close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

2343

код для вставкиСкачать
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Æóðíàë Ñèáèðñêîãî ôåäåðàëüíîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà
2012
Journal of Siberian Federal University
5 (12)
Ãóìàíèòàðíûå íàóêè
Humanities & Social Sciences
Редакционный совет
академик РАН Е.А.Ваганов
академик РАН И.И.Гительзон
академик РАН А.Г.Дегерменджи
академик РАН В.Ф.Шабанов
чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук
В.Л.Миронов
чл.-к. РАН, д-р техн. наук
Г.Л.Пашков
чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук
В.В.Шайдуров
член-корр. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук
В.В. Зуев
Editorial Advisory Board
Chairman:
Eugene A. Vaganov
Members:
Josef J. Gitelzon
Vasily F. Shabanov
Andrey G. Degermendzhy
Valery L. Mironov
Gennady L. Pashkov
Vladimir V. Shaidurov
Vladimir V. Zuev
Editorial Board:
Editor-in-Chief:
Mikhail I. Gladyshev
Founding Editor:
Vladimir I. Kolmakov
Managing Editor:
Olga F. Alexandrova
Executive Editor
for Humanities & Social Sciences:
Natalia P. Koptseva
CONTENTS / ÑÎÄÅÐÆÀÍÈÅ
Stephen A. Beebe
The Importance of Communication Skill Instruction and Research
in a Changing Society
– 1717 –
Sergey G. Korkonosenko
Deontology of Journalism as a Field of Moral Choice for a
Professional
– 1723 –
Viacheslav B. Kashkin
Telementation vs. Interaction: Which Model Suits Human
Communication Best?
– 1733 –
David C. Williams,
Marilyn J. Young and Michael K. Launer
A Methodology for Analyzing Political Speech: Western
Approaches to Rhetorical Theory
– 1744 –
Lyudmila V. Kulikova
Technologisation of Discourse Practices: Globality Versus
Cultural Specificity
– 1753 –
Heidemarie Salevsky
Cross-Cultural Communication as a Mirror of Civilization
(German Translations of Russian Literature as a Case in
Point)
– 1762 –
Olga A. Leontovich
Understanding as the Beginning of Agreement: Linguistic
Aspects of Intercultural Family Communication
– 1772 –
Компьютерная верстка Е.В. Гревцовой
Подписано в печать 23.11.2012 г. Формат 84x108/16. Усл. печ. л. 11,0.
Уч.-изд. л. 10,5. Бумага тип. Печать офсетная. Тираж 1000 экз. Заказ 10926.
Отпечатано в ПЦ БИК. 660041 Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 82а.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Consulting Editors
for Humanities & Social Sciences:
Gershon M. Breslavs
Sergey V. Deviatkin
Sergey A. Drobyshevsky
Sergey M. Geraschenko
Oleg M. Gotlib
Boris I. Khasan
Igor E. Kim
Natalia V. Kovtun
Aleksandr A. Kronik
Pavel V. Mandryka
Boris V. Markov
Valentin G. Nemirovsky
Daniel V. Pivovarov
Andrey V. Smirnov
Viktor I. Suslov
Evgeniya V. Zander
Igor S. Pyzhev
Vladimir I. Suprun
Liudmila V. Kulikova
Olga G. Smolyaninova
Nicolai N. Petro
Dr. Suneel Kumar
Francisco R. Cuenca
Communication as a Teaching/Learning Strategy in Bilingual
Education
– 1781 –
Vladimir I. Zhelvis
Rudeness as a System of Strategies and an Object of
Classification
– 1790 –
Elena N. Klemenova
The Sense as the Dominant Generating Speech Communication
– 1798 –
Yana V. Popova
Taboo Breaking as a Current Tendency of Discursive
Interpretation of Taboo Speech Meanings
– 1806 –
Natalia K. Dmitrieva
Academic Mobility as a Prerequisite of Cross-Cultural
Communication and Professional Competency Development
– 1814 –
Свидетельство о регистрации СМИ
ПИ № ФС77-28-723 от 29.06.2007 г.
Серия включена в «Перечень ведущих рецензируемых научных журналов и изданий, в которых должны
быть опубликованы основные научные результаты диссертации на
соискание ученой степени доктора и
кандидата наук» (редакция 2010 г.)
Irina N. Rozina and Nadezda S. Zhukova
Discussion Forum as the Central Element of the Online Seminar:
Content-Analysis of Posts by German Students
– 1823 –
Nikolay D. Golev and Olga E. Yakovleva
Manipulative Strategies and Tactics of Mass Media
Communication (on the example of œThe Name of RussiaB
television project)
– 1834 –
Evgenya B. Bukharova
Evaluation of Strategic Influence of Socio-Economic Development
Asymmetry on Entrepreneurship Environment in the Region
– 1843 –
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 12 (2012 5) 1717-1722
~~~
УДК 808.5: 378.016
The Importance of Communication Skill Instruction
and Research in a Changing Society
Stephen A. Beebe*
San Marcos, Texas State University
The Department of Communication Studies
Centennial Hall, Room 205,
601 University Drive, San Marcos, TX 78666 1
Received 04.12.2012, received in revised form 11.12.2012, accepted 24.12.2012
The purpose of this paper is to describe the importance of communication skill development as central
to the communication discipline. In addition, additional theory and research is needed to support
prescriptions for enhanced communication effectiveness. The paper presents arguments suggesting
that improving human communication skills should be a critical element in communication curricula.
Specifically, the paper reviews the importance of communication skill development in the past, the
centrality of skill development in contemporary communication curricula and makes a case that
communication skill and theory and research about communication skills are needed in the future.
Keywords: communication, skills, communication discipline, instruction, curriculum, competencies
Introduction
The development of communication skills
has been a prime objective of communication
research and pedagogy for centuries. Humans
have been and continue to be interested in how
to communicate effectively, appropriately and
ethically. Contemporary books that prescribe
how to enhance communication skills (e.g.
The 5 Love Languages: the Secret to Love that
Lasts, Chapman, 1992; How to Win Friends and
Influence People, Carnegie, 1936) continue to
appear on bestseller book lists. Ancient Greek
and Roman philosopher/rhetoricians suggested
that the study and practice of rhetoric should
emerge from philosophy, the search for truth, and
human virtues of goodness and ethical thought
and action. Anchoring the rhetorical process in
*
1
philosophy was, in part, a reaction to sophists
who emphasized more behavioral elements of
rhetoric rather than cognitive-philosophical
perspectives. Today communication instruction
de-emphasizes the philosophical underpinnings
of communication in favor of the cognitive,
behavioral and affective domains of learning.
Historical Background
Contemporary study of communication in
the U.S. emerged from early 20th century academic
departments that taught English literature and
composition. The study of written English and
literature was among the first specialized areas of
study to gain department status. Embedded within
early departments of English were educators who
emphasized spoken rhetoric. By the late 1800s, it
Corresponding author E-mail address: sb03@txstate.edu
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 1717 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Stephen A. Beebe. The Importance of Communication Skill Instruction and Research in a Changing Society
was not uncommon for faculty members interested
in elocution to form sub-groups within English
departments. By the early 1900s it became clear
that several teachers of elocution were growing
increasingly uncomfortable teaching elocution
and declamation in academic departments that
primarily emphasized written messages. The
Eastern Public Speaking Conference in 1910 was
the first organized effort to establish a network
of public speaking and elocution teachers in the
United States; at their second meeting, the members
approved the first journal, Public Speaking
Review. The first national effort to organize
a professional association of public speaking
teachers occurred on November 28, 1914 at the
National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE)
conference when a group of 17 public speaking
teachers met to form a new association. The new
national organization was first a division within
NTCE for teachers of “Oral English”. The 1914
meeting, and the subsequent organization which
was established, grew and evolved into what is
today the National Communication Association,
the oldest and largest national communication
association in the world. The Eastern Public
Speaking Conference continues today as the
oldest regional communication association known
as the Eastern Communication Association.
With a national network of speech teachers
established, the study of “oral English” soon
became a more robust fi xture in U.S. colleges and
universities. The early focus of the association
was to develop greater legitimacy and prestige
for teaching public speaking; the group sought
to distance itself from “elocution” and focus on
more than the delivery of messages. Leaders in
the speech movement believed that in order to
gain academic respectability, speech teachers
would need to do more than teach speech; they
would need to develop a research agenda to fully
join their colleagues as a full-fledged member
of the academic community (Cohen, 1994). A
Research Committee was established to develop
a list of appropriate research topics for study.
The ten topics identified in their 1915 report
were:
1. Elocution and expression
2. Public speaking and oratory
3. Debate and discussion
4. Expressive reading and reciting
5. Reading and literature
6. Teaching each of the foregoing subjects
7. Physiology and psychology
8. Psychology of social groups
9. Sociology
of
communication
(interpersonal communication)
History of each of the foregoing subjects
(“Research in Public Speaking,” 1915, 28 cited by
Cohen 1994, p. 41).
Cohen (1994) noted that the list of titles “...
suggested by the committee gave a clear picture
of how the discipline was received at its outset
and presented us with a taxonomy which may be
compared with the perceptions of divisions [in
the National Communication Association] in the
1990s.” (p. 40).
Contemporary
Communication Research
These early areas of study can still be found
as echoes in contemporary communication
curricula in the United States. The focus on
early “speech” education was on how to improve
speech and reading performance. The skills
of speaking and listening also have their roots
in the humanities and social sciences. Charles
Woolbert, an early leader of the association, from
the outset that suggested the study of speech
was interdisciplinary. In 1916 he identified the
disciplines of education, sociology, political
economy, political science, law, history, English,
physics physiology and anatomy, psychology, and
philosophy as disciplines that could add to the
study of speech (Cohen, 1994). The influence of
# 1718 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Stephen A. Beebe. The Importance of Communication Skill Instruction and Research in a Changing Society
Woolbert’s interdisciplinary vision is evident in
contemporary communication curricula.
The conceptual shift from a study of speech
performance (a focus on skill development) to
communication processes (a focus on cognitive,
intellectual, cultural and communibiological
processes) frames the conceptual domains of both
the current foci of the communication discipline
as well as how it is investigated. The evolution
of the contemporary study of “communication”
from an historical focus on “speech” epitomizes
the importance of identifying the core conceptual
domain (skills and processes) of the discipline.
Macke (1991) argues that the contemporary
communication discipline has evolved from the
study of speech, or more specifically, a focus
on “teaching the body” – vocal and physical
communication skills. Starting with the Greek
sophists and embodied by European and
American elocutionists who broke away from
English teachers to focus on public speaking and
performance, the communication discipline has a
long-held tradition of studying and teaching how
to enhance the effectiveness of human expression
by emphasizing speech delivery. Macke (1991)
notes that some educators and scholars view
the contemporary study of communication
in a negative light because of its perceived
overemphasis on skills and mere performance.
Communication researchers such as Burgoon
(1989) have castigated those who focus on
skill development at the expense of theory
development. During the past one hundred years
the study of speech has evolved to focus less on
“teaching the body” to a focus on “teaching the
mind” by investigating theoretical and conceptual
explanations to help enhance our understanding
of human communication. Although public
speaking classes and other skill development
courses such as discussion, voice and diction,
and conflict management constitute elements of
contemporary communication curricula, there
appear to be fewer courses that teach primarily
skills, with the notable exception of courses
required for general education. Contemporary
communication research has a stronger theoretical
focus with an emphasis on how the meaning of
messages is created and interpreted.
The separation of speech faculty from theatre
faculty in academic departments in the U.S. in
the past twenty years, coupled with dropping the
word “speech” from the Speech Communication
Association in 1997, changing it to the National
Communication Association, were responses to
the shift from a focus of the intellectual domain
of the discipline from “teaching the body” to
“teaching the mind”. Because of the evolution
from emphasizing body (communication skills)
to mind (communication process), it is less
surprising that scholars who seek to identify the
conceptual or core intellectual domain of the
discipline focus on conceptual schema rather
than speech performance.
Basic
Communication Competencies
Although there has been a shift from a
focus on speech performance to communication
processes, there are nonetheless core skills that
help define the nature of an academic discipline.
Three clusters of communication skill sets in
unmediated settings emerge from studies that
identify communication practices valued in
the work place: Relating skills (interpersonal
communication skills), collaborating skills
(group communication skills) and presentations
skills (public speaking skills). These three skill
contexts are the most dominant communication
skill clusters. Communication competence
research that has been conducted in the last
two decades has sought to assess specific
communication competencies in interpersonal
communication (Spitzberg & Hurt, 1987) public
communication (Morreale et al., 1993) and
# 1719 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Stephen A. Beebe. The Importance of Communication Skill Instruction and Research in a Changing Society
small group communication (Beebe & Barge,
2003). The number of people involved in the
communication process (e.g., interpersonal
communication involves fewer people than group
or public communication) and the complexity of
the communication structure (e.g., interpersonal
communication is less structured and public
communication messages are more structured)
typically differentiate these three contexts.
Rubin and Morreale (2000) developed a
comprehensive classification of the most basic
communication skills, specifically expectations
for College Graduates. These skills are listed.
As noted by Rubin and Morreale (2000), “Basic
skills are minimal competencies and represent
abilities, core knowledge, and attitudes necessary
for effective functioning in society and in the
workplace” (p. 55).
Expected Student Outcomes for Speaking
and Listening Basic Communication
Course and General Education
Speaking Competencies
• Determine the purpose of oral discourse.
• Choose a topic and restrict it according to
the purpose and the audience.
• Fulfill the purpose of oral discourse by:
Formulating a thesis statement.
Providing adequate support material.
Selecting suitable organizational
pattern.
Demonstrating careful choice of
words.
Providing effective transitions.
Delivery Competencies
• Employ vocal variety in rate, pitch, and
intensity.
• Articulate clearly.
• Employ language appropriate to the
designated audience.
• Demonstrate nonverbal behavior that
supports the verbal message.
Interpersonal Skills
• Demonstrate appropriate interpersonal
skills for various contexts.
• Display
self-awareness
as
a
communicator.
• Select from a repertoire of interpersonal
skills, those strategies that enhance
relationships.
• Use a conversational mode through selfpresentation and response to feedback.
Listening competencies
• Recognize main ideas.
• Identify supporting details.
• Recognize explicit relationships among
ideas.
• Recall basic ideas and details.
• Attend with an open mind.
• Perceive the speaker’s purpose and
organization of ideas and information.
• Discriminate between statements of fact
and statements of opinion.
• Distinguish between emotional and
logical arguments.
• Detect bias and prejudice.
• Recognize the speaker’s attitude.
• Synthesize and evaluate by drawing
logical inferences and conclusions.
• Recall the implications and arguments.
• Recognize
discrepancies
between
the speaker’s verbal and nonverbal
messages.
• Employ active listening techniques when
appropriate.
Source: Speaking and Listening Competencies
for College Students (1999). Annandale, VA:
National Communication Association.
Conclusion
Regardless of which specific skill set
or context is being considered, Masterson,
Beebe & Watson, (1989) suggest that effective
communication can be evaluated by three
# 1720 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Stephen A. Beebe. The Importance of Communication Skill Instruction and Research in a Changing Society
criteria: (1) a message should be understood, (2)
a message should achieve the intended goal, and
(3) the message should be ethical. This tripartite
taxonomy is further developed by Beebe, Beebe
and Ivy (2013). Students who are taught these
criteria at the outset of learning communication
skills learn that effective communication is
more than just accurately “sending” a message
or simple trying to persuade someone else to do
something.
References
Beebe, S. A. & Barge, J. K. (2003). Evaluating group discussion. In R. C. Hirokawa, Small group
communication theory and practice: An Anthology, Los Angeles, CA: Roxbury., pp. 275-288.
Beebe, S. A., Beebe, S. J., & Ivy, D. K. (2013). Communication: Principles for a lifetime. Boston:
Pearson.
Burgoon, M. (1989). Instruction about communication: On divorcing dame speech. Communication
Education, 38, 303-308.
Carnegie, D. (1936). How to win friends and influence people. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Masterson, J. T., Beebe, S. A., & Watson, N. T. (1989). Speech communication: Theory and
practice. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Chapman, G. (1992). The 5 love languages: The secret to love that lasts (1992). Chicago, IL:
Northfield Publishing.
Cohen, H. (1994). The history of speech communication: The emergence of a discipline, 19141945. Annandale, VA: Speech Communication Association.
Macke, F. J. (1991). Communication left speechless: A critical examination of the evolution of
speech communication as an academic discipline. Communication Education, 40, 125-143.
Morreale, S. P., Moore, M., Taylor, P., Surges-Tatum, D., & Hulbert-Johnson, R. (1993). The
competent speaker speech evaluation form. Washington D. C: National Communication Association.
Rubin, R. B & Morreale, S. P. (2000). What college students should know and be able to do.
Journal of the Association for Communication Administration, 29, 53-65.
Spitzberg, B. H., & Hurt, H. T. (1987). The measurement of interpersonal skills in instructional
contexts. Communication Education, 36.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Stephen A. Beebe. The Importance of Communication Skill Instruction and Research in a Changing Society
Коммуникативные навыки в изменяющемся мире:
исследовательский и дидактический аспекты
Стивен Биби
Сан Маркос, Техасский государственный университет
Centennial Hall, Room 205
601 University Drive
San Marcos, TX 78666
В статье рассматривается важность развития коммуникативных навыков как
фундаментальной составляющей коммуникативистики. Кроме того, существует
потребность дальнейшей теоретической и эмпирической разработки проблем
эффективности коммуникации. В статье обосновывается положение о том, что
кардинальным моментом в рабочих программах коммуникативных дисциплин должно стать
развитие коммуникативных навыков. Автор останавливается на основных исторических
этапах развития коммуникативного образования: в прошлом, настоящем и будущем
развития коммуникативных навыков, а также исследует разработку теоретических основ
их выработки, которые были, есть и будут настоятельной потребностью.
Ключевые слова: коммуникация, навыки, коммуникативистика, обучение, учебные программы,
компетенции.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 12 (2012 5) 1723-1732
~~~
УДК 070.11
Deontology of Journalism as a Field of Moral Choice
for a Professional
Sergey G. Korkonosenko*
St. Petersburg State University
26 1-ya Linia V.O, St. Petersburg, 199004 Russia 1
Received 04.12.2012, received in revised form 11.12.2012, accepted 24.12.2012
The author examines the concept and the content of the journalism deontology in comparison with
professional ethics and morality. According to his estimation, deontology is a field of the principles
of profession, on the basis of synthesis of which the mission appears. One of the main qualitative
characteristics of deontology consists in the fact that it joins the knowledge of objective laws and the
subjective position of the media professional that forces him to make a moral choice.
Keywords: deontology, journalism, mission, principle, moral choice.
Problem viewpoint
One of the central places in the media theory
belongs to deontological bases of journalism.
They are in close interrelations with the laws of
press. Interrelations, however, is not equivalent
to direct subordination. Both one and another
contain a powerful potential to regulate processes
in journalism from the side of society and its
agents, as well as the self-regulation processes
developing inside journalism. Our aim is to
characterize deontology as a phenomenon that
plays a special and essential part in the theory
and (especially) practices of journalism.
Today there is no necessity to argue an
importance of the deontology study. It is even
officially recognized as an obligatory element
of qualification of a mass media employee. In
particular, one of the State Educational Standards
of the “Journalism” speciality, in the section of
general professional disciplines, mentions it in
*
1
such formulations: “Journalistic deontology”
and “Economic, legal, deontological nature of
collisions and searching ways to settle them”.
At the same time, as it seems, the role and the
place of deontology in the journalism theory
are determined not precisely enough. At least it
did not get the standard description as an object
of research (one of the largest and “influential”
objects) that determines the matter and
concepts of other categories. The main reason
is that deontology as a separate area of scientific
knowledge is young; it only tries to comprehend
itself though, paradoxically, its historical roots
are deep and strong. The told should be related
to many disciplines that include deontology into
own structure as a subdivision or a corner of sight
on the basic object. Usually in a number of such
disciplines medicine, jurisprudence, pedagogy,
and other spheres of practical and scientific
activity are mentioned, because they conduct
Corresponding author E-mail address: sk401@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 1723 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Sergey G. Korkonosenko. Deontology of Journalism as a Field of Moral Choice for a Professional
highly close contacts with needs of the society
and a person. Undoubtedly, journalism, as
practices and a field of knowledge, also belongs to
the spheres with social-humanitarian dominants.
And the situation of deontological disorder has a
high actuality for it.
This picture is in detail reflected in
special research publications: somebody relates
deontology to ethics, law, or certain intermediate
zone between them (Prohorov, 2001, p. 214–
215). According to our observations, gravitation
towards ethics is particularly typical, especially
to the most formalized and instrumental part of
it. Such a position is characteristic not only for the
Russian authors, but also for representatives of the
international scientific community. For example,
the report materials made by foreign consultants
for the Council of Europe and placed on a site
of the Union of Journalists of Russia (1995), are
entitled as the “Rules of Self-regulation in the
Field of Deontology of Press”. The report gives
the comparative analysis of ethical codes and
practices of the press councils in the countries
of the European Union. According to a subject
of analysis the norms and measures directed to
optimisation of activity of media organizations
and their employees are considered here (Council
of Europe, 1995). It is noticeable that some of
the codes are named as deontological. In rather
more developed scientific systems (for example in
medicine) the illegitimacy of such identification
is emphasized. If to accept joining to ethics as a
general rule (as well as identification with other
regulative systems in journalism) there would not
be a necessity to separate deontology as a special
subject for study. Against this objection some
authors offered the idea to consider deontology
as an “ex-territorial” formation that incorporates
all kinds of regulations. The following definitions
were proposed, in particular: “A set of legal and
ethical standards of responsible behaviour of mass
media employees” (Lozovskii, 2007, p. 56), “A
set of duties ‘serving’ journalistic obligations and
norms of their carrying out without dependence
on their comprehension, as a certain system
of categorical imperatives of the journalistic
behaviour set by the nature of mass media
operating in this or that situation” (Prokhorov,
2001, p. 232), and others.
In our opinion, the way of summation
causes extensive effects, but it does not lead
to understanding of a qualitative originality
of deontology, as well as it does not open an
opportunity to consider deontology in a context of
intrinsic characteristics of journalism. The list of
obligations of the press is endless; the enumeration
of them will take a lot of time and efforts and,
most likely, from the theoretic-methodical point
of view it would look like no more than a primitive
description. Besides the quoted definitions
concentrate attention on a normative aspect of the
question, and in this respect they are similar to the
position of the European experts presented above.
Such deontology hardly has chances to stand at
the same level with fundamental categories of
journalism – it will inevitably realize itself as
a collection of rules and interdictions, more or
less widely spread in a profession and more or
less obligatory. If it is deontology indeed, it is
lowered to a utilitarian-pragmatic level. At last,
if to agree that imperatives are predetermined by
the nature of mass media (perhaps, in this case
it would be more correct to refer to the nature of
journalism) they should operate objectively, as a
direct continuation of the laws of the press. This
means that a set of duties and norms operates
without dependence on their comprehension by
media professionals – that is, objectively, without
journalist’s will and feelings.
We would not like to reduce our reflections
to criticism of definitions and interpretation
proposed by other authors. Without any doubt, the
works of authoritative scientists contain a good
deal of truth and benefits for the development of
# 1724 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Sergey G. Korkonosenko. Deontology of Journalism as a Field of Moral Choice for a Professional
science. The object of research is so whimsical,
that it does not allow finding room for it entirely
in this or that system of analysis. At the same
time deontology should not stay on secondary
positions in the theory of journalism. It is able to
give researchers a key to answer radical questions
that can hardly be settled in other coordinates or
have no solutions at all.
Discussion on the matter of subject
In a deontological prospect the approaches
to the ideal in journalism are being opened – we
mean the constructing of such model of practice
that harmonizes public expectations, natural
properties of the press, subjective aspirations
of its leaders and employees, and also results of
studying it in science. However, for this purpose
it is necessary to deal with lexical and semantic
distinctions between basic concepts that are
chosen by the will of this or that author. The
normative treatment of deontology operates with a
concept of the duty. In our version the key concept
is the due. The difference, on fluent impression,
can seem insignificant, but we think it to be a
basic one. In the first case the emphasis is done on
obligations of the press, in the second case – on
the necessary and true behaviour, without which
the life will lose its natural order and vector of
development. If so, deontology becomes an area
where the ideal is being formed on the basis of
laws one has got to know. Thus, the priority of
objective nature (the laws) is kept in its relation to
subjective knowledge produced by experience and
consciousness. But the consciousness also plays
an active part, it lives in a continuous search of
the best choice in the whole volume of knowledge;
it correlates the laws with each other, operating
in the light of the laws content, but not under
their dictatorship. I. Kant specified the activity
of consciousness in its relation to the objective
nature and also the practicality of an ideal when
he described the moral world – the world that
conforms to all moral laws. The moral world,
according to the philosopher, is thought only as
comprehensible through the intellect. Hence, in
this sense it is only an idea, however a practical
idea that really can and should have influence on
the sensual world to make it, whenever possible,
adequate to the idea (Kant, 1999, p. 596).
The due in journalism, as well as in a socialmoral choice in general, is a necessity understood
and accepted by people and included by them
into personal world outlook and own strategy of
behaviour. Such statement of a question induces to
include into analysis a corresponding “measuring
instrument” and representation on the due, which
would give a possibility to make reflections at a level
of moral foundations of journalism. The category
of a principle corresponds to the given task in
full. In lexicographical dimension the principle is
understood as a general idea of the certain theory,
then as belief and views, and then as a main
feature of any system. Each of these meanings
will find its place in the description of deontology
performing corresponding representations on the
due. Deontology is a conceptual reconstruction of
journalism built on different theoretical bases. It
is also an integral characteristic of professional
consciousness and behaviour in journalism. It is,
at last, a “mechanism” of press’s vital activity that
ascends finally to its objective laws. Researchers
of the journalistic ethics (which consists in direct
relationship with deontology, as it was told
before) formulate some principles, though the list
of them differs in domestic and foreign sources
(Lazutina, 2006; Lambeth, 1992). The word
“principle” is included in ethical codes of press
in Austria, Belgium, Germany, while in Greece
the code has a name “Principles of Deontology”
(Kazakov, 1999).
Certainly, it is necessary to use actively
all this rich theoretical experience. But there
is one fundamental condition: we have to
draw a differentiating line between ethics and
# 1725 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Sergey G. Korkonosenko. Deontology of Journalism as a Field of Moral Choice for a Professional
deontology. After that some of ideas offered by
experts in “a ready-made” form will pass to the
category of deontological principles. Maybe,
after this operation the independent category of
principles of ethics will be kept, but also another
way is possible: deontology becomes an area of
principles, on which the “building” of ethical
standards and rules should be constructed. We
consider the second variant more proved and
more probable. At least, inclusion of principles
in research works on ethics cannot be a
mechanical operation; it demands a fundamental
methodological
substantiation.
Meanwhile
it occurs not in each case. For example, in a
methodical publication for students devoted to
professional journalist’s ethics in the USA the
following principles are performed as independent
themes: freedom of speech, truthfulness, justice
and humanity (Kumylganova, 2003). Indeed,
in itself they cannot cause objections, they are
valuable and noble by origin; this list coincides
with a complex of principles proposed by the
American expert Edmund B. Lambeth – the
author of a monograph that is well known in
Russian thanks to the translated publication.
However, the authoritative scientist’s position
is not a sufficient methodological basis for the
solution of a complicated theoretical problem.
There should be something more general, which
lies under concrete formulations – the substance,
from which principles arise, these ones, but not
others.
The investigations in the field of moral
dimension of professionalism can give answers
to so difficult and important questions. For a
few years the Tyumen Applied Ethics Research
Institute (earlier – Centre) has been working in
this direction especially actively. A long cycle
of research projects became the appreciable
phenomenon in profession studies. Special
attention was paid to such spheres of practices,
in which the intention of social and humanitarian
responsibility is seen extremely clear: education,
management, science, etc. In this group the
journalism also has its place, and special project
has been aimed at moral-ethical studying of the
press. The examination with a participation of a
large group of experts has shown that “journalists,
irrespectively to a divergence in attitudes,
consider both possible and necessary to consider
a choice of a profession in categories of a moral
choice, according to them this component of the
profession is its world outlook bases ... namely
a problem of a moral choice” (Bakshtanovskii
and Sogomonov, 2002, p. 208). The organizers of
the project make common cause with the given
conclusion, moreover, it completely corresponds
to their concept of moral-ethical understanding
of the profession, which goes back to the ideas
of M. Weber and other outstanding sociologists
and philosophers of ethics. For our research such
generalization is extremely significant. It enables
in reflections on the journalism deontology to
come out of the territory of the press and to see
journalism in a light of general category of socalled high professions, but not only in limits of
corporation norms. In high professions the idea of
devotion is accented which overcomes positions
of pragmatic functionality and adaptability to the
production needs.
For this reason the course of Tyumen
authors’ reflections about high professions as a
whole is interesting for us. We shall reproduce it
in the form of a logic dotted line. The complete
construction of ethics consists of several floors,
in the process of lowering of their “height”:
fundamental, applied, professional. The last is
divided into the practical and sense-valuable
branches. Our idea of the due can be located only
in the second zone, for the due is a concentrate
of a sense and necessities in journalism, the
existence of “justification” in the world, and this
thesis does not demand the proof. On a practical
level there will be representations on norms
# 1726 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Sergey G. Korkonosenko. Deontology of Journalism as a Field of Moral Choice for a Professional
concerning labour technique and methods that
are empirical manifestations of journalism. In
our opinion, here the distinctions between the
concepts oppositional to each other are clearly
seen – the concept of a “profession”, on the one
hand, and concepts of “occupation”, “labour
activity”, “a source of means for subsistence”,
on the other hand. The quoted authors insist
that the concept of a profession by all means
includes its moral dimension, assumes presence
of such attributes, as an idea of predestination
and devotion, altruistic motivations, and selfcontrol. Moreover, “while practically all kinds of
human activity are adjusted by a certain moral…
the profession norms are also characterized by a
mission” (Bakshtanovskii and Sogomonov, 2005,
p. 14, 52–53).
The keyword is found. Mission,
predestination is a central category of deontology
and the result of a conscious choice among many
variants. Mission as the formulated due. If a
mission is not revealed in the journalism theory
(and then in practice) deontology will develop
as mechanical coupling of every possible rules
and restrictions. If it is clearly designated and
recognized in a community it is possible to speak
about a consensus concerning the due. Then there
appears the outlook platform for a development
of principles, their carrying out during life,
control of execution of them, etc. In a word,
deontology becomes a systematised formation
that is wholly addressed to a daily practice of the
press and its relations with a society and a person.
It is necessary to emphasize that in gravitating
to a practice the qualitative originality of
deontology as the aspect of journalism theory is
concluded. It bears not only the reflection of the
necessary behaviour from the ideological point
of view, but also an image of real, achievable,
concrete labour behaviour. We have a right to
suppose, though with some exaggeration, that
harmoniously developed deontology produces
models of industrial practice of the press and all
mass media system.
In this context there are additional
possibilities to reject reproaches of those who are
not agree to relate journalism to high profession
because such evaluation, in their opinion, stands
too far from current editorial activity. Really,
on a concrete workplace the pathos declarations
look strange and inappropriate, and hardly all
the ordinary employees of mass media are able
distinctly formulate own professional-outlook
attitudes. However this or that coordinated
representation on predestination and purposes
of editorial work, undoubtedly, exists. It will be
caught in an atmosphere reigning in a pressmen
body, judgements regarding values of performed
work, a choice of authoritative figures and
leaders, and so forth. Moreover, in the journalist’s
biography there are such moments of truth when
they feel the necessity to express verbally own
understanding of a sense of the professional life
and to describe the object of devotion.
For the lack of mature deontological bases
the ambiguous situations arise, up to funny
things. So, one of the journalism departments in
Russia has chosen the following words as its own
slogan: “Journalism department is a territory of
success”. Meanwhile the success obviously resists
the mission, and consequently –professionalism.
As researchers write: “the practice of realization
of the idea of success … gives enough ground
for a conclusion that in a modern society the cult
of success quite often leads to the replacement
of moral reference points and consequently
causes the sensation of own moral inadequacy”
(Bakshtanovskii and Sogomonov, 2005, p. 137).
The told, certainly, does not mean denying
value of career, achievements, and deserved
compensation – it is a question on a cult of
mercantilism. The expert from the USA in his own
way describes the conflict between a mission and
a professional egoism with its hopes on success.
# 1727 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Sergey G. Korkonosenko. Deontology of Journalism as a Field of Moral Choice for a Professional
Generalizing conclusions of other American
scientists about typical lacks of the press, he
concludes that instead of first of all being guided
by the ideals of public service, mass media set
such working purposes and create such procedures
that first of all serve material and economic needs
of the new organization (Lambeth, 1998, p. 22).
As though catching up this thesis, the Russian
authors write on prevalence of a prosperity cult
in the Western professional corporation “with
the only one purpose – the winner managed
everything, and success should be above all. For
the last fifteen years a similar moral climate has
begun to be cultivated in the Russian press too”.
(Kirichek and Fedotova, 2004, p. 16–17)
Meanwhile statements of those experts
who correlate the activity with mission and
devotion, sound not exotically. At a seminar
devoted to becoming of the public TV in Russia,
the executive director of the AETN-PBC public
TV (Arkansas, USA) Susan Howarth described
a qualification of her company employees.
Usually they are people with the ideals wishing
to change a situation, people who work not for
the money, but, more likely, for the mission. You
will not earn greater money at public TV in the
USA, indeed, and there are problems how to
enlist talents. But if to speak on the satisfaction
which high-quality programs give to you –
such choice differs from a choice that is done
usually by commercial broadcasters (Public TV,
2000, p. 110). The editor-in-chief of the Russian
professional magazine adds to the analysis of
the mission one more aspect – the pragmatic
one. “The nostalgia on Quixote” – so he names
the article, in which he writes: “To revive in the
guild the ethos of public service is necessary for
our own survival. If we shall not help citizens
they will cease to trust us, and the journalism
will be lost as a profession” (Avraamov, 2007,
p. 1). The given judgements do not contradict
deontological codes accepted by journalistic
communities in the world and in the separate
countries at all.
It would seem the problem is solved in
the basis. It is only necessary to name the
mission by precise words and then build related
conclusions. However there is a powerful factor
of the subjectivity in choice that is being done
in the deontology field. The mission is not born
simultaneously with the press, it is always
variable – both in relation to journalism as a
whole and in a case of individual behaviour. It
means there is always a ground for disagreement
and a competition of views, and not only in the
theory, but also in a process of realization of
the chosen moral orientations. It is necessary to
recognize that the successful practical realization
of the program idea becomes a strong argument
in its protection even if this choice is incorrect
from the scientific point of view or it may be
suitable only for a local tactical situation. What
eternal truths were opened by theorists, on a close
distance the tactical triumph is better visible to
the contemporary, instead of the future strategic
defeat. Therefore the “correct” mission quite
often turns into personal losses for its adherents.
And therefore simultaneously there are at once a
few versions of a true journalism, more or less
distinctly articulated.
Unfortunately, we hardly can find needed
materials in the specialized theoreticaljournalistic literature about a competition of
missions, anyway – under the name of this
theme. Latently it is present in the analysis of the
press social responsibility, role of mass media in
the democracy process, moral standards of its
employees and so on. Some of such works may
be used as initial points for further movement to
our aims. But one should remember that every
version of mission is an ideal model, but not a
concrete form of its embodiment. Actually it is
impossible to isolate this or that model in its pure
state, and it is necessary to deal with different
# 1728 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Sergey G. Korkonosenko. Deontology of Journalism as a Field of Moral Choice for a Professional
combinations and noises. Figuratively speaking,
practice provides the researcher with “ore”, from
which he has to extract certain “metal” by means
of analysis. But developing of the ore lies in the
competence of science specifying how to deliver
it from collateral inclusions and also sorting
“metals” on a degree of their value.
Value of mission is determined by two
main criteria –its conformity to the objective
press laws and suitability, utility of realization
in the given society. Strictly speaking, the
second condition “is located” in the fi rst one,
as conformity to society and press paradigms
in itself is the law. However it is important to
see more clearly a social situation, in which the
deontological choice is being done. For this area
of thinking the concrete historical determinations
of principles, norms and standards have an
especially essential value. The mission of the
press should be sufficiently corrected depending
on whether we relate it to the feudal-monarchist
system or to socialistic one, to stable Western
democracy with its values of Protestantism or to
the modern Russian space.
In this connection let us listen to the
European experts who actively revise so-called
classic Western press theories in a view of the
social and cultural diversity. They offer several
groups of additional theories. “Crucial to these
projects is their resistance against a too absolute
interpretation of the principle of neutrality. In
the tradition of development and emancipatory
journalism – which should mainly be situated in
developing countries – it is explicitly stated that
neutrality does not apply when universalized…
values such as peace, democracy, human rights,
equality… progress… and national liberation, are
at stake... And quite similarly vice versa… the
US-based public journalism tradition pleads for
reviving the public debate and for centralizing
democracy as a universalized value. At the same
time, advocates of public journalism plead for a
tighter link between community and journalism –
the so-called ‘community connectedness’”
(Carpentier, 2007, pp. 159-160).
In this case it is better to refrain from
universal recommendations and to turn to
individual-concrete object – to this country
at the present stage of its history. Then it
becomes visible that economic, political,
socio-cultural multiformity and “intermediate”
condition of the society, in comparison with
its classical types, prevent from forming
a clear social demand for the mission of
journalism. In this sense, most likely, Russia
still should live without reliable bases for the
consent in discussions about press destination
long enough. That’s why we offer our own
hypothetical approach to the solution.
In the article many times we referred to
a society and human values that determine a
vector and a spirit of the journalism activities.
According to a strong scientific tradition, the
mission that brings prosperity to a society and
a person is designated as social-humanistic
strategy with a great variety of semantic shades of
this name. Social-humanistic destination of the
press becomes a ground, on which deontological
principles are being formed. We are not eager
to deny those complexes of principles that are
proposed in numerous sources, including the
international and national ethical codes. On
the contrary, the diversity stimulates to search
delicate nuances of complex questions. At the
same time it is necessary to agree on a minimum
of the central and most capacious ideas. They
as though develop the social-humanistic mission
and make it a multidimensional factor of the
moral existence of a society and a profession.
Reasonable reduction of a principles number
is also necessary to avoid duplication with
concepts, which necessarily exist in others
categorical fields – for example in a system of
laws.
# 1729 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Sergey G. Korkonosenko. Deontology of Journalism as a Field of Moral Choice for a Professional
Analytic conclusions.
Principles
Generalizing the above-said we shall name
the following principles of journalism. First, a
sociality. Today there is a scientific-theoretical
base to use this concept as a terminologically
exact one. In the special research devoted to this
subject the sociality of a journalism idea relates
to the “origin and functioning of the press, its
organization, transforming influence, structure of
journalists’ consciousness and culture, reflection
in press of original social reality and all circles
of participants in social practice... The sociality
determines a theoretical-methodological validity
of journalistic texts”. (Malugina, 2006, p. 13) This
is a concept with an extensive content; a sociality
is being modified and concretised in dependence
on circumstances of the press existence and
comprehension of it. In particular, it can be
raised up to a degree of national character and
patriotism.
Secondly, humanism as the next component
of the mission’s name. Let us use the citation
from a source, in which general prospects of the
Russian press are considered; even more – an
attempt of modelling of humanised journalism
is undertaken. So: “gradually more and more
journalists will understand that a starting point,
Alpha and Omega of being is not a system, not
an organization, but an alive, real person. All
the rest: classes, collectives, organizations,
groups are the modi of his existence. … The
understanding will gradually come that is
necessary to regard the reader, the spectator,
the listener not as a recipient or as an object
of management, manipulation, education, but
as an alive, doubting certain person who looks
for effective ways to organize his own life.
Such an approach gives an opportunity of the
genuine dialogue directed on a collective search
of the answer to a question: ‘How to live?’”
(Dzyaloshinskii, 1999, p. 122).
Thirdly, a truthfulness. The word has a
lot of senses, each of which demands special
explanations. In Russian the word “truth”
(правда) causes a lot of associations of different
kinds; it has some sacral meanings that hardly can
be transferred into other languages. Let’s open,
for example, Russian defining dictionaries: true
in practice, true in image, in blessing; justice,
fairness; honesty, incorruptibility, conscience;
innocence, etc. An accuracy is not mentioned
here because it reflects the most simple and formal
requirement to the journalist. The truth lies much
deeper under a surface of the information data; it
is implanted into the essence of phenomena and
processes. In contemporary community there is
a strong demand in real, deep truth instead of all
kinds of imitations. The Austrian authors write
in this connection: “The style of communication
we find in all matters today is based on what a
comedian Stephen Colbert famously termed
‘truthiness’, a term reminiscent of what Harry
Frankfurt calls bullshit: ‘The essence of bullshit
is not that it is false but that it is phony’ …
Similarly, truthiness is defined as ‘truth that
comes from the gut, not books’ … and ‘the
quality of preferring concepts or facts one wishes
to be true, rather than concepts or facts known
to be true’” (Schwarz and Hug, 2012, p. 272).
Truthfulness in a subjective sense is an internal
aspiration to a true understanding of the world
of life and inability to renounce the extracted
knowledge in favour of any benefits. In the given
value it is highly close to such moral qualities as
honesty and conscience.
From another side, in this line of thinking
there is no place for objectivity that represents
an unattainable ideal in studying and reflecting
the reality. Perhaps, the term “objectivity” mostly
corresponds with scientific investigations. Then
it leaves a sphere of moral and, hence, a set of
deontological categories. This distinction is
subtly noticed in publications dealing with the
# 1730 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Sergey G. Korkonosenko. Deontology of Journalism as a Field of Moral Choice for a Professional
journalism attitudes to the reality. “The truth
as a moral category is more important than the
abstract true as a category of knowledge. The true
that is not connected with the good and justice,
is not being regarded as the truth”. And further:
“Meanwhile the Truth – the true in its journalistic
manifestation – is not a collection of information
on the world; it is a disclosing of representation
about the world” (Mansurova, 2002, p. 146, 147).
Thus, deontology can and, in our opinion,
should be developed as a complex of ideas
with its own internal hierarchy and in the
close union with other directions of research
thinking. Without taking into account
deontological principles the journalistic
science will appear in the impoverished form.
First of all it concerns the moral-outlook
parties of the theory.
References
Avraamov, D., 2007. Melancholy on Don Quixote. Journalism and Media Market, N 9, p. 1, in
Russian.
Bakshtanovskii, V.I., Sogomonov, Yu.V., 2002. The moral choice of journalist. Tyumen: Applied
Ethics Center, in Russian.
Bakshtanovskii, V.I., Sogomonov, Yu.V., 2005. Ethics of the profession: mission, code, action.
Tyumen: Applied Ethics Research Institute, in Russian.
Carpentier, N., 2007. Coping with the agoraphobic media professional: a typology of journalistic
practices reinforcing democracy and participation. Cammaerts, B. and Carpentier, N., eds. Reclaiming
the media. Communication rights and democratic media roles. Bristol (UK), Chicago (USA): Intellect
Books, The University of Chicago Press, pp.157-175.
Council of Europe. Group of specialists in questions of journalistic freedoms and human
rights,1995, in Russian. Available through: http://www.ruj.ru/soviet_eu_3.htm [Accessed 28 July
2012].
Dzyaloshinskii, I.M., 1999. Russian journalism in search of the model of development.
Dzyaloshinskaya, M. ed. Role of the press in formation of the civic society in Russia. Moscow: Institute
for Humanitarian Communication, pp. 101-123, in Russian.
Kant, I., 1999. Critique of pure reason. Moscow: Nauka, in Russian; from German.
Kazakov, Yu. V. ed., 1999. Professional ethics of journalists. Vol. 1: Documents and help materials.
Moscow: Galeria, in Russian.
Kirichek, P.N., Fedotova, O.V., 2004. Ethics of the journalist. Textbook. Saransk: Mordovia
University Publishing House, in Russian.
Kumylganova. I.A., 2 0 0 3 . Professional ethics of journalist in the USA. Educational materials to
the special course in Lomonosov Moscow State University. Available through: Media Law and Policy
Institute. Series “Journalism and law”. Vol. 55, in Russian. http://www.medialaw.ru/publications/
books/self2/10.html [Accessed 28 July 2012].
Lambeth, E.B., 1992. Committed journalism – An ethic for the profession. 2nd ed. Bloomington
and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.
Lambeth, E.B., 1998. Adherence to journalistic duty. On ethical approach to the journalistic
profession. Moscow: Violanta, in Russian; from English.
Lazutina, G.V., 2006. Professional ethics of the journalist. 2nd ed. Moscow: Aspect Press, in
Russian.
# 1731 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Sergey G. Korkonosenko. Deontology of Journalism as a Field of Moral Choice for a Professional
Lozovskii, B.N., 2007. Journalism and the media: brief dictionary. 2nd ed. Yekaterinburg: Ural
State University Publishing House, in Russian.
Malugina, V.Yu., 2006. Partnership of press with the socio-political institutes as a manifestation
of the sociality of the press: The author’s abstract of the thesis for a candidate’s degree. St. Petersburg:
St. Petersburg State University.
Mansurova, V.D., 2002. Journalistic picture of the world as a factor of social determination.
Barnaul: Altai University Publishing House, in Russian.
