot.
The same thing applies to the corners: the top corner is called head, the
bottom forward corner is called tack and the backward one clew. If a sail has a
curved outer edge to increase the sail surface, this extension is called roach.
Fittings: To allow the crew to control the rig, there a several types of fitting attached to the running rig. Blocks are used to change the direction in which
ropes run. Cleats are used to secure ropes in order to avoid them flying around
and getting messed up.
The rope that is used to attach the boat when mooring, is called painter.
Fairleads are fittings that direct ropes into a specific directions, as in curves. The
fitting that attaches the jib, forestay and painter to the bow is called bow fitting.
Exercise 1. Retell the text.
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СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
Пояснительная записка к учебному пособию………………….
SWIMMING
Introduction to swimming …………………………………………..
Measurements for an Olympic Size Swimming Pool ………………..
Equipment for swimming ……………………………………………
Learn all the swimming strokes Part 1 ……………………………….
Learn all the swimming strokes Part 2 ……………………………….
Medley Swimming Part I ……………………………………………
Medley Swimming Part II …………………………………………..
Swimming Olympic Qualifying ……………………………………..
Olympic Rules of the Front Crawl Swimming Technique …………..
WATER POLO
Introduction to water polo ……………………………………………..
History and basic skills …………….………………………………….
Positions ……..…………………………………………………………
Strategies Part I ………………………………………………………
Strategies Part II ……………………………………………………….
Rules and Fouls ………………………………………………………..
Throws and Equipment …..…………………………………………….
SYNCHRONIZED SWIMMING
The History of synchronized swimming ………………………………
Basic Skills and Positions ……………………………………………...
Routine ……………………..…………………………………………..
Synchronized Swimming Rules ……………………………………….
Synchronized Swimming Equipment / Venue ………………………..
How Synchronized Swimming Routines Are Judged .……………….
DIVING
Introduction to Diving …………………………………………………
Dive Groups ……………………………….…………………………..
Diving Rules Part I …………………………………………………….
Diving Rules Part II …..……………………………………………….
Scoring ……………..…………………………………………………..
Diving Equipment ……………………………………………………...
ROWING
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Introduction to Rowing ………………………………………………..
History of Rowing …………………………………………………….
Rowing Rules ………………………………………………………….
Rowing Equipment …………………………………………………….
Competitions Part I ……………………………………………………
Competitions Part II …………………………………………………...
CANOEING/ KAYAKING
All About Olympic Canoeing ………………………………………….
Canoeing and Kayaking Rules Part I ………………………………….
Canoeing and Kayaking Rules Part II …………………………………
Canoeing Olympic Qualifying ………………………………………..
Canoe and Kayak Equipment …..……………………………………..
SAILING
Introduction to sailing …………………………………………………
Sailing Rules ……………………………………………………….. ..
The Boat Classes ……………………………………………………..
Olympic Sailing: Types of Racing Sails Used in the Olympic Games
Elementary parts of a Boat ………………..………………………….
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Литература:
1. http://www.medicinenet.com
2. http://www.pponline.co.uk
3. http://www.iloveindia.com/
4. http://www.active.com
5. www.triswimcoach.com
6. http://en.wikipedia.org
7. http://www.ehow.com
8. http://www.shedyourweight.com
9. http://www.talkswimming.co.uk
10. http://www.livestrong.com
11. http://www.worldrowing.com
12. http://www.sport-fitness-advisor.com
13. http://www.livestrong.com
14. http://www.netfit.co.uk
15. http://www.fuzilogik.com
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Учебное издание
О. А. Пономарева
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
Сборник текстов и упражнений
для направления подготовки 034300.62
Физическая культура, профилю подготовки
«Спортивная тренировка в избранном виде спорта»
специализации
ВОДНЫЕ ВИДЫ СПОРТА
Ответственные за выпуск:
Заведующий кафедрой иностранных языков, доцент Комлева Л.А.
Подписано в печать: 29.12.11 г.
Усл. печ. л. 6,3.
Тираж 100 экз. Заказ № 891.
Издательство
ФГБОУ ВПО «Волгоградская государственная академия физической культуры» 400005, Волгоград, пр. В. Ленина, 78.
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