Popov, V.D., 2003. Secrets of the information policy: social psychoanalysis of the information
processes. Moscow: Russian Academy of Public Administration, in Russian.
Prohorov, E.P., 2001. Journalism and democracy. Moscow: RIP-Holding, in Russian.
Public TV and radio broadcasting for Russia: possibility and the prospect, 2000. Stenographical
report. St. Petersburg: Citizen Watch, in Russian.
Schwarz, C., Hug, Th., 2012. Media activism in search of truth: Questioning the mission to restore
sanity. Journalism and Mass Communication, Vol. 2, N 1, pp. 271-278.
Деонтология журналистики как область
морального выбора профессионала
С. Г. Корконосенко
Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет
Россия 199004, Санкт-Петербург, 1-я линия В. о., д. 26
Автор рассматривает понятие и содержание деонтологии журналистики в сравнении с
профессиональной этикой и моралью. По его оценке, деонтология является областью принципов
профессии, на основе синтеза которых возникает миссия. Одна из главных качественных
характеристик деонтологии заключается в том, что в ней соединяются знание объективных
законов и субъективная позиция профессионала медиа, которая обязывает его к моральному
выбору.
Ключевые слова: деонтология, журналистика, миссия, принцип, моральный выбор.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 12 (2012 5) 1733-1743
~~~
УДК 316.772
Telementation vs. Interaction:
Which Model Suits Human Communication Best?
Viacheslav B. Kashkin*
Voronezh State University
1 Universitetskaya pl., Voronezh, 394006 Russia 1
Received 4.12.2012, received in revised form 11.12.2012, accepted 24.12.2012
Models of communication may be classified into transmissional (linear, mechanistic, or
‘telementational’) and interactional (non-linear, dialogical, activity-oriented). Everyday conception
is closer to the reification-transmissional metaphor of communication, although it admits some nonlinearity. The dialogical or interactional paradigm reflects the reality of human communication to a
greater degree.
Keywords: communication, model, interaction
1. Introduction
To disclose the characteristics of human
communicative behavior and the flow of
communication activities, modeling is widely
used as a method when one object is explained by
another object representing its structure and/or
functioning. It is practically inevitable when we
are trying to explain a physically non-existent,
i.e. a mental or a behavioral phenomenon.
Communication does not exist in the physical
meaning of the word, and what we mean by
communication are sequences of actions and their
results, sometimes also physically non-existent,
mental and observed indirectly through human
behavior.
Models of communication are usually
drawings or schemes where the constituent
elements or participants are represented and their
interrelation is shown. The way communication
is represented in a model depends largely upon
*
1
the conceptual approach of the scholar or on the
scientific paradigm it adheres to. A model may
also reflect the needs of the scientific domain it
belongs to. Since communication studies are a
multidisciplinary domain, models might differ if
they belong originally to technology or politics,
sociology or linguistics.
The suggested models of communication
may be classified according to the paradigmatic
approaches which they were based on. Two major
paradigms that are often singled out in viewing
communication can be named transmissional
(linear, mechanistic, or ‘telementational’) and
interactional (non-linear, dialogical, activityoriented). The term ‘telementation’, or, in other
words, ‘thought-transference’, belongs to Roy
Harris who applies it to what he calls the ‘classical
model of language’ (Harris, 2007, pp. 21-22). A bit
of critical irony is felt in applying this term to the
“transferring thoughts over a distance by means
Corresponding author E-mail address: kashkin2000@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 1733 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Viacheslav B. Kashkin. Telementation vs. Interaction: Which Model Suits Human Communication Best?
of words”, which is enhanced by its apparent
similarity to the word ‘telepathy’.
Communication in the transmissional
paradigm is presented as a unidirectional process
of coding and transmission of information
from a source to a receiver, via a channel. In
the interactional paradigm, communication is
viewed as mutual activity of the communication
participants, aimed at developing a shared
consensual view upon things and actions
performed with these things.
According to the transmissional paradigm,
information is transmitted from the sender to the
receiver, whereas the interactional paradigm states
that information is produced (or re-produced) by
the recipient (under the influence of the sender).
According to the first approach, the
environment creates noise and may interfere with
communication, while according to the second
approach the environment is inevitable and
influential context of communication.
We are going to argue that the second,
interactional paradigm reflects the reality of
human communication better.
2. Communication Paradigms:
A Historical Sketch
The history of communication studies reflects
both transmissional and interactional approaches.
Lots of models suggested by the communication
researchers support either the linear or the nonlinear interpretation of the communication process.
There are also models which might be considered
intermediary as they reflect the functional and
teleological aspect of communication, although
they remain mainly linear, monodirectional. Let
us give a brief review of the most significant
models of communication.
2.1. Linear models
Claude E. Shannon (1916-2001) was the
first who suggested a model of communication
to optimize radio, teletype or telegraph
interchange in late 40-s (Shannon, 1948, p. 380).
Extended by Warren Weaver (1894-1978) to
embrace other instances of communication, the
“mother of models” included an information
source, a transmitter or coder, a message, a
transmission channel, a decoder, and a receiver
(Shannon, Weaver, 1963). Particular attention
to the issue of noise was later developed into a
search for effective communication in general.
The “telephone” terms were later applied
metaphorically to other communication systems,
including natural and human ones. Shannon’s
model lies at the basis of any other communication
model, although nowadays it might be regarded
as too restricted to give detailed description of
human communication.
Another model was suggested by Harold
D. Lasswell (1902-1978) to be applied primarily
in the sphere of political communication and
propaganda. Lasswel’s formula was presented
in the form of a wh-sentence: Who says what
to whom in which channel with what effect
(Lasswell, 1948, p. 37). The resemblance is far
from being coincidental, in fact, the structure
of the statement reflects the prototypical
communicative situation, thus giving way to
connect the form and the pragmatics of human
communication. What was significantly different
in Lasswell’s approach – that the model included
the aftereffects of communication, thus bridging
the theory and the applied communication studies,
and becoming less “mechanistic”.
The well-known Canadian researcher
Marshall McLuhan (1911-1980) was particularly
concentrated on the transmission channel, and
his words “the medium is the message” became
a motto for the contemporary communication
environment which includes technologies for
multicode messages where the visual channel
performs the leading role. McLuhan compared
the stages in the development of communication
# 1734 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Viacheslav B. Kashkin. Telementation vs. Interaction: Which Model Suits Human Communication Best?
media and those in the development of culture,
and his prophetic ideas about the ‘global village’
in communication were proclaimed years before
the expansion of the Internet (McLuhan, 1995).
2.2 Functional Models
Functional models paid more attention to
the purposeful, teleologic (from Greek τελέιον
‘aim, purpose’) nature of human communicative
actions.
Karl Bühler’s (1879-1963) functional model
is one of the most compact and rather popular
in applied domains. He introduced three major
functions of language and communication,
related to the two communication participants
and the message: expressive, related to the sender
(speaker or writer); appellative, related to the
receiver (listener or reader); and representative,
the function of transmitting information in a
message (Bühler, 1969, pp. 98-99).
Roman
O.
Jakobson’s
(1896-1982)
functional model included six components:
the sender (or the addresser), the message, and
the addressee (or a receiver) were similar to
Bühler’s interpretation, whereas the code (or the
language), the context and the contact were added
by Jakobson (Jakobson, 1963, pp. 350-377).
Context in Jakobsonian interpretation is related
to the content of the message, the information
transmitted, and to the situation in the real
world (or its fragment) reflected in the message.
The contact is related to the regulative aspect of
communication, to establishing, supporting and
ending an interaction. Each constituent element
is ‘responsible’ for the specific communicative
function of the message. Following the tradition
of the Prague school, one of the founders of
which was Jakobson, the model is teleological, or
purposeful, thus it displays the purposeful nature
of language and other communicative systems,
or the functions or purposes of using its separate
units, utterances or texts. The model appeals to
the human nature of communication, underlying
the role of the language user, or communication
participant.
Functional models have a wider explanatory
potential and application sphere than mechanistic
ones. Thus, Bühler’s model served as a fundament
for a text typology very widely applied in language
teaching and translators’ training. Peter Newmark
and Catharina Reiß suggested a typology which
included three functional types of texts to be
translated: content-oriented or informative,
author-oriented or expressive, and reader-oriented
or vocative (Reiß, 1971, p. 20ff.; Newmark, 1988,
pp. 40-47). Communicative analysis of the text
plays the leading, or even the decisive role in
selecting an appropriate strategy of translation,
as well as in finding definite solutions.
2.3. Non-Linear Models
Norbert Wiener’s (1894-1964) cybernetics
appeared simultaneously with but independently
from Shannon’s model of communication (Wiener,
1948). Wiener’s conception of communication
introduced the notion of feedback, thus questioning
the linearity of information transfer and opening
ways to explaining human communicative
interchange in a more dynamic and non-linear
manner. Human interaction and dialogue were
stressed by Wiener’s quotation from the father
of fractals theory Benoit Mandelbrot and the
‘cybernetically-minded philologist’ Roman
Jakobson: “They consider communication to
be a game played in partnership by the speaker
and the listener against the forces of confusion,
represented by the ordinary difficulties of
communication and by some supposed individuals
attempting to jam the communication” (Wiener,
1988, p. 92).
The last quarter of the previous century also
witnessed the spread of the ideas of dialogism,
although originally expressed earlier. Dialogical
approach to language and communication is
# 1735 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Viacheslav B. Kashkin. Telementation vs. Interaction: Which Model Suits Human Communication Best?
mostly associated with Mikhail M. Bakhtin (18951975), the Russian literary critic and language
philosopher. There are at least two main ideas in
his approach that are of particular significance
to communication studies. First of all, every
utterance is addressed to someone, there is no
speaker without a recipient. Secondly, it is only in
a context that any utterance acquires its meaning;
this idea is closely related to Bakhtin’s notion
of chronotope (Greek χρόνος ‘time’ and τόπος
‘place’), representing the intrinsic connection
between time and space in texts.
Whereas linear models can be named
‘speaker-oriented’
or
‘sender-oriented’,
Bakhtin’s dialogism restores the rights of both
communication participants, the speaker and the
listener: “When I am construing my utterance, I
am striving at defining it actively; on the other
hand, I am trying to anticipate its effect, and
this anticipated answer, in its turn, also actively
influences my utterance” (Bakhtin, 2000, p. 293).
Although Bakhtin did not suggest any elaborate
model, his ideas are sometimes treated as a
dialogical model of communicative interaction.
Tzvetan Todorov went even further, working out
this model for Bakhtin and contrasting it to the
Jakobsonian one (Todorov, 1984, pp. 54-55):
Bakhtin
Jakobson
object
context
speaker utterance listener sender message receiver
intertext
contact
language
code
However, the specific role attributed by
Bakhtin to the listener is not clearly reflected in
Todorov’s representation. His most important
accent lies upon intertextual relations, uncertainty
and ambiguity in decoding the information,
and upon the possibility of conveying implicit
meanings. As for Bakhtin, the two counterparts
in communication meant an “encounter of
two subjects”, a joint action performed by
communication participants, a text as an event,
an utterance as a node, through which “language
enters life”.
Bakhtin’s ideas were very widely echoed
in the world of linguistics, literary studies,
communication theory and philosophy in the
past decades. Roland Barthes (1915-1980)
and Julia Kristeva introduced the concept
of intertextuality: every text is a mosaic of
quotations, direct or indirect references to the
formerly read texts of others. A similar concept
of the “associative field” or champ discursif
“discursive field” of utterances or statements
was put forward by a French post-modernist
philosopher Michel Foucault (1926-1984): every
statement has possible relations with the past
and opens up a foreseen future (Foucault, 1969,
38-41). These ideas by Kristeva and Foucault
have nowadays been privatized by various
domains of research: cinema semiotics studies,
fashion and dress semiotics, psychoanalysis,
political and advertising discourse analysis, etc.
Advertising, for example, very often exploits the
suggestive and persuasive power of intertextual
allusions, cf.: сильный, но нежный Панадол
“strong but delicate (Panadol)” < строгий, но
справедливый отец народов “stern but fair
(father of nations = Joseph Stalin)”; абсолютная
монархия “absolute monarchy” > абсолютная
Россия “absolute Russia” > водка «Абсолют»
“The ‘Absolut’ vodka”, etc. The recipient of the
advertising message indirectly becomes its coauthor, using the fragments of earlier-read texts
as an instrument of decoding and interpretation.
3. The Addressee is the Message
Functional and much more transmissional
models do not always clearly display the role of the
addressee, limiting their view to what the speaker
thinks about the listener, about the possible
response. The general language background
# 1736 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Viacheslav B. Kashkin. Telementation vs. Interaction: Which Model Suits Human Communication Best?
and the social character of communication
is disregarded, the model is limited to two
minimal participants whereas group and mass
communication require special consideration
and have to be taken into account. Although
“the addressee factor” (Arutyunova, 1981) is
presented in some of the models, the feedback
and the addressee’s response to the message are
rarely taken into account. The model thus remains
monodirectional (from a sender to a receiver).
In fact, each of the participants is engaged into
communication on equal terms; moreover, the
participants regularly exchange their roles of
addresser and recipient.
If McLuhan used to say that the medium is
the message, we can now say that the recipient is
the message. Let us have a look at the following
interchange (translated from Russian):
I Saw It Myself (2005-08-11)
The young people are from Channel 1. <…>
The old man talks either to himself, or with the
young men, it is not clear.
– Kids, how fine it is that the war is over…
Kids, I was in the war, I got two medals, shellshocked, I’d never wish anyone would… Thank
God, the Chechnya is over… Our boys are
there… Now we’ll have a better life… War is a
nasty thing…
One of the young men carrying a camera
raises his head and says:
– It’s not over, father, not over.
The old man says:
– How can it be that it’s not over? How
can it be that it is not over, it is over! I saw it
myself on TV yesterday. All the military actions
are over. The forces are being pulled out. The
war is over, kids.
The other young man says:
– It’s not over, father, he knows better.
The old man says:
– How can it be that he knows better? I
saw it myself! The war is over! It was in the news
yesterday. The actions are stopped. The troops
are pulled out. That’s all.
The young man without a camera says:
– Look, father, we know better. Look at
him, he has been sent seventeen times there. Just
a week after the last one. I was there nine times.
The war goes on, and it will last for a long time.
The old man won’t believe. The old man
says:
– What are you telling me? The war is
over, one has to rejoice at the good news, and
what are you doing? You want more people to
die? The antichrists! You are the reason why...
The old man constructs his own reality,
comfortable for him, and would not accept any
contradictory information from the outside.
This recipient is clearly the author of his own
information.
Heinz von Foerster (1911-2002) in cybernetics
of the second half of the 20th century pointed out
the dialogical essence of communication and
rephrased a well-known saying: It needs two to
language (von Foerster, 2003). He also coined a
hermeneutic aphorism, close to Roland Barthes’
ideas about interpretation and understanding of
texts: The listener, not the speaker determines the
meaning of an utterance.
Von Foerster’s ideas essentially influenced
the Chilean biologist and ‘cognitive therapeutist’
Humberto Maturana who proposed the idea
of consensual interaction of autopoietic (selforganizing and self-creative) systems, and
language was one of them. He compares
‘languaging’ to dancing, the essence of which
does not lie in competition and direct control
of each other, but in cooperation, in mutual
coordination of behavioral actions. Human beings
are biologically loving (cooperative) beings,
and language is our biological manner of living
(Maturana, Verden-Zöller, 2008, pp. 34, 61-66).
Maturana and his follower Francisco Varela
consider the phrase ‘transmission of information’
# 1737 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Viacheslav B. Kashkin. Telementation vs. Interaction: Which Model Suits Human Communication Best?
a misleading ‘metaphor of the tube’ since there
is no real, physical transmission of anything:
“biologically, there is no transmitted information
in communication” (Maturana, Varela, 1992,
p. 196). In fact, it is a feature of naïve linguistic
minds to consider language as a collection of
reified units, ‘things’-words that are exchanged in
communication; the myth neatly defined chosisme
by Gaston Bachelard, a French philosopher
(Bachelard, 1983, p. 39). The everyday language
myth presupposes that communication is
material transmission of information by means
of reified objects and words. The reality of
communicative exchanges, anyhow, does not
display any transmission; linguistic interactions
constitute joint activity which leads to some sort
of ‘echoing response’ in the recipient’s mind. The
response is practically never absolutely similar,
but subject to variation due to situational and
personality factors. Communication is behavioral
coordination in the domain of social coupling and
consensual interaction.
If we ask, like in a very simple psychological
experiment, a group of people to imagine an
apple, some would think of a red apple, some of a
yellow or a green one, some even of a rotten apple
or of a computer brand. The information is thus
generated in multiple variations in the mind of a
receiver under the influence of the sender, but is
not transmitted. The word acts as a trigger, not as
a container.
In the case of interlinguistic or intercultural
communication, or translation, the variability
of interpretations concerns both the formal
(words), and the notional (meaning) sides
of communication process. The model of
communication in translation processes is
trifold, the translator acts as a receiver during
the first stage and as a sender at the third stage.
The intermediary stage is translation process.
In no case the process is linear; the translator’s
activity involves mechanisms of probabilistic
forecasting while reading for translation and
when translating, it also includes foreseeing
possible translation difficulties, or the recipient’s
reaction. The mechanism of auto-monitoring is
also involved at further stages of the translation
process, introducing possible corrective moves,
etc. Thus, the process of translation involves
several lines of multidirectional activities, and
it should be taken into account in the process of
modeling.
The reality of intercultural exchanges
transcends the linear paradigm, giving a more
varied content to the whole scheme: cultural
contexts and their variations, translator as an
active agent who does not just mechanically
reproduce the contents of the original text, the
addressee factor, the factor of the third-party
observer, etc. Translation quality in such a
model can be assessed through communicative
equivalence, similarity in reflecting the world,
and similarity in aftereffects.
4. Communication is not Transmission
of Information
Naïve language users share a myth about
language and communication which says that
transmission of information is the primary
task of language. It is taken for granted even in
many linguistic books that the basic function
of language and other communication systems
is informational, or referential, or cognitive, if
viewed from a slightly different angle. But as
we now see, information is never transmitted;
it is produced or reproduced by the recipient,
although certainly the communicative actions
of the sender act like a trigger for the recipient’s
response. It does not mean, for sure, that we
advocate the abandoning of this widely spread
metaphor in everyday use. Languages are full
of misleading “metaphors we live by” (Lakoff,
Johnson, 1984). We do not, for example, think
that the sun has legs when we say that the sun is
# 1738 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Viacheslav B. Kashkin. Telementation vs. Interaction: Which Model Suits Human Communication Best?
going down. With language it is a bit different,
and both the naïve and the traditional views
represent language and communication as a
physical exchange of material objects, admitting
the reification metaphor. One more feature of this
misconception is that transmission is the primary
task of language.
In any case, language is not bound to
transmit information; it is able to do it. The
major function of language and communicative
systems is to organize, to control and to monitor
human actions with the help of words or other
signs. Transmitting information is subsidiary to
this major necessity and is carried out within
the limits set out by the needs of achieving
the required effect and by the communicative
possibilities which communication participants
have at their disposal. According to Maturana,
the phenomenon of communication does
not depend upon what is being transmitted
but upon what is happening in the receiver.
Communication creates a consensual domain
of interactions based upon a referential
consensus.
In many cases, the message acts like
a trigger to provoke joint actions not really
transmitting any new information. For example,
do the fans of a soccer team want to convey
anything new to anyone else when they chant
slogans like Spartak – chempion! “Spartak is
a champion”? Does a highly reputed company
want to convey anything new to anyone when it
advertises a well-known product? The words It’s
a Sony do not contain any information about the
qualities of the product, they just borrow from the
authority of the trademark the power to persuade
the customer to buy it. Do the participants of
a rally to support some marginal politician
convey anything to anyone else outside their
small community? Even if anything that looks
like information is included in such texts, the
basic function of such messages is not to convey
information, but rather to unify the joint actions
of the communication participants, or to draw a
borderline between them and “the others”, very
often alien or antagonistic to this social group, or
to support the relations of power and submission
in the social life or economy, etc.
A very interesting phenomenon is observed
when we contrast advertising texts in a
longitudinal survey, i. e. those of 50 or 100 years
ago and modern texts of the same producer and
about the same product. For example, Gillette
in 1913 published very voluminous texts about
its shaving products. The texts contained an
abundance of positive information about the
razor sets:
Аппарат Жиллетъ благодарнѣйший
подарок к Пасхѣ...> Обратите вниманіе на
сгибаніе, при помощи котораго совершается
автоматическая
перестановка
<...>
Неоцѣнимое
достоинство
аппарата
для бритья Жиллетъ состоитъ въ его
закаленномъ стальномъ клинкѣ <...> Наши
новые клинки Жиллетъ вслѣдствіе ихъ
гладкости и остроты всюду заслужили
себѣ похвалу <...> Съ помощью Жиллета вы
можете легко бритса сами.
A fragment from another text:
Результатъ
научной
конструкціи.
Поразительная простота руки и сгибаемые
клинки съ возможностью перестановки
для
всякой
бороды
<...>
согнутая
предохранительная дужка, 2 куска – очень
тонкій гнущійся клинокъ и одна ручка,
которая свинчиваетъ все вмѣстѣ. Клинокъ
регулируется автоматически.
Such verbosity is in a sharp contrast with
the modern Gillette texts: Gillette, the best a man
can get = Жиллетт – лучше для мужчины
нет! Lack of words, though, is substituted with
visual information or symbols of the product’s
positive features (smooth shaving represented in
a curving line, etc.).
# 1739 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Viacheslav B. Kashkin. Telementation vs. Interaction: Which Model Suits Human Communication Best?
An analogy is found in contrasting texts
advertising “Tide” (detergent). Texts dating back
to the 40-ies of the previous century combine
symbolic information expressed with the help of
color printing with quite a long verbal message
describing the advantages of the product:
He wears the cleanest shirt in the city (a
family pair is pictured, the husband in a sparkling
white shirt, accompanied by a loving wife;
sparkling and loving are symbolized by small
lines around the shirt and hearts over the head of
the wife, correspondingly) <...> Tide gets clothes
cleaner than any soap! <...> Not only cleaner,
whiter too! <...> and brighter! <...> the fabric
feels so soft, etc.
The modern texts advertising the same
product are confined to a couple of ‘neutral’
characteristics: Works in all machine types.
Dissolves quickly in hot & cold water, etc.
Such observations display what was named
deinformatization of the modern communication
processes, especially in such spheres as
trade or advertising. At the same time, while
information declines, the basic function, that of
organizing and controlling mutual actions of the
seller and the buyer, remains intact. A similar
tendency when the informative function cedes
to phatic function is observed by researchers of
the political discourse (Sheigal, 2004, pp. 6870), the fact which also stresses the essential
closeness of these discursive practices. Naïve
communicants, again, consider that in political
communication, during the election campaign,
for example, the candidates transmit information
about what they are going to do when they come
to power. What really happens is some sort
of consensual action: the voting side casts a
vote following the speeches of the candidates,
while this constitutes the real fi nal aim of the
latter. “Fulfilling promises” the candidate had
informed the electorate about before voting is
somewhat different.
5. Deverbalization Trend:
The Medium! No Message
Deinformatization of communication is
nowadays accompanied by a growing tendency
towards deverbalization (while the pragmatics of
action is preserved).
The seemingly paradoxical prediction
made by McLuhan several decades ago (the
medium is the message), supported by his idea
of connection between the prevalent medium
type and the type of culture, nowadays is
turning into reality. The contemporary age is
that of non-verbal, visual, multi-media, polycode
messages, computer-aided communication,
and hypertextuality. Modern adolescents very
often “communicate” in the social networks
for the sake of communication only, without
having any information to be transmitted. Their
communication is predominantly phatic: Hello!
Hi! I’m here! Look how cool I am, how cool my
site is, etc. Informative utterances are very rare in
internet forums or chats. In a survey performed as
early as 1998, we found that no more than 10 per
cent of all the utterances used in forums were, or
seemed to be informative: Hi!; Hi, DKelly, kisses
and hugs!; mmm Alessia kiss and hug; ok... time
to flee people... Happy New Year, everybody!!!
etc. Only one utterance on the aforementioned
page looked like asking for information, but in
fact it was more phatic, establishing primary
connection, than informative: MMAJERCAK>
a/s/l – .Lin Lin> 14/f/Mississippi, and when one
of the participants really asked for information,
there was no answer at all: PEANUT1> angel..
need some puter help... can you help a damsel in
distress??
It is not only in the computer-mediated
communication in the web that deverbalization of
communication is observed. Long before this kind
of media appeared and spread extensively, other
non-verbal media, like illustrations, polycode
printed messages, or comics as a visual substitute
# 1740 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Viacheslav B. Kashkin. Telementation vs. Interaction: Which Model Suits Human Communication Best?
of narration were used. The modern “clip
generation” read about the world history or Anna
Karenina from comics. The verbal constituent
of such texts is minimal and represented in the
so-called ‘bubbles’. Antagonists of Coca-Cola
published a calendar where words were kept to
a minimum; and one of the pages pictured a red
bottle of a well-known shape, with a shooting
mark over it and only one word: Smash! The word
seemed to be redundant.
The modern “negative” tendencies
(deverbalization and deinformatization) leave
the main purpose of communication intact:
joint action, influence and effect, interaction
and event, etc. We can repeat that information
is not the main purpose of communication,
but а means to attain the basic aim which is
triggering an action. The priority of regulative
function over informative and other functions is
indirectly supported by the history of developing
sign activity by animals and humans. Some
scholars assume that signs, and fi rst of all nonverbal gestures, used to be part of an action, then
separated from the whole and started to perform
the function of a meta-action, designating the
whole action (Klix, 1985, pp. 79-83). Semantics
began from semanticizing elements of behavior.
Language and communication in this sense can
be regarded as a meta-activity.
6. Resume
The models of communication studied in this
paper reveal the two approaches to communication
discussed earlier, or the two paradigms in the
communication studies: transmissional and
interactional. The first one is more mechanistic,
the second reflects the specific reality of human
communication better. Everyday conception is
closer to the reification-transmissional metaphor
of communication, although it admits some non-
linearity. It does not mean that researchers who
proposed models we named linear were wrong:
each model was supposed to fulfill the task it was
designed for, and we can use any of these models
depending on the task we have.
There is still much to be said about modeling
communication processes, but we would like to
concentrate on conclusive remarks:
– a communication model should include
the parameter of time and reflect such features as
non-linearity, dialogicality and procedurality;
– a communication model should include
the teleological parameter; communication should
be viewed as a goal-oriented human activity, or
meta-activity;
– the sender and the receiver cannot
be considered as either equal or unequal in the
process of communication, they are engaged
in dynamic and consensual (competitive,
contractual, interactional) relations;
– the informative function is not the
primary function of communicative systems, but
a subsidiary one: we inform in order to act (to
make an act, to appeal to an action);
– there is no telementation, no transmission
of information, information is generated
(reproduced) by the receiver who interacts with
the sender;
– the outer world is not reflected in
communication but constructed or shaped in it;
– the
temporal
dimension
of
communication presupposes that there is more
than one (sender-receiver) direction, and more
than one aspect of communication analysis:
anticipation and prognosis of the receiver’s
response, auto-monitoring and auto-correction
of communicative actions by the speaker, making
use of short-term and long-term memory in
mechanisms of textual cohesion and coherence,
intertextuality as the memory of culture, etc.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Viacheslav B. Kashkin. Telementation vs. Interaction: Which Model Suits Human Communication Best?
References
Arutyunova, N. D., 1981. The Addressee Factor. Proceedings of the USSR Academy of Sciences,
Literature and Language Series, Vol. 40, # 4, pp. 356-367, in Russian.
Bachelard, G., 1983. The New Scientific Spirit. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
Bakhtin, M. M., 2000. Author and hero: toward philosophical grounds for the humanities. SanktPeterburg: Azbuka, in Russian.
Bühler, K., 1969. Die Axiomatic der Sprachwissenschaften. Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio
Klostermann.
Foucault, M., 1969. L’archéologie du savoir. Paris: Gallimard.
Harris, R., 1998. Introduction to Integrational Linguistics: Language and Communication Library,
Volume 17. Oxford: Pergamon; Elsevier Science.
Jakobson, R. O., 1960. Closing Statement: Linguistics and Poetics. In Sebeok, T. A., ed. Style in
Language. Cambridge Massachusetts: MIT Press, pp. 350–377.
Jakobson, R. O., 1971. Linguistics and Communication Theory. In Selected Writings: Word and
Language, Vol.2. The Hague; Paris: Mouton, pp. 570-579.
Klix, F., 1985. Erwachendes Denken: eine Entwicklungsgeschichte der menschlichen Intelligenz.
Berlin: Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften.
Lakoff, G. and Johnson, M., 1980. Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: The University of Chicago
Press.
Lasswell, H., 1948. The Structure and Function of Communication in Society. In Bryson, L. ed.,
The Communication of Ideas. New York: Harper and Row, pp. 37-52.
Maturana, H. R. and Varela, F., 1992. The Tree of Knowledge: The Biological Roots of Human
Understanding. Boston, MA: Shambhala.
Maturana, H. R. and G. Verden-Zöller, 2008. The Origins of Humanness in the Biology of Love.
Exeter: Imprint Academic.
McLuhan, H. M., 1995. Essential McLuhan. Toronto: The House of Anansi Press.
Newmark, P., 1988. A Textbook of Translation. New York; London: Prentice Hall
International.
Reiß, K., 1971. Texttyp und Übersetzungsmethode: der operative Text. Heidelberg: Julius Groos
Verlag.
Shannon, C. E., 1948. A Mathematical Theory of Communication. The Bell System Technical
Journal, July, October, Vol. 27, pp. 379–423, 623–656.
Sheigal, E. I., 2004. Semiotics of Political Discourse. Moscow: Gnozis, in Russian.
Todorov, T., 1984. Mikhail Bakhtin: The Dialogical Principle. Manchester: Manchester University
Press.
Von Foerster, H., 2003. Understanding Understanding: Essays on Cybernetics and Cognition.
New York: Springer Verlag.
Weaver, W. and Shannon, C. E., 1963. The Mathematical Theory of Communication. Chicago:
University of Illinois Press.
Wiener, N., 1948. Cybernetics, or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine.
Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Wiener, N., 1950. The Human Use of Human Beings. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
# 1742 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Viacheslav B. Kashkin. Telementation vs. Interaction: Which Model Suits Human Communication Best?
Трансляционная или интеракциональная
модель коммуникации: что лучше?
В.Б. Кашкин
Воронежский государственный университет
Россия 394006, Воронеж, Университетская площадь, 1
Модели коммуникации можно разделить на трансляционные (линейные, механистические,
телементационные) и интеракциональные (нелинейные, диалогические, деятельностные).
Обыденное представление тяготеет к вещественно-трансляционной метафоре
коммуникации, но допускает элементы нелинейности. Диалогическая, интеракциональная
парадигма в большей степени отражает реальность именно человеческого коммуникативного
взаимодействия.
Ключевые слова: коммуникация, модель, интеракциональный.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 12 (2012 5) 1744-1752
~~~
УДК 808.5
A Methodology for Analyzing Political Speech:
Western Approaches to Rhetorical Theory
David C. Williamsa*,
Marilyn J. Young and Michael K. Launerb
a
Ph.D. of Florida Atlantic University, CU 201
777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, Florida, USA
Florida State University
b
Department of Modern Languages and Linguistics
Florida State University
625 University Way, PO Box 3061540
Tallahassee, Florida 32306-1540 1
b
Received 04.12.2012, received in revised form 11.12.2012, accepted 24.12.2012
Rhetorical scholars have long been interested in studying the internal dynamics of political speech −
not summarizing what is said, but rather describing how a speech works as a rhetorical appeal.1 In so
doing, of course, one naturally examines the content of the discourse (its goals and strategies) in order
to understand how the speaker seeks to influence an audience and to evaluate both the effectiveness of
the speech as a rhetorical appeal and its ethical and political implications.
In contemporary pluralistic societies such as Germany, Great Britain, and the United States—where
political voices have access to multiple forms of communication, including television, radio, newspapers,
scholarly journals, and Internet driven social media—it is expected that any national level political
event will be commented upon and analyzed by both adherents and opponents. Never is this more true
than when the leader of a nation, or a candidate to become that leader, speaks in any public forum.
Speeches by American political leaders are routinely subjected to intensive rhetorical criticism. Just
within the past few years, for instance, The Quarterly Journal of Speech has published rhetorical
criticism focusing on speeches by Barack Obama (twice), Franklin Roosevelt, and Mohammad Ali.
In this paper, which is aimed at presenting Western methods of rhetorical analysis to students and
teachers in Russia, we have chosen to apply those methods to the most recent inaugural address
given by the newly elected President of the Russian Federation, Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin, on the
assumption that most readers will be familiar with that speech.
Keywords: rhetoric, rhetorical criticism, communication criticism, political communication, rhetorical
situation, inaugural addresses, dramatism, second persona, Vladimir Putin, Kenneth Burke, Lloyd
Bitzer, Edwin Black.
Rhetorical
approaches
to
political
communication focus on the dynamic relationships
among speaker, text, audience, and situation.
*
1
This essay draws upon Western methods of
rhetorical criticism, with special emphasis on the
methodological techniques associated with the
Corresponding author E-mail address: dcwill@fau.edu
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 1744 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
David C. Williams, Marilyn J. Young… A Methodology for Analyzing Political Speech: Western Approaches…
work of American theorists Kenneth Burke, Lloyd
Bitzer, and Edwin Black. The political artifact that
we will analyze in this study is Vladimir Putin’s
third Inaugural Address, which was delivered
on 07 May 2012. Our purpose in presenting this
analysis is to model the process of “rhetorical
criticism,” a mainstream analytic orientation in
Western approaches to Communication Studies
that remains relatively unknown in Russia
and Eurasia. We select President Putin’s 2012
Inaugural Address as our sample text for analysis
both because we are confident that Russian
communication students and scholars are familiar
with the speech and because of our own interests
in better understanding the functions of public
argument in contemporary Russia.
Methodologically,
we
follow
these
procedures: 1) we engage in close textual reading
of the speech2 coupled with research into the
external circumstances and broader sociopolitical context; 2) we “follow” our observations
concerning the text toward appropriate critical
and theoretical perspectives that could illuminate
and “account for” what we had observed; and
3) we analyze the rhetorical act utilizing those
theoretical orientations, pursuing the implications
toward critical judgment about and evaluation of
the rhetorical act. (Black, 1980)
Kenneth Burke was among the first to explore
the rhetorical situation, focusing on a system of
ratios as a means of determining underlying
motive in political speech. Burke’s system of ratios,
the theoretical core of “dramatistic criticism,”
explores the relationship between textually
featured elements of a rhetorical act: scene, act,
agent, agency, purpose. (Burke, 1945).
Lloyd Bitzer’s idea of the “rhetorical
situation” proceeds from the notion that all
rhetoric—particularly political rhetoric—is
situated; that is, it is dependent for meaning and
salience on the circumstances in which it arises.
Bitzer conceived of the rhetorical situation as:
... a complex of persons, events, objects,
and relations presenting an actual or potential
exigence (острая проблема, нуждающаяся
в исправлении) which can be completely or
partially removed if discourse, introduced
into the situation, can so constrain human
decision or action as to bring about the
significant modification of the exigence.
(Bitzer, 1968, p. 6).
“Exigence” itself is understood to be
a perception of imperfection (or, of a need)
“marked by a sense of urgency”: it cannot be
simply ignored. Bitzer elaborated, claiming
that “(i)n any rhetorical situation there will
be at least one controlling exigence which
functions as the organizing principle: it
specifies the audience to be addressed and
the change to be effected.” (Bitzer, 1968,
p.7).
Edwin Black focused on the audience in
“The Second Persona,” arguing that the rhetor
constructed [and reconstructed] the audience,
asking it to adopt a particular role or identity in
line with the speaker’s purpose. Through close
textual analysis, Black suggests, a “critic can see in
the auditor (слушающий) implied by a discourse
the model of what the rhetor (говорящий) would
have his real auditor become.” What the critic can
find projected by the discourse is the image of a
person, and though that person may never find
actual embodiment, it is still a person that it is an
image of. (Black, 1970, 335).
Although not identical, the “second persona”
functions in a manner comparable to the process
of “interpellation,” a concept developed by
the French Marxist philosopher Louis Pierre
Althusser. (Althusser, 1987, Charland, 1987,
Williams et al., 2009, Gouran, 2010)
In our analysis, we appropriate insights from
these three theories—dramatism, the rhetorical
situation, and the second persona—to elaborate
the synergy among rhetor, text, situation, and
# 1745 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
David C. Williams, Marilyn J. Young… A Methodology for Analyzing Political Speech: Western Approaches…
audience as they come together in President
Vladimir Putin’s 2012 Inaugural Address.
When Vladimir Putin first took office at
the dawn of the 21st century, he ushered in a new
era in Russia, one focused on gaining control of
the upheaval and uncertainty of the 1990s. Upon
ascending to office in 2000, Putin immediately
set out to reconstruct the notions of liberty
developed in the ‘90s under Boris Yeltsin. There
can be little doubt that Putin’s goal in his first two
terms was to overlay his notions of “continuity”
and “stability” onto standard definitions of
democracy, so that his conception of “managed”
or “sovereign” democracy became accepted by the
Russian people while also remaining acceptable
to the Western powers. Putin deployed his
definitions of democracy and liberty as a means of
establishing his own power and authority, calling
on the audience to reconstitute itself as a Russian
people unified in support of a strong state. He
tried to get to a definitional place where Russian
‘democracy’ fit his vision of governance, rather
than a larger (Western) vision of democracy. To
that end, Putin asked his audience to reconsider
its history and the historical connection to
democracy and freedom and to reconstitute
themselves as a Russian people ideologically
committed to a collectivist vision of democracy,
one which is orchestrated and controlled and
which functions as an instrument of the state.
Putin’s emergent definition of democracy became
known as “managed democracy” (управляемая
демократия) or, in more recent years, “sovereign
democracy” (суверенная демократия), in which
the sovereignty is understood to reside in the state
rather than “the people.” (Gouran, 2010, pp.558564).
By all accounts he was successful in his
two four-year terms, “redefining the terms in
the debate over liberty, security, democracy, and
free markets in Russia.” (Young, 2006). After a
four-year hiatus during which he served as Prime
Minister, Putin was inaugurated for his third term
as President of the Russian Federation on 07 May
2012. Out-going President (and in-coming Prime
Minister) Dmitri Medvedev spoke first, followed
by the swearing in of Putin as President, and then
by Putin’s brief inaugural address. Offstage, in
the days immediately preceding the inauguration,
were some of the largest public protests since the
final throes of the Soviet Union. These protests
followed earlier demonstrations after both the
Duma and the Presidential elections.
Once the new understanding or definition of a
term such as “democracy” has been accepted, the
rhetor needs only make reference to it. Moreover,
the new definition can function as the premise or
grounds for a subsequent argument. That is, the
definition itself is no longer an argument claim;
it is instead a starting point. Putin’s continued
popularity [despite recent protests] and, to some
extent, the fact that he was re-elected to a third
term—even after a four-year hiatus—indicate his
success in this endeavor.3 Thus, it is important
to examine Putin’s rhetoric as he enters his third
term in office to determine whether he believes
the final transformation has taken place, enabling
him to use “sovereign democracy” as a foundation
for his vision of Russia’s future.
In his discussion of the rhetorical situation,
Bitzer focuses on the importance of exigence, that
set of circumstances which has “called forth” the
rhetorical act. Obviously, the immediate purpose
of Putin’s address is to fulfill the expectations
for an inaugural ceremony. As with all inaugural
speeches, the larger intent is to set a tone,
describe a direction, and provide inspiration for
the audience, but the content is largely driven by
the perception of exigence that exists in the world
outside the inaugural ceremony.
Putin’s exigence is the desire among
certain segments of the population for radical
change: his “exigence” is thus the existence of
political exigence in the audience. This is not an
# 1746 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
David C. Williams, Marilyn J. Young… A Methodology for Analyzing Political Speech: Western Approaches…
exigence he seeks the audience to share directly;
rather he seeks to dampen or quell any specific
political exigencies that might be building in the
audience. Specifically, the President seems to aim
toward suppressing any sense of urgency about
any matters of the public sphere. In this sense,
his goal is not to activate a functional audience
toward the reduction of a shared exigence but
rather to de-activate or disempower the audience.
A broader goal might be to deconstruct (or
dismantle) the rhetorical situation itself, that is, to
render the broader situation as non-rhetorical, i.e.,
perceptions of imperfection, even those marked
by a sense of urgency, will not be perceived as
addressable through audience action.
Putin amplifies many of the themes
Medvedev had mentioned in his introduction of
the new President, beginning with Medvedev’s
weaving of the will and good of the people into the
fabric of the leader. Putin does this by subsuming
self into a mystical union of leader and people
through a merger in collective purpose (a clear
expression of what Burke labels as a purpose/
agent motivational ratio). Following his salutation
to “citizens” and “friends,” Putin begins in first
person voice, and in doing so he quickly positions
himself as the leader and decision maker as Russia
moves forward. He states:
... I am aware of my great responsibility
before our country. Russia’s interests and the
security and prosperity of our people have
always been and always will be my utmost
priority. I will do everything to justify the
trust that millions of our citizens have placed
in me. I see the whole sense and purpose of
my life as being to serve our country and
serve our people, whose support gives me
the inspiration and help I need to resolve
the greatest and most complex tasks. (all
emphasis added)
Thus, Putin obscures personal motives
through “service”—all that he has done is in
service to his country, not for any personal gain,
either in power or in wealth. Putin here depicts
himself as a fully empowered hero; that is, the
persona constructed is that of a hero who is
“super-human” in many respects (Otis Walter
says superior to the audience in both kind and
knowledge). (Campbell, Burkholder, 1997). The
claim that the “purpose of my life” is “to serve
our country and serve our people” does not
locate the source of the purpose, whether Putin
has generated it within himself or whether it was
conferred upon him from without, or perhaps even
above. Either way, the President suggests that
his motive, his being, is constituted by a larger
purpose. This is Burke’s purpose/agent ratio.
The dim aura of divine selection that hovers
around Putin’s persona gains subtle reinforcement
later in the speech when Putin shifts his language
from “trust” to “faith.” At the beginning of the
speech, he claims possession of the audience’s
“trust” that has been “placed in” him, and
through “trust” the audience transfers to Putin
the political agency to fulfill his responsibilities,
to make the decisions and take the actions needed
to resolve problems, thereby serving the people.
The audience is being constructed to defer, not
to act.
Putin then and throughout the remainder
of the speech shifts almost exclusively to the
inclusive plural voice “we,” suggesting an
identification and merger between speaker and
audience. “We,” says Putin, have accomplished
a great deal: “We have strengthened our country
and returned our dignity as a great nation. . .
.We have everything we need today to continue
our development and progress….” There is no
crisis; there is no sense of urgency that should
be attached to existing imperfections. There are
challenges ahead as Russia enters “a new stage
in our national development,” and the “coming
years will be crucial for shaping Russia’s future
in the decades to come.”
# 1747 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
David C. Williams, Marilyn J. Young… A Methodology for Analyzing Political Speech: Western Approaches…
But the threats are unstated, and the tasks
are appealing, general goals, not specific actions
(e.g., “building a new economy and developing
modern living standards”). In order to “achieve
our goals,” the primary requirement placed on
the audience is to not change, to “remain united
and stand together.” Additional injunctions are
placed on the audience that repeat the pattern
of describing optimistic general goals but not
specific actions: e.g., “treasure our homeland,”
“strengthen our country’s democracy”4 and
“rights” and “freedoms,” to “expand” citizens
“participation in government and in setting our
national agenda,” with the result that “everyone’s
desires for a better life become part of a
common effort.” Unity and standing together are
underscored as essential to “a common effort.”
Putin offers a path for such standing
together and assures the audience that “(w)e will
achieve success for sure,” but only if we “stand
firmly upon the solid foundation” constructed of
several pillars of national identity: “our multiethnic people’s cultural and spiritual traditions,
our centuries of history,” and “values that have
always been the moral backbone of our life.” The
audience is to look inward and become more firmly
entrenched in their identities. The other condition
for success, and the only call for audience action,
is for “each of us” to live our “lives according to
their conscience, with love for and faith in their
country, their families and loved ones, and care
for their children’s happiness and their parents’
welfare.” “Treasuring homeland” and “trust” in
the leader have now progressed to “love for and
faith in” country, as well as families and loved
ones. All of these injunctions direct the audience
inward, toward identity and commitment; none
of them directs the audience toward actions
in the public sphere or toward specific policy
endorsements.
Putin makes the people feel part of the process
of restoring the greatness Russia enjoyed during
the Soviet period. Yet leadership—authority—
remains the key to such progress; the “hard
work” of the people in a “common effort” was
essential, but it could not have happened without
guidance from above, and in this instance Putin
gives a nod toward Medvedev: “I think that much
of the credit here is due to Dmitry Medvedev. His
presidency ensured that our country could keep
developing with continuity and stability, and gave
new impetus to modernization in all spheres of
life” (“Vladimir Putin inaugurated”). Again, the
emphasis is on stability and unity—depicting the
opposition and protestors as threatening a return
to chaos.
On one level this gesture of humility in
which the out-going Prime Minister credits the
out-going President for all successes is a polite
exercise in appreciation and deference, but on
another it functions to obscure completely any
initiative or leadership “from below,” from
democratic expressions of the people themselves.
Moreover, by travelling together on this road,
which is defined not by its difficulties but rather
by its merger of purpose, leader, and people,
Russia is once again poised on the threshold of
greatness.
In his Inaugural Address Putin explicitly
offers an operational definition of democracy and
applies it in an aspirational sense: “We want to
live and we will live in a democratic country in
which everyone has the freedom and opportunity
to apply their talents and labour, their energy.
We want to live and we will live in a successful
Russia that the world respects as a reliable, open,
honest and predictable partner” (“Vladimir
Putin inaugurated”). National success—and
with it international prestige (and power)—seem
to be the implied outcomes of “democratic”
application of the talents, labor, and energy of
the people in service to the state. Thus, Putin’s
vision of “democracy” focuses on economic and
national strength (national “success”), rather
# 1748 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
David C. Williams, Marilyn J. Young… A Methodology for Analyzing Political Speech: Western Approaches…
than collaborative decision-making. Moreover,
political unity is the path to “democracy,” not a
cacophony of diverse voices, not a cooperatively
competing interplay of different perspectives.
The President embeds his concept of democracy
in a larger situational definition: stay the course.
This is stability and progress; this is the way
things will be; this is the new reality.
The only specific action called for from a
functional audience is directed not toward the
public sphere, but rather toward the private sphere:
to “care for” children’s “happiness” and “parents’
welfare.” The audience is exhorted toward action
in the personal realm but directed toward identity
commitments, unity, and faith in the public realm,
orientations that deflect any emergent exigencies
that might arise around specific issues in the
public sphere and, through the bestowal of “trust”
upon the leader, that leave the responsibility and
power for resolving the greatest and most complex
challenges to the leader.
In his conclusion, Putin reinforces many of
these same themes, embedding them in alluring,
powerful, and vague goals and visions, depicted
through a medley of what Kenneth Burke calls
“ultimate terms.” (Burke, 1950, pp. 183-189).
He features the term “democracy,” but not in
a definitional sense that highlights any vision
of politically pluralistic argument in public
deliberation of ideas and courses of action. When
Putin says, “We want to live and we will live in
a democratic country in which everyone has the
freedom and opportunity to apply their talents
and labour, their energy,” he equates democracy
with, or reduces it to, cultural and economic
realms: the Western understanding of democracy
as a diversity of ideas advocated by multiple
voices vying for acceptance and legitimation
by an empowered public is conspicuous in its
absence. Instead, Putin returns to the theme of
unity (and unity can be interpreted as the absence
of diverse voices or ideas), proclaiming his belief
“in the strength of our common goals and ideals,
our determination to transform our country, our
people’s united efforts, and our common desire
for freedom, truth and justice.” Thus united,
“We are ready for the tests and accomplishments
ahead. ... We will work with faith in our hearts and
sincere and pure intention.” In these concluding
lines, Putin deflates concerns of any impending
urgent perceptions of imperfection: tests will be
met, and accomplishments, not imperfections, lie
ahead.
In addition to defining “democracy,”
President Putin moves toward (re)defining Russia,
not in the sense of expanding or contracting
national boundaries, but rather in creating a
meta-state, trans-historical sense of “Russia.” In
this Inaugural Address, he speaks of “Russia”
(not the “Russian Federation”), of “our centuries
of history,” and of Russia’s “great past.” In this
construction, “Russia” transcends different
political states that have existed over time. This
‘meta-Russia’ seamlessly blends a glorious
and heroic past into the challenges of today,
illuminating the common path toward a glorious
future.
Conclusion
In this essay we have attempted to illustrate
the process of rhetorical criticism as practiced
by communication scholars in the United States.
The point of such criticism is not to censure or
disparage, but, rather, to analyze. To that end, we
have examined Vladimir Putin’s third Inaugural
Address to determine how it works rhetorically—
what makes it successful or unsuccessful as an
example of political discourse. Our conclusion is
that Putin, in advancing the state as the guarantor
of freedom and prosperity, operates from the
definition of democracy that he advocated in
his first two terms. He ties democratization to
prosperity and unity. Bitzer argues in his essay
“The Rhetorical Situation” that rhetoric comes
# 1749 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
David C. Williams, Marilyn J. Young… A Methodology for Analyzing Political Speech: Western Approaches…
into being as the result of an exigence which
must be removed. In the case of Putin’s inaugural
speech, however, we believe that Putin’s rhetoric
works to de-rhetoricize the situation. The
exigence is not so much resolved as it is subsumed
in transcendent appeals to unity.
1
2
3
4
The technique of rhetorical criticism,
while focused here on the recurring situation of
inaugural addresses, has broader implications for
understanding and analyzing political discourse
and is a defining practice in Western rhetorical
studies.
This work is part of an on-going study of Russian political communication conducted under the auspices of the International Center for the Advancement of Political Communication and Argumentation (ICAPCA), located at Florida Atlantic
University, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.
The authors worked with the official English language translation of the speech as posted on the President of Russia
website. Despite the limitations of working with the text in translation, we believe it sufficient for our current purposes of
illustrating methods of rhetorical criticism.
Western observers felt the 2012 presidential election was relatively free of voter fraud. Still, Putin’s numbers were
substantially less than the last time he ran for office, and his approval rating has declined.
It should be noted that this begs the question that it is a “democracy”; it argues that whatever that democracy is, it must be
“strengthened,” which would seem to suggest that you make it more “purely” what it already fundamentally is, which in
this case we believe is “managed” or “sovereign” democracy.
References
Althusser, Louis Pierre. “Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses,” Lenin and Philosophy and
Other Essays (Ben Brewster, trans.), New York and London: Monthly Review Press, 1971.
Bitzer, Lloyd F. «The Rhetorical Situation,» Philosophy and Rhetoric, 1 (1968), 1-14.
Black, Edwin. “The Second Persona,” Quarterly Journal of Speech, 56 (1970), 109-119. Reprinted
in (Contemporary Rhetorical Theory: A Reader Eds. Lucaites, J. L., Condit, C.M., and Caudill S. NY:
The Guilford Press, 1999: 331-340.
Black, Edwin. “A Note on Theory and Practice in Rhetorical Criticism,” Western Journal of
Speech Communication, 44 (Fall 1980): 331-336.
Burke, Kenneth. A Grammar of Motives. New York: Prentice Hall, 1945.
Burke, Kenneth. A Rhetoric of Motives. New York: Prentice Hall, 1950.
Campbell Karlyn Kohrs, and Burkholder, Thomas R. Critiques of Contemporary Rhetoric, 2nd
Ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1997.
Charland, Maurice. “Constitutive Rhetoric: The Case of the people Quebecois,” Quarterly Journal
of Speech, 73(1987), 133-150. Reprinted in Readings in Rhetorical Criticism, 3rd Ed. Ed. Burgchardt, C.
R. State College, PA: Strata Publishing, Inc., 2005.
Kara-Murza, Vladimir. “Putin’s ‘Soviet’ Response to Renewed Protests in Russia.” World Affairs,
Feb 9, 2012. www.worldaffairsjournal.org/blg/vladimir-kara-murza
King, Andrew. “Pentadic Criticism: The Wheels of Creation,” in Rhetorical Criticism: Perspectives
in Action. Ed. J. Kuypers. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2009, 165-179
Krastev, Ivan. “’Sovereign Democracy’, Russian-style.” openDemocracy free thinking for
the world. Nov 16, 2006. http://www.opendemocracy.net/globalization-institutions_government/
sovereign_democracy_4104.jsp Accessed 9/5/11
McGee, B. R. “The Argument from Definition Revisited: Race and Definition in the Progressive
Era.” Argumentation and Advocacy, 35 (1999). Retrieved July 29, 2005 from InfoTrac.
“Reception marking the 67th anniversary of victory in the Great Patriotic War.” Official Site of the
President of Russia. May 9, 2012. http://emg.news.kremlin.ru. Accessed June 3, 2012.
# 1750 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
David C. Williams, Marilyn J. Young… A Methodology for Analyzing Political Speech: Western Approaches…
“Vladimir Putin inaugurated as President of Russia.” Official site of the President of Russia. May
7, 2012. http://eng.news.kremlin.ru/transcripts/3749. Accessed June 3, 2012.
Williams, David Cratis. “Instant Democracy: Rhetorical Crises and the Russian Federation, 19912007.” Advances in the History of Rhetoric, 9 (2006): 227-242.
Williams, David Cratis and Marin, Noemi, “Citizen Putin: Presidential Argument and the Invitation
to (Democratic) Citizenship.” The Functions of Argument and Social Context. Selected Papers from
the National Communication Association/American Forensic Association Summer Argumentation
Conference, Alta, UT, August 2009. Ed. Dennis Gouran. Washington: National Communication
Association, 2010: 558-564.
Williams, David Cratis, and Young, Marilyn. “Managing ‘Democracy’ in the Age of Terrorism:
Putin, Bush, and Arguments from Definition.” Engaging Argument. Selected Papers from the Thirteenth
NCA/AFA Conference on Argumentation. Ed. Patricia Riley. Annandale: National Communication
Association. 2006: 97-103.
Williams, David Cratis, Young, Marilyn, and Launer, Michael. “Russian National Identity
as Argument Construction: An Assessment of Political Transformations in Post-Soviet Russia,”
Proceedings: Seventh International Conference of the International Society for the Study of
Argumentation. Eds. van Eemeren, Frans, Garssen, Bart, Godden, David, and Mitchell, Gordon.
Amsterdam: SIC-SAT Publishers, 2011: 2008-2016 (CD-ROM).
Young, Marilyn J. “Liberty vs. Security in Putin’s ‘Managed Democracy’: Back to the Future?”
Contemporary Perspectives on Argumentation: Views from the Venice Argumentation Conference.
Eds. van Eemeren, Frans, Hazen, Michael David, Houtlosser, Peter, and Williams, David Cratis.
Amsterdam: SIC-SAT Publishers, 2006.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
David C. Williams, Marilyn J. Young… A Methodology for Analyzing Political Speech: Western Approaches…
Методика анализа выступлений политиков:
подходы западных специалистов
к разработке теории риторики
Д.К. Вильямса,
М.Дж. Йонг , М.К. Лаунерб
a
Флоридский Атлантический университет
777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, Флорида, CU 201 США
б
Отделение современных иностранных языков и лингвистики
625 University Way, PO Box 3061540
Tallahassee, Florida 32306-1540
б
Ученые в области риторики давно проявляют интерес к исследованию внутренней динамики
политической речи, т.е. не суммируют то, что говорится, а описывают, как работает речь в
качестве риторического призыва. При этом, несомненно, осуществляется анализ содержания
дискурса (его цели и стратегии), что позволяет понять, какие пути ищет говорящий для
воздействия на аудиторию, и оценить эффективность речи как риторического призыва и ее
этических и политических импликаций.
В современных плюралистических обществах, таких как Германия, Великобритания
и Соединенные Штаты Америки, в которых политические голоса имеют доступ к
множественным формам коммуникации, включая телевидение, радио, газеты, научные
журналы и социальные интернет-средства массовой информации, предполагается, что
политическое событие любого уровня подвергается комментариям и анализу со стороны
как сторонников, так и оппонентов. Особенно это прослеживается, когда руководитель
страны или кандидат в политические лидеры выступает на каких-либо политических
форумах. Речи американских политических лидеров постоянно подвергаются усиленной
риторической критике. Например, журнал «The Quarterly Journal of Speech» за последние
несколько лет опубликовал риторическую критику речей Барака Обамы (дважды),
Франклина Рузвельта и Мохаммеда Али. В данной статье аудитории российских студентов
и преподавателей представлен западный метод риторического анализа. Для этого была
выбрана инаугурационная речь Владимира Владимировича Путина, вновь избранного
президентом Российской Федерации, чья речь, как предполагается, хорошо знакома
большинству читателей.
Ключевые слова: риторика, риторическая критика, коммуникативная критика, политическая
коммуникация, риторическая ситуация, инаугурационная речь, драматизм, второе
действующее лицо, Владимир Путин, Кеннет Бёрк, Ллойд Бицер, Эдвин Блэк.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 12 (2012 5) 1753-1761
~~~
УДК 81’42
Technologisation of Discourse Practices:
Globality Versus Cultural Specificity
Lyudmila V. Kulikova*
Siberian Federal University
82а Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 04.12.2012, received in revised form 11.12.2012, accepted 24.12.2012
The issues raised in the article are connected with vivid communication trends of the 21st century:
namely, its increasing technologisation and unprecedented integration, as well as national and
cultural discourse markedness in the context of their existence within a certain linguaculture.
Keywords: globalization of discourse, technology, discourse practices, technologisation of discourse
practices.
Introduction
The process of human communication can be
seen as a global anthropological technology. We live
in the age of total “grasping” by communication,
a social trend related to globalisation and rapid
development of discourse technologies. In their
practical activities most people are involved in
the domain of communication technology as
performers and participants in the scenarios:
public, advertising, commercial, corporate, etc.
Cultural identity today is being fragmented
(‘broken into pieces’) by the communicative
impact of one’s own and foreign discourse
culture. Communication that uses a human being
as a “fragment” is a modern social technology.
I believe that these are the key touches to the
“portrait” of modern communication processes.
In this article I use the term ‘discourse
practices’ as it largely reflects the social
and practical side of human existence in
communication. In this regard, discourse
*
1
practices are understood as socially established,
conventional and articulated actions to address
recurrent communication problems and intentions
in the corresponding linguacultural society in
the areas of institutional and non-institutional
communication.
Thus, the modern world is increasingly
representing the global communicative and
communications space and discourse practices
are correspondingly growing on a global scale
and acquiring a technological character.
Technologisation
of discourse practices
The term ‘technologisation of discourse’
emerged in the end of the last (i.e. 20th) century
in the works of the well-known English linguist
Norman Fairclough, who in a certain way developed
the research of Michel Foucault and Erving
Goffman. Analysing discourse technologies as
a variety of government technologies Fairclough
Corresponding author E-mail address: info_ifiyak@sfu-kras.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 1753 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Lyudmila V. Kulikova. Technologisation of Discourse Practices: Globality Versus Cultural Specificity
connects technologisation of discourse with three
domains of practice:
1) research into the discoursal practices
of workplaces and institutions; 2) design
of discoursal practices in accordance with
institutional strategies and objectives; 3) training
of personnel in such designed discoursal practices
(Fairclough, 1996; in: Plotnikova, 2011, p. 22).
A number of Russian authors, primarily
S. Plotnikova, are also currently developing
the theory of discourse technologisation,
distinguishing the main features and functions
of modern discourse technologies (Plotnikova,
2011).
The methodological background provides
an opportunity to formulate an understanding
of discourse technologisation as a process of
minimising communication efforts to effectively
control subjects in discourse interaction. The
mechanism of technological ‘packaging’ of
discourse practices is based on organising
a sequence of communicative actions as
regulated, standardised operations to achieve the
maximum (guaranteed) result at the least cost.
The technology of discourse practice makes the
recipient believe in the sincerity and truthfulness
of face-to-face or mediated communication.
Globalization
of modern discourse
It is noteworthy that reference to the
phenomenon of globalisation, particularly
drawing on McLuhan’s metaphor of the ‘global
village’ and notion of implosion, has long been
focused almost exclusively on technological
characteristics of communicative environment,
namely development of information and
telecommunications systems, mass media,
Internet resources, ‘squeezing’ the geographical
space and time and allowing you to instantly
carry out human interactions in a dialogue, an
interactive mode. Therefore, by the way, new
information and communication technologies of
the 20th century were assumed to be radio, film,
television and computer.
However, the relevant attribute and
characteristics of modernity is the development
and expansion of not only communication
(technical media), but also communicative and
discoursal (content) sphere in globalisation. The
research interest of my talk is directed, first of all,
and most of all, at the second constituent of the
modern social world.
Linguo-communicative analysis of discourse
reality reveals numerous examples of discourse
practices globalisation in different institutional
spheres that I will try to demonstrate in this article.
In this regard, the world’s modern interactive
television broadcasts programs identical in
nature. In unified shows Russians, Americans,
Germans and French are trying to win a million
by answering quiz questions, guessing words,
spinning the roulette wheel, etc., thus reflecting
the symbolic trend of globalisation of discourse
practices, especially in the virtual space.
The same trends in the formation of a new
phase of globalisation are demonstrated by
network discourse in the numerous national and
international social networks, such as Facebook,
Wikipedia, ‘Vkontakte’, ‘Odnoklassniki’, etc.
The feeling of global communication technology
is also caused by monitoring the international
dating website “www.edarling.org”, a fairly new
discourse practice designed for the situation of
on-line communication. This practice of virtual
interaction is based on the technology called
‘matching’. In general, implementation of this
technology has an exceptionally global nature,
because discourse in the format of a dating
website in different countries is unified within
the same cognitive scenario, namely a kind of
psychological compatibility test for clients of
network communication space. In addition,
monitoring websites for network clients from
# 1754 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Lyudmila V. Kulikova. Technologisation of Discourse Practices: Globality Versus Cultural Specificity
different countries finds standardised semiotic
and composition markers: mostly the same
visuals, the identical structure of profiles starting
with gender stratification, the same text material
literally translated into different languages,
“Register for free and find a partner for serious
relationship” (the site for Russia); “Melden Sie
sich kostenlos an und finden sie den Partner, der
wirklich zu Ihnen passt” (sites for Austria and
Germany).
Even
these
characteristics
suggest
reproduction of globally organised discourse
practice. Its technology uses all the available
‘discourse
manipulations’
(Marcuse),
psychological
‘inventory’
and
growing
dependence of a human on the information
medium. Deconstruction of communicative
practice of virtual dating in the aspect of
‘customer’ of the disclosed technology reveals
the primary intention of technologists producing
this type of discourse on a global scale. The
data show that we primarily deal with the
phenomenon of industry / commercialisation of
communication. Its aim in the studied fragment
of reality is not cross-cultural marriages, but
specific commercial interests, which confirms
the possibility of instrumental application of
discourse as a resource of management, impact
and financial benefits.
However, despite the obvious global trends
of discourse practice in virtual dating, its detailed
analysis allows us to talk about the specific
national and cultural character of this interaction.
In particular, communication conventions in the
Russian-speaking environment tolerate intrusion
into a private sphere which is clearly reflected in
the profile questions for Russian clients of the
websites. For instance, the requested information
identifies the applicant’s ethnicity, “Which
of these groups do you belong to: European,
African, Asian, Arab? / Welcher ethnischen
Gruppe gehören Sie an: europäisch, afrikanisch,
asiatisch, arabisch?” The image of the client is
designed largely in terms of external parameters,
such as the interviewee’s height. This question
is missing in the form for European applicants,
because in accordance with the communicative
norms of this cultural space it is identified as
unauthorised access to personal information. By
the same token, protection of the client’s private
information in the materials of, for example, the
German website ‘ElitePartner’ is excessively
explicated by the warnings, “Andere Mitglieder
sehen nur Ihr Alter, nicht Ihr Geburtsdatum”, or
“Ihre Antworten auf die einzelnen Fragen sind
für andere später nicht sichtbar” (other users
will see only your age, not your date of birth.
Your answers to individual questions will not
be available to others). This discourse delicacy
is not found on the corresponding websites for
Russians. Thus, within the global technology of
virtual dating the corpus of analysed material
demonstrates cultural markedness of relevant
discourse practice.
Consumerist discourse in its various
forms is a vivid reflection of globalisation and
technologisation of discourse practices. Let us
consider, for example, communicative textual
space of contemporary hospitality. As a rule,
high-rate hotels in Russia have a large number
of signs and information plates only in English
without Russian equivalents, ‘Reception’,
‘Concierge’, ‘Staff only’, ‘Exchange’, ‘Luggage
Room’, ‘Cloak Room’, ‘Lobby Bar’, ‘No
Smoking Area’, ‘You are in a no – smoking
room’. Obviously, knowledge of a foreign
language (mostly English) by Russian-speaking
guests is presumed and / or the information is
addressed to foreign recipients which generally
reflects the globalisation of tourist flows and,
consequently, of communication. It is interesting
to note that in German hotels, as the empirical
evidence shows, the same model of bilingual
(German-English)
discourse
environment
# 1755 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Lyudmila V. Kulikova. Technologisation of Discourse Practices: Globality Versus Cultural Specificity
is observed which allows us to identify the
use of English as a global lingua franca, the
technology of the modern business in general.
In addition, technologisation of discourse
practice in this case is clearly manifested in
the staff’s communication effort minimisation,
optimization and economy of communication
input in dealing with foreigners.
As a part of the same processes
accommodation rules in Russian hotels are
verbalised almost everywhere bilingually, thus
reflecting the desire for ostentation, quality,
service, and social prestige of the hotel, which can
be clearly designated as a discourse technology
of presentation consumerism.
In the last decade discourse practices in
corporate communication are being actively
technologised. Corporate structures are developing
their own technologies, as a rule anonymous in
terms of authorship, produced for the internal and
external organisational environment. First of all,
it is the interaction with customers, consumers,
job applicants, etc. In the process of technological
discourse construction of corporate reality all its
formal and conceptual aspects are being strictly
conventionalised.
As an example, let us consider discourse
practices of a modern banking corporation based
on the scripts and regulatory documents made
available to the author by courtesy of one of
the city’s banks. Technological communication
repertoire of a specific organisational and
corporate culture involves in terms of our
interest rules of addressing the customer,
rules of telephone conversations and business
correspondence, instructions for the image and
behavioural characteristics of an employee as a
corporate identity, as well as the basic guidelines
for interpersonal interaction with clients of the
bank.
In this regard, the technological model
of the ‘right’ communication with customers
is embodied in the following guidelines for
employees:
1. Address the customer strictly by formal
‘You’ and by name and patronymic, regardless of
his/her age. The exception can only be made in
case of addressing by first name and only at the
client’s request.
Note: It is better to write down the client’s full
name in the organizer in order to remember it, and
pronounce it just before the meeting, especially if
it is a difficult combination of words.
2. In case of a few guests remember their
names on first listen. You can write them down in
the organizer according to the guests’ location in
the meeting room.
3. Use only words with positive meaning like
‘thank you’, ‘please’, ‘can you …?’ etc.
Note: Use the minimum number of specific
professional banking terms. Do not use
professional slang and diminutive word endings.
4. Comment on any necessary absence when
providing customer service.
For example, “Unfortunately, I have to
leave you” / “Sorry, I need to make a copy of
the document / get documents signed by the
manager”, etc. / “It will take no more than 5
minutes”, etc.
5. When meeting a Customer you need to
introduce yourself in the first place; pronounce
your first and last name and position clearly.
Next, you need to pause to give the opportunity to
the guest to introduce himself/herself. And only if
he/she did not do it for some reason, you should
inquire. If it is a tripartite meeting, you should
introduce the third party giving the second guest’s
first and last name, position and organization.
This fragment showing in fact the perfect
development of bank clerk’s discourse behaviour
supports the idea that some technologies
“depersonalise the human completely, so that
he/she becomes similar to all other speakers
/ writers having the same role in the standard
# 1756 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Lyudmila V. Kulikova. Technologisation of Discourse Practices: Globality Versus Cultural Specificity
situation” (Plotnikova, 2011, p. 42). In this
case, the intentional logic of this technology
order is dictated by the bank management and
is apparently based on the image policy, “Bank
image is an integral pattern combining business
style with a friendly, positive attitude, polite
and amicable communication with customers,
partners and colleagues.”
One can certainly talk about the didactic
side of technologisation. In this sense, people
that produce the so-called discourse ‘template’
have to learn, memorise and repeat developed
texts and principles of normative interaction with
their customers and partners conducive to the
objectives of the corporation.
Discourse practice of business conversations
on the telephone includes no less specific and
detailed list of customer-oriented requirements:
1. When answering the telephone you should
introduce yourself.
2. If the Customer did not give his/her name,
you should ask him/her in a tactful manner to
introduce himself/herself.
3. Make a pause and listen carefully for the
reason the customer calls.
4. It is unacceptable to give negative
evaluations of the customer’s words, opinions, or
actions.
5. Before ending the conversation, you should
always summarise to avoid misunderstanding.
6. At the end of any conversation you
should:
Thank the customer for calling.
− Let the client know that you greatly
appreciate his/her information, request.
− Hang up after the client has done it.
7. During outgoing calls you should also say
hello, give the name of the Bank and your name.
NOTE:
− You cannot say the name of the customer
on the phone, especially when there is another
customer in the room (confidentiality)
− Keep promises and call back to the
Customer at the agreed time
− It is necessary to return all missed calls
− Telephone conversation must be
constructive and short
− You cannot do other things during
telephone conversation.
The technological linguasemiotic image
and corporate behaviour of bank employees
require formalization of such aspects as personal
qualities: presentable appearance, customer
orientation, result orientation, communication
skills, active lifestyle, as well as the appearance
of the staff, “Compliance with the appearance
rules is an integral part of the customer-oriented
conduct adopted by the Bank. The employee
must adhere to the principles and rules with
regard to the business style and is responsible
for compliance with the Standards of service. ...
Casual clothing (Business Friday) on Fridays is
not accepted.”
The given discourse technologies are certainly
closed; access to them is open to a certain group of
people, representatives of this corporate culture.
As noted by S. Plotnikova, these technologies are
not introduced from the outside, but are formed
in the discourse community by the gradual
increase of corresponding discourse experience
and its dissemination through the standardisation
of discourse practices (Plotnikova, 2011, p. 26).
The use of technologically defined discourse
scenarios ‘works’ to achieve specific goals,
particularly in terms of business communication,
a real economic profit.
In the focus of corporate communication let
us also discuss technologically defined discourse
practice of a recruitment interview. The empirical
data used in the article are ‘Employment Inquires’
of California Department of Fair Employment and
Housing (California, USA)1, ‘Interview structure’
of the Tripartite Alliance for Fair Employment
Practices (Singapore)2, as well as Russian versions
# 1757 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Lyudmila V. Kulikova. Technologisation of Discourse Practices: Globality Versus Cultural Specificity
of these documents, such as ‘Interview Structure’
of the recruitment agency ‘EQ – Staff’3.
A recruitment interview takes place within
the scope of institutional business communication
which automatically ‘includes’ a number of
limitations related to the content, duration and
venue, the ratio of communication initiatives and
speakers’ contributions to the conversation. There
arises a need to develop technologies as ways of
optimizing discourse interaction in the strictly
determined framework. In this regard, one of the
directors of a large Russian recruitment agency,
a career coach, says, “There always appear
new technologies, tools and techniques that are
designed to improve the level of recruitment. …
Recruitment, if you do not know yet, is sale. If
you disagree with me, I am really sorry for your
business. … A recruiter must be able to explain
convincingly why your company is the best choice
for the candidate and why he/she should accept
these employment conditions and opportunities
for career development.” This quote can be
commented on in terms of N. Fairclough’s
research (Fairclough, 1996). Distinguishing new
discourse technologies, the English linguist refers
to colonisation of institutional communication by
marketing and advertising techniques. Within this
technology communication between professionals
and non-professionals (customers) is redesigned.
The general cognitive model of these roles based
on the notion of competence (having competence –
being subordinate to competence) is replaced
by the market model (producer – consumer).
Discourse functions shift from informing and
enumerating responsibilities to persuading and
enumerating benefits (Plotnikova, 2011, p. 37)
which in fact is found in the example above. The
corpus of empirical data shows that the second
global discourse technology distinguished by N.
Fairclough as conversationalisation of institutional
communication finds its niche in the presented
discourse practice. In particular, it is reflected
in the recruiters’ (interviewers’) behaviour
acclaimed by the employer, recommended
techniques of empathy, flexibility and two-way
communication, “For example, I try to use
a positive approach from the very beginning
of communication. When I am contacted by
applicants or they come for an interview, I am
always in a good mood, I talk to them in a friendly
manner, I want to know how things are going, I
thank them for coming and spend a few minutes
to create a relaxed atmosphere. This practice
pays off, candidates talk a lot and freely.”
Returning to the technological basis of
discourse employment practices it should be
emphasised that it is presented interactively by
two sides: the recruiter as a representative of the
employer and the applicant. What is relevant is
that both sides prepare for a job interview. Since
technologisation of communication is one of the
most important aspects of its institutionalisation,
it is clear that the technological scenario aimed
at the discourse construction of the desired result
is the employer-interviewer’s prerogative. The
latter gets armed with a prepared discourse, most
appropriate for his/her social role with regard to
minimising their communication efforts. In this
case, as noted by S. Plotnikova, understanding of
the essence of the technological process, the
cognitive model of what is happening, is not
an indispensable duty of its participants;
this is a task for discourse technologists
(Plotnikova, 2011, p. 39). Specialists – discourse
technologists provide ready-to-use technological
materials, such as Interview structure in the
example below, which includes a conversation
script, guidelines, etc.
Let us dwell on some elements selected
during the analysis of the corpus. The fragment
of the Interview structure at the stage of
Interaction with candidates looks as follows, “The
interviewer should be prepared and well trained
on the use of effective interviewing techniques for
# 1758 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Lyudmila V. Kulikova. Technologisation of Discourse Practices: Globality Versus Cultural Specificity
candidate selection. The candidate is given a fair
opportunity to be assessed on his / her merits and
goes off with a good impression of the company,
regardless whether he / she gets the job.” The
pattern of standardised moves in the discourse
practice is presented in a sequence of actions:
− Welcome at the reception desk.
− Establish rapport (Use of ice-breaker,
e.g. did the interviewee have difficulty finding his
/ her way here)? Conduct the interview by asking
prepared questions.
− Close the interview with a note of thanks
to the candidate.
Typically, executives do not advertise
that they train their employees to use strictly
determined discourse involving stability and
predictability of communication by adjusting the
conversation to an existing prototype. Thus, the
vital component of the technological scenario
of the interview is training of recruiters and
guidance on conducting it:
Training of interviewers
− How to put job applicants at ease.
− Awareness of errors and pitfalls of an
interview (e.g. stereotyping).
− Interview and selection procedures.
− Development of selection criteria.
− List of interview questions.
− Questioning techniques.
− Awareness to ensure that all candidates
for the same job should be asked the same set of
questions.
− Listening skills.
Tips on conducting interviews
− Be punctual for the interview.
− Establish rapport.
− Use a prepared list of questions.
− Ensure that all questions asked are
related to the job requirements and selection
criteria.
Recruitment as a type of communication
vividly demonstrates, among other things,
interaction / conflict of global and national
components of the implemented practice because
employment interviews in the modern world are
the accepted norm which at the same time has its
national characteristics in every country. Specific
textual data of the discussed practice used in the
analysis and communicative reality allow us to
correlate international regulatory documents,
which we consider here as explications of global
technologies, with their unique implementation
in a particular cultural context. A sufficiently
productive example in this respect is presented
by employment inquiries in the U.S. culture and
communication space. We interpret this text
as a technologically created discourse product
for implementation of recruitment discourse
practice. The text data present a standardised
list of inquiries that are legally acceptable or
unacceptable in the interview with an applicant
(Table).
Obviously, one of the main interviewer’s
discourse intentions is that questions should
not discriminate against candidates, which is
illustrated by the aforementioned guidelines. In
addition, since “technology may include a taboo
on certain speech acts» (Kopylova, 2011, p. 79),
this list almost taboos inquiries about private
sphere, such as age, religious beliefs and ethnic
origin, disability, marital status, etc.
Comparison of employment practices in the
Russian linguacultural context and in Europe
and the U.S. suggests that in general, this type
of discourse in Russia is developing under the
influence of western (in the broad sense of
the word) models. This fi nding suggests the
unification process of communication in Russia
which is acquiring a more global technological
nature. At the same time research in the
field of corporate business discourse, whose
authors are both Russian and foreign scholars
(E. Vereshchagin, R. Rathmayr, L. Kulikova),
shows a clear national and cultural markedness
# 1759 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Lyudmila V. Kulikova. Technologisation of Discourse Practices: Globality Versus Cultural Specificity
Table
ACCEPTABLE
SUBJECT
UNACCEPTABLE
Name
NAME
•
Maiden name
Place of residence
RESIDENCE
•
Questions regarding owning or renting.
Languages applicant reads,
speaks or writes if use of
language other than English
is relevant to the job for which
applicant is applying
NATIONAL
ORIGIN
• Questions as to nationality, lineage, ancestry,
national origin, descent or parentage of applicant,
applicant’s spouse, parent or relative.
RELIGION
• Questions regarding applicant’s religion.
• Religious days observed.
• Questions to indicate applicant’s sex, marital
status, number/ages of children or dependents.
• Questions regarding pregnancy, child birth, or
birth control.
• Name/address of relative, spouse or children of
adult applicant.
• Questions to applicant’s race, color, or sexual
orientation.
• Questions regarding applicant’s
complexion, color of eyes, hair or sexual orientation.
• Questions as to applicant’s
height/weight.
• Requiring applicant to affix a photograph to
application or submit one at his/her option.
• Require a photograph after interview but before
employment.
Name and address of parent
or guardian if applicant is a
minor.
SEX, MARITAL
STATUS, FAMILY
RACE, COLOR,
SEXUAL
ORIENTATION
Statement that a photograph
may be required after
employment.
PHYSICAL
DESCRIPTION,
PHOTOGRAPHS
of discourse practices in this field. In the
Russian-language institutional interaction taboo
on personal inquiries is still rarely observed,
distinction between the applicant’s private and
employment-related space is not often taken
into account. In accordance with the Russian
communication style the constant discourse
challenge to the interviewee, despite the studied
technologies, is speech acts of self-praise
and outstanding self-presentation of his/her
competence and success.
Thus, the technological features of the
employment discourse practice reflect, as
its deconstruction shows, global as well as
cultural and conventional characteristics of this
social sphere. Both components in the Russian
linguaculture seem to be found in a dynamic
equilibrium.
Conclusion
Based on these examples, I would like to
show that technologies, including discourse
ones, form a new technological reality that
changes communicative behaviour and patterns
of human interaction. The correlation of global
technological characteristics of discourse and
its cultural deterrminacy depends, firstly, on
the field of communication (to what extent
the latter is the result and the embodiment
of globalisation and internationalisation of
production and social life), and secondly,
ref lects models of at least three processes of
interpenetration of discourse technological
character and national specificity: domination,
absorption or dynamic equilibrium between
the two components of institutional
communication.
# 1760 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Lyudmila V. Kulikova. Technologisation of Discourse Practices: Globality Versus Cultural Specificity
http://www.dfeh.ca.gov/res/docs/publications/dfeh
http://www.fairemployment.sg/assets/Files/documents/ResourcesFair-Recruitment&Selection Handbook.pdf
3
http://eqpersonal.ru/index.php
1
2
References
Fairclough, N., 1992b. Discourse and Social Change. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Fairclough, N., 1995b. Media Discourse. London: Edward Arnold.
Fairclough, N., 1996. Texts and Practices: Readings in Critical Discourse Analysis. New York:
Routledge.
Fairclough, N., eds., 1998. Political discourse in the media: an analytical framework in Approaches
to Media Discourse. Oxford: Blackwell
Foucault , M., ed., 1996. Strategies of power. Glasgow.
Goffman, E., 1967. Interaction Ritual. Essays on Face-to-Face Behavior. New York: Anchor
Books. Doubleday & Company.
Kopylova, N.V., ed., 2011. Interaction of Speakers in a Conversation: Transition from Strategy to
Technology. Irkutsk: ISLU, in Russian.
Kulikova, L., 2009. Communication Style in Intercultural Communication. Moskva: Flinta,
Nauka, in Russian.
McLuhan, M., 1967. Understanding Media: the Extension of Man. London: Sphere Books.
McLuhan, M., 1992. Die magischen Kanaele. Duesseldorf , Wien, New York, Moskau, Econ
Verlag.
Rathmayr, R., Reuther, T., and Vereshchagin, E. M., 1992. Verbal Tactics of the “Appeal to
Frankness”. Issues of Linguistics. № 6, in Russian.
Plotnikova, S. N., ed., 2011. Technologisation of Discourse in Modern Society. Irkutsk: ISLU, in
Russian.
Технологизация дискурсивных практик:
глобальность versus-культурная специфичность
Л.В. Куликова
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 82А
В статье рассматриваются относительно новые для дискурсивных исследований понятия
«технологизация дискурса» и «дискурсивные практики» в их соотнесении с межкультурным
контекстом коммуникации. Делается попытка на основе изучения и анализа эмпирического
материала русского, немецкого и английского языков соотнести глобальные и национально
детерминированные дискурсивные практики как практики современной технологичной
коммуникации.
Ключевые слова: глобализация дискурса, технология, дискурсивные практики, технологизация
дискурсивных практик.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 12 (2012 5) 1762-1771
~~~
УДК 303.446.23
Cross-Cultural Communication
as a Mirror of Civilization
(German Translations
of Russian Literature as a Case in Point)
Heidemarie Salevsky*
Translator. Berlin, Germany 1
Received 04.12.2012, received in revised form 11.12.2012, accepted 24.12.2012
In this article I would like to underscore Benjamin’s fundamental insights that on the one hand cultural
life (like the greater empirical life of which it is a part) can best be seen in its temporal or historical
trajectory, and that translation plays a vital role in this; and that on the other hand, translation is a
temporal as well as spatial affair (Benjamin, 1923/1991).
In the following I will touch briefly on some general aspects of the notions of civilization and culture
(section 1), and the reflection of culture in translations (section 2) before dealing with the reflection
of culture in a changing society in three German translations of Vasily Grossman’s story Vse tečet
(Forever flowing)(section 3).
Keywords: cross-cultural communication, culture, civilization, otherness, translation, Russian culture,
German translations, Grossman, «Forever flowing».
1. Who means what by “civilization”
and “culture”?
Cross-cultural communication is both an act
of experience of otherness and a depiction of the
other in the self. The different ways in which this
happens can be seen not only from translations
of the same original for different civilizations/
cultures, but also from different translations for
the same civilization/culture at different times.
The German translator of Samuel P.
Huntington‘s book The Clash of Civilizations
, Holger Fliessbach, writes in a preliminary
remark to the German edition (Huntington, 1998)
that he found it impossible to translate the word
“culture” with “Zivilisation” and “civilization”
*
1
with “Kultur” throughout and that in specific
instances “culture” had to be rendered as “Kultur”
in German (Huntington, 1998).1 In my paper I
will use “culture”.
When we talk about East and West (and
this also applies to East and West Germany),
we usually have in mind “the other”, that which
constitutes “otherness”. Understanding is a
function of the depth of the subjective (rational and
emotional) perception of a text from a different
world. As Friedrich Daniel Schleiermacher
sees it, understanding is something that is
never achieved definitely, and that is, in a way,
subject to a recurrent cycle. He stresses the need
“to project oneself” into the author’s world of
Corresponding author E-mail address: salevsky@t-online.de
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 1762 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Heidemarie Salevsky. Cross-Cultural Communication as a Mirror of Civilization
thought. Whatever is peculiar must be sensed and
guessed to some extent (Schleiermacher, 1988).
The question pertains to a community of shared
values, to the image and counter-image of what
is called “civilized” or “cultured”. The ideas
which people hold are frequently cliché-ridden
and stereotyped (Wolff, 1994), the “other” being
often seen as “disregard for a norm of civilized
behaviour” (Stanzel, 1986). As Rorty points out,
the constituting otherness works well whenever
the others are declared to be less civilized people
(Rorty, 2000). In the case of Russia, for example,
the idea of community (the principle of sobornost’
as a positive religious-orthodox ideal) stands
in marked contrast to Western individualism
(Salevsky, 2010). Wolff and Yanov ask with good
reason who may arrogate to themselves the right
to define the terms under which a country passes
muster as “civilized” (Wolff andYanov, 2003;
Gramshammer-Hohl, Kaser and Pichler 2003).
One might be inclined to think that
“othering” has become obsolete as cultures
tend to become intermingled within the context
of globalization. But old images die hard. The
division of Germany had brought forth a new,
specific type of East (Klein, 2009). Therefore,
literary documents from a bygone era may be
interpreted and translated very differently in
Germany. The different basic attitudes stem from
what people used to read, hear and see (in the
cinema and on TV) over several decades.
Culture is to be seen as a dynamic system of
values and actions2 which controls our perception.
In the process of translating this is clearly reflected
in what is translated when, by whom, how and for
what purpose (Kade, 1968 and 1980).
2. To what extent
do translations reflect culture
in a changing society?
The research findings published in the book
“Translation as Systemic Interaction. A New
Perspective and a New Methodology” (Salevsky
and Müller, 2011) reveal that translating is a
time-related, field-related and situation-related
procedure for the mediation of cross-cultural
communication between different sociocultural
spaces. The authors try to show how the
interactions and interdependencies of the different
variables of the external framework conditions
and the inner subsystems (with the performer
as the central factor) influence the degree of
attainment of the requirements of the assignment
and the effect caused by the target text (Salevsky
and Müller, 2011). The conclusion is that it is the
real-world structure (of the whole process) behind
the texts and the way the agents are embedded in
it that has to be analyzed.
If cross-cultural communication and
translation processes are seen as systems and
culture as a sub-system, we may along the lines
of Posner (Posner, 19923) subdivide culture
into spheres all of which correspond to specific
segments of reality and comprise four aspects:
− the extra-cultural aspect (completely
unknown to the members of the society
concerned);
− the non-cultural aspect (known to the
members of the society concerned, but perceived
as antithetical to their own culture);
− the culturally peripheral aspect
(recognized by the members of the society
concerned as part of their culture, but not regarded
as central); and
− the culturally central aspect (recognized
by the members of the society concerned as part
of their culture and regarded as essential for their
identity) (Posner 1992, p. 36).
These spheres and the demarcation lines
between them may shift – from time to time,
from culture to culture, from one communicative
community to another and from one individual to
another. This sheds light on the access to former
and current segments of reality, on issues of
# 1763 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Heidemarie Salevsky. Cross-Cultural Communication as a Mirror of Civilization
categorization and prestige aspects of a culture in
a given society in a given period. The relationship
between culture and non-culture (or extra-cultural
aspects) is accordingly ambivalent. In other
words: The “non-cultural” and the “culturally
central” aspects are dynamic entities. This
becomes apparent when a society loses access to
previously known segments of reality. The codes
used for this purpose then also fall into disuse.
The gain and loss of reality are linked to the
introduction and obsolescence of linguistic codes
(Posner, 1992). Such differences are often related
to historical experience and to the “shifts” one’s
own culture has undergone through its contacts
with foreign cultures, especially if non-Western
categories, notions and patterns of thinking are
involved.
It was the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu
(1930-2002) who referred to the term habitus4
as a set of dispositions which generate certain
actions and reactions. These dispositions – the
set of schemes of perception, thought, speech and
behavior acquired during the process of primary
socialization, and confirmed or modified in the
course of further socialization – functions as a
structuring principle (Bourdieu, 1990), a system of
internalized patterns (Bourdieu, 1991). Adopting
Freud’s terminology, Bourdieu describes habitus
also as the “culturally unconscious” (Bourdieu,
1991). In this way the habitus becomes a kind
of interface between the outer and the inner
(subjective) world, between external conditions
and internal factors (Salevsky and Müller, 2011).
For cross-cultural communication and
translation the following idea by Bourdieu is of
pivotal importance:
“The habitus is at once a system of models
for the production of practices and a system of
models for the perception and appreciation of
practices. And in both cases, its operations express
the social position in which it was constructed.
As a result, the habitus produces practices
and representations which are available for
classification, which are objectively differentiated;
but they are immediately perceived as such only
in the case of agents who possess the code, the
classificatory models necessary to understand
their social meaning. Thus, the habitus implies a
‘sense of one’s own place’ but also a ‘sense of the
other’s place’.” (Bourdieu, 1990, p. 131)
This concerns even East and West Germany.
Klein speaks about a “communicative mist” in
which West Germans found themselves when
talking to East Germans after the reunification
of Germany (Klein, 2009). It is all the more true
when two cultures in different and changing
societies are concerned. This will be illustrated
by three German translations of the story Vse
tečet by the Ukrainian writer Vasilij Grossman
(1905-1964).
3. The reflection of culture
in a changing society in three German
translations of Grossman’s Vse tečet
(in 1972, 1990 and 2010)
as a case in point
The story Forever Flowing is, in a way,
a sequel to the experience of Russian history
analyzed by the author in his novel Life and
Fate, joining traumatic memory with hopes
for a future of freedom and human dialogue.
Grossman’s creed is his belief in human
goodness. He asks:
“Is there a common good – the same for all
people, all tribes, all conditions of life? Or is my
good your evil? Is what is good for my people evil
for your people? Is good eternal and constant? Or
is yesterday’s good today’s vice, yesterday’s evil
today’s good? […]
Have people advanced over the millennia in
their concept of good? Is this concept something
that is common to all people […]. To all classes,
nations and States? Even to all animals, trees and
mosses […]? […]
# 1764 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Heidemarie Salevsky. Cross-Cultural Communication as a Mirror of Civilization
The good of the first Christians, which had
embraced all mankind, in turn gave way to a
purely Christian good; the good of the Muslims
[“and the good of the Jews” in the original is
omitted by the American translator- H.S.5] was
now distinct.
Centuries passed and the good of Christianity
split up into the distinct goods of Catholicism,
Protestantism and Orthodoxy. And the good of
Orthodoxy gave birth to the distinct goods of the
old and new beliefs.
At the same time there was the good of the
poor and the good of the rich. And the goods of the
whites, the blacks and the yellow races … More
and more goods came into being, corresponding
to each sect, race and class. Everyone outside a
particular magic circle was excluded.
People began to realize how much blood had
been spilt in the name of a petty, doubtful good,
in the name of the struggle of this petty good
against what is believed to be evil. Sometimes the
very concept of good became a scourge, a greater
evil than evil itself.”6 (Grossman, 1985/2006)
The story Forever Flowing was the fi rst
attempt in Soviet literature to come to terms
with the harrowing experience of the Stalin
regime. The title, derived from Heraclitus (c. 500
B.C.E.) and his basic idea panta rhei (Heraclitus,
Fragment 91), is meant to symbolize that all
things are perpetually in flux. Going on from
Heraclitus, Grossman seeks to demonstrate that
the only way to know is to go beyond what is
apparent to the senses, to break away from mere
“opinions” and uncover the truth (Heraclitus,
Fragment 56).
Grossman’s story was first distributed as a
samizdat publication before it was brought out
by Posev7 publishers in Frankfurt am Main in
1970, subsequently being translated into English,
French, Italian, Serbian, Spanish and Swedish.
This edition provided the basis also for the
first German translation, which was likewise
published by Posev publishers (in 1972). The
second German translation was published in 1990
(Grossman, 1990) by Volk und Welt, formerly an
East German publishing house. It was based on
the first version to come out in the Soviet Union
in the periodical Oktjabr’ (No. 6) in 1989 – a
second original, 25 years after Grossman’s death
(Grossman, 1989). The third German translation
was published by Ullstein in 2010, 20 years after
German reunification (Grossman, 2010).
Each of the three translations into German
had to take into account a different context
with different prerequisites for understanding.
The following examples drawn from the three
German translations are to illustrate how each
of these translations is a mirror of culture in a
changing society in a given point in time.
But first let me say a few words about the
plot:
If one had to pick just one character, an
emblematic person, to tell us about the 20th
century, it would have to be a character like Ivan
in Grossman’s story Forever Flowing. A nameless
figure, he sits in a train, a silent old man among
travelers talking politics, who is returning home
after spending 29 years in the Gulag.
When he reaches home, the fact that he
comes across many graves is not the worst of it.
Even more depressing is the fact that his return
prompts his old friends to display a deceitful urge
to justify their behavior. Not infrequently, they
have bought their life in freedom by betraying
those who now – during the “Thaw” following
Stalin’s death – make their way back from the
labor camps. Ivan sees that they are anything but
free in both their actions and their thoughts. Now
they seem to expect Ivan to grant them some kind
of absolution:
„Vanya, Vanyechka“, his cousin burst out,
„it sounds crazy, wild, but I envy you. I envy
you because in your terrible camps you did not
have to sign vile letters, nor vote for the death
# 1765 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Heidemarie Salevsky. Cross-Cultural Communication as a Mirror of Civilization
of innocent men, nor make foul speeches.”
(Grossman, 1972b).8
Ivan meets Anna, a woman who has gone
through many ordeals herself. She feels love
for him and understands his inner torment. But
Anna develops cancer. While she wrestles with
death, Ivan desperately looks for the causes of
the troubled history of his people which claimed
millions of human lives.
But that was, however, considered
reprehensible during an era in which only
favorable official comments on life in the Soviet
Union were allowed both in the Soviet Union
and in East Germany. It is the interest in the
truth or the lack thereof that characterizes both
individuals and the State.
The three German translations of this story
are closely linked to the East German and West
German communicative community as it existed
at the time of publication. Nikolaj Artemoff, the
translator of the first (West) German translation,
which appeared in 1972, clearly had West German
readers in mind. His primary concern was to put
across the historical events and personalities
depicted in the source text and the Soviet realia.
Preceding the translation is a list of the characters
with their Russian diminutives, and the annex
features a list of 75 names with biographical
details of the historical figures appearing in the
book. There are also 53 explanatory notes in the
text itself. The translator wanted to make explicit
information which Soviet readers understood
implicitly and which was in large part known or
accessible to readers in the former GDR, a state
with a different culture but the same social system
(for this problem cf. also Salevsky, 1998).
The translator of the second (East) German
translation (1990), Renate Landa, clearly had East
German readers in mind, who found it easier to
follow the plot because of parallels with their own
social system at the time and because of a more
intimate knowledge of Russian history and culture,
which can be put down to the then very close
contacts between the two cultures. The translator
needed only about half as many annotations and
explanations. One half of the annotations found
in the translation for West Germany, but not in
the translation for East Germany were omitted
because they were not considered relevant for
understanding the text. The other half concerned
circumstances and personages with which former
GDR citizens were more or less familiar from
textbooks, widely read Russian literature, the
cinema and the media. Cases in point included
Budjonny and his Cavalry Army, the leaders of
the White forces in the Civil War (Denikin and
Kolchak), the names of Lenin’s wife (Nadezhda
Konstantinovna Krupskaja), and of the scholar
Michail Lomonosov, commemorated in the name
of Moscow’s oldest university (founded 1755),
which were featured in textbooks for compulsory
Russian lessons.
The translator of the third German translation
(2010), Annelore Nitschke, had to take into
account the background knowledge of present
day German readers which is comparable with
that of the readers of the first German translation
(1972). Even the appendix in the translation of
2010 features the same list of names with the
same biographical details of the historical figures
appearing in the book as that in the translation
of 1972.
Applying the four cultural aspects mentioned
above to our case, it becomes clear very soon that
the bulk of the differences between the three
German translations and the most pronounced
ones are attributable to the fact that what West
German readers considered extra-cultural in 1972
was still perceived as culturally central by East
Germans in 1990 and that 20 years after German
reunification what was considered culturally
central by East Germans in 1990 had reverted to
extra-cultural status in the eyes of most Germans
(excluding those who spent most of their life in
# 1766 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Heidemarie Salevsky. Cross-Cultural Communication as a Mirror of Civilization
the GDR). In this regard the translation from 2010
resembles the translation from 1972.
Here are some examples to bear this out:
The rendering of the Russian word
pionervožataja (Grossman, 1970, p. 61; 1989,
p. 53)
The Pioneers, the Communist children’s
organization, were founded in Soviet Russia in
1922. They provided the model for the Pioneer
organization established in East Germany (then
the Soviet occupation zone) in 1948 with a similar
purpose and ritual. In both countries colleges of
education offered training courses for Pionierleiter/
innen (this word is used in Grossman, 1990, p.
61). The word Pionierführerin used in the West
German translation (Grossman, 1972a, p. 157)
was avoided in East Germany because Führer
was associated with Nazi Germany (the Hitler
Youth was directed by a Reichsjugendführer).
Regrettably, this word reappears in the 2010
translation (Grossman, 2010).
The American translation is clear: the Young
Pioneer group leader (Grossman, 1972b).
The rendering of the Russian word subbotnik
(Grossman, 1970, p. 159; 1989, p. 90)
Subbotnik (derived from Russ. subbota,
Saturday) denoted voluntary unpaid work
performed on Saturdays, a practice current in
Russia from 1919. The Russian word had found
its way into the life and vocabulary of the former
GDR (Grossman, 1990, p. 157). There is also
an entry in the Duden (vol. 7., 1995, p. 3309),
marked „former GDR“. Subbotnik was rendered
as Samstagsarbeit (Saturday work) in the 1972
translation (Grossman, 1972a, p. 187) which
expresses neither the voluntary nor the unpaid
character of this work. The 2010 translation
opts for gesellschaftliche Arbeit an Samstagen
(work for the community on Saturdays) instead
(Grossman, 2010, p. 172), which comes closer,
but fails to explain that an entire movement was
involved.
The American translation retains the Russian
word subbotnik (Grossman, 1972b, p. 191). But
does an American know what subbotnik means?
The rendering of the Russian word instruktaž
(Grossman, 1970, p. 122; 1989, p. 77)
The original says: „I kogda instruktaž
byl…“.
The German translation from 1972 is
ambivalent (Grossman, 1972a, p. 146): Und
wenn Instruktion war.... (when instructions were
issued).
The East German translator chose the word
Anleitung (briefing) which was commonly used
in the GDR in this context (Grossman, 1990,
p. 122-123). Anleitungen were customary both
in the former USSR and the former GDR. The
third German translation from 2010 returns to
the word Instruktion, employed as follows: Wenn
Instruktion gegeben wurde.... (Grossman, 2010,
p. 134). Admittedly, the word Instruktion means
instruction, guidelines or directive (Duden, Bd. 4,
1994, p. 1716), but it was not used in this context.
The American translation gives: And when
commands came… (Grossman, 1972b, p. 149).
Although “commands” does carry the right kind
of totalitarian overtone, I suggest that “whenever
commands came” would catch the implications
better.
This list of examples could be continued.
The analysis reminds us that cross-cultural
communication is a mirror of culture of a certain
society at a given point of time, that translation is
a temporal art, one that, as Sandra Bermann puts
it, “can contribute to the action of history itself,
and to the ongoing ‘conversation’ that gives it a
meaning and a future” (Bermann, 2005, p. 272).
Conclusion
Cross-cultural communication opens up
spaces and makes it possible to experience
boundaries which must be explored – boundaries
of latitude as well as individual boundaries and
# 1767 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Heidemarie Salevsky. Cross-Cultural Communication as a Mirror of Civilization
boundaries of what can be mediated and how.
Thus translation has socio-cultural, linguistic and
historical aspects, as well as fuzzy boundaries.
Every domain of life, including literature
and translation, is linked to every other one, and
nothing that goes on in our world has ever been
isolated and devoid of any outside influence.
Reality is much more complex and dynamic than
the models which have been elaborated so far. The
re-presentations can be quite different, but what
they all have in common is that they are connected
with institutions, traditions, codes, conventions
and norms: in short, a web of related interests in
a certain situation of power in a certain society.
Studying cross-cultural communication, literature
and translation together in their interrelationships
1
2
3
4
5
6
and with all their interdependencies, it will
become obvious in which way products of culture
are created and operated by society, and how they
reflect the habitus of the agents at a certain time
(Salevsky and Müller, 2011).
Concluding I would like to refer to André
Lefevere:
“Translation can tell us a lot about the power
of images and the ways in which images are made,
about the ways in which authority manipulates
images and employs experts to sanction that
manipulation and to justify the trust of an
audience – which is why the study of translation
can teach us a few things not just about the world
of literature, but also about the world we live in.”
(Lefevere, 1990/1995, p. 27)
For the national interpretations of the words civilization and culture see the different overviews, e.g. by Kroeber and
Kluckhohn 1952; for the development in Germany, cf. Elias 1976, Vol. 1, pp. 1-64 and pp. 302-306; for England cf. inter alia
Cowell 1959, pp. 237-248; for the United States cf. inter alia Geertz 1973/2000. The Anglo-American authors took as their
starting point the English ethnographer Edward B. Tylor who equated culture with civilization (cf. Tylor 1871; 1873/2005,
Vol. 1:1). Other authors later applied the term civilization to material culture and reserved culture for mental culture. They
postulated an antithesis between mental culture (literature, art, science and ideology) and the concept of civilization to
denote material European culture (which included politics, society, technology and everyday life). Towards the end of the
19th century the antagonism between West European civilization and Russian culture mounted in intensity.
Moreover, in Russian intellectual history, culture has since then increasingly assumed the importance of a national and
religious identity. Another feature is the dual structure of the cultural layers, namely official high culture (emanating from
the Church and the State) and everyday and popular culture (cf. Uspenskij/Lotman 1996:339). This is reflected right to the
present day. From a different perspective, cf. Freud 1930/1993, Eliot 1949).
A dynamic concept is advocated by Wierlacher/Hudson-Wiedemann who define “Kultur” (culture) as a “changeable, coherent but not entirely consistent sociographically structured system of rules, hypotheses and validities which is geared towards
exchange and encompasses political and social institutions as well as works of art and activities of the workaday world”, as
a “way of coping with life […], which has a great deal to do with external economic and social conditions and which consequently is not immutable, but responds to changes through changes, with the self possibly finding itself in a multidimensional
and hence partly contradictory pattern of affinity” (Wierlacher/Hudson-Wiedemann 2000:221- transl: H.S.).
“From the semiotic point of view culture may be regarded as a hierarchy of particular semiotic systems, as the sum of the
texts and the set of functions correlated with them, or as a certain mechanism which generates these texts. If we regard the
collective as a more complexly organized individual, culture may be understood by analogy with the individual mechanism of memory as a certain collective mechanism for the storage and processing of information.” (Lotman/Uspenskij/
Ivanov/Toporov/Pjatigorski 1975:73)
The concept can be traced back to Aristotle who (in the second book of his “Nicomachean Ethics”) defi nes ethical virtue
as a disposition to judge actions reasonably, and described habitus as “the things in virtue of which we stand well or badly
with reference to the passions, e.g. with reference to anger we stand badly if we feel it violently or too weakly, and well if
we feel it moderately” (Aristotle 1985:33). The concept of habitus was consequently used by different authors, including
Hegel, Husserl, Weber, and Durkheim.
In his foreword the American translator Chandler confesses: “I have myself omitted or abridged some of the sententious
passages.” (Chandler 2006:XXX)
I would hardly consider the omitted passage (“and the good of the Jews”) a sententious one since it is one of several parallel statements.
In the original this passage reads as follows:
“Est’ li dobro obščee, primenimoe ko vsem ljudjam, ko vsem plemenam, ko vsem položenijam žizni? Ili moe dobro v
zle dlja tebja, dobro moego naroda v zle dlja tvoego naroda? Večno li, neizmenno li dobro, ili včerašnee dobro segodnja
stanovitsja porokom, a včerašnee zlo segodnja est’ dobro? […]
Prodvinulis’ li za tysjačeletija ljudi v svoich predstavlenijach o dobre? Est’ li ėto ponjatie, obščee dlja vsech ljudej […]
? […] klassov, nacij, gosudarstv? A byt’ možet, ponjatie ešče bolee širokoe, obščee i dlja životnych, dlja derev’ev, mcha
[…]? […]
# 1768 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Heidemarie Salevsky. Cross-Cultural Communication as a Mirror of Civilization
7
8
Dobro pervych christian, dobro vsech ljudej smenilos’ dobrom dlja odnich liš’ christian, a rjadom žilo dobro dlja
musul’man, dobro iudeev.
No prošli veka, i dobro christian raspalos’ na dobro katolikov, protestantov, dobro pravoslavija. I v dobre pravoslavija
vozniklo dobro staroj i novoj very.
I rjadom šlo dobro bogatych i dobro bednych, rjadom roždalos’ dobro želtych, černych, belych.
I, vse drobjas’ i drobjas’, uže roždalos’ dobro v kruge sekty, rasy, klassa, vse, kto byli za zamknutoj krivoj, uže ne vchodili
v krug dobra.
I ljudi uvideli, čto mnogo krovi prolito iz-za ėtogo malogo, nedobrogo dobra vo imja bor’by ėtogo dobra so vsem tem, čto
ščitalo ono, maloe dobro, zlom.
I inogda samo ponjatie takogo dobra stanovilos’ bičom žizni, ból’šim zlom, čem zlo.” (Grossman 2008:400-401)
The Posev publishing house was founded in Germany in 1945 by Russian émigrés with the aim of publishing works by
Russian authors which were proscribed in the former Soviet Union for political reasons (for details see Salevsky 2002:466467).
In the original this passage reads as follows:
“Vanja, Vanečka, diko, stranno, no ja zaviduju tebe, zaviduju tomu, čto ty ne dolžen byl podpisyvat‘ podlych pisem, ne
golosoval za smertnuju kazn‘ nevinnym, ne vystupal s podlymi rečami.” (Grossman 1970:39)
References
Aristoteles, Rolfes, E., transl., Bien, G., ed., 1985. Nikomachische Ethik. Hamburg: Meiner
Benjamin, W., 1923/1991. Die Aufgabe des Übersetzers (1923). In: Benjamin , Walter (1991):
Gesammelte Schriften. Bd. IV/I: Kleine Prosa, Baudelaire-Übertragungen: Charles Baudelaire,
Tableaux parisiens / Rexroth, Tillman (Hrsg.). Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp, pp. 9-21
Bermann, S., 2005. Translating History. In: Bermann, Sandra; Wood, Michael (eds.): Nation,
Language, and the Ethics of Translation. Princeton; Oxford: Princeton University Press, pp. 257-273
Bourdieu, P., 2005. Die männliche Herrschaft. Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp
Bourdieu, P., 1991. Zur Soziologie der symbolischen Formen. Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp
(Suhrkamp Taschenbuch Wissenschaft 107)
Bourdieu, P., 1990. In Other Words: Essays Towards a Reflexive Sociology. Oxford: Polity Press
Chandler, R., 2006. The Text and the Translation. Grossman 1985/2006, pp. XXX-XXXI
Cowell, F. R., 1959. Culture in Private and Public Life. London: Thames & Hudson
Duden. Das große Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache in acht Bänden. Vol. 4 (1994); Vol. 7
(1995). Mannheim; Leipzig; Wien; Zürich: Dudenverlag
Elias, N., 1976. Über den Prozeß der Zivilisation. Soziogenetische und psychogenetische
Untersuchungen. Vol. 1:Wandlungen des Verhaltens in den weltlichen Oberschichten des Abendlandes.
Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp Taschenbuch
Eliot, T. S., 1949. Notes Toward the Definition of Culture. New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co.
Freud, S., 1930/1993. Abriß der Psychoanalyse. Das Unbehagen in der Kultur. Frankfurt a. M.:
Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag (= Psychologie Fischer), pp. 63-132
Geertz, C., 1973/2000. The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays. New York: Basic Books
Gramshammer-Hohl, Dagmar, Kaser, K. and Pichler, R. (Hrsg.), 2003. Wieser Enyklopädie des
Europäischen Ostens. Bd. 11: Europa und die Grenzen im Kopf. Klagenfurt (u.a.): Wieser
Grossman, W., 2010. Alles fliesst. Mit einem Nachwort von Franziska Thun-Hohenstein. Berlin:
Ullstein
Grossman, V., 2008. Žizn‘ i sud’ba. Moskva: Slovo
Grossman, V., 1985/2006. Life and Fate. New York: New York Review Books
Grossman, W., 1990. Alles fließt. Erzählung. Berlin: Volk und Welt
Grossman, V., 1989. Vse tečet. Oktjabr‘ 66 (1989), No. 6, pp. 30-108
# 1769 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Heidemarie Salevsky. Cross-Cultural Communication as a Mirror of Civilization
Grossman, W., 1972a. Alles fließt… Frankfurt a.M.: Possev
Grossman, V., 1972b. Forever Flowing. New York; Evanston; San Francisco; London: Harper &
Row
Grossman, V., 1970. Vse tečet… Frankfurt a. M.: Posev
Heraclitus. Fragmente. In Kranz, Walther (1956) (ed.): Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker. Griechisch
und deutsch von Hermann Diels. Berlin: Weidmann; Fragment 56 – p. 163; Fragment 91 – p. 171
Huntington, S., 1998., Kampf der Kulturen. The Clash of Civilizations. Die Neugestaltung der
Weltpolitik im 21. Jahrhundert. München. Wien: Europa
Kade, O., 1980. Die Sprachmittlung als gesellschaftliche Erscheinung und Gegenstand
wissenschaftlicher Untersuchung. Leipzig: Enzyklopädie
Kade, O., 1968. Zufall und Gesetzmäßigkeit in der Übersetzung. Leipzig: Enzyklopädie
Klein, O. G., 2009. Ihr könnt uns einfach nicht verstehen. Warum Ost- und Westdeutsche
aneinander vorbeireden. Berlin: Pro BUSINESS
Kroeber, A. L. and Kluckhohn, C., 1952. Culture. A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions.
Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University
Lefevere, A., 1990/1995. Translation: Its Genealogy in the West. In Bassnett, Susan; Translation,
History and Culture. London: Pinters (1990); New York: Cassell (1995), pp.14-28
Lotman, J. M. et al., 1975. Theses on the Semiotic Study of Cultures (as Applied to Slavic Texts).
The Tell-Tale Sign: A Survey of Semiotics. Lisse: Peter de Ridder Pr., pp. 57-84
Moebius, S. and Quadflieg, D., 2006. Kultur. Theorien der Gegenwart. Wiesbaden : Verlag für
Sozialwissenschaften
Posner, R., 1992. Was ist Kultur? Zur semiotischen Explikation anthropologischer Grundbegriffe.
Kultur-Evolution. Fallstudien und Synthese. Frankfurt a. M.; Berlin; Bern; New York; Paris; Wien:
Lang, pp. 1-65
Rorty, R., 2000. Menschenrechte, Vernunft und Empfindsamkeit. Wahrheit und Fortschritt.
Frankfurt a. M. : Suhrkamp, pp. 241-268
Salevsky, H., 2010. Die Vermittlung russischer Kultur in der Übersetzer- und Dolmetscherausbildung.
pp. 1-30
Salevsky, H. and Müller, I., 2002. Translationswissenschaft. Ein Kompendium. Frankfurt a. M.;
Berlin; Bern; Bruxelles; New York; Oxford; Wien: Lang
Salevsky, H., 1998. Über die Sprache hinaus. Heidelberg: TEXTconTEXT, pp. 237-244
Salevsky, H. and Müller, I., 2011. Translation as Systemic Interaction. A New Perspective and a
New Methodology. Berlin: Frank & Timme
Salevsky, H. and Müller, I. eds., 2010. Die russische Kultur und ihre Vermittlung. Frankfurt a. M.;
Berlin; Bern; Bruxelles; New York; Oxford; Wien: Lang
Schleiermacher, F. D. E., 1988. Hermeneutik – Wahrheit und Verstehen. Darstellung und Texte.
Berlin: Akademie, pp. 253-317
Stanzel, F. K., 1986. Das Nationalitätenschema in der Literatur und seine Entstehung zu Beginn
der Neuzeit. In: Blaicher, Günther. ed. Erstarrtes Denken. Studien zu Klischee, Stereotyp und Vorurteil
in englischsprachiger Literatur. Tübingen: Narr, pp. 84-97
Tylor, E. B., 1871. Primitive culture: researches into the development of mythology, philosophy,
religion, language, art, and custom. Vol 1. London: Murray
# 1770 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Heidemarie Salevsky. Cross-Cultural Communication as a Mirror of Civilization
Tylor, E. B., 1873/2005. Die Anfänge der Cultur : Untersuchungen über die Entwicklung der
Mythologie, Philosophie, Religion, Kunst und Sitte. Vol. 1. Unter Mitw. des Verf. ins Dt. übertr. von J.
W. Spengel und Fr. Proske. Hildesheim; Zürich; New York: Olms
Uspenskij, B. and Lotman, J., 1996. Rol‘ dual’nych modelej v dinamike russkoj kul’tury (do
konca XVIII veka). In: Uspenskij, Boris: Izbrannye trudy. Vol. 1: Semiotika istorii. Semiotika kul’tury.
Moskva: Škola „Jazyki russkoj kul’tury“, pp. 338-350
Wierlacher, A. and Hudson-Wiedemann, U., 2000. Interkulturalität. Wierlacher, A. ed.:
Kulturthema Kommunikation. Konzepte, Inhalte, Funktionen. Festschrift und Leistungsbild des
Instituts für Internationale Kommunikation und Auswärtige Kulturarbeit (IKK Bayreuth) aus Anlaß
seines zehnjährigen Bestehens 1990-2000. Möhnesee: Résidence, pp. 219-232
Wolff, L., 1994. Inventing Eastern Europe. The map of civilization on the mind of the enlightenment.
Stanford: Stanford University Press
Wolff, L. and Yanov, A., 2003 Is Russia a European country? http://www.eurozine.com/articles/
article_2003-10-08-yanovwolff-de.html. [Accessed 02 August 2011]
Межкультурная коммуникация
как зеркало изменяющейся цивилизации
(Перевод на немецкий
русскоязычной литературы)
Хайдемари Залевски
Переводчик. Берлин, Германия
В статье получает подтверждение одно из фундаментальных положений Bальтера Беньямина
о том, что культура (как часть эмпирической жизни) распознается лучше всего в ее временном,
историческом ракурсе. Перевод при этом, с одной стороны, сам играет немаловажную роль,
а с другой – является феноменом, непосрественно зависящим от времени и пространства
(Benjamin, 1923/1991).
В первой части статьи рассматриваются понятия «цивилизация» и «культура», во второй –
обсуждаются проблемы отражения культуры в переводах. Третья часть посвящена трем
разным немецким переводам повести Василия Гроссмана «Все течет».
Ключевые слова: межкультурная коммуникация, культура, цивилизация, чужое, перевод,
русская культура, немецкие переводы, Гроссман, «Все течет».
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 12 (2012 5) 1772-1780
~~~
УДК 808.5
Understanding as the Beginning of Agreement:
Linguistic Aspects
of Intercultural Family Communication
Olga A. Leontovich*
Volgograd State Socio-Pedagogical University
27 Lenina Prospect, Volgograd, 400131 Russia 1
Received 04.12.2012, received in revised form 11.12.2012, accepted 24.12.2012
The paper discusses the issues connected with the use of language in an intercultural family, which
include: 1) the choice of language, 2) bilingualism / polylingualism, 3) code mixing and code switching,
4) the use of an oikolect. Linguistic difficulties, which can lead to communication problems, can occur
on the phonological, graphic, lexical or linguocognitive level, as well as the level of communication
strategies. The paper brings together the theoretical frameworks of communication studies, linguistics
and semiotics in order to identify the key problems, which arise in intercultural marriages, and
suggest possible solutions. Methods employed in the research include observation, questionnaires
and interviews, narrative, biographic, and semiotic analysis. The study is done from the Russian
perspective and is aimed at overcoming the difficulties intercultural families face both in Russia and
abroad. The results of the study may lead to their practical application in family counselling, crosscultural education and training, as well as in real-life situations.
Keywords: intercultural family communication, bilingualism, polylingualism, code mixing, code
switching, oikolect, linguistic difficulties, communication strategies.
A family containing representatives of
different cultures is almost an ideal model
of
intercultural
communication,
which
allows research into its different aspects
and characteristics. This miniature model –
a microcosm of sorts – embodies both the
opportunity for combining and integrating
different cultural traditions and the problems,
which invariably result from the clash of
languages, mentalities, values, and behavioural
patterns.
Achieving harmony in intercultural family
communication in today’s multicultural world is
*
1
a significant problem, which can be studied at the
intersection of different disciplines. The paper
brings together the theoretical frameworks of
communication studies, linguistics and semiotics
in order to identify the key problems, which arise
in intercultural marriages, and suggest possible
solutions. The study is done from the Russian
perspective and is aimed at overcoming the
difficulties intercultural families face both in
Russia and abroad.
The approach taken in the study, which was
carried out by two scholars – the author of this
article and Y. Bondarenko – can be described as
Corresponding author E-mail address: olgaleo@vspu.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 1772 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Olga A. Leontovich. Understanding as the Beginning of Agreement: Linguistic Aspects of Intercultural Family…
a mixed method research design. We employed
observation, questionnaires and interviews,
narrative, biographic, and semiotic analysis. The
questionnaires addressed to 193 intercultural
family members generated detailed accounts
of their family life, indicating its positive and
negative features, reasons for conflict and the ways
cultural identity of family members is expressed
in everyday interactions. The follow-up was faceto-face interviewing of married couples living in
Russia, which enabled us to clarify and expand
the data about intercultural families and ask more
personal questions. The employment of narrative
analysis provided an opportunity to explore firsthand information given by people who were
willing to share their thoughts and feelings with
others. Biographic analysis dealt with materials
about famous intercultural marriages: the British
Queen Victoria and the German Prince Albert;
the King of Morocco and the U.S. actress Grace
Kelly; the U.S. dancer Isadora Duncan and
the Russian poet Sergei Yesenin; the Spanish
artist Salvador Dali and his Russian wife Gala,
etc. Through the prism of semiotic analysis
intercultural family communication was viewed
as a complex system of signs (language, food,
artefacts, religious signs, etc.).
Y. Bondarenko distinguishes the following
constituent features of intercultural family
communication:
1) combination of interpersonal and group
interactions, manifested in different cultures in
the form of such variables as family structure;
age and sex of people getting married; number
of spouses and children; relationship between
family members, etc.;
2) socialization, which is understood as the
interdependence of an individual family and
society and presupposes the knowledge of the
host country’s language and culture;
3) territoriality represented by communicative
distance, eye contact, density and stratification of
communicative space, construction of inner and
outer communication boundaries;
4) continuity in time expressed both
diachronically (family history, name-giving
traditions, family narratives) and synchronically
(conceptualization of time, tempo and rhythm of
communication, expression of time in language,
etc.);
5) degree of (in)formality displayed in
verbal and nonverbal behaviour in different
cultures (ratio of improvisation and ritual,
intergenerational communication, subordination,
taboos, attitude to physical contact, etc.);
6) cultural variability defined by the system
of individual, parental, family, culturally specific
and universal values, which can be transferred
to the level of family communication and cause
interpersonal barriers;
7) marginalization, which can be overcome
when the foreign spouse becomes assimilated in
the host culture (Bondarenko, 2010).
Using Yuri Lotman’s term “semiosphere,”
Y. Bondarenko views family communication
as a continuum filled with semiotic formations
of different types, which constitute the nucleus
and the periphery of the communicative space
(Ibid.).
The use of verbal signs in intercultural
family communication is defined by a number of
peculiarities differentiating it from monocultural
communication.
The first peculiarity is t h e c h o i c e o f
l a n g u a g e to be used in an intercultural
family. Research shows that the decision is
made according to the following three patterns:
1) the domination of one language over the
other; 2) their coexistence based on equality;
3) the use of a third language non-native for
both spouses functioning as an intermediary
(usually the language of the country of
residence or an international language, such as
English). Sometimes families make individual
# 1773 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Olga A. Leontovich. Understanding as the Beginning of Agreement: Linguistic Aspects of Intercultural Family…
decisions about the choice of languages, e.g. by
distinguishing the situations where a particular
language is spoken or inviting a foreign nanny,
as in the following example: This German /
Polish couple living in Germany are raising
their twins with “three and a half” languages
<…> with Mom speaking Polish, Dad speaking
German, and their au pair speaking Spanish
with their boys. The “half language” refers to
the fact that the children also hear the parents
speaking English to each other since it’s the
language they’ve used with each other since
they met (Language Systems …).
The second peculiarity is b i l i n g u a l i s m
(or even p o l y l i n g u a l i s m ), which acquires
its specific features in intercultural family
communication. According to our data, the
formation of a real bicultural individual is possible
only when a person is born in a bilingual family
or enters a foreign culture in an early childhood.
No matter how talented people are, they never
become one hundred per cent bilingual if they
start speaking a foreign language when their first
language has already been acquired and retains a
leading role. F. Dostoyevsky wrote: “<...> there is
a secret of nature, its law according to which you
can completely master only the language with
which you were born, i.e. which is spoken by the
community to which you belong” (Tomashevsky,
Levin, 1954, p. 542).
Our findings suggest that children from
intercultural
families
naturally
develop
bilingualism or polylingualism, which is seen
as a positive phenomenon by most of the family
members and other people. The growing number
of intercultural marriages all over the world and,
consequently, the number of bilingual people
results in the development of a unique generation
of cosmopolitans with bicultural identity who are
expected to possess a high level of tolerance and
communicative competence, a broad outlook, and
a lack of conservatism.
The third peculiarity is the use of c o d e
m i x i n g and c o d e
switching
in
communication, i.e. the insertion of foreign
words in speech; the creation of linguistic
hybrids and internationalisms; switching from
one language to another, etc. In this connection it
is interesting to quote a Russian woman married
to an American:
English has somehow entered me
incompletely and sideways. And it doesn’t go any
further, no matter how hard I try. <…> It is living
inside me, awkward and unwieldy. The Russian
language has had to move aside, and it is sitting
there hurt, losing words as our orange tree was
losing leaves when my husband transplanted
it. “Er… what is the Russian for…?” I drawl,
inserting an American word in my Russian speech
(Sapp, 2006).
The reasons for code mixing and code
switching include:
• low level of linguistic competence, such
as in the following conversation between Russian
immigrants in Brooklyn where they insert English
words welfare, garbage, share, dentist, Medicaid
in their Russian speech:
— Сонечка, ну как твои устроились?
— Да что тебе сказать? Сидят пока на
велфаре. Вся мебель с гарбиджа, квартиру
шерят с молодой парой из Киева. А ты как?
— Да вот хотела зубы вставить у одного
дантиста, а он медикейт не принимает, надо
другого искать (Professionals for Cooperation,
1997, p. 327);
• absence of particular notions in another
language:
I bought a venick for the banya at the
market...
If you have to choose between eating
holodets and being run down by a trolley,
seriously consider the trolley variant.
I used my medical spravka for toilet paper
on a train... (Red Tape, 2001).
# 1774 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Olga A. Leontovich. Understanding as the Beginning of Agreement: Linguistic Aspects of Intercultural Family…
Besides, a person can switch from one
language to another because of the influence of
positive or negative emotions; wish to conceal
certain information from others; desire of
extended family members to form coalitions on
the basis of ethnicity, etc.
The fourth peculiarity is the use of an
o i k o l e c t (language spoken by a household)
formed as a combination of signs from two or
more linguistic systems. It usually exists in closeknit families with well-established traditions of
speech communication. One of the examples is
the formation of family nicknames: e.g. a Turk by
name of Pinhas is called Pinny or Pinkusik by his
Russian wife; an American called Steve becomes
Stepan in a Russian family; a Kyrgyz woman
Yulia gets a nickname Shrimp from her Libyan
husband.
The use of two or more languages in a family
can result in a variety of linguistic difficulties,
which can lead to communication problems.
The
phonological
level
includes:
• inability to distinguish or correctly
pronounce sounds in a foreign language;
• wrong division of the word chain;
• inability to correctly reproduce or
interpret the prosodic characteristics of the
interlocutor’s speech, etc.
Paralinguistic means are widely used by
family members to express meaning, modality,
and emotions, but can cause misunderstandings
in intercultural family communication due to the
differences in intonation, loudness, tempo and
rhythm of speech, e.g.:
(Russian-Chinese family): The Chinese often
say “ah” at the end of a sentence. We, Russians,
usually see it as an urge or an incentive (Let’s go
for a walk, ah?), and for them it just signifies the
completeness of a phrase <…> they pronounce
this “ah” with different intonation, sometimes
interrogative, and sometimes affirmative. But
I always think they are asking or suggesting
something.
(Russian-Japanese family): What fascinates
me in the Japanese is their manner of expressing
surprise. They accompany it with “ehhhh”, so
sharp and sonorous, as an unexpected roar of a
beast. At first it used to scare me. Now I try to
surprise them more often!
Interesting situations occur in BritishAmerican marriages, where allegedly there
should not be any language barriers between
the spouses. However, the phonetic differences
between the two variants of the English language
are quite significant, like in the following story
told by the American journalist S. Lyall about the
first meeting with her future English husband:
I could barely understand half of what he said,
but I was hooked by his charismatic arrogance,
glinting brown eyes and an expert way with the
English language (Lyall, 2008, p. 4).
The Britons also had trouble understanding
her:
Sometimes it seemed as if nobody believed
I was even speaking English, so hard was it to
make them comprehend what I was trying to say
(Ibid., p. 5).
She remembers how her husband Robert was
trying to hire a car during their trip to the US:
‘Hello,’ he said, sounding like Hugh Grant
in “Four Weddings and a Funeral”. ‘I’d like to
high-ah a cah.’
‘Hah?’ said the Avis operator.
‘I’d like to high-ah a cah.’
‘What?’ she repeated. Robert immediately
adopted a Prince Philip-addressing-the-peasants
approach, which meant that he enunciated with
exaggerated slowness and increasing volume, as
if the operator were feeble or deaf, rather than
just American.
Eventually he got her to understand that
he had said ‘hire’, and that ‘hire’ did not mean
‘employ’, but ‘rent’, and we got our car. But
# 1775 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Olga A. Leontovich. Understanding as the Beginning of Agreement: Linguistic Aspects of Intercultural Family…
multiply this little exchange by a million, imagine
me as the ignorant peasant surrounded by people
like my husband, and you will have an idea of
what my early days in London were like (Ibid.,
p. 3-4).
Misunderstandings on the g r a p h i c
l e v e l can seriously complicate the life of an
intercultural family. Possible problems may
include the use of exotic alphabets, abbreviations,
differences in document structure, correspondence
peculiarities, etc.
The difference in alphabets can cause
problems already at the stage of acquiring a
visa and getting married. One of the possible
difficulties is the transliteration of a name and
surname between Russian and English, e.g.:
Екатерина – Ekaterina or Yekaterina? Noir –
Нуар, Ноэр or Нойр? Kersey – Керси or Кёрси?
Muskett – Маскетт or Мускетт? Correct and
consistent transliteration of proper names is very
important because it deals with documents. We
know of situations in which partners had serious
problems because in the first visa and all the other
documents the names were spelt one way and in
the second visa differently, which made all the
other documents invalid. One can expect that the
situation will be even more complicated with the
use of the Arabic or Chinese characters.
Intercultural problems also occur in
connection with the way numbers are written. One
of the examples is the graphic representations of
dates: 11.01.12 for Europeans denotes January
11, 2012 and for Americans – November 1, 2012.
No need to explain, such differences can disorient
communication partners and produce dubious
situations.
Difficulties occurring on the l e x i c a l
l e v e l include: the discrepancy between
the semantic structures of words in different
languages; existence of intralinguistic and
interlinguistic homonyms and paronyms,
polysemantic words, euphemisms, words which
have no equivalents in another language;
differences in connotations, etc.
Family
Everyday
lexicon.
communication unfolds on a day-to-day level;
however, everyday lexicon is seldom part of the
vocabulary learned in foreign language classes. It
is often difficult to immediately remember how to
word in a foreign language such simple notions as
grater, buckwheat, enema, put a wash through, or
pull out the weeds. Intercultural family members
seldom walk around their home with a dictionary
in their hands, and situations creating this kind of
difficulties cause the feelings of annoyance and
frustration.
A b s e n c e o f e q u i v a l e n t s between
the native languages of the spouses is explained
by the existence of nationally specific objects
and phenomena in one culture but not in
the other, such as Russian квас, каша, щи,
солянка, кефир, рубль, интеллигенция,
повесть; English muffi n, privacy, efficiency,
mainstream, backsight, etc. This leads to code
mixing mentioned above, as well as the need
to create family nominations for such notions;
e.g. Larisa (Russian) and David (English)
often use the following phrases: We’ve run out
of smetana. Shall we go and get tvorog? I’ll
have some kompot. Another example from our
survey (Russian-American family): My wife
occasionally makes traditional Russian food
( pirozhki, salad Olivie, vinegrette)…
I n t r a l i n g u i s t i c p a r o n y m y can
create communication problems because the
phonetic similarity between words often leads
to their confusion in speech, especially by nonnative speakers of a language:
inflammable (instead of inflatable) mattress;
the bone of contentment (instead of contention);
too much water had flown (instead of flowed)
under the bridge;
у меня тоже есть такая вонючка (instead of
внучка);
# 1776 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Olga A. Leontovich. Understanding as the Beginning of Agreement: Linguistic Aspects of Intercultural Family…
вам идиот (instead of идет – intended as a
compliment).
I n t e r l i n g u i s t i c p a r o n y m y can
also result in misunderstandings, embarrassing
situations and even conflicts. Vera (Russian)
remembers how she was hurt when her English
husband Nat told her during a family rift: I don’t
like it when you scowl. She associated the word
scoul with Russian cкалиться (show one’s
teeth – often said about animals).
Another
source
of
intercultural
communication problems is the d i f f e r e n c e
in
linguistic
connotations.
According to V.I Shakhovsky, the connotative
component of word meaning includes a complex
set of characterizing semes, due to which it can
both express the attitude of the speaker to what
is being said and provide information about the
speaker’s emotional state (Shakhovsky, 2008,
p. 334). The word exists in the lexical system
of a language, on the crossroads of numerous
associations with other linguistic units. In every
particular context it acquires new connections
and associations, which can be later realized in
new contexts.
The Russian language possesses an elaborate
affixation system capable of expressing a rich
variety of emotions, which cannot be easily
rendered by means of other languages. Therefore,
it is difficult to explain to a non-Russian speaker
the difference between different diminutives
from mother: мама, мамочка, мамуля, мамаша
or from the name Sergey: Сергей, Сережа,
Сереженька, Серега. English has a limited
number of diminutive suffixes, but if we remember
that American presidents are sometimes called
Billy Clinton or Teddy Roosevelt in mass media
or public discussions, it becomes evident that
this form of “diminutiveness” is different from
what is used in family communication. However,
in an intercultural family space permeated with
emotions there constantly arise situations when
spouses, parents and children want to express
their emotions, and if a non-native language
does not allow it, this results in disappointment
and frustration. Sometimes in such situations
diminutive names and nicknames are produced
on the basis of Russian patterns, even if the
language of family communication is English:
Jimka (from Jim), Tomchik (from Tom), Misha
(from Mike).
Linguocognitive level.
Communication problems on this level
emerge due to the differences in the worldview,
categorisation and conceptualisation of reality.
One of the possible differences is the
divergence
of
interlinguistic
equivalents in the scope and
c o n t e n t o f m e a n i n g ; e.g. the Russian
word палец means both finger and toe, hence the
misunderstanding in the following situation:
Maria (Russian) was painting her toenails
when her Canadian husband called her on the
phone and asked what she was doing. “I am
painting fingers on my feet,” she replied. Her
husband burst out laughing when he imagined
what fingers on her feet would look like.
Systematisation of objects can also be
different; e.g. a tomato is seen as a vegetable in
Russia and a fruit in the UK.
Other divergence points can include:
• conceptualisation of time and space;
• quantification;
• conceptualization of gender;
• division of the colour spectrum;
• localisation of emotions (e.g. in the
European worldview emotions are concentrated in
the heart, whereas from the Chinese perspective
part of the emotions are localised in the liver and
the bowels).
Possible problems on the g r a m m a t i c a l
l e v e l include incorrect use of articles and
pronouns; mistakes in the use of verb forms;
interference of grammatical structures of the
# 1777 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Olga A. Leontovich. Understanding as the Beginning of Agreement: Linguistic Aspects of Intercultural Family…
native language; wrong use of syntactical
constructions, etc.
Level
of
communication
s t r a t e g i e s . The relationship in an intercultural
family largely depends on the communication
strategies as lines of communicative behaviour
aimed at achieving one’s aims in the course of
interaction.
The degree of explicitness
can significantly influence the communication
process: whereas representatives of low-context
cultures are proud of their directness, people
from high-context cultures, on the contrary, tend
to use hints, imagery, and circumlocution, which
can cause misunderstandings in intercultural
families, like in the following example from
the life of Milee (Vietnamese) and Harry
(Australian):
She felt some things were better left unsaid
<…>, while he couldn’t understand what he
couldn’t hear (Romano, 2001, p. 140).
Harry didn’t understand that she couldn’t
verbally express to him her inner feelings, that
she expected him to be able to intuit them if he
loved her; and Milee didn’t understand that he
was escaping from what he saw as her silent
hostility towards him (Ibid., p. 28).
In the UK and the US the notions
of explicitness / implicitness have their
specific features. Americans tend to be more
straightforward and assertive than the English
who prefer politeness and compromise. The
above-mentioned journalist S. Lyall (British –
American marriage) writes:
Things in Britain are so coded, so
unstraightforward, so easy to misinterpret (Lyall,
2008, p. 6).
She goes on to describe how her
communicative strategies have changed over the
ten years of life in the UK:
I cushion my statements with qualifications,
disclaimers, apologies, unnecessary modifying
adverbs and back-handed ironic remarks. I
am ‘quite upset’, ‘slightly depressed’, ‘a little
unhappy’; I think that Hitler was ‘not exactly the
nicest person in the world’. When I dislocated
my shoulder and lay in a heap at the bottom of
a flight of stairs at the hairdresser, with tinting
foil all over my hair, feeling pain that was worse
than anything I have ever felt before – even when
I had the children – my overwhelming emotion
was embarrassment. I said ‘Sorry’ in a meek little
voice. Then, ‘I think I’m in a bit of pain,’ and ‘I
might possibly at some point need an ambulance’
(Ibid., p. 10).
The degree of explicitness is closely
connected with the use of u n d e s t a t e m e n t
or o v e r s t a t e m e n t . The following joke
illustrates the difference between the English and
American communicative strategies:
“I speak four languages,” proudly boasted
the door man of a hotel in Rome to an American
guest. “Yes, four – Italian, French, English, and
American.”
“But English and American are the same,”
protested the guest.
“Not at all,” replied the man. “If an
Englishman should come up now, I should talk
like this: ‘Oh, I say, what extraordinarily shocking
weather we are having! I dare say there’ll be a
bit of it ahead.’ But when you came up I was just
getting ready to say: ‘For the love o’ Mike! Some
day, ain’t it? Guess this is the second flood, all
right.’” (Pocheptsov, 1974).
If Americans tend to exaggerate,
understatement is one of the most typical British
strategies. Our Russian respondent Larissa says
that her English husband who was impressed by
the Russian frosts characterised such weather as
a bit chilly; his negative attitude is expressed by
the word different, and extremely unlikely is used
as a very strong statement.
The success of family communication
often depends on the choice of the s t y l e and
# 1778 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Olga A. Leontovich. Understanding as the Beginning of Agreement: Linguistic Aspects of Intercultural Family…
t o n e of discourse. Irina (Russian) married to
an American writes:
At the beginning of our family life I, as it later
became evident to me, adopted a very typical
Russian style of communicating with a spouse:
somewhat casual, without due respect, without
the magic words “thank you” and “please”. I
wrongly assumed that it was no longer necessary
to show off, since everything was already in
place. Of course, it hurt my husband’s feelings. I
am very grateful to him for pointing it out without
humiliating me or making rows. I started noticing
that it was the way normal families interacted –
with love and respect – and started appreciating
my American even more.
The for m of self-presentations
is a strategy of expressing one’s “self” in
discourse, which largely influences the way
family members position themselves and build
their interactions. It has been noted that Russians
display self-deprecation and inferiority complex
in intercultural communication; Americans,
on the contrary, demonstrate “aggressive selfpresentation” strategies. The British, in their
turn, are terrified of bragging and try hard to play
down their merits and achievements. The famous
anthropologist K. Fox remembers that when she
first met her boyfriend – a neurosurgeon, she
asked him why he had chosen this profession:
‘Well, um,’ he replied, ‘I read PPE
(Philosophy, Politics and Economics) at Oxford,
but I found it all rather beyond me, so, er, I
thought I’d better do something a bit less difficult.
<…> It’s just plumbing, really, plumbing with a
microscope – except plumbing is much more
accurate’ (Fox, 2004, p. 69).
Communication strategies also include:
modalit y of discourse;
p oli t i c a l c o r r e c t n e s s;
degree
of
involvement
in
communication;
the use of humour and silence, etc.
The analysis allows us to draw the following
conclusions:
1) the linguistic peculiarities of intercultural
family communication include: the choice of
language(s) to be used as a means of interaction;
bilingualism or polylingualism; code mixing and
code switching; the use of an oikolect;
2) linguistic difficulties, which can lead
to communication problems, can occur on the
phonological, graphic, lexical, grammatical, and
linguocognitive levels, as well as the level of
communication strategies;
3) in spite of the existence of universal
characteristics of human interaction, the
achievement of harmony in intercultural family
communication requires a modification of
the patterns of linguistic use on the part of its
members.
The results of this study may lead to their
practical application in family counselling, crosscultural education and training, as well as in reallife situations.
References
Bondarenko Y.V. Intercultural Family Communication as a Specific Form of Interaction: doctoral
dissertation. Volgograd: Volgograd State Pedagogical University, 2010 (in Russian).
Language Systems and Why Your Family Needs It? URL: http://www.multilingualchildren.org/
getting_started/_baks/language_system.html.0003.d520.bak [Accessed 08.09.2012].
Lyall S. A Field Guide to the British. Glasgow: Quercus, 2008.
Pocheptsov G.G. Language and Humor. Kiev: Vyshcha Shkola, 1974.
Professionals for Cooperation. Issue 1. Moscow: Yanus-K, 1974 (in Russian).
Red Tape. Peace Corps Western Russia. Summer, 2001.
# 1779 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Olga A. Leontovich. Understanding as the Beginning of Agreement: Linguistic Aspects of Intercultural Family…
Romano D. Intercultural Marriage / Promises and Pitfalls. 2nd ed. Intercultural Press, Inc., 2001.
Sapp O. My Emigration // Russian Women Magazine. April, 2006. http://www.
russianwomenmagazine.com/russian/life/myemigration.htm [Accessed 06.11.2012] (in Russian).
Shakhovsky V. I. Linguistic Theory of Emotions. Moscow: Gnozis, 2008 (in Russian).
Tomashevsky B.V. and Levin Y.D., eds. Russian Writers on Language. Leningrad: Soviet Writer,
1954 (in Russian).
Понимание – начало согласия:
проблемы межкультурной
семейной коммуникации
О.А. Леонтович
Волгоградский государственный
социально-педагогический университет
Россия 400131, Волгоград, пр. им. В.И. Ленина, 27
В статье рассматриваются специфические особенности вербальной коммуникации в
межкультурных семьях, которые включают: 1) выбор языка семейного общения; 2) билингвизм/
полилингвизм; смешение и переключение кодов; 4) использование ойколекта. Лингвистические
помехи в межкультурной семейной коммуникации могут возникать на фонологическом,
графическом, лексическом, грамматическом и лингвокогнитивном уровнях, а также на уровне
использования коммуникативных стратегий. Исследование проводилось в междисциплинарном
аспекте, на стыке теории коммуникации, лингвистики и семиотики с целью выявления
ключевых проблем, возникающих в межкультурном семейном общении, и раработки путей его
оптимизации. Методика исследования включала: наблюдение, письменные и устные опросы,
нарративный, биографический и семиотический анализ. В работе сделан вывод о том, что,
несмотря на наличие универсальных закономерностей человеческого взаимодействия,
достижение гармонии в межкультурной семейной коммуникации требует от ее участников
усвоения знаковых систем друг друга, а также существенной модификации паттернов
вербального поведения. Результаты исследования могут найти практическое применение в
тренингах по межкультурной коммуникации, работе семейных консультационных служб, а
также в реальных жизненных ситуациях.
Ключевые слова: межкультурная семейная коммуникация, билингвизм, смешение и
переключение кодов, ойколект, коммуникативные помехи, коммуникативные стратегии.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 12 (2012 5) 1781-1789
~~~
УДК 808.5: 378.016
Communication as a Teaching/Learning Strategy
in Bilingual Education
Francisco R. Cuenca*
Universidad de Cádiz (Spain)
Campus Río San Pedro
Avda. Saharaui, s/n, 11519 Puerto Real (Cádiz), Spain 1
Received 04.12.2012, received in revised form 11.12.2012, accepted 24.12.2012
This paper is based on my experience as a member of the coordinating team of the Plurilingual
Education Programme (PEP) at the School of Education, Universidad de Cadiz (Spain). We have been
working with a group of 23 subject-matter teachers belonging to up to 13 content areas and three
target languages: English, French and German. The main purpose of the project was to train lectures
on the CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) methodological approach. We have focused
our training on content and communication (based on Coyle (1999)’s four C’s framework) with an
emphasis on constructing the communicative channels appropriate to convey content with language
as a medium of communication, not as an aim itself. As communicative exchanges will be between
non-native teachers and non-native students, teachers have been trained on some communicative
strategies typical of the CLIL approach in order to improve the teachers’ communicative competence.
In this paper, some of these strategies and their benefits will be depicted : using the foreign language
as the language of communication in the class, improving clarity of speech, enhancing oral interaction
with/among students, visual aids, rephrasing, reformulating, redundancy or content reduction are
amongst the most essential strategies to improve communicative exchanges in bilingual settings.
Keywords: communication, communicative strategies, communicative competence, oral interaction,
teacher training.
1. Introduction
The development of a Plurilingual Education
Program (PEP) aims to respond to the needs of a
society in which the quality of communication
is presented as an essential factor affecting both
interpersonal relationships and the development of
appropriate professional profiles in the context of
a globalized world. In contemporary society there
are many reasons to implement communicative
educational strategies based upon a thorough
command of at least two foreign languages
*
1
which, together with the learner’s command of
her mother tongue, promote the integration of
individuals within the 21st century society.
The PEP is aimed primarily at enhancing
the level of vehicular languages by using them for
specific content learning in undergraduate studies
taught at the School of Education. First among
these languages is the learner’s mother tongue,
whose proficient command is taken as a reference
point, and as the first language of communication,
understanding advanced mastery of it as a priority
Corresponding author E-mail address: paco.rubio@uca.es
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 1781 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Francisco R. Cuenca. Communication as a Teaching/Learning Strategy in Bilingual Education
objective facing the exercise of any profession.
Hence, all subjects in the learner’s curriculum
should take a part in improving the learner’s
communicative competence in her mother tongue
(Méndez and Pavón, 2012).
Furthermore, the PEP takes up the challenge
of developing the plurilingual and pluricultural
competence of learners. Plurilingualism conveys
pluriculturalism1 and interculturality (Trujillo,
2002, p. 109), thus integration of content and
languages involves cultural integration between
the cultural background of the language of
instruction and that of the learners’ native
language, whether it is the language of instruction
or not. Currently, university students are aware
of the importance of mastering languages, in
general, as an integral part of their academic
training, given the nature of contemporary
society and specifically as a potential expansion
of career opportunities.
The following are just some of the many
reasons for designing a curriculum that develops
plurilingual and pluricultural competences:
- The position of the university in the
international arena requires the use of
strategies of mutual approach in which
the knowledge of a second or foreign
language is a must.
- Linguistic diversity is a social reality
considered as a valuable resource by
national and supranational institutions
to develop plurality policies that the
university is called to accept and
strengthen (Skutnabb-Kangas, 2002).
- Foreign language knowledge greatly
improves the profile of university students
and teachers in the face of different types
of actions (mobility, research, etc.).
Moreover, the resolutions adopted by the
Andalusian University Council regarding the
implementation of official teachings under the
European Higher Education Area, promote
the inclusion of foreign language learning as
a transversal competence across the curricula
(Consejo Andaluz de Universidades, 2009).
Finally, the University of Cádiz Governing
Board approved the Language Policy Framework
Document (Universidad de Cádiz, 2011) which
considers different aspects of language learning
including the broad concept of plurilingualism
(see note 1 below).
It was in this context that we started working
with lecturers from a variety of content areas
such as: Music, Physical Education, Mathematics,
Psychology, Didactics, Sociology, etc. (Herrero et
al., 2012, p. 66). The main purpose of the project
was to train lectures on the CLIL methodological
approach. CLIL stands for Content and Language
Integrated Learning. It refers to teaching subjects
such as science, history and geography to
students through a foreign language. This can
be by the English teacher using cross-curricular
content or the subject teacher using English as the
language of instruction. Both methods result in
the simultaneous learning of content and English.
The term CLIL was coined by David Marsh,
University of Jyväskylä, Finland (Marsh , 1994,
2000):
“CLIL refers to situations where
subjects, or parts of subjects, are taught
through a foreign language with dualfocused aims, namely the learning of
content and the simultaneous learning
of a foreign language”.
2. Communication within
the CLIL approach
As the main purpose of the project
was to train lectures on the CLIL approach,
following Do Coyle’s four C’s framework
(content, communication, cognition and
culture), we have focused particularly on
content and communication with an emphasis
on constructing the communicative channels
# 1782 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Francisco R. Cuenca. Communication as a Teaching/Learning Strategy in Bilingual Education
appropriate to convey content with language as a
medium of communication, not as an aim itself.
On introducing how communication should be
treated in CLIL, Do Coyle stated that
“Language is a conduit for
communication and for learning which
can be described as learning to use
language and using language to learn.”
(Coyle et al, 2010, p. 54)
In fact, this is how authentic communication
works: using language as a vehicle to exchange
information, with the additional benefit that in
bilingual educational settings, learners improve
their knowledge of the foreign vehicular language
(L2) with learning subject-matter content.
Communication in this sense goes beyond
the grammar system, but at the same time does
not reject the essential role of grammar and lexis
in language learning. It involves learners in using
language in a way which is often different from
more traditional language lessons. It is perhaps
useful here to differentiate between language
learning (often with an emphasis on grammatical
progression) and language using (with an
emphasis on the communication and learning
demands of the moment).
CLIL is innovative as a didactic approach
because it has the benefits of integrating content
and language as a strategy into the education
programs bringing together a variety of previous
educational approaches and proposals. Thus,
CLIL is deeply rooted in the tradition of Piaget’s
constructivism and Vygotsky’s sociocultural
theory and his concept of the zone of proximal
development (ZPD). Vygotsky “…theorized that
learning occurs through participation in social or
culturally embedded experiences.” (Raymond,
2000, p. 176). In Vygotsky’s view, the learner
does not learn in isolation. Instead learning is
strongly influenced by social interactions, which
take place in meaningful contexts. In academic
bilingual settings these contexts will be provided
by the particular nature of subject-matter content
(Rubio, 2011). Access to these contexts will
be supported by building scaffolds, that is, by
breaking down a task or activity into manageable
steps and using appropriate skills and strategies
to complete the different steps successfully. Oral
interaction is one of those contexts in which
scaffolding takes place: pair or group work
activities are situations in which learners tend to
communicate naturally as they are dealing with
content through language.
Recalling Cummins division between BICS
(conversational language) and CALP (academic
language), Walqui (2007, p. 207) proposes that
the spoken language of conversations among
students can be used as scaffolds for academic
discourse. The more opportunities we give
our students to interact in pairs or groups, the
greater their linguistic, cognitive and academic
development. CLIL also has similarities with the
communicative approach, CBI (content-based
instruction), and TBI (task-based instruction), as
all of these approaches explore the relationship
between language learning and the content
within which it is situated. CLIL integrates
content learning and language learning so that
both are important. (Coyle, 2010, p. 54). It thus
represents a step forward in the evolution towards
a more communicative environment for language
learning. In Table 1, we sketch the three main steps
in the evolution of language learning in academic
settings, with CLIL as a major turning point, as
previous approaches had been language-centered
whereas the new approach is content-centered.
Communication strategies should be adapted
to the limited and/or specific communicative
needs of teachers and learners within each
particular learning environment. At the School
of Education’s PEP coordinating team, we have
been trying to meet communicative needs of the
teachers involved in the plurilingual program in
order to improve their communicative competence
# 1783 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Francisco R. Cuenca. Communication as a Teaching/Learning Strategy in Bilingual Education
Table 1. Evolution of foreign language teaching/learning methodological approaches
Audio-Lingual & Grammar
Translation (1960’s)
• More attention paid to correct
syntax and pronunciation.
• Text books
• Homogeneous learning
• Grammar and lexis
• Imitate native speakers
• Mainly individual work
• Repetition and drills
• Fluency favours correctness
• Assessment: syntax and
pronunciation
Communicative Approach
(1970’s – 1980’s)
• Use of appropriate social
language
• The target language is the
language of communication
• Simulations of real-life
communicative contexts (roleplays, games, etc.)
• Mainly pair or group work
• Correctness favours fluency
• No specific language model
• Assessment: skills
LANGUAGE-CENTERED
in the foreign language they have chosen as their
language of instruction. First and foremost, the
L2 should be the language of communication
and instruction. Therefore, we encouraged our
teachers to use the four communicative skills
(speaking, reading, listening and writing) with the
aim of providing a natural learning environment.
Oral interaction between teacher and learner and
amongst learners should also be encouraged.
Communicating becomes more important than
correctness.
3. Initial problems
and their solutions
Teaching in a foreign language at our School
of Education is mainly motivated by the fact
that we are training students to become primary
school teachers. Many of these prospective
teachers will be working at schools with bilingual
sections, that is, schools where some subjects are
partly taught through a foreign language, mostly
English and French. Thus, teachers should feel
motivated to adopt CLIL as part of their teaching
methodology. However, teachers at the School of
Education showed many insecurities and fears
with the very thought of planning a didactic unit
CLIL
(1990’s – Today)
• Communicative context is
provided by subject-matter content
• Content is the target
• Academic context
• Non-native
• Multiplicity of resources and
activities
• Grammar and lexis are
subsidiary to communication
• Individual, pair or group work
• Correctness favours
comprehension
• Assessment: subject-matter
content
CONTENT-CENTERED
in a foreign language, even though some of them
had a high command of the language. In order to
cope with this initial situation, the coordinating
team of the PEP, whose members were all foreign
language and teaching methodology specialists,
devised a work schedule consisting in regular
meetings between content area teachers and
language specialists. In those meetings, content
teachers were given some guidelines on how
to structure and plan a didactic unit within the
CLIL approach, part of their work had to be
presented to their fellow mates at monitoring
workshops2.
Below, we show a short list of their worries
about planning and implementing a CLIL session
and how we have been mitigating them as we
proceeded with our project. Their main concerns
and insecurities aroused on the one hand because
they did not feel sufficiently competent to adapt
and/or reduce teaching materials and resources
in a foreign language, especially when dealing
with content which might require high cognitive
abilities from the learners. On the other hand,
they did not feel confident with the fact of
having the foreign language as the language of
communication. At the coordinating team we
# 1784 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Francisco R. Cuenca. Communication as a Teaching/Learning Strategy in Bilingual Education
came out with some remedial strategies to cope
with these insecurities.
Different levels of command of the foreign
language by teachers. At the beginning, most
teachers were not sure about their level of
command of the foreign language, and only a
few had gained a CEFRL certificate in English
or French. So here we faced an initial concern
affecting the basic linguistic competence of
non-language teachers in the foreign language.
The initial command of the foreign language
ranged from very basic (A1-A2) to advanced
(B2-C1). Throughout the different projects,
teachers committed themselves to attend both
free general language courses at the university’s
Center of Modern Languages and tailor-made
subject-specific courses based on the CLIL
approach. Planning of didactic units was done in
coordination with a language specialist, and, to
dissipate fears, only content objectives were set
and the exposure by learners to content in the
foreign language was adjusted to the teacher’s
degree of manipulation of that language.
Another of the initial fears of teachers was
whether content would be satisfactorily conveyed
to learners as they might have missed much of
their explanations or they may feel that essential
knowledge might have been left out for simplicity.
One of the CLIL principles that teachers should
take into account is that they are not supposed to
check or control the use of the foreign language
but the acquisition of academic knowledge
through the L2. From the very beginning we
made them aware of the fact that class time
should be devoted to content, not language. On
the other hand, simplifying contents does not
mean leaving out crucial concepts as simplicity is
balanced by scaffolding. Some of the scaffolding
techniques that teachers learned to use in the
monitoring sessions were redundant presentation
of information in a variety of formats, e.g.,
slideshow, audio/video recording, journal articles,
etc.; rephrasing and reformulating new ideas or
concepts, providing previous knowledge clues,
administering introductory activities or pretasks to be completed before the CLIL session,
etc. All these strategies help make input more
comprehensible and teachers more confident with
achieving set objectives.
Teachers also felt insecure regarding
communication and oral interaction in the class.
Because they felt they had to conduct a lesson in
a foreign language, they thought they might go
through anxiety and stress as they were going
to teach outside the comfort zone provided so
far by teaching in their mother tongue. First of
all, we made them aware that CLIL is not just
teaching academic content in L2 in the same way
as they teach that content in their mother tongue.
CLIL is a learner-centered approach as opposed
to traditional teacher-centered instruction. The
new approach should thus be more participative
by enhancing oral interaction between students,
so that they become more active and the teacher
stands behind as a helper or resource provider, thus
focusing the students’ attention on their tasks and
their mates, and not just on the teacher (Bonwel et
al, 1991; Scott Armstrong, 2012). Learners should
learn by taking an active part in their learning
process by applying appropriate communication
skills. There is nothing prejudicial in getting out
of the comfort zone. There must be a change of
attitude towards the teacher’s part in the lesson.
He/she should feel that he/she is the conductor in
full command of the communication situation and
of his/her performance. Short pauses, speaking at
a slow pace, gesturing and use of the blackboard
will contribute to make teachers more confident.
Because both teachers and learners
shared their mother tongue, they feared that
communicating in a foreign language would be
felt as an unnatural setting and even completely
unnecessary, slowing down the pace of the
lesson and making it unattractive for learners, so
# 1785 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Francisco R. Cuenca. Communication as a Teaching/Learning Strategy in Bilingual Education
that some of them may ‘disconnect’ from what is
going on. Remedial strategies were administered
once both teachers and learners were aware
of the sociological context in which today’s
teaching takes place, as we are immersed in a
globalized world with millions of international
exchanges. Moreover, a huge amount of up-todate academic and professional information is
provided in English and other languages, most of
which may be accessed on the Internet, strongly
encourage by social networks. The use of more
than one language is essential to feel that you are
part of that context. This context is sufficiently
motivating to start acquiring at least part of the
specialized knowledge learnt at the university
in a foreign language. Our experience tells us
that communication works smoothly after a
couple of CLIL-oriented bilingual sessions
between teachers and learners and amongst
learners themselves, as the learning atmosphere
created makes the class “community” partly
unconscious of the fact that they are talking
about a subject or a topic in a foreign language.
Obviously, there may be some short breaks in
which the learners might require the help of the
teacher with some expressions or key words and,
in this case, clarification may mean switch to
the mother tongue. These breaks are perfectly
normal during a bilingual session, and they
are highly recommended, at least at the initial
stages, where language command and subjectmatter knowledge are scarce. These breaks
make both teachers and learners feel more relax
and confident to immediately go back to the
foreign language environment as they feel that
they are really improving, not just content, but
also improving their command of the foreign
language.
Teachers with a good command of the L2
might tend to speak so fast that learners might
miss the comprehension of part of the content.
This is where communicative strategies come
into action. Faerch and Kasper (1983, p. 16)
view communicative strategies as “systematic
techniques employed by a speaker to express
his meaning when faced with some difficulty
and the difficulty here refers to the speaker’s
inadequate command of the language used in the
interaction”. We have been training our teachers
in some of the communicative strategies we have
considered more suitable to bilingual settings. We
have adapted these strategies with one common
goal: making communication real and input
comprehensible. Improving clarity of speech
helped with face and hand gestures is a basic
communicative strategy. Mehisto et al (2008,
p. 226) recommended a balanced pronunciation
of lower-pitched vowels and higher-pitched
consonants, speaking at a slow pace and keeping
closer to the listener.
Other strategies we recommended our
teachers are: rephrasing and repeating utterances,
framing teacher performance with visual
supports, encouraging learners to take part in
the communicative exchange by organizing
their activities into pairs and groups, naturally
allowing code-switching between L1 and L2. The
teacher’s discourse should be supported by using
hedges or introductory utterances, such as “We
all know that”, “Perhaps you did not know that”,
“by the way”, “I believe”, “you should be aware
of”, etc., (Peccei and Stilwell, 2001) together with
concept checking questions, i.e., those questions
made by the teacher to elicit simple answers
from learners in order to check that they follow
the thread of her explanation. Yes/No questions
such as “Do you understand?”, “Is this clear?”,
or more specifically, “Should medication be
administered on the first stage?” may be used
though feedback from learners is very poor with
this type of questions, as most of them will reply
with a handy though useless “Yes”. Instead,
we encourage teachers to use wh-questions to
elicit more elaborate answers from learners,
# 1786 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Francisco R. Cuenca. Communication as a Teaching/Learning Strategy in Bilingual Education
so questions such as “How does this work?” or
“How often should you administer medication?”
are more appropriate and communicatively
enriching, though more cognitively demanding
than Yes/No questions.
The use of L1 structures interfered
communication in L2 making content
transmission difficult for learners. Interlanguage
interferences have been dealt with at length in
second language acquisition research (Bhela,
1999; Horwitz, 2008; Richards et al, 1992;
Swan and Smith, 1987). Interference mainly
affects productive communicative skills such
as speaking and writing. Remedial strategies
concerning interference or negative transfer
consist in turning language interference into
interlanguage strategies (Selinker, 1972,
1992). One of these techniques is language
and content reduction. Faerch and Kasper
(1983) introduce the concept of ‘avoidance
behaviour’, when classifying communicative
strategies, as consisting of formal reduction
and functional reduction strategies. “Formal
reduction strategies could be phonological,
morphological, syntactic and lexical strategies.
Learners tend to use formal reduction strategies
either to avoid making errors and/or they want
to increase their fluency (Faerch and Kasper
1983, p. 40; quoted by Al Maamari, 2010). On
the other hand, functional reduction strategies
include reduction of speech act and reduction of
propositional context and these two are used by
learners to reduce their communicative goals in
1
2
order to avoid problems in interactions (ibid: 43;
quoted by Al Maamari, 2010).
Conclusion
After three academic years training teachers
on the CLIL approach, we are plainly satisfied that
most of the objectives for the different projects
have been accomplished and we have conformed
a faculty team ready to cope with teaching at
the initial stages of our PEP. First and foremost,
content teachers feel more at home with teaching
in a foreign language, communication strategies
have been very valuable to control the pace of the
lesson. Formal and functional reduction of both
language and contents facilitates understanding.
Learners’ exposure to discourse in the foreign
language has been gradual, starting at a more
passive, receptive level, just limited to listen to
the teacher’s instructions and simple concept
checking questions, with the scaffolding of
short-length texts, vocabulary lists, information
organizers and visual aid. Active learning and
oral interaction should be encouraged by making
learners work in pairs or small groups. Progress
in the acquisition of subject-matter contents is
necessarily slower in L2 than in L1. Both teachers
and learners should be motivated by feeling
that they belong to a speaking ‘community’
in the foreign language whose boundaries are
the physical limitations of the classroom, the
particular features of the conceptual framework
of each academic discipline and the pace of oral
interaction.
The terms plurilingualism and pluriculturalism are used in the context of the CLIL approach, as the prefix pluri- is understood as the integrated learning of languages and cultural aspects conveyed through those languages. Within this approach, learners will acquire knowledge within the communicative, cognitive and cultural environments of the languages
of instruction, which will be at least two: the learner’s mother tongue and a second or foreign language.
All the details about the organizational structure of the teacher-training programme are depicted in the unpublished Plan
de Lenguas de Centro (Plurilingual Education Programme) draft document approved by the School of Education Sciences’
Board at the University of Cádiz.
References
Al Maamari, R., 2010. Learning and communicative strategies, published online at www.
articlesbase.com. [Accessed September 2012].
# 1787 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Francisco R. Cuenca. Communication as a Teaching/Learning Strategy in Bilingual Education
Bhela, B., 1999. Native language interference in learning a second language: Exploratory case
studies of native language interference with target language usage. International Education Journal
Vol 1, No 1, 1999 at: http://iej.cjb.net. [Accessed September 2012].
Bonwell, C. and Eison, J., 1991. Active Learning: Creating Excitement in the Classroom. AEHEERIC Higher Education Report No. 1. Washington, D.C.: Jossey-Bass.
Consejo Andaluz de Universidades, 2009. Acuerdos adoptados por el Consejo Andaluz de
Universidades en relación con la implantación de enseñanzas oficiales conforme al Espacio Europeo
de Educación Superior. Junta de Andalucía. Consejo Andaluz de Universidades.
Consejería de Educación Junta de Andalucía, 2006. Plan de Fomento del Plurilingüismo. Una
política para la sociedad andaluza.
<htt p://w w w.juntadeandalucia.es/aver roes/ html/por tal/com / bin /contenidos/ B/Innov
acionEInvestigacion/ProyectosInnovadores/Plurilinguismo/Portada/1182945265640_w ysiwyg_plan.
pdf>[Accessed 06 April 2011].
Coyle, D., 1999 Supporting students in content and language integrated learning contexts, in J.
Masih (ed.) Learning through a Foreign Language: Models, Methods and Outcomes, Grantham Book
Services Ltd: Grantham, UK, pp.46 – 62.
Coyle, D., Hood, P. and Marsh, D., 2010. CLIL: Content and Language Integrated Learning,
Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Faerch, C. and Kasper, G., 1983. Strategies in Interlanguage Communication. London: Longman.
Herrero, F. et al., 2012. “Proyecto AICLE en la formación de maestros en la Universidad de Cádiz”,
in A. Ambrós, J. Perera & M. Suárez (Editors), Didàctica de la llengua i la literatura: Experiències
d’innovació docent a la universitat. Series: Recerca d’Innovació Docent en Didàctica de la Llengua i
la Literatura 1. Institut de Ciències de l’Educació. Universidad de Barcelona, pp. 61-70.
Horwitz, E.K., 2008. Becoming a language teacher. Boston: Pearson.
Marsh, D., 1994. Bilingual Education & Content and Language Integrated Learning. International
Association for Cross-cultural Communication, Language Teaching in the Member States of the
European Union (Lingua) University of Sorbonne. Paris.
Marsh, D., 2000. An introduction to CLIL for parents and young people. Using Languages to
Learn and Learning to Use Languages. Jyväskylä: University of Jyväskylä.
Mehisto, P., Marsh, D. and Frigols, M. J., 2009. Uncovering CLIL. Macmillan.
Peccei, J. S., 2001. Pragmatics, Routledge.
Méndez-García. M. C. and V. Pavón, 2012. Investigating the coexistence of the mother tongue
and the foreign language through teacher collaboration in CLIL contexts: perceptions and practice of
the teachers involved in the plurilingual programme in Andalusia. International Journal of Bilingual
Education and Bilingualism, pp. 1-20. Routledge: London.
Raymond, E., 2000. Cognitive Characteristics. Learners with Mild Disabilities (pp. 169-201).
Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon, A Pearson Education Company.
Richards, J.C., Platt, J., and Platt, H. (Eds.), 1992. Longman dictionary of language Teaching &
applied linguistics. Essex, England: Longman Group UK Limited
Rubio, F., 2011. Dictogloss, a technique for integrating language skills and specialized content in
higher education curricula. Proceedings of X AELFE Conference. Universitat Politècnica de València:
Valencia.
# 1788 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Francisco R. Cuenca. Communication as a Teaching/Learning Strategy in Bilingual Education
Scott Armstrong, J., 2012. Natural learning in higher education. Encyclopedia of the Sciences of
Learning. Heidelberg: Springer.
Selinker, L., 1972. “Interlanguage”. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 10, 209-241
Selinker, L., 1992. Rediscovering interlanguage. New York: Longman, Inc.
Skutnabb-Kangas, T., 2002. Why should linguistic diversity be maintained and supported in
Europe. Some arguments. Guide for the Development of Language Education Policies in Europe From
Linguistic Diversity to Plurilingual Education. Language Policy Division Directorate of School, Outof-School and Higher Education, DGIV, Council of Europe, Strasbourg.
Swan, M., and Smith, B., 1987. Learner English. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University
Press.
Trujillo, F., 2002. Towards interculturality through language teaching: Argumentative discourse.
CAUCE, Revista de Filología y su Didáctica, No 25, pp. 103-119.
Universidad de Cádiz, 2011. Documento de Política Lingüística de la Universidad de Cádiz.
Cádiz: BOUCA, No 116, enero 2011.
Walqui, A., 2006. Scaffolding instruction for English learners. A conceptual framework.
International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 9/2: 159-80.
Коммуникация как обучающая стратегия
в билингвальном образовании
Ф.Р. Куэнка
Университет Кадиса, Испания
Кампус Рио Сан Педро, пр. Сахарауи
11519 Пуэрто Реаль (Кадис), Испания
Данная статья основана на личном опыте члена координационной команды Полилингвальной
образовательной программы (Plurilingual Education Programme (PEP)) в школе образования
университета г. Кадис (Испания). Была проведена работа с группой из 23 преподавателей, 13
различных предметов и 3 целевых языков: английского, французского и немецкого. Главной целью
проекта было преподать методологический подход предметно-языкового интегрированного
обучения (CLIL). В работе отображены некоторые коммуникативные стратегии, типичные
для вышеобозначенного подхода, и их преимущества.
Ключевые слова: коммуникация, коммуникативные стратегии,
компетенция, устная интеракция, обучение преподавателей.
коммуникативная
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 12 (2012 5) 1790-1797
~~~
УДК 808.5
Rudeness as a System of Strategies
and an Object of Classification
Vladimir I. Zhelvis*
K.D. Ushinsky State Pedagogical University
108 Respublikanskaya St. Yaroslavl, 150000 Russia 1
Received 04.12.2012, received in revised form 11.12.2012, accepted 24.12.2012
In the article rudeness is considered as a strategy aimed at achieving a certain pragmatic effect. The
author considers it possible to subdivide rudeness into rudeness of repulsion, cathartic rudeness,
authoritative rudeness, rudeness as an expression of dissoluteness, aristocratic rudeness, rudeness
as an expression of “buddy-buddy manners”, friendly rudeness, carnal rudeness, rudeness as an
expression of class solidarity, etc. Different versions of rude abuse are also observed.
Keywords: politeness, rudeness, abuse, repulsion, catharsis, class solidarity, level of competence,
cultural patterns
You spoke your words as though you denied the
very existence of the shadows or of evil. But would you
kindly ponder this question: What would your good do
if evil didn’t exist, and what would the earth look like
if all the shadows disappeared?
M. Bulgakov. Master and Margarita
The present article regards rudeness as a sort
of strategy aimed at achieving a certain pragmatic
effect.
In the Russian online Philosophical
dictionary one may read:
“Rudeness is a negative moral quality
characterized by neglect of behaviour culture;
opposite to politeness. One of the most
disrespectful attitudes towards other people,
rudeness expresses itself in undisguised hostility
to other people, in lack of attention to other
people’s interests and needs, in an impudent
attempt to impose one’s own will and wishes on
*
1
others, in an inability to restrain one’s annoyance,
in an unpremeditated, or premeditated, attack on
other people’s self-respect, in undue familiarity,
in dirty language, in making use of humiliating
nicknames, as well as in rampageous actions”.
As we can see, this detailed definition builds
up an opposition between rudeness and politeness,
and points out that rudeness may express itself in
action as well as in words. The present research
dwells on verbal rudeness, although rude actions
cannot be neglected either.
If the phenomenon of politeness has always
been popular among the research workers all over
Corresponding author E-mail address: v.zhelvis@gmail.com
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 1790 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Vladimir I. Zhelvis. Rudeness as a System of Strategies and an Object of Classification
the world (Brown and Levinson, 1987; Larina,
2009, et al.), that of rudeness interested the
scholars much less. Nevertheless, there is no doubt
that the role rudeness plays in communication is
in no way smaller than that of politeness, for all
their behavioural differences.
The fact is that politeness as well as rudeness
in their typical manifestations is nothing else than
two opposite means of achieving one and the same
aim, namely an attempt to gain a certain profit.
Metaphorically, politeness may be compared to
peaceful negotiations of two competing powers,
while rudeness may be equalled to a military
conflict, the final aim in both cases being an
attempt to get in possession of certain resources.
For all that, one cannot assert that politeness
and rudeness are opposite mirror-like, that is
where one has a “plus” the other exposes a
“minus”. Things are more complicated, it seems.
Still, it is evident that they both allow themselves
to be arranged in a certain classification.
Though a necessary reservation seems due
here. Where politeness may easily be structured
in a more detailed way, a similarly fine gradation
of rudeness is hardly possible. Tautology
excused, rudeness is, by definition, too rude, too
unceremonious to be able to fit into a strict and
exact classification net.
As it has been mentioned above, rudeness
may be physical and verbal. Naturally, so can
be politeness. But in the case of rudeness the
difference is much more noticeable. Not that the
problem is in which is stronger. After all, we
know that verbal rudeness may be, literally, more
deadly than a physical blow.
According to Prof. T.V. Larina, politeness
may be absolute semantically, and relative
pragmatically (Larina, 2009). Similarly, one
may try to subdivide rudeness into absolute,
like a fist blow, a deliberate push or exposing one’s
middle finger. Evidently, here we have physical,
or visual, rudeness. Verbal rudeness, on the
contrary, is mainly pragmatic, which is accepted
in accordance with the norms of the given social
group. On the practical level, every social group
possesses its own concept of rudeness.
The fact is that rudeness is discursive and
cannot be regarded in isolation from the context,
while the context in this case is a social milieu
in which any act may be or may be not looked
upon as rude. To a very great extent decision on
what is more rude and what is less rude depends
on the addressee; for example, even Russian
dirtiest language, like the so-called “mat” may
be received by the opponent as something much
less offensive than a humiliating order without a
single bad word, as “Get away!”
Different reactions to rudeness may well
be illustrated by two Russian proverbial idioms,
«Собака лает, ветер носит» (A dog’s bark is
blown away by the wind) and «Ему плюнь в
глаза, а ему всё божья роса» (You may spit him
in the eye, yet he will say it was holy dew). The first
idiom refers to the indifferent or spiteful reaction
to an invective attack, while the other describes
the behaviour of a shameless fellow with very low
morals. In both cases the invective shell bursts but
just does not hurt. Still, the first “victim” admits
that what he hears are swear words hurled at him
and meant to harm, otherwise he would not have
called the opponent’s words “dog’s bark”. In the
second case, however, offensive language is taken
for granted and is placidly ignored.
All the difficulties of classification
notwithstanding, one may subdivide rudeness
into several groups. Let us consider some of
them.
1. First will come what one may call
rudeness of repulsion, i.e. a deliberate
desire to push the opponent away, literally
or verbally, to offend them, to humiliate
them, to ruin their self-esteem. This may
be put in effect by a physical blow, a slap
in the face, a rough repulsion, as well as
# 1791 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Vladimir I. Zhelvis. Rudeness as a System of Strategies and an Object of Classification
calling names, cursing, using obscene
language, etc.
2. In a way, rudeness of repulsion is related
to cathartic rudeness, when one swears
and thus, by breaking a strong taboo, feels
better, “relieves his soul”. In this case a
physical reaction is also possible, when a
person may crush anything in sight. But
more often we speak about a verbal attack,
when violating a universally accepted
taboo offers the actor a satisfaction
similar to, say, a plate broken during a
noisy family row.
See in this connection a story from the
memoirs by the great Russian social anthropologist
Prof. Yu.M. Lotman who describes his war-time
adventures (Translated from the Russian):
The place was absolutely deserted. I was
completely broken down, but I somehow found
a means to support myself: I was walking and
shooting tracer bullets, one by one, right up
into the blue sky. Strangely, it somehow helped
to overcome the feeling of being lost. At the
same time I shouted at the top of my voice the
most unprintable swear words. This mixture of
shooting and swearing gave me the necessary
relief. At last I waded the last tributary, dropped
to the ground and immediately fell asleep.
Crossing the river Don was over (Lotman, 2003,
p.25 in Russian).
3. A part of this strategy may be named
authoritative rudeness, an attempt to
humiliate one’s subordinate to show who
the boss is. Naturally, such rudeness is
always one-sided, and answering back
is looked upon as an unprecedented
violation of the norm.
4. One may speak about rudeness as an
expression of dissoluteness, a deliberate
neglect of etiquette. A convincing example
is the behaviour of the popular Russian
hairdresser Zverev, who, according to
yellow press reports, makes use of the
most repulsive obscenities regardless of
where and with whom he chooses to speak.
Zverev’s lazily slow manner of speech
proves that the fellow does not experience
any need to “let out the steam”, it is just a
means to demonstrate his indifference to
other people’s feelings.
5. Next comes “aristocratic rudeness”,
rudeness with the sole purpose to shock
and startle. Unlike the followers of
Zverev, actors are rude only in their
own company. Their language is a way
to express their “democratic views”.
Examples are numerous, especially among
artists, actors, but most of all among
military and political leadership. Among
Russian foul-mouths one might mention
emperors (Peter the Great and Alexander
the Third) politicians (Chernomyrdin and
Gorbachev), army generals (G. Zhukov)
and many others.
6. Close to this one stands rudeness as an
expression of buddy-buddy manners.
This is, so to speak, “good-natured
rudeness” of the type “Hello, fartface,
haven’t seen you for ages” Strictly
speaking, this is no rudeness in the
direct sense, the speaker demonstrates
his friendly attitude, always supported
by a benevolent intonation. Still, the
use of the rude idioms allows us to
list this case among all the others.
See the following example from the
memoirs of the famous Russian ballet
dancer Maris Liepa (Translated from
Russian):
(Yermolaev says, “You are such a bastard,
such a true bastard, such a good bastard that you’re
the best in this show. Ulanova and Timofeeva
praised me, too.” (“Ogonyok” Journal 1989, No5,
in Russian). It is an imitation of rudeness, an
# 1792 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Vladimir I. Zhelvis. Rudeness as a System of Strategies and an Object of Classification
attempt to conceal a friendly attitude under the
disguise of calling bad names.
7. The detonating power of rudeness is visibly
diminishing when it demonstrates itself
in a friendly push, even quite tangible,
or verbally, when the speaker wants to
exhibit their “swearing art”. Genuine bad
language, as a rule, lacks any desire to
impress the opponent with its eloquent
artistic skill; its super destructive power
is hidden, above all, in their primitiveness
and artlessness, which make them more
emotional. Similarly, to inform others
of the death of a dear relative, we never
use high-flown idioms like “He left us”,
“He met God our Lord” etc., but just say
“He died”. Contrarily, a set of brightly
coloured invectives, often rhymed, rather
amuses than makes one angry.
8. Carnal rudeness occupies a noticeable
place among all other types. Here
aggressive attitude, unavoidable in sexual
experience, is completed by intentionally
rough language which, however, is meant
to express tenderness and endearment.
A good example may be observed in D.
Lawrence’s “Lady Chatterley’s Lover”:
“Th’art good cunt, though, aren’t her? Best
bit o’ cunt left on earth” (…)
“All on’t,” she teased. “Cunt! It’s like fuck
then.”
“Nay, nay! Fuck’s only what you do. Animals
fuck. But cunt’s a lot more than that. (…) Cunt!
Eh, that’s the beauty o’ thee, lass?”
Even today the word “cunt” is considered the
most obscene word in the whole of the English
language, as well as its Russian equivalent. Yet,
in the example above, it is an expression of the
highest form of intimacy, another case of “fake
rudeness”.
9. One more case of rude language is worth
mentioning. It is rudeness as a means of
expressing class solidarity, whose motto
is akin to R. Kipling’s “We’re of one
blood!” Russian philologist A. PlutzerSarno quotes Yu. M. Lotman who, in one
of his lectures, describes a visit of Maxim
Gorky to Lev Tolstoy. The two famous
authors engaged in a friendly talk, during
which Tolstoy garnished his speech with
the worst obscenities possible. Gorky,
well-known for his low-class origin, was
morbidly offended by such a behaviour
of Tolstoy, he thought the count was
imitating the speech of the low classes to
humiliate him, to show the former tramp
his place, while Gorky wanted to keep the
image of an intelligent and well-brought
up fellow. But Gorky was wrong, Lotman
pointed out. Tolstoy meant no offence;
on the contrary, his manner of speech
was an indication that the count included
Gorky in his intimate circle in which such
use of dirty language was commonplace
(Plutzer-Sarno, 2001, p.30).
In this case, again, it is not easy to talk about
rudeness as an aggressive tool. In fact, here we
do have an aggressive speech act, but this time
aggression is shared by all those present, it is
aggression as a tool of relieving co-habitation,
a sort of modus vivendi. It is about such cases
that Russians say jokingly, “We do not just use
obscenities in our speech, we speak Obscenese”.
In some Russian subcultures one who avoids
obscenities is looked upon as an alien and an
enemy by definition.
Sometimes such rudeness may be classified
among different versions of phatic speech.
Thus there exists a strategy of politeness
as well as a strategy of rudeness. The first is
thoroughly studied and minutely classified.
Certain “rituals of politeness” are described
in detail. “Rituals of rudeness” are much more
difficult to deal with. To begin with, rudeness,
# 1793 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Vladimir I. Zhelvis. Rudeness as a System of Strategies and an Object of Classification
as has been mentioned above, is devoid of
nuances, which are so typical of politeness.
Secondly, perception of rudeness to a very great
extent depends on the “receiving party”. “Thank
you very much!” is more polite than the curt
“Thanks!”, while “Millions of thanks!” is the
“gratefullest” of the three. At the same time, one
cannot likewise arrange “Get out!”, “Get off!”, or
even “Fuck off!”, “Go to hell!”, or “Drop dead!”
Each of the mentioned uncomplimentary wishes
possesses approximately similar repulsive power,
and in some circumstances the seemingly mild
“Get off!” may sound ruder than “Fuck off!”
Still, one cannot deny that the strategy of
rudeness does exist. Its existence is especially
visible when two or more cultures are opposed
to each other.
As we know, Russian speech practice is a
proud possessor of only a few basic obscenities
plus a limitless multitude of their derivatives.
Remarkably, the more elaborate and decorative
these derivatives are, the less their explosive
power is.
In case of politeness things are just the other
way round, elaborate and expanded politeness
being appreciated much more than short and
formal. The exception is when polite idioms are
used ironically, sarcastically or humiliatingly.
In many cultures the bulk of the list of rude
idioms is based on sex, in Germanic cultures the
stress is laid on the scatological concept of dirt
and filth. There are cultures which concentrate on
profanities, as well as cultures which avoid rude
speech altogether (Zhelvis, 2001, in Russian).
Which, presumably, does not mean that the latter
cultures have no idea of what rudeness is, they
just make successful use of other means to make
their opponents life unhappy. The strategy of
rudeness by no means limits itself with the use of
rude vocabulary.
Here are some behavioural patterns of
different cultures, when what is considered rude
in one culture looks quite acceptable in another.
In other words, different cultures make use of
different conventionalist strategies.
Thus, for Russians it seems rather strange
and excessive when some Westerners try to
avoid direct address, especially when addressing
strangers. Instead of the common Russian «Вы
выходите на следующей остановке?» (Do you
leave at the next stop?) natives of a few other
cultures would rather say “Excuse me, next stop
is mine!” thus avoiding direct address altogether.
In the similar fashion, instead of direct question
“Are you the last in the line?” (Russian way)
the English would rather prefer non-personal
“Where’s the end of the line?” The much more
preferred way of asking for direction would be
“I’m looking for “such-and-such street”.
Sometimes even a formal thank-you letter
may be regarded as too rude or even offensive.
Arab cultures are well-known for their colourful
expressions of gratitude. G. Triandis quotes
a thank-you letter of a leading figure from a
university in Jordan (in back translation from
Russian):
“May I thank you for your exceptional
hospitality which you received us with. You were
extremely generous and magnanimous. All your
guests, ladies and gentlemen were examples
of nobility. The schedule of our visit was also
exceptionally well arranged”. It would be only
appropriate to mention that the visit described
so eloquently included an informal meal of
hamburgers and non-alcoholic drinks (Triandis,
2011, p.254).
Rude gestures are sometimes just as
national-specific as idioms. Russians are sure it
is more polite to face those sitting when you are
walking to your seat in the theatre; the British
consider it impolite and in similar circumstances
insist on showing the others their backs. An
unasked piece of advice sounds very rude and
unceremonious in England and is welcome
# 1794 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Vladimir I. Zhelvis. Rudeness as a System of Strategies and an Object of Classification
in Russia where it is looked upon as a sincere
wish to help. There are cultures where soft and
quiet intonation is a sign of good manners, while
loud speech is frowned upon. At the same time,
now that estrangement among people is visibly
increasing, rude vocabulary and gestures may
sometimes serve as a means to attract attention
to the speaker, to give him voice, to help him
speak for himself.
Scholars who study politeness single out
negative or “distant” politeness (Brown and
Levinson, 1987, p. 129; Larina, 2009, p. 172). The
aim of such politeness is establishing between
the speakers a certain distance to give room to
demonstrate respect. To that effect all sorts of
artificial obstacles and barriers are being created,
both material and spiritual. As the English would
have it, “Good fences make good neighbours”. It
is assumed that keeping a certain distance helps
make interhuman communication smoother, it
also helps avoiding unwanted intrusion into other
people’s affairs, and, last but not least, save one’s
face.
But the same negative strategy is used by
rudeness. Politeness tactfully keeps a respectful
distance, while rudeness creates distance by
rudely pushing you off. A simile may be due here:
personal distance is reduced to minimum in the
situation of intimacy and in that of fight; physical
contact is more or less the same, the aims being
absolutely different.
Two polite persons should take care to
observe distance, which, however, should not
be too large for fear it may create estrangement.
What is most important, this distance is nationally
specific. Breaking national rules may lead to
a misunderstanding or even conflict, to what is
called cultural shock. Two quarrelling people
may send each other to the most distant address
possible, including hell or death. In case of the
conflict growing worse, the two parties, on the
contrary, may come closer and closer, violating
all the polite norms, intentionally entering the
opponent’s personal space, pushing or striking
him.
Quoting Howell (1982), Triandis suggests
that the communicators should carefully
observe the level of their competence. Wrong
interpretation of one’s competence may lead to the
incorrect interpretation of the other’s behaviour
as rude (Triandis, 2011, Chapter 7 “Culture and
Communication”). The following versions may
be observed here:
1. Someone is rude, but does not know it,
being ignorant of another (sub)culture’s
norms.
2. Someone is rude to you, but you do not
know the rules of answering back under
the norms of the given (sub)culture. A
witty example of an appropriate reaction:
A tough guy in public transport insults an
elderly man:
“Old pepper-box, it’s high time you were in
grave already!”
“Sonny, with your impudence you will push
your way there ahead of me!”
3. Someone is rude to a person of another
(sub)culture, using methods or idioms
unknown to the attacked side. As a
result, the offended party may even
feel flattered, to an extreme joy of the
attacker. The Russian “golub” (dove) may
mean a passive homosexual, as well as
the English epithet “gay” may produce a
favourable impression on those foreigners
who do not know the humiliating meaning
of the word.
4. Finally, there is a sort of exchange of more
or less traditional invectives, when one of them
almost automatically calls forth the other:
“You’re a fool!”
“You’re another!”
(2) is an example of conscious competence,
when one knows the rules of “fighting norms” and
# 1795 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Vladimir I. Zhelvis. Rudeness as a System of Strategies and an Object of Classification
applies them with a sort of artistic skill, while in
(4) one replies automatically, without thinking.
The short notes on rudeness offered above
are meant to prove the need to further study this
important communicative phenomenon. Among
the possible achievements of further research one
may mention “a dictionary of rude manners and
idioms”, a logical parallel to numerous dictionaries
and encyclopaedias of good manners and polite
idioms. At present, a number of dictionaries of all
sorts of abuse are being published, but all of them
are nothing but collections of various obscenities.
While what is needed is a thoroughly structured
volume where there might be chapters devoted to
methods of sending the opponent away, defaming
him, cursing, deriding, etc. If there are manuals
teaching table manners, there should be manuals
teaching us what should not be done in polite
society. Semantic and anthropological analysis of
such lists might be of use to all those studying the
phenomenon of aggression and its manifestation
in different cultures.
References
Brown, P. and Levinson, S.D., 1987. Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usage. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
Dictionary of Philosophy (http://www.onlinedics/slovar/fil/g/grubost.html) [Accessed 12 October
2012]. (In Russian)
Larina, T.V., 2009. The Category of Politeness and the Style of Communication. A Juxtaposition
of English and Russian Lingvocultural Traditions. Moscow: Yazyki slavyanskikh kultur. (In Russian)
Lotman, Yu.M., 2003. Non-Memoirs. // Remembrances of My Soul. Saint-Petersburg: Iskusstvo.
(In Russian).
Plutzer-Sarno, A., 2001. Great Dictionary of Mat. Vol.1. Saint-Petersburg: Limbus-Press. (In
Russian).
Triandis, H.C., 2011. Culture and Social Behavior. Moscow: Forum. (In Russian)
Zhelvis V.I., 2001. The Field of Abuse. Swearing as a Social Problem in Languages and Cultures.
nd
2 Ed. Moscow: Ladomir.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Vladimir I. Zhelvis. Rudeness as a System of Strategies and an Object of Classification
Грубость как система стратегий
и объект классификации
В.И. Жельвис
Ярославский государственный педагогический университет
им. К.Д.Ушинского
Россия 150000, Ярославль, ул. Республиканская, 108
Грубость определяется в статье как стратегия, нацеленная на достижение определённого
прагматического эффекта. Категорию грубости можно подразделить на грубость
отторжения, катартическую, начальственную, аристократическую, дружескую, плотскую,
выражающую классовую солидарность и др. Существуют различные виды грубых обменов
репликами.
Ключевые слова: вежливость, грубость, оскорбление, отторжение, катарсис, классовая
солидарность, уровень компетенции, культурные модели.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 12 (2012 5) 1798-1805
~~~
УДК 801.73
The Sense as the Dominant Generating
Speech Communication
Elena N. Klemenova*
Southern Federal University
53, 22/1 Dobrovolskogo Str., Rostov on Don, 344113 Russia1
Received 04.12.2012, received in revised form 11.12.2012, accepted 24.12.2012
The article contains the review of approaches to the description by the humanity of one of the most
interesting phenomena of the mankind – the sense. Ideas of valuable and conceptual approach
to understanding of the sense, sense- and text-forming and the author as the sense source are
considered.
Keywords: sense, sense-forming, author, values, text, concept.
In modern science the problem of sense
forming is ambiguously solved in various
areas of humanitarian knowledge. According
to psychologists, the solution of this problem
is possible only at a support on such important
categories as personality, activity, and
communication. So, from the point of view of
D.A. Leontyev, sense is the subjective significance
of objects and the reality phenomena, manifested
in two forms: 1) in emotional colouring of
images of perception and representations of these
objects and phenomena; 2) in understanding
(interpretation) by the subject of their role and
a place in the activity, in satisfaction of certain
requirements, or actualization of these or those
motives, values» (Leontyev, 1999, p. 423-424).
The human-being’s need for optimization
of the activity determines the sense forming
process vector. Therefore it is not a coincidence
that in modern psychological researches the idea
on creating the semantic concept of personality
*
1
(Leontyev, 1999) is persistently repeated. «But
personality, – R.H. Shakurov writes, is just a set
of semantic contours and systems. Personality is
a human-being as a creator of senses, a creator of
pleasures (underlined by E.K.)» (Shakurov, 2003,
p. 31).
Sense forming is guided by values, abilities,
nature of knowledge and thinking of a complete
personality. In some way this process is also the
manifestation of integrity of the personality.
V. Frankl, one of the largest researchers of
sense, wrote that senses are objective and exist
around us (Frankl, 1990); S. Frank argued that
the meaning of life is «a certain eternal element»,
value (Frank, 1994).
In reality, values are a sense forming source,
and to explain the nature of sense psychologists
resort to the all-round description of personal
senses (Shakurov, 2003; Bratus, 1981).
Various definitions of the “sense” concept,
its forming and identification in the text show not
Corresponding author E-mail address: klemenova@yandex.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 1798 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Elena N. Klemenova. The Sense as the Dominant Generating Speech Communication
only the depth of the problem as a whole, but also
its fragmentariness. The reason is the phenomenal
character of sense.
The program guideline of specific allocating
the sense itself as a pure phenomenon of
consciousness is associated with the name of
E. Husserl, a representative of philosophical
phenomenology.
Following the general phenomenological
guideline, a special role in judgment of the
perspective of sense was played by works by
Shpet, A.F. Losev, who, according to V. G. Lankin,
made comments from the different points of
view, developed some phenomenological ideas
and actively included them into the context of
a perspective of art originality and aesthetic
phenomena. The aesthetic analysis of art by
M. M. Bakhtin who writes that «each thought
of mine with its contents is my individual and
responsible act, one of those acts of which my one
and only life as a continuous receipt is composed
…» (Lankin, 2003, p. 8) is also close to their
point of view.
The Hermeneutic branch considers
the category of sense in a different way:
uniting thought with language in its live selfinterpretation, hermeneutics allows seeing the
realization act from the inside.
Linguistic philosophy (R. Bart, C. Morris,
S. Langer, Y. Lotman), information theories
(A. Mol) and analytical philosophy (R. Carnap,
B. Russell, L. Wittgenstein, etc.) consider the
sense and its understanding as a secondary
problem in relation to identification of reference
(matrix) directions of use of signs and values
corresponding to them in these or those verbal
or nonverbal «language games» (Lankin, 2003,
p. 12).
Sense and sense forming as the central
components of understanding in their
alternativeness and intermodality are considered
in semiotics (E. Cassirer, S. Later, etc.),
structuralistic (R. Bart, M. Foucault, etc.) and poststructuralistic conceptions (Z. Derrida, Z. Lakan,
etc.). «The concept of sense, being discredited as a
metaphysical installation, V. G. Lankin writes, –
in Z. Derrida's deconstructive philosophy is
replaced with sense forming as with effect of
open eventful game of consciousness on the
verge of madness» (Lankin, 2003, p. 11). The
same phenomenon is analysed by G. Deleuze in
his book «Logic of Sense», where art acts as the
dominating manifesto of deconstructive logic of
eventful semantic game. Deleuze considers sense
as a non-existent essence adjoining on nonsense
(Deleuze, 1998).
Sense as an individual phenomenon with
the need to be materialized in the course of
communication is the object of attention in
linguistic studies as well. G. Frege, B. Russell,
L. Wittgenstein, M. M. Bakhtin, T. Todorov,
A.A. Ufimtseva, N. N. Arutyunova, A.I. Novikov,
B. M. Gasparov devoted their works to the
problem of sense forming.
The primacy of sense in relation to language
material, apparently, does not raise any doubts,
but as B. M. Gasparov fairly noticed, in all of its
transformations sense always remains embodied
in the language material, and we always deal
with its embodiments in the language material,
instead of sense itself (Gasparov, 1996, p. 291).
It becomes especially topical in the description
of sense and text forming. «The sense and
language material», – Gasparov points out, –
exist «inseparably and non-blendingly». They are
not identical with each other, and between them
there are multiple relations: any movement of
thought can receive infinite number of language
transformations, the same as any «piece» of
language material can receive infinite number of
reconsiderations» (Gasparov, 1996, p. 292).
A.R. Luria paid attention to the fact that what
lies behind a word of an individual is impossible
to consider as a consistently developed linear
# 1799 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Elena N. Klemenova. The Sense as the Dominant Generating Speech Communication
chain, even as a hierarchically constructed
tree. The sense is suggested to be a certain
multidimensional simultaneous structure which
corresponds to the modern understanding of the
concept (Luria, 1983). A.A. Zalevskaya specifies
a similar type of concept, designates it an
«Indus» index and opposes to an «Invus» concept
(functioning in a super big system as a product
of social interactions and communication).
The author defines «Indus» as «spontaneously
functioning in informative and communicative
activity of an individual, basic perceptive and
cognitive and affective formation of dynamic
character submitting to regularities of mental
human life and thereof in a number of parameters
different from concepts and values as products
of the scientific description from positions of the
linguistic theory (Zalevskaya, 2005, p. 411).
It is the subjectivity of sense / concept that
is considered by L.N. Churilina as the distinctive
sign of a text as a whole, whereas «the possible
world» breaks into separate, in a certain extent,
independent worlds, subjective text spheres, and
appears «as a system of the subjective spheres
difficult to coordinate». In her thesis research,
L.N. Churilina presents sense as a concept, as
an absolutely anthropocentric phenomenon,
and concept in literary text is presented as a
polysubjective speech structure existing in two
dimensions at the same time: as an element of
the represented world view and as a base concept
of text space, i.e. as an element of the individual
picture of the world of the subject (author)
embodied in a separate text (Churilina, 2003, p.
10-11).
The idea of the text sense as the
author's concept sphere is characteristic for
L.A. Chernyakhovskaya (Chernyakhovskaya,
1983) and for B. M. Gasparov (Gasparov, 1996).
«The sense mechanism, – writes
A.I. Novikov, – in the most generalized look
can be presented «as such mental device which
transforms the linear sequence of any units
to hierarchical structure of other units. With
reference to text, it is possible to say that sense
allows to carry out the algebraic transformation
of a narration into the «geometry» of content
presentation» (Novikov, 2004). From our point
of view, the position of Novikov is interesting
but disputable, as the hierarchical relations all
the same result in linearity, but downwards, and,
unfortunately, as we can see, sense appears as
some substance which is not been limited to the
framework of a certain text, but going beyond its
limits, enveloping it. Long ago, H.-G. Gadamer
noticed that «language never will reach the last,
deep-rooted secrets of the individual personality»
(H.-G. Gadamer, 1999).
So, on one hand, sense acts as the basic
concept of activity, thinking, language and
culture, and on the other hand, it is the main
concept of generating and understanding speech
communication.
The phenomenon of sense forming cannot be
considered irrespectively to the central figure of
the communication process, which is the author.
It is impossible to disagree with M. Foucault,
who wrote: «The author is not the source of the
work sense; the author does not precede the work,
he is the functional principle which complicates
the uncontrolled cycling of senses in culture»
(Foucault, 1996, p. 71). And here let us remember
the words by F. Nietzsche: «Everything that has
value in the present world, has it not by itself, not
by nature, as in nature there are no values, − but
because it was given the value once, presented
it, and we were the details and the donators! It
was only we who created the world about which
people care!» (Nietzsche, 1990, p. 638).
Addressing to the author’s model of the
world embodied in the text, K.A. Dolinin prefers
to say that it does not exist in a complete form
before the text is created, and is self-constructed
and specified in the course of text formation.
# 1800 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Elena N. Klemenova. The Sense as the Dominant Generating Speech Communication
Incompleteness felt by the author or discrepancy
of his model of the world can be an impulse to
creation, according to Dolinin (Dolinin, 2004, p.
84).
This is what Yu.A. Shreyder also writes
about: «The found and realized contradiction
serves as the peculiar dialectic engine putting in
action the mechanism of creativity» (Shreyder,
1976, p. 31). The personality is taken out by
K.A. Dolinin as the significant sign of the art text
(Dolinin, 2004, p. 85).
Cognitive approach to author’s outlook
revived the definition of art concept brought up
by S.A. Askoldov in 1928 (Askoldov, 1997, p.
274). In this kind of concept the primeval position
is occupied by the units of the author’s individual
consciousness, verbalized in the uniform text of
the author’s creativity.
The cognitive ability to reinterpret old and
to create new mental designs in a creative way
is given to human-being, and as a result, it is the
person, his / her “Self” as the source of all new
and creative, is creative, which is impossible
to say about language. But, in our opinion, no
matter how the researchers call the phenomenon
(«the current consciousness of the narrator»
by A.V. Bondarko (Bondarko, 2001), author’s
concept sphere (Proskuryakov, 2000; L.V. Miller,
2000), author’s consciousness (Maryin, 2000) or
author’s will (Gasparov, 1996)), its essence is the
same: actualization of personal senses or “Self”.
And “Self” (conscious or unconscious) is a secret
of universal scale.
Entering communication (written or spoken),
the author aspires to convey this or that semantic
matter to offer their own “Self” for dialogue
with the world. Not without reason E.I. Dibrova
defines the text as «difficult multidimensional
language space where the psychology author’s
Self» (Dibrova, 1999, p. 27).
So, accepting the idea of the subject centrality,
we consider any text as the manifestation of the
author’s model of the world, the influence of
which is shown at all levels of the text, beginning
with its semantic structure and finishing with its
superficial structure.
But as a result of text generation, the certain
compromise between what the writing / speaking
“was intended” to express, and what it “turned
out” to be, owing to use of a language material
(L.S. Vygotsky also wrote about it), occurs.
«It is a compromise between the dug-out, not
integrated fields of the possibilities induced by
the thought of the speaker, – writes Gasparov, –
and his communicative will, aspiring to catch
in this stream of associations, spreading in all
directions, such particles which, on one hand,
would be a suitable material for embodying his
plans and, on the other hand, would be capable
of uniting with each other, and, being integrated
in a whole the image of which would more or
less correspond to what was there in his thought.
It also a compromise between the press of the
previous uses, which each recurring to the
memory expression bears on itself, and the desire
to adapt it to a unique, and always to a new task
and combination of circumstances, in which and
for the sake of which each statement» is created
(Gasparov, 1996, p.104-107).
And the more separate “pieces” of the
language fabric is stored in the speaker / writer’s
memory, the richer is «the grid of associative
courses, analytical assimilations, plastic
modifications of the available material» on the
basis of which the speaking / writing subject
creates statements and texts (Gasparov, 1996,
p. 112). As sense unit, Gasparov points out a
communicative fragment possessing the feature
of complete sense: «Each CF is not simply ready
to take a certain place in the cell intended to it, in
the statement it actively predicts and directs the
course of communication, from direct courses
of growth to more separate subject, thematic and
genre consequences» (Gasparov, 1996, p. 131).
# 1801 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Elena N. Klemenova. The Sense as the Dominant Generating Speech Communication
M.Ya. Dymarsky also addressed to search
of the main unit of semantic structure of text,
which directly corresponds to concept (contents
of text) as a whole; includes the subject and actual
information on some (significative) situation,
incorporated not only by the unity of situation,
but also by the community attributed by it
(information) of modal value; forms a cover of
the subject and actual information on the basis
of modal value, and represents information in
general way.
Two signs became the border of this
minimum unit which Dymarsky called the
conceptually significant sense: а) change of modal
value; б) change of the subject and actual basis,
i.e. transition to other microsubject (Dymarsky,
2001, p. 61-62). Similar representation of the
unit of sense, in our opinion, in many respects
follows Gasparov, thus is better coordinated
with the topic – comment approach to text of
I.M.Boguslavsky and E.Farino.
But at Gasparov presents the generation
of statement / text in a more precise way from
the point of view of associative background:
thought stimulated by activity gets various sets
of expressions from the memory, in each case
capable of serving as some certain material from
which the resulting phrase (Gasparov, 1996 p. 165)
is weaved. According to Gasparov, sense develops
from some separate components, because in the
memory of speaker / writer a large quantity of
ready pieces of language fabric, comprehended in
advance, is stored; the problem of the speaker /
writer includes only the operation of “adjustment”
of these pieces, so that the resulting whole makes
the impression of correctness and intelligence
(Gasparov, 1996, p. 167).
Sense is organized under the influence of the
text structure, but it is not a linear, but a manytier organization. So, L.A. Chernyakhovskaya
presents it in the shape of an “umbrella”. «As a
rule, – the researcher writes, – the existence of
umbrella communication in the model of text
semantic structure allocates those semantic
units which are usually referred to as the
“subject” of the text. … If the text deals with
only one “subject” which throughout the text is
exposed to the characterization, in the semantic
structure of the text there is one umbrella. But,
as a rule, such umbrellas proving the existence
of the narration subject, are multiple in the text»
(Chernyakhovskaya, 1983, p. 124-126).
Besides this configuration the sense can
be described also from the point of view of
information structure of communication.
Jerzy Faryno, for example, establishes a
related connection between the topic-comment
articulation of the text and structure of signs,
but projected from the hierarchy axis on the
sequence axis, and writes that «the subject takes
the position of the plane of expression whereas
comment takes the position of the plane of
content; the reviewer, as well as in the case of
sign, is localized beyond the statement» (Faryno,
1991, p. 153-154).
For M. Proskuryakov, the idea by Faryno is
also actualized in another way: the topic «is not
only invariable, but also practically non-textual: it
is what the comments» are strung on; «both topic
and comment taken separately are incomplete:
topic, though it has its referent, is semantically
incomplete. Comment, though has its semantics
is not referential enough». The problem of topic
is to identify the object, which conditions its
referentiality, and the problem of comment is to
conceptualize it, describing it attributing it with
these or those properties and features. At the
same time, according to Faryno, «nothing from
the outside can enter the text, and everything
is derived (or: revealed, developed) from some
initial motives and word forms. (…) all that is
saved up behind this motive and the word form
in culture, semantics and even formal history of
word (obsolete archaisms, forgotten morphology
# 1802 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Elena N. Klemenova. The Sense as the Dominant Generating Speech Communication
and etymology)» (Proskuryakov, Bugaev, 2005)
are unexpectedly actualized.
Thus, in relation to semantic articulation of
the text, the notion of topic should be treated in
an expanded way. Topic is not any this, known
content; it is the thing known to both interlocutors.
It becomes a point, some kind of “springboard”
for expanding actual information. Comment is
something new that is reported about the topic
that is the “kernel”, i.e. macroinformation. Not
without reason Van Dijk referres to it as to the
“focus” of narration which, in its turn, in case
of change draws our attention to the change of
«the possible world»: «It can be a transition from
more or less « general world» to a more special
one, and vice versa …, at last, a transition from
the real world to unreal …». The scientist calls
transition an invariable phenomenon, though
mentions some distinctions: focus «as a choice
of one or several worlds» and focus as «a choice
of the facts» where « facts and worlds are not
absolutely diverse concepts», since «focusing
on a certain fact is at the same time imposing of
some restriction on that set of possible worlds in
which the subsequent offers of sequence should
be interpreted» (Van Dijk, 2001, p.152, 158).
N. V. Shkurina pays attention to the apt
remark by Janco, saying that «comment is an
absolute property of the sentence because it forms
it as a piece of speech with a certain communicative
task, and the role of topic is relative: it bears
responsibility for the communication between
the sentence, the text and extralinguistic reality»
(Shkurina, 2003, p. 17).
Lack of functional symmetry between
topic and theme does not raise any doubts, and
concerning this matter the solution is to be
provided by the author / speaker, who, according
to the fair remark of G.A. Zolotova, resorts
to any ways to express the thought in the most
understandable way, therefore the words bearing
on a logical stress within the text fragments of
various standard contents, often become the
object of linguistic research. The dominating role
of comment is defined by its dual nature: on one
hand, it is opposed to topic of the sentence, and on
the other hand it is connected to comments of the
other sentence, creates the comment dominant of
the text (Zolotova, 2003, p.317-318).
It confirms the fact that the theory of topiccomment articulation has already overstepped
the bounds of traditional grammar and extended
its influence on all text.
So, at semantic and structural level of the
organization of the speech, language means fix
not only objective senses set by the author, but
also subjective ones. The extent of the correct
interpretation of the message only depends on the
exact description of contours of the author’s sense
personal concept sphere.
References
Askoldov S. A. Russian literature. From the literature theory to text structure. Anthology
(Moscow, 1997), 267-279, in Russian.
Bondarko A.V. Text linguistics in system of functional grammar” in The Text. Structure and
semantics (Moscow, 2001), 4-13, in Russian.
Bratus B.S. “To studying of the semantic sphere”, the Messenger of the Moscow university, 14 (2)
(Moscow, 1981), 46-55, in Russian.
Gadamer H.G. “Text and interpretation”, Hermeneutics and deconstruction (S- Petersburg, 1999),
202-242, in Russian.
Gasparov B. M. Language, memory, image. Linguistics of language existence (Moscow, 1996),
in Russian
# 1803 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Elena N. Klemenova. The Sense as the Dominant Generating Speech Communication
Dijk Van T.A., Kinch V. “Macrostrategies”, Language. Knowledge. Communication (Moscow,
1989), in Russian.
Deleuze J. Logic of sense (Moscow, 1998), in Russian.
Dibrova E.I. Text space in composite partitioning, Structure and semantics of the art text: Reports
of the VII International conference (Moscow, 1999), 23-29, in Russian.
Dolinin K.A. Text interpretation: French (Moscow, 2005), in Russian.
Dymarsky M I. Problems of text building and the art text (on a material of Russian prose of the
XIX-XX centuries) (Moscow, 2001), in Russian.
Zalevskaya A.A. Psycholinguistic researches. Word. Text: Selected works (Moscow, 2005), in
Russian .
Zolotov G. A. Communicative aspects of Russian syntax (Moscow, 2003), in Russian
Lankin V. G. Phenomenally sense: Philosophical and methodological analysis: Dissertation on
philological sciences (Tomsk, 2003), in Russian.
Leontyev D. A. Sense psychology (Moscow, 1999), in Russian
Luriya A.R. On pathology of grammatical operations, Aphasia and regenerative training: Texts
(Moscow, 1983), 91, in Russian.
Maryin L.P. Virtual modus cultures: text as special form of expression of author’s consciousness
in Virtual space of culture (S-Petersburg, 2000), 108-111, in Russian.
Miller L.V. Art concept as semantic and aesthetic category, World of Russian word (4) (2000),
39-45, in Russian.
Nietzsche F. The gay science, Works in 2 volumes (V.1) (Moscow: Mysl`, 1990), 638 in Russian.
Novikov A.I. The mechanism of dominance and sense formation (Electronic resource: access
Mode: www.dialog-21.ru), in Russian.
Proskuryakov M., Bugayev L. Russian mentality and the text in self-organizing terms (Electronic
resource: access Mode: www.fixed.ru), in Russian.
Proskuryakov M., Bugayev L. Russian mentality and the text in self-organizing terms (Electronic
resource: access Mode: www.fixed.ru), in Russian.
Frankl V. People in search of meaning of the life (Moscow, 1990), in Russian.
Frank S.L. Meaning of the life (Moscow, 1994), in Russian.
Foucault M. “What is the author?” in Will to truth: on that party of knowledge, the power and
sexuality. Works of different years / Lanes with fr. (Moscow, 1996).
Chernyakhovskaya L.A. “Semantic structure of the text and its units”, Linguistic Issues (6),
(1983), 117-126, in Russian.
Churilina L.N. Anthropocentrism of the art text as principle of the organization of its lexical
structure: Abstract of doctoral dissertation on Philological sciences (S-Petersburg, 2003), in Rusian.
Shakurov R. H. “Psychology of senses: theory overcomings”, Psychology Questions (5), (2003),
18-33, in Russian.
Shkurina N. V. Functional aspect of front units of the art text (on an example of stories of L. Dobychin):
Abstract of doctoral dissertation on Philological sciences (S-Petersburg, 2003), in Russian.
Shreyder Yu.A. “Aspiration to new synthesis”, Literature Questions, (11), (1976), 28-38.
Faryno J. “Some notes to topic-comment in the text” in Words are physicians for an ailig mind
(Munich, 1991), 153-162.
# 1804 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Elena N. Klemenova. The Sense as the Dominant Generating Speech Communication
Смысл как порождающая
речевую коммуникацию доминанта
Е.Н. Клемёнова
Южный федеральный университет,
Россия 344113, Ростов-на-Дону, ул. Добровольского, 22/1, 53
В статье представлен обзор подходов к описанию гуманитарной наукой одного из самых
интересных феноменов человечества – смысла. Рассматриваются идеи ценностного и
концептуального подхода к пониманию смысла, смысло- и текстообразование и автор как
источник смысла.
Ключевые слова: смысл, смыслообразование, автор, ценности, текст, концепт.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 12 (2012 5) 1806-1813
~~~
УДК 81’42
Taboo Breaking as a Current Tendency
of Discursive Interpretation
of Taboo Speech Meanings
Yana V. Popova*
Siberian Federal University
82 A Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 04.12.2012, received in revised form 11.12.2012, accepted 24.12.2012
The article offers an extract from the research of communicative-pragmatic means used for discursive
interpretation of taboo speech meanings in intercultural mass media mediated discourse. The work
focuses on a presentation of modern approaches to understanding of taboo breaking phenomenon
and the analysis of discursive practices of intercultural mass media mediated discourse participants
in terms of taboo speech meanings explication. The materials in German are analysed as examples
of two most important tendencies: taboo creating and taboo breaking phenomena. The ways how the
phenomena appear in discourse exactly are the methods of speech meanings explication. However the
discursive practices intermingle with each other in intercultural discourse so that it is very difficult
to detect and separate one method from another. And only the context, communicative goals and
intentions of discourse participants can help here.
Keywords: taboo creating, taboo breaking, discursive practices, taboo speech meanings, intercultural
mass media mediated discourse, taboo speech meanings explication.
Introduction
Many scientists pay much attention to the
phenomenon of taboo creating, studying taboos
from various points of view either basing on the
original interpretation of taboo, or inclining to the
modern explanation: V. Kashkin, E. Melikova,
O. Ruter, I. Sadykova, Zh. Varbot, I. Kon,
N. Mechkovskaja, S. Ullmann, S. Luchtenberg,
H. Schroeder and others.
Despite some inconsistency in defining of
the term “taboo”, discrepancies in classification
and characteristics of methods, themes, spheres of
taboo creating, researchers lay special emphasis on
this phenomenon for communicative linguistics.
*
1
The ways of taboos transmission in
communication particularly with the help
of euphemisms are of great interest. A lot of
research on euphemization has been done by such
significant scientists as G. Paul, Zh. Vandries,
Sh. Brjuno, Sh. Balli, E. Benvenist, L. Blumfild,
S. Vidlak, I. Gal’perin, B. Larin, H. Nirop, Zh.
Varbot, V. Zhelvis, A. Kacev, B. Kuper, L. Krysin,
E. Shejgal, G. Kuzhim, V. Zabotkina, V. Moskvin,
E. Senichkina etc. Euphemisms are defined “not
only as lexical units used instead of forbidden taboo
nominations and permitted by speech behavior
norms but also as rhetorical quality of speech that
makes any communicative situation comfortable
Corresponding author E-mail address: yanapopov@yandex.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 1806 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Yana V. Popova. Taboo Breaking as a Current Tendency of Discursive Interpretation of Taboo Speech Meanings
or helps to avoid possible communicative conflicts”
(Vildanova, 2007, p. 22).
The other perspective sphere for the
researchers is the process opposite to taboo
creating – taboo breaking. However, the idea of
taboo breaking is often limited to the description
of the process of dysphemization, understood as
“deliberate making speech rude” (Kovshova, 2007
p. 118). At the same time the approaches towards
the definitions of dysphemism, its differentiation
with other language und communicative means
such as basilects, vulgarisms, colloquial and
strong language, phraseological units etc. are
controversial.
M. Kovshova writes, that “the act of making
speech rude is accompanied by the speech acts
of abuse, quarrel etc. That is the main difference
between
dysphemism
and
euphemism”
(Kovshova, 2007 p. 118).
V.
Moskvin
differentiates
between
dysphemisms, “tabuisms” and invectives. Herewith,
the scientist understands dysphemisms as “direct
expressions that deliberately or undeliberately
contradict the situational relevance.” “Tabuisms”
are defined as “taboo nominations” and invectives
are explained as “offences” (Moskvin, 2010, p. 23,
24). All these phenomena the researcher opposes
to the euphemisms, i. e. “words or phrases used
instead of other words or phrases undesirable or
inconvenient in a certain situation” (Moskvin,
2010, p. 22).
E. Senichkina distinguishes “basilect
euphemisms” and vulgarisms: “There are no
euphemisms among vulgarisms. The vulgarisms are
negatively colored words and word combinations.
Low style euphemisms make the denotation
heavily contaminated and as a result they become
dysphemisms” (Senichkina, 2006 p. 7-9).
Theoretical framework
In this work dysphemisation is understood
as taboo speech meanings explication with the
help of ruder negatively connotated nominations
in relation to the taboo denotation. Herewith,
deliberate or indeliberate making language
rude, negative communication, offence, abuse,
expression of aggression, making speech
deliberately or undeliberately crude are
understood as functions which dysphemisms
perform in discourse.
The explication of taboo speech meanings
is considered as any communicative means of
expression of some content of some phenomenon.
Herewith, the phenomenon is interpreted as
a private (personal), national or international
(intercultural) taboo.
In its turn, the explication of taboo speech
meanings can be realized not only by means
of dysphemisms but also by means of direct
nominations in relation to the taboo denotation.
It should be mentioned that there can appear
some difficulty while differentiating between
dysphemisms and direct nominations. It can be
explained by dependence of these phenomena
on time, social and other factors. It happens
when a taboo speech meaning loses its taboo
meaning due to the social change, perception
of something or some other reasons. Moreover,
a direct nomination or an euphemism can
become dysphemisms. “Scurrile von heute
signalisieren die neuen Grenzen von morgen.”
(Bizarre things today are the signals of
opportunities tomorrow) (Sander, 2006, p. 91).
For example, the nomination “prostitute” used
earlier only as an euphemism has lost its veiling
function. However, it can be hardly referred to
the dysphemism (cf. “bitch”). So “prostitution”,
“prostitute” nominations are more likely to be
direct in relation to the taboo denotation. But
the reference of a nomination to dysphemism
or to direct nomination is context-restricted.
For example, the usage of “prostitution”
nomination in reference to a politician in
political debates (as a transfer of meaning from
# 1807 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Yana V. Popova. Taboo Breaking as a Current Tendency of Discursive Interpretation of Taboo Speech Meanings
one subject to another “on the principal of their
real or associative adjacency” by the common
characteristics: vendibility, unscrupulousness
etc.) can appear as a dysphemism, direct
offence.
Thereby, the explication of taboo speech
meanings by means of direct nominations is one
more way of taboo breaking.
Statement of the problem
To reveal taboo speech meanings and their
discursive interpretation it is not enough to know
only taboo themes, as taboo speech meanings
basically do not exist out of a defi nite context
and discursive practices: “…Realisierung in
der Kommunikation notwendigen sprachlichen
Verhaltensweisen sollen gelernt warden…”
(Realization of necessary language behavior
ways shall be learned) (Trad, 2001, p. 47).
We understand discursive practices as units
of communicative language activity depended
on some factors (cultural, social, psychological,
individual) used to take and interpret the reality
by a definite person in a definite communicative
situation.
As we know many taboo themes, areas
and nominations have a relative character: in
monoculture situation they can be both a taboo
and not a taboo, but becoming an object of
intercultural communication their meaning can
change. A theme, phenomenon, nomination,
phrase understood neutrally by representatives
of one culture, in intercultural communication
can accept a taboo speech meanings that can be
found in communicants’ discursive practices.
Discursive practices, in their turn, have
much greater research potential, when they
intermingle with each other in intercultural
discourse. The intercultural discourse is
understood as a speech communicative activity
directed to alien characteristics of any subject in
any aspect.
Methods
As practical material we use intercultural
mass media mediated discourse, namely, German
TV broadcast recordings about various events
in other countries, representatives of different
cultures, intercultural projects etc. For example, a
German documentary film about the Chukchi and
Chukotka from “Zapping international” series on
“Arte” channel, broadcast series devoted to the
20th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall,
“Hart aber Fair” talk show, documentary film
“Liebesgrüße nach Moskau”, cultural news real
“Schlingensiefs Container: Ausländer raus!”,
world news, intercultural TV project of RTL II
channel “Das Experiment: 30 Tage Moslem” etc.
It should be mentioned that any mass media
mediated discourse is subjected to a definite
kind of processing. It means that beyond its
characteristics it gains new ones typical for mass
media discourse.
However, political correctness – avoidance
of direct assessment and direct nomination
of unpleasant notions and phenomena which
are understood by many researchers as basic
characteristics of mass media discourse – today
are questionable (Pryadinikova, 2007, p. 78).
L. Krysin says that “there are two main
different tendencies: making speech crude, on the
one hand, and euphemization, on the other hand
(Krysin, 2004, p. 262]. The process of making
speech rude is connected with an earlier forbidden
public discussion of private life and increase of
aggression level in speech of modern people.
Speech aggression is a usual phenomenon
not only in the colloquial speech of modern
people but also in public communication
(Kovshova, 2007, p. 260). It seems that its
participants prefer more and more “hard words”
and rough expressions breaking language
(cultural usual), personal thesaurus and even
intercultural context-restricted taboos. This fact
is explained by various researchers differently:
# 1808 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Yana V. Popova. Taboo Breaking as a Current Tendency of Discursive Interpretation of Taboo Speech Meanings
as a tendency of mass media discourse to make
a sensation, to manipulate people and also
as various genres specificity etc. However,
any mass media mediated discourse gets this
specificity when intimate and private things
become public.
“Viele Menschen sagen, wenn man wissen
wolle, was Werte seien und was in einer
Gesellschaft tabu sei, müsse man nur die Medien,
speziell das Fernsehen beobachten. Das Fernsehen
sei der größte Zerstörer von Worten und breche
mindestens einmal in der Woche ein Tabu... Eine
weit verbreitete Auffassung lautet: Werte muss
man fördern, Tabus muss man brechen…“ (Many
people are sure that to understand what is valuable
today and what is taboo, one can just switch on a
TV. The TV is the main taboo breaker; minimum
one taboo is broken minimum once a week when
it is on the screen. There is a widespread opinion:
values must be kept but taboos must be broken)
(Sander, 2006, p.110).
So taboos visualization and their social
functioning, presentation of a usual material
as a hot sensation or an extra urgent topic,
event, breaking norms, moral rules, making
things absurd, creation of comicality,
mockeries, wipes, – these are mass media
discourse possibilities realized by means of
dysphemization which is one of the current
tendencies of discursive interpretation of taboo
speech meanings. The mediated intercultural
discourse is subjected to such a tendency. But
due to its own peculiarities such as intention
to avoid a communicative conflict, to succeed,
percepting discourse participants as equal
communicative partners, preserving their
cultural self-sufficiency – intercultural discourse
has rather high intensity of euphemization. So
two different tendencies: taboo creating and
taboo breaking coexist within one discourse.
In this work we have tried to find out if taboo
breaking is a current tendency of discursive
interpretation of taboo speech meanings in mass
media mediated intercultural discourse and how
this process is brought into life.
Some extracts of our analysis are given in
the table below.
Conclusions
Having analyzed the material we came to
the following conclusions:
- To understand the process of taboo
creating only as euphemization and taboo
breaking as dysphemisation is not quite correct,
because there are many ways to interpret
taboo speech meanings in discourse. Along
with euphemization of mass media mediated
intercultural
discourse
taboo
breaking
techniques are up-to-date. As a rule, they are
brought into life by means of 1) dysphemization;
2) direct nominations of taboo speech meanings;
3) “making a sensation” strategy (it is originally
used in mass media discourse. It can be referred
to dysphemization, if we examine this in its wider
sense: not only as making speech rude but also as
using more negative nominations in reference to
the taboo denotation); 4) communicative strategy
“sich belehren lassen” (let somebody explain
something to you);
- Taboo breaking is always connected with
taboo speech meanings explication, transmission,
while other discursive interpretation ways are
aimed at their saving, masking, concealing
(euphemization, communicative intended silence,
hints, exemplification, jokes etc.). However,
the reference of any phenomena to the definite
discursive interpretation method of taboo speech
meanings is always context-restricted;
- The choice of taboo speech meanings
interpretation technique and the usage of definite
nominations directly depend on intentions of
discourse participants, their social status, age,
belonging to a particular culture, communicative
situation and some other factors;
# 1809 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Yana V. Popova. Taboo Breaking as a Current Tendency of Discursive Interpretation of Taboo Speech Meanings
- In intercultural communication in the
modern multicultural society the intention to
make communicative aims of communicative
partners more transparent, to influence the
recipient, to succeed increases greatly. This
causes the necessity to use simple constructions,
direct nominations and often dysphemisms. It
can be one of the reasons why taboo breaking
tendency is extremely essential in mass media
mediated intercultural discourse today.
Table 1. Examples
Source
1
Example
Translation
Discursive interpretation and notes
2
3
4
„Zapping
international“
«arte» channel
The documentary
plot «Das
Fernsehen der
Tschuktschen»
30 min.10 sec.
1. Die Miss
Tschukotka ist
keine Tschuktschin,
sondern eine
lächelnde
Maske… Wenn
du diese Maske
herunterreisst,
dann siehst du
die Grimasse des
Teufels!
- Miss Chukotka
doesn`t have any
relation to the
Chukchi. It’s just a
mask with a faked
smile… But if you
tear this mask away
you will see the
devil’s grimace!
The German journalists’ documentary film about
Chukotka and the Chukchi. The plotline is built on the
basis of contrast expressions and opposite opinions of the
Russians and the Chukchi concerning the same things.
The plots are accompanied by film authors’ comments.
The Chukchi blame the Russians for imposing Russian
culture, discrimination and even racism. The Russians
blame the Chukchi for drunkenness, life criminalization,
ignorance, and unwillingness to work, to study. This
expression says about “Miss Chukotka” beauty parade
where Russian girls with European features always win.
It sends shock wave through the native population. A
middle-aged man, a Chukcha gives sharp comments,
uses colorful metaphors “faked smile which conceals the
soul but behind this smile there is only hypocrisy and
anger”.
The conceptual world division into “we” and “enemies”
categories is obvious. All the negative associations
concerning wicked power, hypocrisy hidden behind the
faked smile, cowardice and inner emptiness are connected
with enemies. Negative compressed comparison as a
metaphor serves dysphemization.
The same
2. Bevor der
Abramowitsch
kam, steckte nicht
nur das Fernsehen
in Krise, sondern
ganz Tschukotka.
Die Leute sind
einfach verhungert,
viele Krankheiten
führen zu Opfern,
die Kinder haben
sich gegenseitig
todgeschlagen, um
zu überleben
-Before
Abromovich came
to power, not only
TV had been in
crisis but also the
whole Chukotka.
People died from
hunger, diseases.
Children beat each
other to death to
survive.
“A myth about an honourable well-doer” is a method
typical for mass media discourse (Danilova, 2009, p. 119).
Making the expression more emotional with a help of
direct nominations of taboo speech meanings connected
with taboo themes: hunger, death, murder, crisis etc.
Herewith direct nominations manipulate people`s
consciousness. The usage of Past Perfect and Passive
intensifies emotional influence and shows the attitude to
the real state of things. Homogeneous predicates forcing
the negative atmosphere before Abramovich` coming with
a help of gradation method.
Schloss Bellevue:
Feiern zum
Mauerfall
Series of broadcast
devoted to the 20th
aniversary of the
fall of the Berlin
Wall
n-tv
20 Jahre Mauerfall
01:51:50
3. Seine
Gesundheit machte
einen sehr … sehr
angeschlagenen
Eindruck. Er ist
schwer krank.
- He looked wornout (word-for-word:
his health seemed
broken down). He
is very ill.
This expression belongs to Angela Merkel, the chancellor
of Germany. Thus she explains the absence of H. Kohl at
the anniversary.
The negatively colored epithet with negative sense
and direct nomination “very ill” are used in the direct
sequence. Ascending gradation method, development of
the word combinations into synonymic row. The gradation
in this case serves to intensify text expressiveness to get
emotions and reaction from the audience.
# 1810 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
1
2
3
4
Hart aber Fair,
The 1 channel
01:44:12
4. Verschlagene
- Artful (cunning,
Manager des Bösen sly) managers of
evil
German talk-show with absolutely different participants
(according to social status, jobs etc. They should be
directly related to the problem being discussed in the
show. Here experts, scientists, public people and a
moderator are always present. The show is not of an
entertainment character but aimed at constructing the
discussion between the supporters and opponents. In
this part “Scientology” sect is under discussion. A
representative of evangelistic church having leading
position in Germany uses this metaphor. A sharply
negative assessment expressed by the metaphor and
pejorative epithet shows taboo speech meanings and
represents a dysphemization method. Herewith, this
metaphor can be examined as “speech indicator of the
social status” of the communicant (Karasik, 1991, p.37)
The same
5. Ich kriege immer - I always lose my
Emotionen, wenn
temper when I see
ich den Typ sehe!
this guy!
One of the representatives of the show speaks about the
sect leader in such a manner. Earlier the speaker was a
member of the sect and became its dupe. Then he left the
sect and now he is trying to reveal the sect leader. The
expert uses an interesting tactics. Giving estimation to
the actions of the sect leader the speaker doesn’t look at
him but turns to the moderator and experts showing a
distance. Social status detraction, cultural self-sufficiently
derogation by means of addressee change. However, he
talks to the moderator as to an equal participant of the
discourse with an equal social status mentioning another
discourse participant in third person to detract him and
to demonstrate that he is not worth direct address. The
defi nite article is used as a demonstrative pronoun to show
belonging to a defi nite category. “This guy” colloquial
nomination demonstrates aggression to a discourse
participant. The euphemistic expression with the second
part of the phrase doesn’t veil taboo meanings.
Nachrichten
weltweit
6. Kinderschlagerei
und Missbrauchen.
Ein polnischer
Bischoff soll die
Kinder geschlagen
haben
- Beating and rape
of children. A
priest from Poland
is accused of
beating children
An alogism is used to reach a stylistic effect. It is a tactics
of “making a sensation” strategy put into practice with
some methods:
Spectacularity strengthening
The usage of sexual implication
Presenting something as a disaster
Criminalization
Presenting something as a deviancy (Sander, 2006, p. 24)
The making a sensation strategy can be examined as
dysphemization if we understand dysphemization not
only as making speech rude but also as a usage of more
negative, unacceptable nominations in relation to the
taboo denotation. In this example direct nominations
of taboo speech meanings in the announcement are
used to attract attention of the audience. In the parallel
construction apart from the repetition, there is also
a modal verb in its subjective meaning “supposedly”
pointed to an eventual informant. So taboo speech
meanings expressed with a help of a direct nomination,
verb “to beat”, on the one hand, and modality of the
supposition, on the other hand, used to veil the confidence,
to show doubts about the truth of the information and
to disclaim responsibility for taboo breaking and direct
accusation.
7. Ich fühle mich
mit dem Kopftuch
nicht wohl, nicht…
nicht… nicht
attraktiv genug
- With this kerchief
I feel unfree, not…
not… not attractive
enough
The program is an international TV project. It consists
of experiments series where real people participate as
representatives of different cultures. In the experiment
“to be Moslem for 30 days” a young girl, German student,
takes part. She should live in a Muslim family. Moreover,
the girl has to follow all the rules and traditions of this
World news
Das Experiment
30 Tage Moslem
„ For 30 days
to be Moslem“
TVexperiment
RTL II 01:59:44
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Yana V. Popova. Taboo Breaking as a Current Tendency of Discursive Interpretation of Taboo Speech Meanings
1
2
3
4
culture. TV viewers can see her life. In addition to this,
each day all the participants of the experiment should tell
about their feelings and ideas in front of the video camera
so that no other experiment participant can hear this. The
pausation when the girl tries to fi nd an appropriate epithet
shows that there is a taboo speech meaning. The girl tries
to interpret and to adapt this not to offend other discourse
participants, not to detract their cultural self-sufficiency.
The fi rst epithet expressing physical uncomfortable
condition is quite direct: the kerchief is too tight. But the
second nomination is more neutral to the taboo denotation
and is used as an euphemism. Direct negation is shaded
with a help of the word “genug” (enough). “Not enough
attractive” expression is used instead of “unbeautiful,
unsexy, unattractive”. Meiosis, incompleteness of an
action or a quality is an euphemization method.
The same
8. Und wie ist
es bei euch?...
Schüttelt man bei
euch die Hand?
And you? Do you
also shake hands
with each other?
One more expression of the German girl. She is afraid to
do something wrong and to break Muslim traditions. So
she shows her willingness to take and to understand other
traditions and rules and breaks taboo speech meanings
in an interesting way. She shows the fear of an eventual
communicative conflict because of different rules and
traditions in discourse quite directly. This is one of the
communicative strategies called “sich belehren lassen” (let
somebody explain something to you) used in intercultural
communication to succeed (Trad, 2001, p. 161). In this
case the strategy of direct interrogative form of address
is used to lose cultural otherness. This method can be
examined as one more tactics of taboo creating, saving.
References
Vildanova G.A. “Problem of euphemistical nomination”, Structural-semantic, kognitive, pragmatic
and drugie aspekts of researches of different level units. Modern Problems of linguodidactics, 3,
(2007), 21-27, in Russian
Danilova A.A., Manipulation with words in mass media (Moscow: «Dobrosvet», 2009), in
Russian
Karasik V.I., Social status language (Moscow: Institut og linguistics of USSR Science Academy,
Pedagogical Institute Volgograd, 1991), in Russian
Kovshova M.L. Semantics and pragmatics of euphemisms. Shorter thematic dictionary of modern
Russian terms (Moscow: Gnozis, 2007), in Russian
Krysin L.P. “Euphemisms in modern Russian speech” Russian words, 2 (2004), 262-286, in
Russian
Moskvin V.P. Euphemisms in the lexical system moder Russian language (Moscow:
LENAND, Edition 4, 2010), in Russian
Prjadil’nikova N.V. Euphemisms in Russian MSM at the beginning of XXI century: complex
characteristics: PhD (Samara, 2007), in Russian
Sander Uwe, Ganguin Sonja. Sensation, absurdity and taboos in mass media (VS Publishing
house for social sciences, Wiesbaden, E.1., 2006), in German
Senichkina E.P. Euphemisms in Russian: Special course: course book (Moscow: Higher scool,
2006), in Russian
# 1812 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Yana V. Popova. Taboo Breaking as a Current Tendency of Discursive Interpretation of Taboo Speech Meanings
Trad Ahmed Rafik. Taboo topics in intercultural communication: a work for cultural linguistics
didactics in studying German as a foreign language. (Peter Lang. European Publishing house of
sciences, 2001), in German
Детабуирование как актуальная тенденция
дискурсивной обработки
табуированных речесмыслов
Я.В. Попова
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный 82а
Проблематика данной статьи отражает один из фрагментов исследования
коммуникативно-прагматических средств, служащих для дискурсивной обработки
табуированных речесмыслов в межкультурном дискурсе, опосредованном масс-медиально.
Цель статьи – систематизация исследовательских подходов к феномену детабуирования,
а также анализ дискурсивных практик участников межкультурного масс-медиально
опосредованного дискурса с точки зрения трансляции табуированных речесмыслов. На
материале немецкоязычного межкультурного дискурса разграничиваются две ведущих
тенденции: табуирование и детабуирование. Способы реализации этих тенденций в дискурсе и
представляют собой способы дискурсивной обработки табуированных речесмыслов. Однако
дискурсивные практики, переплетаясь между собой в межкультурном дискурсе, осложняют
выявление и распознавание этих способов. И только благодаря анализу контекста, интенций
участников дискурса, коммуникативных целей такие задачи могут быть реализованы.
Ключевые слова: табуирование, детабуирование, дискурсивные практики, табуированные
речесмыслы, межкультурный масс-медиально опосредованный дискурс, экспликация
табуированных речесмыслов.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 12 (2012 5) 1814-1822
~~~
УДК 371.314
Academic Mobility as a Prerequisite
of Cross-Cultural Communication
and Professional Competency Development
Natalia K. Dmitrieva*
Petrozavodsk State University
Russia 185910, Petrozavodsk, Lenina, 33 1
Received 04.12.2012, received in revised form 11.12.2012, accepted 24.12.2012
The article is concerned with the problem of academic mobility as an integral personal quality
facilitative in the development of cross-cultural communication skills and enhancement of professional
competency. Targeted development of academic mobility occurs in the process of professionally
oriented foreign language learning and acquisition. A component structure of the academic mobility
is revealed, described, and substantiated. The rational for a particular pedagogical environment
instrumental in the development and enhancement of academic mobility in students is provided.
The experimental data substantiating the hypothesis concerning special pedagogical environment
contributing to the academic mobility development are provided.
Keywords: academic mobility, social phenomenon, integral character quality, foreign language
competence, motivation of achievement, motivation of affiliation, pedagogical environment.
Introduction
Higher professional education has become a
part of the globalizing economy and consequently
a subject of such aggressive processes of modern
time as integration and internationalization.
A Canadian scholar Jane Knight describes
internationalization of higher education as
a process of integrating an international/
intercultural dimension into the teaching,
research and service function of the institutions.
(Knight, 1993, p. 21)
One of the core features of internationalization
in education is academic mobility of students and
staff. In the frames of the Bologna process, which
Russia joined in 2003, by this proclaiming its will
to become a competitive agent in the area of higher
*
1
education, academic mobility is understood
as a free and equitable access to educational
institutions, equitable approach in assessment
of skills, knowledge and competences, equal
employment rights. (Baidenko, 2002, 2004) The
countries-signatories of the Bologna Declaration
view academic mobility as one of the most effective
instruments in the development and enhancement
of the European Higher Education Area. The
aim of the EHEA is to create a competitive and
attractive European educational system that can
resist the challenges of globalization and meet
the needs of the global market and the individuals
receiving higher education. Some researchers of
the modern Russian higher professional education
broaden interpretation of the category academic
Corresponding author E-mail address: nataliadmitrie@yandex.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 1814 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalia K. Dmitrieva. Academic Mobility as a Prerequisite of Cross-Cultural Communication and Professional…
mobility to the understanding of it as a personal
character trait or integral personal quality. This
personal characteristic is viewed both as a result
of professional education and a prerequisite for
cross-cultural communication and professional
competency development. (Koropchenko, 2003)
The European community realizing the
value and importance of academic mobility
development has paid special attention to the
elaboration of the academic mobility recognition
mechanisms. At present the following steps have
been approved as a recognition mechanism: easily
readable and comparable degrees organized in
a three-cycle structure (e.g. bachelor-masterdoctorate); introduction of European Credit
Transfer Unit (ECTU) to measure students’
workload; Common European Framework of
Reference to measure the level of mastery and
depth of foreign language acquisition; recognition
of foreign qualifications; Diploma Supplement;
effective use of knowledge and experience of
the European Student Association of Academic
Mobility.
All these measures are taken in order to
educate individuals in accordance with their
personal needs and demands of the market; to
provide contemporary society with specialists
able to adjust quickly and easily to a dynamic
variety of the changing environment (educational,
cultural and professional); to educate people
capable of interaction with representatives
of other cultures and different worldviews;
to promote enhancement of such individual
qualities as tolerance to alien or adverse opinions;
to encourage ability to think independently,
and assess results of the accomplished work
critically.
It seems reasonable to contemplate about
particular skills and abilities intrinsic to an
academically mobile individual, which he needs
to be able to cross borders of different countries,
to study in foreign universities, to interact with
colleagues and professors, to self-educate, to work
in teams, to approach matters both critically and
creatively. In light of the resent demands of the
postindustrial society, responsibility to educate
specialist capable of intellectual and behavioral
mobility is laid on the universities: centers of
knowledge, research, and new technologies.
The essence and structure
of academic mobility
Academic mobility as a new category of
the higher educational system has become a
subject of interest and research. As a result of
our analysis of scientific, methodological, and
pedagogical literature we came to a conclusion
that the understanding of the category academic
mobility depends on the approaches used in
the process of definition and fields of study. It
has also become evident that there is no firm
consensus on what the essence (abilities, skills
and competencies) of the academic mobility is,
and what learning environment is most facilitative
in the enhancement of this personal quality
attained in the process of language learning and
acquisition.
The dual nature of the term mobility is
reflected in its contemporary interpretation:
1) ability of moving freely across borders
and through different social strata; 2) essential
attribute of someone who can think creatively,
learn independently, adopt quickly, and assess
results of personal work critically.
Therefore, mobility can be viewed both
as a social phenomenon instrumental in social
promotion (social lift) and as a personal integral
character trait (quality). Such approach to the
understanding of the category academic mobility is
shared by a number of researchers (O.A. Gladkaya,
2002; L.V. Gorjunova, 2005: P.A. Sorokin, 1999).
We understand academic mobility as an integral
personal quality characterized by its dynamic
nature and represented by the ability and
# 1815 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalia K. Dmitrieva. Academic Mobility as a Prerequisite of Cross-Cultural Communication and Professional…
readiness to adapt quickly and easily to a variety
of the changing learning, cultural and business
environment, to enhance personal development,
and to make intellectual investments into the life
of the society for the purpose of the progress and
prosperity.
Development of particular individual
qualities is perceived as a development of the
individual as whole, as a change in its dynamic
structure and content under the influence of
external and internal factors. All character traits
and individual qualities develop in the process
of active engagement or task oriented activities.
Considering the fact that every mobile individual
needs to have a good command of one or more
foreign languages, development of the academic
mobility as a personal integral quality can occur
in the process of the active goal-oriented (oriented
on the formation of academic mobility) foreign
language teaching aimed at foreign language
competency enhancement.
A language is a reflection of culture, and
every language class is an intersection of cultures.
The nature of the language, interactive methods
of teaching employed in the process of language
acquisition, the functions of the language (a tool
of communication and understanding of foreign
cultures) facilitate in the development of the
targeted personal character traits and qualities.
Considering the above-mentioned arguments
and characteristics inherent to the academically
mobile individual, we elaborated a component
structure of the academic mobility in students
receiving higher professional education. The
approach to view academic mobility as a structure
consisting of a number of interdependent
and interrelated components is based on the
personality development theory of the Russian
researcher and psychologists A.N. Leontiev.
(Leontiev, 1983)
The component structure of academic
mobility is reflected in Table 1.
All components of the academic mobility are
interrelated and interdependent. Enhancement of
one of them is correlated with the progress of the
others and vise versa. It has already been stated
that all character traits develop in the process of
active engagement. A driving force of any activity
is motivation, which is understood as needs,
desires, or drives within individuals. It is a process
of stimulating people to actions to accomplish
the goals. People are social beings and a need for
socialization, communication is inherent to them,
because verbal and nonverbal interactions are
learning styles helping individuals to realize who
they are and understand their life goals.
Table 1
Academic mobility
Motivation component
Cognitive-content
component
Task-oriented component
Reflexive component
Criteria
Motivation criteria
Task- based criteria
Motivation of affiliation
Motivation of
achievement
1. Capability and
readiness to work
independently and in
teams
Cognitive-communicative
criteria
1. Developed foreign
language communicative
competence
2. Knowledge and
understanding of cultural
specifics and business
environment
# 1816 #
Reflexive criteria
1. Ability and readiness
to assess results of
the personal work and
performance critically
2. Ability to assess
incoming information
critically
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalia K. Dmitrieva. Academic Mobility as a Prerequisite of Cross-Cultural Communication and Professional…
To overcome language barriers an individual
needs to be motivated to achieve positive outcomes.
On the other hand, determination to become
successful encourages communication aimed at
getting new information and new experience.
An academically mobile person is driven to
promote himself socially and professionally. To
gain valued outcomes he has to be motivated
for both affiliation and achievement. Interaction
(affiliation) is a process involving one or several
people. Successful cooperation is based on the
ability to work in teams and demonstrate respect,
tolerance, and mutual support. On the other hand,
personal growth and ability to make intellectual
investments requires well-developed self-study
skills and independent thinking skills. Assessment
of the achieved outcome given by the educator
or peers is very important for every studying
individual, though true enhancement and progress
of the individual character traits occurs in case
of critical assessment of personal progress by the
individual himself. Analysis of the performance,
achievements, and failures helps students to learn
better planning and avoid the same mistakes in the
future, which in turns enhances their motivation
for achievement and success, makes them more
open for communication and learning.
In the process of foreign language acquisition
students get introduced to new cultures.
Introduction to new cultures broadens the students’
horizons; unveils mysteries of foreign worlds and
nations; acquaints them with the unknown world
of sometimes alien values, traditions, different
worldviews, and ways of thinking; equips
learners with skills and knowledge necessary
for cross-cultural communication and effective
business cooperation and negotiations. Foreign
language skills and knowledge of foreign culture,
traditions and customs together with abilities to
accept people with tolerance, to work productively
and socialize effectively, to assess situations and
personal behavior critically, to approach matters
with an open mind (which are characteristic
features of academic mobility) facilitate in crosscultural communication.
The term cross-cultural implies interaction
with persons of different cultural, ethnic,
racial, religious, and class backgrounds.
Cross-cultural communication is a process of
exchanging, negotiating, and mediating one’s
cultural differences through language, nonverbal gestures, and space relationships. Barna’s
“six stumbling blocks” unveil difficulties,
which can hinder an efficient cross-cultural
interaction. The “stumbling blocks” include
assumption of similarities, language barriers,
nonverbal misinterpretations, preconceptions
and stereotypes, tendency to evaluate and high
anxiety. (Barna, 1977)
“To ensure cross-cultural communication
one should not only know the language but also
be aware of the system of communicational
culture, rules of etiquette, forms of nonverbal
communication and have deep background
knowledge of values and perceptions accepted
in other cultures” (for example, knowledge of
religious beliefs, taboos, public and historic facts,
etc.) (Ter-Minasova, 2004, p. 34).
From that point of view the goal of the foreign
language teaching is derived from the needs
and demands of the multilingual society. Now a
“perfect command” of one or two, or even three
languages, taken separately from each other, is not
the goal anymore. The purpose is a development of
the linguistic repertoire where all linguistic skills
are presented. In other words, the development of
the foreign language communicative competence
is now considered as one of the main categories
of the foreign language teaching. (Nazarenko, at
al., Sizykh, Fandei, 2011)
The foreign language teaching aimed at the
foreign language communicative competency
enhancement leads to subsequent development of
personal qualities, (Borzova, 2009) which in term
# 1817 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalia K. Dmitrieva. Academic Mobility as a Prerequisite of Cross-Cultural Communication and Professional…
helps to further improvement of competencies,
inclusive of professional competencies that a
course of foreign language teaching can secure.
Professional competencies enhanced in the
process of language learning and acquisition are
defined as abilities to solve problems in different
professional environment, to self-educate and to
think creatively and independently, to cooperate
and to be effective team players. These abilities
are based on professional knowledge obtained
and internalized in the process of professionally
oriented language teaching.
The most common definition of professional
competency used today is Epstein and Hundert’s
which defines it as “the habitual and judicious
use of communication, knowledge, technical
skills, reasoning, emotions, values, and reflection
in daily practice for the benefit of the individual
and community being served.” (Epstein, and
Hundert, 2002)
Achievement of the defined objectives is
feasible in case necessary learning environment
is provided. Having analyzed the essence and
characteristic features of academic mobility
it is reasonable to suggest that the following
requirements should be observed in the process
of language teaching aimed at the academic
mobility development.
1. Language teaching should be conducted
in the context-conditioned (based)
environment, which implies modeling
of social and professional content of the
students’ future professional occupation;
2. New educational technologies based
on the interactive methods of teaching,
including project teaching, should be
employed in the process of language
learning to enhance motivation of
affiliation and strengthen motivation
of achievement; to promote tolerance,
ability to work independently and teams;
to further creative thinking and critical
self-assessment of personal progress and
achievement;
3. Competence developing and studentcentered approaches should steer
foreign language teaching to guide both
educators and learners toward conscious
development of communicative and
professional competencies and responsible
elaboration of personal educational
trajectory;
4. Educational technology targeting at
the academic mobility development
should be elaborated and implemented
in the process of professionally oriented
language teaching.
To verify our hypothesis concerning
a particular set of learning environment
instrumental in the development of academic
mobility as an integral personal quality we
conducted an experiment consisting of surveys,
questionnaires, discussions, essay and letter
writing.
180 students from the Department of Civil
Engineering of Petrozavodsk State University
participated in the experiment consisting of three
stages: diagnostic stage, advanced stage and
final stage. During the diagnostic stage of the
experiment, we studied students’ attitude toward
English learning and their understanding of what
academic mobility as a personal character trait
implies.
75 % of the surveyed students defined their
interest toward learning English at high level,
23 % have some interest in studying English and
2 % have very little or no interest at all. When
defining value of learning English they ranked it
in the following way : 1) a tool of communication
2) instrument of personal development 3) one
of the ways to promote professional growth
and professional competency enhancement 4) a
requirement of the time 5) a tool of entertainment
6) an instrument of adaptation to new
# 1818 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalia K. Dmitrieva. Academic Mobility as a Prerequisite of Cross-Cultural Communication and Professional…
informational technologies 7) necessity when
traveling abroad.
When questioned about academic mobility
as personal integral quality, students attributed
the following characteristics to this category:
1) well educated, 2) quick, 3) interested in
learning, 4) full of new ideas and 5) capable of
speaking a foreign language. Unfortunately, a
command of the foreign language was listed as
the last requirement. The ability to cooperate and
work in teams as well as the capability to assess
personal learning outcome critically were not
mentioned.
Analyzing the data of the survey, we
concluded that even though students realize the
value and importance of a good command of
English, they have little understanding of how
they can apply it in their future personal and
professional life. There is also a lack in full and
deep understanding of what academic mobility
is.
We defined three levels of academic mobility
development: 1. High, 2 Medium and 3) Low.
Levels of academic mobility development are
estimated as high when all of the components of
the category are assessed as high, if any of the
components are at a medium level or one of them
is at a high level we assess it as medium, if any
of the components is at a low level we assess such
level as low.
To conduct our experiment aimed at
verifying our suggestion about a particular
learning environment instrumental in the
development of academic mobility, we set up a
control group (CG) consisting of 11 second-year
students from the Civil Engineering Department
and an experimental group (EG) of 11 second-year
students from the same department. At the initial
stage of the experiment, we defined the level of
the academic mobility development in accordance
with elaborated criteria. Motivation of success or
achievement (MS) and motivation of affiliation
(MA) in both groups was at approximately the
same level.
In CG – MS (motivation for success) was
at 1). high level 36.4 % – 4 students, 2) medium
level 36.4 % – 4 students, 3) low level 27.2 % – 3
students, and in EG – MS was at 1) high level
45.4 % – 5 students, 2) medium level 36.4 % – 3
students, 3) low level 27.2 % – 3 students.
In CG – MA (motivation for affiliation) was
at 1) high level 27.2 % – 3 students, 2) medium
level 27.2 % –3 students, 3) low level 45.45 % –
5 students, in EG – MA was at 1) high level
36.4 % – 4 students, 2) medium level 45.45 % – 5
students, 3) low level 27.2 % – 3 students.
Independent study skills (ISS) in CG was
at 1) high level 18.2 % – 2 students, 2) medium
level 45.45 % – 5 students, 3) low level 36.4 % –
4 students, and in EG (ISS) was at 1) high level
27.2 % – 3 students, 2) medium level 54.5 % – 6
students, 3) low level 18.2 % – 2 students.
Level of tolerance (LT) in CG was at 1)
high level 18.2 % – 2 students, 2) medium level
36.4 % – 4 students, 3) low level 45.45 % – 5
students, and in EG (LT) was at 1) high level
27.2 % – 3 students, 2) medium level 36.4 % – 4
students, 3) low level 36.4 % – 4 students.
The level of Foreign language Competency
(LC) in CG was at 1) B1 level was 9.1 % – 1
student, 2) A2 level 36.4 % 4 –students, 3)A1
level 54.5 % – 6 students, and EG –LC 1) B1
level 27.2 % – 3 students, 2) A2 level 54.5 % –
6 students, 3) A1 level 18.1 % – 2 students. The
level of critical thinking and ability to assess
incoming information, including information in
a foreign language was very low in both groups
at the initial stage of the experiment.
Having analyzed the following data we
concluded that because of a very low level of
reflection ability in both groups we affirm that the
students had a low level of academic mobility.
When tested at the final stage of the
experiment, we have in the CG – 2 students
# 1819 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalia K. Dmitrieva. Academic Mobility as a Prerequisite of Cross-Cultural Communication and Professional…
Table 2
Control group
Experimental group
Criteria
Level
MS %
MA % ISS %
LT %
LC %
MS %
MA % ISS %
LT %
LC %
Initial
stage
high
36.4
27.2
18.2
18.2
9.1
med
36.4
27.2
45.45
36.4
36.4
18.2
45.4
36.4
27.2
27.2
27.2
36.4
45.4
54.55
36.4
54.5
27.2
low
27.2
45.4
36.4
45.4
54.5
81.8
27.2
27.2
18.2
36.4
18.2
63.6
Final stage high
27.2
27.2
18.2
18.2
med
54.5
54.5
72.7
36.4
18.2
36.4
72.7
45.4
54.5
54.5
45.4
45.5
63.6
54.5
27.2
54.5
36.4
36.4
45.5
45.5
low
18.2
18.2
9.1
9.1
18.2
18.2
0
0
9.1
9.1
9.1
9.1
(18.1 %) with low language competency level
(A1 level) and none with low level (A1 level)
in EG. Assessment skills (RF) in both groups
have improved and we have in CG – (36.4 %) 3
students – high level, (54.5 %) 6 students – medium
level and (18.1 %) 2 students – low level, in EG –
assessment skills (RF) – (45.5 %) 5 students –
high level, (45.5 %) 5 students – medium level,
and (9.1 %)1 student – low level. Motivation level
in CG – (18.2 %) 2 students with low level of MA
and MS. EG has no students with low MS and
MA, level of tolerance (LT) in CG – (9.1 %) 1
student – low level, (36.4 %) 4 students – medium
level and (18.2 %)2 students at high level, EG
has one student (9.1 %) with low level tolerance,
(36.4 %) 3 students – medium level, (54.5 %) – 6
students – high level.
Based on the results of the experiment
we may ascertain that a certain progress in the
development of academic mobility in students
is observed in both groups, though a number
of students with developed academic mobility
as a personal character trait is higher in the
experimental group. Correlation between the
level of foreign language competency and
growth of the rest of the components in the
structure of academic mobility is also observed
in both groups. The higher the level of foreign
language competency, the higher the level of
academic mobility. Therefore, it is reasonable
to conclude that traditional teaching methods
RF %
RF %
remain effective in the enhancement of personal
character qualities, but higher learning outcomes
are obtained by the creation of the learning
environment instrumental in the enhancement
of personal qualities demanded by the society
and by the studying individual himself. This
learning environment includes: employment of
pedagogical technologies based on interactive
methods of teaching; creation of the context
based environment; employment of the elaborated
technology based on the principles of competence
developing and student-centered approaches, and
targeting academic mobility enhancement.
Conclusion
Academic mobility is an integral personal
quality with a complex structure, consisting
of a number of interrelated and interdependent
components. Their enhancement leads to the
development of academic mobility as an integral
entity, facilitative in the process of adaptation
and integration into the changing academic,
economic, cultural, and political world. To
achieve a desired outcome in the process of
foreign language learning and acquisition, a set
of instrumental learning environment needs to be
introduced. Results of the experiment revealed
strong correlation between the level of Foreign
Language Competency Development and
improvement levels of the other components of
academic mobility.
# 1820 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalia K. Dmitrieva. Academic Mobility as a Prerequisite of Cross-Cultural Communication and Professional…
Academic mobility as a personal integral
quality is a prerequisite for successful
cross-cultural communication and effective
enhancement of professional competency.
Its dynamic structure and intrinsic nature
substantiate its function.
References
Baidenko, V.I., 2002. The Bologna Process: structural reform of higher education in Europe.
Moscow: Research Centre of Quality of Professional Training, Russian New University.
Baidenko, V.I., 2004. Bologna process: a course of lectures. Moscow: Logos, in Russian.
Borzova, E.V., 2009. Student-oriented foreign language teaching in senior classes of secondary
schools. Petrozavodsk: Karelian State Pedagogical Academy, in Russian.
Barna, L. M., 1997. Stumbling blocks in intercultural communication. Intercultural communication
(eighth ed.) Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
Epstein, R.M. and Hundert, E.M. 2002. Defining and assessing professional competence. The
Journal of the American Medical Association, 287, (2). pp. 226-235.
Gladkaya O.A., 2002. Professional mobility as a leading character trait of the modern teacher.
Issues of pedagogical training, 13. Irkutsk: Institute for continuing education, pp. 45-55, in Russian
Gorjunova, L.V., 2005. Professional mobility components of modern specialists. Natural science
and humanism ,. 2. Tomsk: Tomsk State University, p.p. 8-11. in Russian
Knight, Cf. J., 1993. Internationalization strategies and issues. International education magazine,
9, p. 21-22.
Koropchenko, А.А., 2003. Acknowledgement and recognition of qualifications as a factor of
academic mobility. Scientific Bulletin, 67, pp. 22-26
Leontiev, A.N. 1983. Activity, consciousness, personality. Moscow: Pedagogics
Sorokin P.A., 1997. Social and cultural dynamics. Moscow: MFK, in Russian
Ter-Minasova, S.G., 2004. Language and cross-cultural communication. Moscow: Moscow State
University Press
Академическая мобильность
как необходимое условие межкультурной коммуникации
и становления профессиональной компетентности
Н.К. Дмитриева
Петрозаводский государственный университет
Россия 185910, Петрозаводск, пр. Ленина, 33
В статье рассматривается проблема академической мобильности как интегративного
личностного новообразования студентов, необходимого для формирования навыков
межкультурной коммуникации и развития профессиональной компетентности.
Целенаправленное становление академической мобильности происходит в процессе обучения
профессионально-ориентированному иностранному языку. В статье выявлены, описан и
обоснованы компонентный состав академической мобильности; педагогические условия,
# 1821 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalia K. Dmitrieva. Academic Mobility as a Prerequisite of Cross-Cultural Communication and Professional…
содействующие становлению академической мобильности; приведены данные опытноэкспириментального исследования, подтверждающие гипотезу о необходимости создания
определенных педагогических условий с целью формирования академической мобильности.
Ключевые слова: академическая мобильность, социальное явление, интегративное личностное
качество, иноязычная коммуникативная компетенция, мотивация достижения и мотивация
аффилиации, педагогические условия.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 12 (2012 5) 1823-1833
~~~
УДК 37.018.43
Discussion Forum as the Central Element
of the Online Seminar: Content-Analysis
of Posts by German Students
Irina N. Rozinaa* and Nadezda S. Zhukovab
a
Institute of Management, Business and Law
33А/47, Nagibina Pr. Rostov-on-Don, 344068 Russia
b
Distance and Independent Studies Center
Technical University of Kaiserslautern
Erwin-Schrödinger-Straße,
57 Gebäude, D-67663 Kaiserslautern, Germany 1
Received 04.12.2012, received in revised form 11.12.2012, accepted 24.12.2012
The Role of the tutor for distance courses moderation, as well as the aims of discussion forum usage by
learners are discussed. Discussion forum posts have been analyzed and the importance of asynchronous
computer-mediated communication for knowledge acquisition by learners has been proved. Gender
aspect is also taken into consideration.
Keywords: discussion forum, computer-mediated communication, content analysis, online seminar,
gender aspect.
Discussion Forum in Education:
Virtual Communication
or Virtual Silence?
Despite the number of advantages a
discussion forum offers for distance learning
processes, some researchers claim that forums
are seldom, if ever, used by the learner. (e.g. see
Puntschart, 2006; p.10). Even if they are used,
the only purpose of it is to discuss organizational
issues (e.g. see Hinze et al., 2003; p.61). It is no
use waiting for the learners to discuss the current
topic, apparently, if they find only social messages
from co-learners and instructions on the course
from the teacher and/or the tutor in the discussion
forum (e.g. see Grotlüschen, 2004; p.72).
*
1
So, as Schulmeister puts it, “Quality
moderation of the discussion, published messages
and topics content, tutor’s recommendations for
learners‘ support in educational process – they
all play the key part“ in computer-mediated
communication. (Schulmeister, 2004, p. 3637). He also stresses the significant influence of
communication process continuity on the quality
of the educational process itself, in contrast
with several other researchers who claim the
importance of the cost and technical features of
electronic educational means.
I. Rozina, for example, singles out
technological, organizational and didactic
components of modern information-educational
Corresponding author E-mail address: rozina@iubip.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 1823 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Irina N. Rozina and Nadezda S. Zhukova. Discussion Forum as the Central Element of the Online Seminar…
environment organization (Rozina, 2005, p. 102).
Efficiency of educational processes, however,
can be achieved only when promptly controlled
methods of education are used together with
direct communication and feedback between
learners and teacher in individual and group
communication (Rozina, 2005, p. 125). Petko
comes to similar conclusion, saying that “tutors
need to influence the quality of discussion by
posting substantial messages relevant to the topic
studied and then by requiring well-grounded
argumentation and pointing at delusions if
answering posts are far from being close to
reality” (Petko, 2003, p. 206).
We agree with the researchers that the
quality of computer-mediated communication
depends directly on the level of tutors’ active
moderation of discussions. The consequence of
the increased level of the tutor’s activity, as a
number of authors’ point out, is a considerable
raise in the tutor’s workload. (Puntschart, 2006;
Rinn et al., 2003; Hesse et al., 1997). A research
by Hyesse, for instance, shows that the number
of the tutor’s posts amounts to 50 % of the total
number of messages. But at the same time, 60 %
of students’ posts are written by only 10 % of all
learners in the group.
So, the authors give recommendation
on the ways to lower labour contribution of
the tutor and to raise learners’ activity. They
include advice on preliminary preparation of
all distance courses’ components including
planned discussion’s components. Such
preparation is a prerequisite for distance learning
rather than a suggestion for classical forms of
education. Following the recommendations
described, Pauli et al. have lowered tutor’s
labour contribution on moderation, the tutor’s
messages amount to 10 % of all the posts, and
increase the learners’ activity, 50 % of all the
posts attribute to 60 % of learners (Pauli et al.,
2000).
Another example of this kind is Puntschart’s
survey, the aim of which is to organize an efficient
forum discussion; efficient both from the learners’
knowledge achievement’s point of view and from
the tutor’s labor contribution. Due to thorough
distance course tasks’ planning, the author has
managed to lower the tutor’s labour contribution
(from 12 % to 3 % of all the posts). The result
is achieved because the learners fulfilled their
planned tasks, which comprised active discussion
of current topic studied in the forum. The author
has also managed to increase the number of new
topics suggested by the learners up to 29 % of
all the posts, and to enhance learner’s reaction to
their groupmates’ posts up to 68 % (Puntschart,
2006).
Similar approach to online seminars
that is based on their strict structure is used at
the Distance and Independent Studies Center
(further referred to as DISC) of Kaiserslautern
Technical University, Germany. Online seminars
at DISC, as well as discussion forums of online
seminars at Virtual Campus of Rheinland Pfalz
University (Virtueller Campus Rheinland Pfalz,
VCRP), have been analyzed in detail by Sabine
Hemsing (Hemsing, 2008). The aim of the
survey is to analyze the problems tutors solve
at asynchronous discussion moderation as well
as forum discussions moderation influence on
learners’ educational achievements.
Pedagogical Design
of Distance Educational Course
at an Example of Online Seminar
The planning and structuring of
educational process traditionally lies in wellknown pedagogical theories and is connected
with both information and communication
technologies of online seminars development.
In contrast to pedagogic technology
understood by the authors of “InternetEducation: Pedagogic Design Technology”
# 1824 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Irina N. Rozina and Nadezda S. Zhukova. Discussion Forum as the Central Element of the Online Seminar…
as “… purposeful consecutive description of
teacher’s and learners’ activities to achieve
the didactic goals”, pedagogic design means
“… development of educational materials and
types of activities as well as their methods and
means” (Internet-Education, pp. 39,43). Thus,
pedagogic design is an indispensable part of any
pedagogic technology by being a procedural
and technological mechanism that brings
pedagogic technology to its real application in
the classroom (Internet-Education, p. 44).
When organizing online seminars at DISC,
professors use the following parameters of
pedagogic design for an online seminar:
• Duration of the distance course and
teaching load for it;
• Subject scope of the course and its aims;
• Learners’ group characteristics such as
their level of knowledge, e.g. beginners,
number of learners in the groups, their
motivation;
• Tutor’s preparedness to conduct the
course;
• The place of the course in the
curriculum;
• Technical means the tutor has at their
disposal (Hemsing, 2008; p.104).
Both classical and online seminars comprise
the following stages:
• Introductory;
• Main;
• Final and feedback or reflection (Bloh,
2005; p.22).
At each stage, the tutor can use different
pedagogic technologies and variants to conduct
the course. Thus, at an introductory stage, the
learners share personal and/or professional
information to create a comfortable atmosphere
of trust in class. This stage is decisive for further
activity of learners1. That is why the well-timed
welcoming post by tutor to open the online
seminar officially is very important.
The introductory stage also gives learners
the opportunity to share their expectations of
the course and to become acquainted with the
system of distance learning (SDL). The phase
is even more important for the learners who
take their first course in the virtual educational
environment. Thus, having been acquainted
with technical possibilities of SDL during the
introductory stage, the learners will further focus
on the subject scope of the course.
The central part of online seminal is the
main part, of course, when the learners work
with new educational materials. The stage
consists of several thematic phases, as a rule. A
six- to eight-week seminar, for example, will have
from four to six thematic phases. Such thematic
distribution and structuring of online seminar
is very important for the learners as they use
different asynchronous means of learning. It is
necessary to consider the fact that distance study
of a topic requires more time comparing with
that at traditional education models. This way,
one hour of traditional class work corresponds to
about one week of asynchronous communication
at online seminar (Hemsing, 2008; p.106).
At the final stage the main aim of tutors
is coordinated conclusion of online seminars.
During the phase the learners are asked to assess
the seminar, filling in the online evaluation form
or questionnaire. The stage can also be used to
finish up individual tasks if necessary.
Educational methods used at online
seminars are usually not a novelty by themselves.
Traditional techniques that can be adjusted to
the conditions of distance learning are used,
such as pros and cons group discussion, role
play, brainstorm, mini-group projects, quizzes,
mind maps, presentations, web-portfolios, webquests and many others. Online seminars often
employ, for example, “circle of acquaintances”
exercise taken from psychological practice and
adapted to asynchronous computer-mediated
# 1825 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Irina N. Rozina and Nadezda S. Zhukova. Discussion Forum as the Central Element of the Online Seminar…
communication of distance courses. To inspire
learners for an active and interesting discussion
the tutor very often gives them a task that requires
not only to write a very short introductory
essay but to share an incredible story that had
previously happened to learners personally or to
attach a photo illustrating professional activities
of the learner. The aim of the task described is
acquaintance and psychological liberation of
learners as well as their acknowledgement of
SDL media peculiarities (Hemsing, 2008; p.153).
To find out the methods to inspire active
discussion in the forum we have conducted a
content analysis of text messages posted by
learners.
Participants’ Characteristics
and Survey’s Methods
In her survey Hemsing has analyzed
tutors’ posts in forums with the aim to study
problems tutors have to solve when conducting
an asynchronous discussion. To our mind, the
problems tutors have to solve basically determine
the problems learners face in the meaning of the
posts they make. That is why we have analyses
both the tutor’s messages and online learners’
posts, the latter being of prime interest to us.
Three different seminars conducted by
different tutors in 2012 are chosen for analysis:
“Labour Relations Law”, “Distance Technology
in Education” and “Fundamentals of Scientific
Work”. 65 people (15 men and 50 women) of the
average age of 38 have taken the courses. All of
them are the students of Master’s programmes
such as “Educational Management”, “Human
Resources” and “Andragogy”.
The choice of such a variety of seminars
and tutors is intentional with the aim to allocate
common trends and to compare groups on
several features. “Fundamentals of Scientific
Work” online seminar, for example, is different
from the rest because it has no group work in the
process of education. Group method is not used
deliberately because the seminar is a prerequisite
part of the professional aptitude exam to qualify
for Master’s Degree Program. The feature gives
us the opportunity to understand if group work
influences the tendencies in using discussion
forum by the learners, or not.
The basics for analyzed posts differentiation
are taken from the classification of tutor’s duties
by Berge and classification of comments types for
blog analysis by Schulmeister (Berge, 1995, p.23;
Schulmeister, 2010, p.320).
As Berge puts it, the tutor’s tasks when
conducting an online seminar can be classified
the following way:
• Pedagogical tasks (thematic content
messages);
• Social tasks (social messages);
• Organizational
tasks
(to
solve
organizational problems);
• Technical tasks (to solve technical
problems).
The given classification is useful to
determine the type of the post and to assign it to
one category or another and, thus, to detect the
aim of discussion forum usage by learners at
different moments of time.
To analyze the tendencies of the comments
in web-blogs Schulmeister singles out six basic
categories (see Table 1).
In our survey we do not discuss the category
of “Net etiquette rules reminder” because the
category is irrelevant for the groups in question.
Content of some posts can be attributed to several
categories at the same time, but we still attributed
one post to only one of the above mentioned
categories, depending on its meaning.
Berge’s classification, in our opinion, suits
well for all kinds of posts both for new topics
and for comments on them. Comments to new
topics are also worth analyzing according to
Schulmeister’s classification (see Fig. 1).
# 1826 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Irina N. Rozina and Nadezda S. Zhukova. Discussion Forum as the Central Element of the Online Seminar…
Table 1. Web-blogs Texts Categories by Schulmeister
Text’s Characteristics
Content
Reactive statements
Response to a statement, direct discussion of partner’s posts (continues to give
reasons, asks again, criticizes, asks to clarify, etc.)
Active statements
Doesn’t go beyond the topic discussed, but doesn’t comment on the information
posted earlier and doesn’t ask questions.
Begins their own independent statement (claims, shares knowledge, cites other
authors, describes personal experience).
Statements of personal Emotional assessment of partner’s point of view (“As far as I know…”, “If you ask
opinion
me…”, “I fully agree with…”, “I’m afraid I disagree on the point that…”, etc.)
Net etiquette rules
Appeals to the necessity to follow rules and norms properly: gives remarks on
reminder
inappropriate behaviour on the net, reminds about rules of appropriate behaviour,
etc.
Chain of arguments and Having taken the earlier posted information as the basis (as a rule, the information
conclusions
is taken from the post that opens a new topic), participants give a logic chain of
arguments and conclusion. They use different reasons, compare pros and cons, find
a tendency, etc.
Language gestures
Statements are irrelevant to the topic of the course, do not serve to establish social
contacts, neither they attribute to other types of communication. They are different
from personal opinion statement because they comment on the quality of the posts
not on its meaning, e.g. “Super!”, “I am delighted!”, “LOL”, “That is terrific!” etc.
General Statistic Data
For the period from two to four weeks
1953 posts have been published, 1560 of them
by learners and 393 posts by tutors at all three
seminars studied. In average, men publish 18 posts
at a seminar and women – 26. Average length of a
message is about 100 words regardless the gender
of the poster. Total numbers of messages posted
by learners and tutors of all three seminars are
given at table 2.
So, 24 % of posts open new topics, 4 posts
by men and 6 posts by women at average, 58 %
of them contained comments of seminar’s
participants. In average, 14 posts by men and 19
posts by women are the comments on the current
topic, and every new topic receives about 5.4
comment by learners (see table 2).
Main Research Results
As Hemsing points out, discussion forums
are the central element for DISC online seminars
(Hemsing, 2008; p.52). According to her
survey, learners’ educational achievements are
determined by discussion forum participation
(23 %) together with individual tasks fulfillment
(26 %) and online educational materials (23 %)
(see Fig. 2).
It is necessary to note that the number of
tutor’s posts at discussion forum moderation
at DISC which make up the biggest part of
tutor’s workload alongside with individual tasks
checking, amount to 20 % of total number of
posts. This number significantly increases the
figures of the earlier mentioned authors who
accomplished to lower the tutor’s workload for
discussion forum moderation while preserving
the quality of education.
Nevertheless,
DISC
professors
do
not have lowering the tutor’s workload at
discussion moderation as their aim because
they consider it to be justified. For 17 % of
seminar’s participants, for example, consider
tutor’s comments important for the process
of learning as they give confidence to know
# 1827 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Fig. 1. Discussion Forum Text Messages (Posts) Differentiation
Table 2. Posts’ Distribution for Three Seminars
Parameter
Number of posts
Labour Relations
Law
Distance Technology
in Education
Fundamentals of
Scientific Work
Total
Quantity
Average
Quantity
Average
Quantity
Average
Quantity
Average
672
28
1185
49
96
6
1953
30
Men
83
21
179
36
14
2
276
18
Women
460
24
791
44
33
3
1284
26
Tutor
Number of words
in a message
129
129
215
215
49
49
393
131
64122
95
95163
80
10690
111
169975
87
Men
8838
106
15869
89
2895
207
27602
100
Women
49910
109
62861
79
4678
142
117449
91
Tutor
5374
42
16433
76
3117
64
24924
63
Fig. 2. Learners’ Educational Achievements Components (Hemsing, 2008; p.272)
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Irina N. Rozina and Nadezda S. Zhukova. Discussion Forum as the Central Element of the Online Seminar…
Table 2. New Topics and Comments Distribution to the Number of Posts
Labour
Relations Law
Distance Technology
in Education
Fundamentals of
Scientific Work
Total
New topics
132
289
54
475
New topics / messages, %
20
24
56
24
New topics with comments
79
166
29
274
60
540
57
896
54
41
58
1477
6.8
5.4
1.4
5.4
Type of post
New topics with comments / New
topics, %
Comments
Comments / New topics with
comments, average
Fig. 3. Students’ Aims When Using Discussion Forums
the learning is going the right direction and
they are very helpful if any difficulty arises.
Hemsing also comes to the conclusion that
the more messages the tutor posts the higher
is the learners’ satisfaction level conserving
the quality of online seminar (Hemsing, 2008;
p.284). Moreover, the learners’ satisfaction
grows with the increasing number of words in
tutor’s posts (Hemsing, 2008; p.291). Under the
existing circumstances of competition between
higher educational establishments especially
in the sphere of distance learning, the positive
mood of learners is viewed by DISC as a very
important component.
Using content analysis of posts in forums
we affirm pedagogic orientation of asynchronous
discussion. Thus, 44 % of all the posts are solely
devoted to the subject scope, 25 % are of social
nature, 27 % are connected with organizational
questions and only 4 % deal with technical
problems (see Fig. 3)
Surprisingly
enough,
during
the
“Fundamentals of Scientific Work” online seminar
where group work of seminar’s participants was
not employed, the number of posts concerning
organizational problems is zero (see Fig. 4).
Percentage of comments to new topics is the
following: 58 % are reactive statements, 23 %
are active statements (see Fig. 5). Relatively few
posts are those of personal opinion (4 %), chains
of arguments and conclusions (5 %) and language
gestures (10 %).
An interesting fact is that during the
“Fundamentals of Scientific Work” online
seminar where seminar’s participants don’t work
in groups, there are no personal opinion posts.
Moreover, there is no discussion to lead to a chain
of arguments and conclusions (see Fig. 6).
# 1829 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Irina N. Rozina and Nadezda S. Zhukova. Discussion Forum as the Central Element of the Online Seminar…
Fig. 4. Distribution of Aims to Use the Forum at Three Different Seminars
Fig. 5. Types of Statements Used by Students as Comments
It is also easy to note that during the
“Fundamentals of Scientific Work” seminar the
number of language gestures increases, so do
the active statements. They prevail over reactive
statements in comparison with the statements
at two other seminars. But the fact that active
statements prevail does not imply that the
participants are able to lead a constructive
discussion. Sometimes the tutor or other learners
posted questions requiring a new independent
statement, to describe personal experience
at a particular situation, for example. Such
statements were also common at group work
when a group was supposed to solve a problem,
for example, and one of the participants started
the discussion, the others then added their
suggestions.
From gender point of view it is important to
mention that types of posts by men and women
do not differ much. Only at the two seminars
where learners worked in groups the number of
social posts, statements relate to the subject scope
and reactive statements by women exceeded the
number of them by men.
# 1830 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Irina N. Rozina and Nadezda S. Zhukova. Discussion Forum as the Central Element of the Online Seminar…
Fig. 6. Distribution of Learners’ Posts Types in Three Seminars
Conclusion
Whether students will use discussion forum
actively or not during their online or distance
course depends on pedagogic design of the course
and the goals the teacher sets. Despite the fact that
asynchronous discussion moderation by tutor is
an important element of a distance course and
determines the level of learners’ satisfaction by
the quality of education, students’ participation
in discussion forum can be activated at minimal
tutor’s labour contribution into discussion
moderation. To make it possible, thorough
content and pedagogic scenario development is
necessary.
Main peculiarities of asynchronous
communication at discussion forum of DISC
online seminars we have found out by content
analysis of posts in forums are:
• Women write more posts in discussion
forums than men;
• Discussion forums are mainly used to
discuss the subject scope (44 %) and to
establish social contacts (25 %);
1
• Organizational questions arise in forum
only when groups work needs to be
coordinated. During the online seminar
where group work of seminar’s participants
was not employed, the number of posts
concerning organizational problems
amounts to zero;
• When commenting, learners mostly
use reactive statements, giving relative
answers to other posts and discussing
partners’ messages;
• When group work is not employed,
learners do not give their personal
opinion and discussion forums do
not lead to a chain of arguments and
conclusions;
• Aims of men and women to use
discussion forums as well as their
commenting styles differ slightly: the
number of social posts, statements
devoted to subject scope and the number
of reactive statement in women’s posts is
a little higher.
Here we need to consider the fact that students at DISC take distance courses and, as a rule, are not acquainted before the
beginning of the online seminar. Furthermore, in Germany there is no fixed assignment of students to groups, so, choosing
a course the students meet new co-learners each time they have a new course.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Irina N. Rozina and Nadezda S. Zhukova. Discussion Forum as the Central Element of the Online Seminar…
References
Berge Z.L. Facilitating Computer Conferencing: Recommendations from the Field. Educational
Technology, 35(1), (1995), 22-30.
Bloh E. Grundzüge und Systematik einer Methodik netzbasierter Lehr-Lernprozesse / B. Lehmann
& E. Bloh (Hrsg.), Online Pädagogik, Bd.2, Baltmannsweiler: Schneider Verlag Hohengehren,
(2005), 7-85, in German
Grotlüschen A. Virtuelle Interaktion oder virtuelles Schweigen? // Zeitschrift für
Weiterbildungsforschung, Nr.1, (2004), 68-75, in German
Hemsing S. Online-Seminare in der Weiterbildung. Berlin: Mensch & Buch Verlag, (2008), in
German
Hesse F.W., Giovis C. Struktur und Verlauf aktiver und passiver Partizipation beim netzbasierten
Lernen in virtuellen Seminaren. Unterrichtswissenschaft, 25 (1), (1997), 34-55, in German
Hinze U., Blakowski G. Soziale Eingebundenheit als Schlüsselfaktor im E-Learning- Blended
Learning und CSCL im Konzept der VFH // A. Bode, J. Desel, S. Rathmeyer & M. Wessner (Hg),
DeLFI. Bonn: Köllen, (2003), 57-66, in German
Internet-Education: Pedagogic Design Technologies / Edited by М.V. Moisseyeva. Мoscow:
Kameron, (2004), in Russian
Pauli C., Reusser K. Zur Rolle der Lehrperson beim kooperativen Lernen. Schweizerische
Zeitschrift für Bildungswissenschaften, 22 (3), (2000), 421-442, in German
Petko D. Diskutieren in virtuellen Lehrveranstaltungen. Beiträge zur Lehrerbildung, 21(2),
(2003), 206-220, in German
Puntschart I. Wissensaustausch über (un)moderierte Diskussionsforen. Dissertation, KarlFranzens-Universität Graz, (2006), in German
Rinn U., Bett K. Lernplattformen zwischen Technik und Didaktik / K. Bett & J. Wedekind (Hrsg.),
Lernplattformen in der Praxis. Münster: Waxmann, (2003), 193-209, in German
Rozina I. N. Pedagogic Computer-mediated communication. Theory and Practice: Monograph.
Мoscow: Logos, 2005, in Russian
Schulmeister R. Ansichten zur Kommentarkultur in Weblogs / P. Bauer, H. Hoffmann &
K. Mayrberger (Hrsg.): Fokus Medienpädagogik – Aktuelle Forschungs- und Handlungsfelder.
Festschrift für Stefan Aufenanger. Kopaed: München, (2010), 317-347, in German
Schulmeister R. Didaktisches Design aus hochschuldidaktischer Sicht – Ein Plädoyer für
offene Lernsituationen / U. Rinn, D.M. Meister (Hrsg.). Didaktik und Neue Medien. Konzepte und
Anwendungen in der Hochschule. Münster: Waxmann,( 2004), 19-49, in German
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Irina N. Rozina and Nadezda S. Zhukova. Discussion Forum as the Central Element of the Online Seminar…
Дискуссионный форум как центральный элемент
онлайнового семинара:
контент-анализ текстовых сообщений
студентов Германии
И.Н. Розинаа, Н.С. Жуковаб
а
Институт управления, бизнеса и права
Россия 344068, Ростов-на-Дону, пр. М. Нагибина, 33А/47
б
Центр дистанционного и самостоятельного обучения
Технический университет г. Кайзерслаутерн
Erwin-Schrödinger-Straße,
Gebäude 57, D-67663 Kaiserslautern, ФРГ
В статье рассматривается роль тьютора при модерации дистанционных курсов, а также
цели использования обучаемыми дискуссионных форумов. Проведен анализ сообщений
дискуссионного форума, подтверждающий значимую роль асинхронной компьютерноопосредованной коммуникации для приобретения знаний обучаемыми. При анализе текстов
учитывался гендерный аспект.
Ключевые слова: дискуссионный форум, компьютерно-опосредованная коммуникация,
контент-анализ, онлайновый семинар, гендерный аспект.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 12 (2012 5) 1834-1842
~~~
УДК 811.161.1’27
Manipulative Strategies and Tactics
of Mass Media Communication
(on the example of «The Name
of Russia» television project)
Nikolay D. Golev and Olga E. Yakovleva*
Kemerovo State University
6 Krasnaya St., Kemerovo, 650043 Russia 1
Received 04.12.2012, received in revised form 11.12.2012, accepted 24.12.2012
This article is devoted to the research of “The Name of Russia” project regarded as an example of
manipulative strategies and tactics of mass media communication. The research is done in terms of
cognitive and communicative linguistics, speech act theory, ordinary political science in linguistics
and the conception of practice in social sciences.
Keywords: mass media communication, discourse, speech manipulation, identity, political science in
linguistics, proper names.
Introduction
This article refers to the research paradigm
of the natural language manipulative potential,
actively used in different sorts of modern forms
of communication such as commercial, media,
and political ones. It appeared due to a famous
PR campaign focused on “The Name of Russia”
TV project which was shown in 2008 and
caused a great public response (and discourses):
academic, journalistic, advertising and political.
“The Name of Russia” term has become a brand,
combining ordinary and scientific reflections,
ideological and pragmatic (marketing) ideas,
people’s expectations and the political elite’s
interests. In this paper only a few aspects of this
enormous mental-communicative phenomenon
are considered. The subject of this article is to
*
1
reconstruct “The Name of Russia” project as a
communicative act and, more specifically, to
reveal a peculiar character of communicative
intentions realization from the speech act theory
perspective (Austin, 1986) (that is, to identify
the project’s illocution, locution and perlocution,
transposing the terminology traditionally applied
to a particular act of speaking, to a TV show
multi-code communication).
Materials
The idea that a human lives in the world of
names, which can be proper and common, more or
less known, doesn’t already seem revolutionary.
However, using a large arsenal of language means
daily, an average human is absolutely sure that
language is completely dependent on him and
Corresponding author E-mail address: ngolevd@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 1834 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Nikolay D. Golev and Olga E. Yakovleva. Manipulative Strategies and Tactics of Mass Media Communication
exists for him in fact. This reflects the immanent
capacity of language, which L. Wittgenstein
defined as “absence of problems” and “involvement
in everyday practice”. And yet this very daily
routine, everyday practices that construct a
human’s everyday activity are of a special interest
for modern science as well as for different types
of pragmatically oriented communication. So, a
modern commercial doesn’t seek only to report
about the time and place of the goods sale (what?
where? when?) and to make its main attributes
(brand name, shape, color, special features of
packaging, music, commercial characters, etc.)
recognizable but also to specify the goods with
the help of these techniques in order to induct
them into the structure of an individual’s nonreflective everyday life. Therefore, people will
sooner or later get used to the fact that a better
toothpaste, guarding their mouths against all
possible diseases, is “Colgate”; and it keeps every
person from a potential danger. So, an endless
flow of supporting commercial information
doesn’t let anyone doubt the correctness of their
choice. Thus, the names don’t just help us choose
the goods from a set of similar ones. At some
point they start foisting them on us. However,
a commercial is still a relatively “honest” way
of manipulating our consciousness: the rules of
the game are more or less clear to us and no one
expects any “disinterested” advertising from well
financed communication. But it is much worse
when a communicator’s intentions are not so
obvious and he is not “a clearly defined customer”
which is required by the advertising legislation.
We mean various regulatory discourses that daily
construct our loyalty or, conversely, orderliness,
ethicality, culture, etc. Some of them can be
attributed to PR-communications, the subjects of
which are represented by various commercial and
public organizations. The other part belongs to the
discourse of power. Its realization can be gained,
in addition to usual Soviet-era pathos, by using
the methods which are not so explicit. Apart from
a rich arsenal of logical and rhetorical techniques
(facts selection, antithesis constructions,
“pinning the labels”, etc.), the media widely use
the methods of the so-called “right nomination”:
the militants were annihilated but the Russian
army soldiers were killed; the conflict in South
Ossetia is memorable due to the “forcing Georgia
to peace” phrase; in order not to hurt the public
with the reports of a considerable number of
deaths at the Sayan-Shushenskaya hydro-electric
power station mass media gradually increased
the lists using the “death toll reached ...” locution.
Representing discursive practices of power, these
examples form a unified field due to the identity
of each of the four characteristics (following
Foucault): 1) what type of phenomena can be
the subject of this discourse, 2) who can take the
position of a speaking subject, 3) what kinds of
concepts can be acceptable in this discourse, and
4) what theories can be conceived and formulated
in it. In this article a particular interest is given to
how the first and second principles interact with
the third one. We daily face the accomplishment
of the following interaction: if someone calls a
servant of the law “a militiaman” he indirectly
determines his belonging to the discourse of a
law-abiding citizen who respects the power and
its individual members; if he calls him “a ment”
he expresses a marginal discourse with a typical
cynical attitude towards life.
However, the discourses, responsible for the
formation of the Russians’ national identity with
its diffuse and heterogeneous structure, are of a
particular relevance to the manipulation, while
the success of “power-people” communication
requires a certain and predictable recipient.
Without going into a social and historical
background we should only note that the issue
of the modern Russians’ identity is associated,
among other things, with the absence of a
consistent historical foretime comprehension.
# 1835 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Nikolay D. Golev and Olga E. Yakovleva. Manipulative Strategies and Tactics of Mass Media Communication
According to V. Morozov (2009), after the Soviet
Union’s breakup Russia had to build a new
nation’s state and form the national identity as
many former Soviet republics did. But we have
chosen the conception of the state following the
Soviet State traditions and the imperial historical
narrative as such. This prevented from forming a
clear view of Russian (including Soviet) history.
Thus, one of the most important factors of the
national identity formation is the attitude towards
the past, its “assumption”. Mass media (including
visual media) play a great role in this process in
modern society. According to V. Zvereva, “in
today’s media culture TV is an authoritative
source which broadcasts images of the past to
the enormous audience and forms an image of
a particular historic epoch, its major events and
meanings” (Zvereva, 2004: p. 160). That is why
the appearance of “The Name of Russia” TV
project which was positioned as nothing less than
“a historical choice of the year 2008”, became
non-random and predictable.
In fact, no communication is possible
without the audience’s interest in the project.
So, obeying the requirements of media industry,
the choice of a historic person number 1 gained
the following classical-stage form, which could
make the audience watch the project: on May 7,
2008 the list of 500 great names of the past was
published and the on-line voting was launched;
on June 12, 50 people who received the most
backing on the project site were selected; on
October 5, a television show began (it was based
on the discussion of 12 “finalists” of the polls);
on December 27-28, the final took place, and
on December 28, according to the TV debates
results the name of Alexander Nevsky was
chosen. The very essence of the project appeared
to be dependent on “the media” factor. In general,
the fact that the newsmakers can be represented
not only by people who are alive but by dead
souls as well is a rich idea. For a good reason,
great and famous people are far more among the
dead than among the living. Due to this there is
such a space for all sorts of ratings, sociological
measurements, shows, etc. which any “Ice Ages”
and other “Star Academies” could never dream of
(The News, 11/13/2008).
In addition to these errors, there were other
reasons to doubt the a priori installed objectivity
of the project: why were just these 500 “great dead
persons” selected, why were just these 12 public
and cultural figures chosen, why did the “lawyers”
for these12 historic persons only pass “the final”,
etc. In the very beginning of the project there
happened a scientific scandal concerning the stuff
of 500 historic names: the Institute of Russian
History of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
which was announced the project’s scientific
base by “Russia” TV channel and participated in
forming the list of 500, denied this information
later. What caused the historians’ greater anxiety
was the way the material was represented at that
stage (a brief historical background about this or
that person often included the data distorting not
only the facts but also merits and significance of
these figures for the Russian history).
It is obvious that the project creators’
illocution
(communicative
intention)
is
represented by at least two types of intentions:
an explicit (or declared) one and an implicit (or
real?) one. The explicit intention can be found
on the project site http://www.nameofrussia.ru.
According to its authors, “The Name of Russia”
is the choice of the most valued, conspicuous
and symbolic personality of the Russian History
<…> and that choice is not only leisured but also
evaluative. Further, they concretize the alleged
“value” of the personalities and offer a possible
semantic opposition such as, for example, what is
dearer to the Russians: Pushkin’s cheerful poetry
or Dostoevsky’s sapiential prose, Alexander
Nevsky’s ice of righteous sword or Vladimir
Lenin’s fierce revolutionary speech. This means
# 1836 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Nikolay D. Golev and Olga E. Yakovleva. Manipulative Strategies and Tactics of Mass Media Communication
the project’s objective, declared by its organizers,
has no ideological background and is ultimately
reduced to the choice of a “favorite” historic
character. The project’s “historicity” and the
lack of purpose to make an idol are stressed by
its producer, Alexander Lyubimov: “When we
decided to adapt our British colleagues’ idea to
choose the main historic character of Russia we
completely changed the format. We discussed
the characters more deeply that corresponds to
the attitude towards history in Russia. We don’t
choose the best and greatest but review the
history” (MC, 5/12/2008).
However, the transparency of the project’s
objectives was quite doubtful from the very
beginning, and mass media and forums
responded by the “true” goal wording. So, the
questionnaire survey on the project’s official
forum in December 2008 also contained the
issue of “What, in your opinion, is the main
objective of “The Name of Russia” project?”
The participants’ answers reveal the attitude
of some part of the public towards the goal
and rules of the game, such as the following
one, for example: I used to think that the goal
was to choose a Name honestly. Now, my own
experiment, which was conducted yesterday
(02/11/2008), makes me doubt it to a great extent,
though it didn’t regard my candidate; I expected
to get independent votes of the project’s active
participants, i.e. those who are interested in it
(the project). In fact, it led to the struggle against
Stalinism, Leninism, Marxism and attempts to
persuade to vote for Pushkin (a gifted gentleman
and a slacker); Commercial + the next portion
of zombie injections. Thus, the project’s active
audience offered other objectives which can be
reduced to the following four versions:
The project’s goal is the national identity
formation.
The project’s goal is a sociological survey
aimed at identifying the audience’s expectations
and their subsequent effective exploitation in preelection promises.
The project’s goal is the substitution of a
real political process, missing at present, by the
choice simulation.
The substitution of a “real” (going from the
bottom) passionary national idea by its imitation
and the imposition of its construction from
“the top”. If we reconstruct the project makers’
illocution, basing on its results, the hypothesis
of their original programming seems quite
reasonable, the ideological consistency of the
“choice” providing a civil society’s unity, is too
evident: 1) Alexander Nevsky is a symbol of the
victorious nation (predicated by his subsequent
canonization as a saint), 2) Stalin is a successful
manager, and 3) Stolypin is a symbol of a strong
government hand and the only person capable
of successful implementation of economic
reforms. Pushkin’s ideas of cultural unity and,
moreover, his liberal ideas, diminishing the role
of the state in the country development, appeared
to be unused. There occurs an unintentional
association with Mr. Uvarov’s “slogan” of XIX
century – “Orthodoxy – autocracy – nationality”.
There was a so-called trial run of its present
time resemblance on the project (something like
“Orthodoxy – state – modernization”).
Thus, “The Name of Russia” communication
project should be viewed not as a dialogue with
a provided opportunity of feedback (survey) but
as a managerial communication, the purpose of
which is to create a certain sense in the receptive
audience. This assumption is valid at least due to
the fact that the project was broadcast on “Russia”,
a state TV channel. That is, instead of the expected
assertive communicative act we get a directive
one. Technologically this communication is much
like a brand communication, and this is confirmed
by A. Lyubimov’s corresponding considerations:
“The Name of Russia” brand is developing the
“Russia TV Channel” brand, the “Country of
# 1837 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Nikolay D. Golev and Olga E. Yakovleva. Manipulative Strategies and Tactics of Mass Media Communication
Russia” brand. A certain post-modernism in
“clumsy” declension gives the necessary feeling
of a brand aggression”.
The illocution type causes the locution
embodiment of the message (in this case the
project’s form is meant). Thus, the ordinary
form of the opinion poll, deprived of the show
elements, corresponds to the declared objective
(to identify a historic figure considered the most
valuable by the Russians) to a greater degree and
could help to avoid at least three types of errors:
1) the unrepresentative sample (those who don’t
watch “Russia” channel are not involved into the
project), 2) the unreliable methods of the votes
gathering (on-line voting, technical organization
and results of which are doubted even by the cast,
caused a special buzz); 3) the possibility of results
falsification by the project organizers, who were
repeatedly accused both by the common audience
and different political forces.
The next stages of the project were not
unequivocally accepted by the public either.
Thus, the Ukrainian edition of “The Gazeta 24”
calls the show “finalists” the product of a new
Russian imperial identity: it had to go through
the years, Vladimir Putin’s two-term presidency,
a long period of fantastic energy prices increase,
before the Russian society has once again felt
the imperial itch (24.ua, 03/12/08). As for the
“seconds” of the final dozen, their line-up is not
obviously driven by presentation of scientifically
reliable information, but the intention to make a
program rating. Consequently, the recognition
(sometimes scandalous) and the skills of public
speaking, but not professional knowledge of
history, became the main communication skills
of such a “second”. However, according to V.
Zvereva, history, being a delicate matter related
to the memory and identity issues and enshrining
a “high” sense of culture, becomes generally
accessible on TV. Any person who became famous
and realized his / her potential in any sphere
(politics, literature or show business) can act as an
expert in the field of history there (Zvereva, 2004).
So, a famous film director Nikita Mikhalkov,
metropolitan Kirill, the governor of Krasnodar
Territory Alexander Tkachev, the literary critic
Yu. Kublanovsky, the communist party leader
Gennady Zyuganov, the Russian ambassador to
Ukraine Viktor Chernomyrdin, etc. joined the
staff of the “defenders”. However, being nonprofessional historians, the “lawyers” took their
role with great responsibility. M. Davydova,
an observer of “The Izvestiya”, emphasizes the
contradiction between the pathos of the defense
of their heroes and a real media significance of
such defense: We could frequently read that
the project experienced the lack of a scientific
basis. And any temptation to attach scientific
and historical character to them would be the
history profanation, for scientific format of mass
popular spectacle is impossible. What confuses
me, honestly, is not the lack of historicism but the
participation of serious people who are involved
in a post-modern game show and believe in an
important mission entrusted to them. On the
contrary, by all means I would try to leave the
project in the space of Social Art (Izvestiya,
13/11/2008).
Results
On the locution level the project’s
communication can be characterized as the
substitution of discourses: under the guise of the
expected scientific (sociological) discourse the
media discourse and ideological discourse were
represented.
However, the project has generated some
other discourses in the communicative space:
- a nationalistic one: What is the name of
Russia? Whose name represents the motherland in
our minds? Millions of people have already voted
(on the Internet, yet). Here are the first six: Stalin,
Nicholas II, Lenin, Vysotsky, Peter I, Pushkin.
# 1838 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Nikolay D. Golev and Olga E. Yakovleva. Manipulative Strategies and Tactics of Mass Media Communication
The main contenders for the name of Russia are
a Georgian, a German, a evrokalmyk (not in the
sense of European Kalmyk, but in the sense of the
Jewish quarter), a semi-Jewish, a Russian. Hence,
people, solving such an important issue, choose a
person not by blood. That means that the frenzy
of nationalism, so much spoken about, has been a
little bit exaggerated (MC, 17/07/2008);
- a political one: Vladimir Lavrov, the deputy
director of the Institute of Russian History, Doctor
of Historical Sciences, who is worried about
Stalin’s and Lenin’s leadership on “The Name of
Russia” RTR television project, calls on “Russia”
TV channel for changing the rules of voting in
order not to allow the communists, consolidating
around their idols, to win. According to Professor
Lavrov, “Lenin’s or Stalin’s victory in the
referendum will cause the communists to declare
even more loudly that the results of presidential
and parliamentary elections in the country have
been rigged”;
- a geopolitical one (which is more global in
relation to the previous discourse): Perhaps, the
project supervisors quickly added the voices to
Nicholas, fearing that Stalin had got the first place
in the game they started. They started worrying
about the opinion of the West about them. But
the West really associates us with Stalin, vodka,
frost, bears (MC, 17/07/2008).
By the perlocution (impact implementation
on the audience) we mean the project results.
Strictly speaking, not only final published data
should be considered as the result. All sorts of
discourses which appeared in the course of the
project and were discussed in the article should
be taken into consideration However, the name of
the key Russian figure, detected (or presented as
such) during the project, still remains the central
problem.
The
project
perlocutionary
effect
determination has generated at least two levels
of doubt and two types of discourse. The first
and seemingly suggesting itself is the possible
manipulation with the election results. A striking
Stalin’s and Lenin’s leadership in the first two
phases of the project made not only the communist
ideology supporters doubt the final outcome.
Thus, according to the project’s official version,
“Echo of Moscow” radio station (with a clearly
“non-communist” audience), which announced
a similar vote in July 2008, faced the following
results: Stalin was given the first place and left
Nicholas II far behind. We can assume that in
order to avoid the undesirable “communist” finale
the project organizers gradually began promoting
a less controversial historic figure. Thus, in the
course of the project Alexander Nevsky became
known as St. Alexander Nevsky and then as a
blessed saint prince Alexander Nevsky. Watching
this transformation, some viewers of the project
proposed: “Should we, probably, just add “a
blessed saint prince Alexander Nevsky, the project
winner, a new Name of Russia”?” Meanwhile,
the figure of Alexander Nevsky in the final draft
is not accidental. The researcher I. Danilevsky
analyzes a similar evolution of the assessment
of Battle on the Ice’s and Alexander Nevsky’s
significance in Russian history: the battle, small
and local by its relevance, was reinterpreted first
by the church in the period of Orthodoxy crisis
(as a result a politically not-irreproachable Prince
Alexander was canonized as a faithful for his
refusal to join the catholics’ action against the
Horde). Later, in Soviet times, when “Alexander
Nevsky”, the film made in 1937 but kept notshown till the beginning of World War II, became
the basis for the formation and retention of a new
myth of Battle on the Ice in public consciousness,
in which a religious aspect gave the way to a
geopolitical one. Prince Alexander became
the main defender of Russia from Western
encroachments. Thus, Battle on the Ice became
a symbol of success. Summing up his historical
excursus, I. Danilevsky states that the impartial
# 1839 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Nikolay D. Golev and Olga E. Yakovleva. Manipulative Strategies and Tactics of Mass Media Communication
approach to the assessment of Battle on the Ice
has not yet found a due recognition in Russia. He
concludes: “On the contrary, there are the signs
that it will become popular to combine two heroic
traditions – “Orthodox” and “geopolitical” – in
the near future” (Danilevsky, 2004, p. 28-39).
Thus, we can assume that the project’s
outcome and, in particular, the discourses
generated by it fully correspond to our assumption
about the initially proposed directive, myth
forming communication. And, undoubtedly,
“historical” myth-making, the theme of historical
memory extends beyond the boundaries of
individual psychology. According to B. Dubin,
memory “can be adequately understood here
as a metaphor or a nest of metaphors, which
symbolically transcribe, signify and resignify
a more or less stable or, conversely, unstable
structure of the society and its basic institutions
in people’s minds” (Dubin, 2004, p. 68). In Russia
the collective identification and the structure
of an imaginary identity of people were subject
to a significant transformation in the course of
the past 20 years [Ibid.] In this case not only
the problem of adults’ heterogeneous identity is
relevant today. The quality of teaching history
in modern Russian school makes the researchers
talk about the loss of the unified cultural language
between generations, and it is largely due to the
gaps in presentation of the recent historical past,
including cultural studies, in school textbooks
(Veselov, 2004, p. 126-131). Consequently, there
is the ground for the planned perlocutionary effect
implementation in our contemporary Russian
society.
However, here comes another level of
doubt about its attainability. In our opinion, the
idea looks doubtful from the very beginning: as
the project organizers’ probable task is to find
a “new” historical identity of Russia, i.e. the
creation of the “Russia = N” rule, where N is
“a right historic figure in ideological terms”, it
becomes obvious that a single project, even if it
was broadcast weekly and for several months, is
unable to create the conditions for the emergence
of a regular “Russia = N” association. According
to Wittgenstein, “it is impossible that the rule
is followed by one person only and only once”
(Wittgenstein, 1994, p. 199). In other words, the
rule is usually observed in case of a repetitive
behavior in a similar situation (Volkov, 2008).
In addition, when we learn proper names
we investigate the background, the unconscious
people’s practice (Heidegger). Therefore,
identification of such categories as “The Name of
Russia” is a priori impossible if the study is not
done in the field but constructed artificially within
a TV project with the elements characteristic to a
show and demagogy.
Discussion
Therefore, the project results are not the
identification of the Russians’ real attitude to a
historic character but their attitude towards the
project and its participants. In order to make the
results of this experiment reliable it is necessary
to study people’s everyday attitude to history.
However, the issue of the most appropriate method
remains open as even a question like “Which
historic figure ...?” turns the practice from the
background to the foreground. Therefore, it is
likely that if we examine the actual practice of
the “relationship” between historic figures and
people who studied in a Soviet school, Stalin and
Lenin would have the highest rates. For example,
Lenin is not just an abstract historic figure.
He is a part of the history of Soviet children’s
personality development (the stories about little
Volodya Ul’yanov were an essential component
of kindergarten and elementary school curricular,
asterisk of October children, joining the pioneers’
organization on the leader’s birthday anniversary,
a solemn pioneers’ guard at Lenin’s bust at school,
etc.) while all the other “members” of the project
# 1840 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Nikolay D. Golev and Olga E. Yakovleva. Manipulative Strategies and Tactics of Mass Media Communication
are usual characters of the Russian history who
are better or worse studied at school.
It is also very important that the very
format of this show is been still undeveloped
by the Russians who have no cultivated habit
to reflect on their historical preferences and,
moreover, to participate in their public rankings.
The thoughts about this phenomenon can be
found on the site of the “Russian Line” Orthodox
Christian Information Agency: the question
itself contradicts the essential quality of Russian
patriotism – his conciliarism, when each person
supplements another, and when there can be
neither the first one nor the second one nor
the twenty-fifth one. However, it is hardly just
to exaggerate this side of national mentality.
The comparison of epochs, events and national
leaders is a key instrument to form the nation’s
ordinary historical consciousness. Some interest
to “ratings” can be already seen at the lowest
level – children’s “political science”. For example,
in the Soviet era there was a popular question
among children – “Who is the main (smarter,
more significant for the history) person – Lenin
or Stalin?” But, in fact, this issue is also highly
relevant for adult Russians. Let’s recall the
ideology of perestroika, where they seriously
discussed the role of Lenin and Stalin in our
history. For example, in the plays by M. Shatrova
Lenin is presented as an idealist, ideological
leader, the genius, whereas Stalin is shown as a
forger, discrediting Lenin’s ideas.
At the beginning of the show it might
have been assumed that the established project
objectives wouldn’t be achieved due to the essential
impossibility to respect the requirement for the
illusion formulated by Bourdieu and understood
as a necessary aspect of refinement, or insertion
in any game (Kharkhordin, 2008). However, in
this case the “The Name of Russia” project was
a success. Its initiators were able to “force” the
viewers (read: people) to play some symbolic
actions (e.g., to appoint a person, identified with
the state), to instill that the rates of the game are
valuable for all its participants.
In this case in the version of mass
consciousness the designers managed to hide
the fact that both the game itself and its rules
are conventional in every instance. That is why
the project captured a certain share of Russian
population, rather than a limited group of its
creators and participants, the search for the
declared value turned out to be up-to-date.
Conclusion
The very fact of the project’s existence
gave the incentive for parallel and quasi-voting,
including “The Anti-Name of Russia” and “The
Shame of Russia”. This indicates that the issue of
our attitude towards the names and significance
of their bearers for the Russian history and for
a contemporary Russian’s world view remains
open. However, our society’s mental activity
and a new energy discursive field, generated by
it, as well as activation of important fragments
of the Russian conceptual picture of the world,
included into the general ideological space of
modern Russia, have become the most important
manifestations of the project’s communicative
success. The analysis of such discourses and
modelling the national mentality on their
basis are major tasks of communicative and
cognitive linguistics. Their solution will lead to
a successful study of Russian society’s everyday
ideology as an important component of national
mentality.
References
Веселова А. Ю. [A.Yu. Veselova] Советская история глазами старшеклассников //
Отечественные записки. 2004. № 5 (20). С. 126–131.
# 1841 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Nikolay D. Golev and Olga E. Yakovleva. Manipulative Strategies and Tactics of Mass Media Communication
Витгенштейн Л. [L. Witgenshtein] Философские исследования // Философские работы. Ч. 1.
М.: «Гнозис», 1994.
Волков В. В. [V.V. Volkov] Витгенштейн и проблема «следования правилу» // Волков В. В.,
Хархордин О. В. Теория практик. СПб.: Издательство Европейского университета в СанктПетербурге. С. 84–102.
Данилевский И. Н. [I.N. Danilevsky] Ледовое побоище: смена образа // Отечественные
записки. 2004. № 5 (20). С. 28–39.
Дубин Б. В. [B.V. Dubin] «Кровавая» война и «великая» победа // Отечественные записки.
2004. № 5 (20). С. 68–84.
Зверева В. В. [V.V. Zvereva] История на ТВ: конструирование прошлого // Отечественные
записки. 2004. № 5 (20). С. 160–168.
Морозов В. Е. [V.E. Morozov] Россия и Другие: идентичность и границы политического
сообщества. М.: Новое литературное обозрение, 2009.
Остин Дж. Л. [J. Austin] Слово как действие // Новое в зарубежной лингвистике. Вып. XVII.
М., 1986. С. 22–131.
Манипулятивные стратегии и тактики СМИ
(на примере телевизионного проекта
«имя Россия»)
Н.Д. Голев, О.Е. Яковлева
Кемеровский государственный университет
Россия 650043, Кемерово, ул. Красная, 6
Исследуется проект «Имя Россия» как пример осуществления манипулятивных стратегий
и тактик средствами массовой информации в аспекте когнитивной и коммуникативной
лингвистики, теории речевого акта, обыденной политической лингвистики и концепции
практики в общественных науках.
Ключевые слова: СМИ, дискурс, речевое манипулирование, идентичность, политическая наука
в лингвистике, имена собственные.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 12 (2012 5) 1843-1849
~~~
УДК 658.5
Evaluation of Strategic Influence
of Socio-Economic Development Asymmetry
on Entrepreneurship Environment in the Region
Evgenya B. Bukharova*
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 04.12.2012, received in revised form 11.12.2012, accepted 24.12.2012
The article gives the ground to the necessity of considering asymmetry of spatial socio-economic
development for the process of elaborating entrepreneur development strategic trends. First of all,
the regional asymmetry is specific for two types of territories- rural and urban. The differentiation
of indicators has been analyzed by the example of Krasnoyarsk Krai and the developing Krasnoyarsk
Agglomeration, which influences an entrepreneurial environment of rural and urban areas as well as
the degree of territorial asymmetry. The hypothesis of multi-directional influence of the agglomeration
processes on conditions of entrepreneur development by territories is being justified. Taking this into
consideration, the necessity to reflect mechanisms aimed at reduction of level of spatial inequalityasymmetry, influencing business development and entrepreneur environment, in industrial policy is
substantiated.
Keywords: development startegy; entrepreneurship; aglomeration processes; multi-sector models of
territory development; economical potential; assymetry of socio-economic development; gross value
added ; economically active population; workforce mobility.
The work is performed in the frames of the project “Development of procedure for conducting
comparative international researches on social-economic development of the region and preparation
of the scientific report for the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
“Territorial Review of Krasnoyarsk agglomeration” supported by Krasnoyarsk Regional Fund of
Support to Scientific and Scientific-Technical activity
Introduction
Development of entrepreneurial sphere
is localized within a certain territory: subject
of Federation, municipality, city, settlement.
Entrepreneurial environment as a combination
of factors, determining dynamics and scale of
entrepreneur’s development in the region are
substantially determined from one hand- by a
*
1
supporting strategy of territorial authorities,
on the other hand- by existing socio-economic
conditions, internal and external disproportions.
Let’s take as an example the policy of supporting
small-scale and middle-scale entrepreneurship in
Krasnoyarsk Krai and developing Krasnoyarsk
Agglomeration. Strategic goal of supporting
small-scale and middle-scale entrepreneurship
Corresponding author E-mail address: bukharova@lan.krasu.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 1843 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Evgenya B. Bukharova. Evaluation of Strategic Influence of Socio-Economic Development Asymmetry…
in Krasnoyarsk Krai is creation conditions
for sustainable development of small-scale
and middle-scale businesses, which provide
improvement of Krai population`s life level
and quality, creation of workplaces, income
growth, consumer`s market satiety with goods
and services, alignment of asymmetry of
socio-economic development in the territory of
Krasnoyarsk Krai.
Among supporting actions of public
authorities are: providing stable conditions for
entrepreneurial activity through enhancement
of Krai legislative and normative documents,
reduction of administrative barriers, ensuring
an excess to infrastructure facilities, suppression
of growth rates for products and services of
monopolies; strengthening small-scale business
positions in Krai first-priority economic activities
via stimulation of integration with large-scale
business enterprises, including mechanisms
of sub-contracting and supporting cluster
initiatives; promotion of produced services and
goods to regional, national and international
markets; implementation of specific programs
for innovative and youth entrepreneurship
supporting; contribution in the development of
entrepreneurial personnel potential.
Among the regional priorities in the
development of small-scale and middle-scale
entrepreneurship are such activities as: innovations
commercialization, energy saving technologies,
sub-contracting with large-scale business
enterprises (engineering industry); foodstuff
production; equipment after-sale services;
vegetable growing, vegetables processing; wild
plants harvesting and processing; deep processing
of timber; low-rise housing; industrial facilities
construction; tourism activities.
As of the end of 2011 there were around
251 thousand employees in the sphere of smallscale and middle-scale entrepreneurship of
the Krai, which is 17,2 % of total employed in
Krai economics. Most of them are engaged in
retail and wholesale trade (31 %), real estate
transactions (19 %), construction (12 %),
processing productions (12 %), agriculture
and forestry (7 %). Turnover of small-scale
and middle-scale businesses (including micro
enterprises) was 458,9 billion rubles and
investment volume comprised to 20,8 billion
rubles.1
Some of Krasnoyarsk Krai entrepreneurial
activity indicators have certain deviations from
due Russian and Siberian Federal Okrug (SFO)
indicators. However, the level of entrepreneurial
development in Krai can be evaluated as relevant
to average Russian and SFO`s levels.
Krai corresponds to SFO and Russia by
the number of small-scale and middle-scale
businesses (including micro enterprises) per one
thousand inhabitants (13.0 units), and yields by
the share of employees engaged in small and
medium businesses enterprises in the average
total number of employees of all companies and
organizations – 24.0 % (SFO – 24,8 %, Russia –
25,1 %) as well as by investments in fixed capital
of small business ( excluding micro enterprises) –
1,9 thousand rubles per capita (SFO – 2,6 thousand
rubles, Russia – 2,0 thousand rubles).
At the same time small enterprises turnover
per capita (excluding micro enterprises) in Krai
significantly exceeds the average meanings
in SFO approaching to the average Russian
indicator ( Krai- – 87,0 thousand rubles, SFO –
69,0 thousand rubles, Russia – 90,3 thousand
rubles.).
The level of entrepreneurship development
varies considerably by Krai territories. 74 % of
all small-scale entrepreneurship subjects (69 % in
Krasnoyarsk city) are concentrated in the Central
area (including the Krasnoyarsk Agglomeration);
in West area – 6,8 %, in East area – 4,9 %, in
South – 3,9 %, in North – 5,5 %, in Angara River
region – 4,9 %. The most intensively small and
# 1844 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Evgenya B. Bukharova. Evaluation of Strategic Influence of Socio-Economic Development Asymmetry…
middle entrepreneurship is being developing in
cities and large municipalities.
At the same time on 26 % of Krasnoyarsk
Krai territory where almost 30 % of population
reside, supporting of socio- economic equilibrium
is possible only through the development of smallscale business, which provides workplaces, stable
income, filling of local customer`s market 2.
Within the certain year period financial
measures are being applied in Krai for supporting
small enterprises. Costs for supporting small
and middle-scale entrepreneurship are being
increased annually, the number of financial
assistance recipients is growing, supporting
infrastructure developing. Financial support per
one small and middle enterprise has increased in
Krai from 1,7 thousand rubles to 22,2 thousand
rubles (considering federal budget funds) within
the period 2008-2011.
In the framework of strategic trends of
socio-economic development of the Krai and its
industrial and social policy for the period up to
2020 it is projected that for small and middlescale business support the following indicator`s
level will be reached: the share of employed in the
sphere of small and middle entrepreneurship in
the total number of employed in economics will
increase up to 30 %; turnover of small enterprises
per one inhabitant of the Krai will be double
increased, turnover of middle enterprises – will
increase by 1,5 times; the share of production
segment in small and middle entrepreneurship
will come up to at least 35 percents.
Rezults
The
most
important
element
of
entrepreneurial development strategy in the
region is the reduction of spatial inequality under
the conditions of forming of entrepreneurial
environment and socio-economic development
asymmetry. Mechanisms of Krai agglomeration
processes development and management can be
such an element. Agglomerations formation is an
objective and actively developing process in the
Russian reality. However, along with the evident
positive economic, social, infrastructural and
town planning effects, which appear in the
process of agglomeration establishment, it is
necessary to evaluate possible negative influence
of agglomeration processes on entrepreneurial
environment development. It is connected
with the fact that agglomeration as a compact
combination of settlements, mainly urban, been
integrated in a complicated, multi-component
dynamic system with an intensive production,
transport and cultural interconnections, can
have a deep internal territorial differentiation.
Settlements
proximity
determines
an
agglomeration effect as an economic and social
benefit due to reduction of expenditures coming
from spatial concentration of productions and
other economic facilities within agglomeration
frames, thus creating prerequisites for further
establishment of businesses.
However, the nature of influence of world
and Russian urbanization processes on the
entrepreneurial environment and economics of
the territory could not be described by a definite
socio-economic trend as different regions have
both various t levels of industrial development
and differentiated conditions.
Agglomeration processes in Russia are
tightly connected with an interaction of two types
of territories: urban and rural areas. Herewith, 10
to 80 % of different Federation subject`s territory
is mainly rural areas. The problem is how to adjust
the existing all-Russia strategies for entrepreneur
development which are often branch-wise and
uniformly applied in the whole country excluding
established trajectories for rural and urban areas
development.
The Krasnoyarsk Agglomeration with
its center in the city of Krasnoyarsk, which
potential significantly exceeds municipalities
# 1845 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Evgenya B. Bukharova. Evaluation of Strategic Influence of Socio-Economic Development Asymmetry…
incorporated in Agglomeration, is considered in
the boundaries of the following municipalities:
cities- Krasnoyarsk, Sosnovoborsk, Divnogorsk
(urban areas); municipalities- Berezovskii,
Yemelianovskii, Manskii, Sukhobuzimskii (rural
areas).
Unlike the most agglomeration of
European part of the country, the Krasnoyarsk
Agglomeration first of all, has the less population
density, and secondly incorporates rural areas
(rural area is sizeable and is more than 40 %).
Key conditions for entrepreneurial environment
development in Krasnoyarsk Agglomeration are
accumulated economic and labor potential of the
Agglomeration in whole, the depth of asymmetry
of socio-economic development of territories
incorporated in agglomeration; entrepreneurial
activity by types of economic activity in
territories; the possibility of large industrial
facilities placement on the existing production
sites within agglomeration territory; availability
of relatively cheap electric energy; transport
potential; institutional mechanisms providing
coordination of territory cooperation2.
Gross value added (GVA), generated within
the Krasnoyarsk Agglomeration, exceeds gross
regional product (GRP) in number of SFO
regions. Along with the fact that the gross value
added (GVA) of Krasnoyarsk agglomeration is
more than in some Siberian regions, GVA per
employed or working in the agglomeration is also
higher than the average in SFO regions.
So, in 2010 GVA in current prices per capita
in the agglomeration was 1,2 times higher than
the average in SFO regions and GVA in current
prices per one worker was 1,4 times higher
compared to SFO and 1,2 times higher compared
to average Russian indicators in RF3.
The level and scale of Krasnoyarsk
Agglomeration development is significant for
Krai economics by number of all-Krai socioeconomic indicators.
The Krasnoyarsk Agglomeration is one of
the key sources for generating value added in
Krai. However a pattern of the produced value
added by the agglomeration territories varies.
(See Table 2).
In spite of unfavorable demographic trends,
the agglomeration labor potential is much
higher than that in Krai due to a high economic
activity of population and low unemployment
level in the territories incorporated in the
Agglomeration
Krasnoyarsk city has a determining impact
on the number of economically active population
of the Agglomeration. It is a center of attraction
of migration flows from Krai cities and territories,
including agglomeration municipalities.
Migration processes with the migration
inflows prevailing are an important factor of
changing the total number of urban population and
the number of its economically active share. The
urban share in agglomeration workforce number
was being increased from 82 % in 1999 to 84 %
in 2011. Resultant effect of other agglomeration
territories does not exceed 18 %.
The level of economical activity of
population was relatively high starting from 2007
by all agglomeration territories, and it slightly
varied by territories due to a commuting. The low
unemployment rate is also due to a commuting
as the share of employed by place of abode in the
total number of labor force is increasing.
The number of employed by place of abode
in 2010 has exceeded the number of employed by
main workplace. The growth rate of employed by
place of abode also exceeds the growth rate of
employed by main workplace5.
The basic trend of changing production
pattern in the Krasnoyarsk Agglomeration within
the last decade within the framework of threesector model, is connected with the increase
of tertiary economic sector up to the level of
secondary sector6 (See the Table 3).
# 1846 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Evgenya B. Bukharova. Evaluation of Strategic Influence of Socio-Economic Development Asymmetry…
2) Mining and quarrying, manufacturing, electricity, gas and
water supply
3) Construction
4) Wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles,
motorcycles and personal and household goods; hotels and
restaurants; transport storage and communication
5) Financial intermediation; real estate rending and business
activities
6) Public administration and defense, compulsory social
security; education; health and social work; other community,
social and personal service activities; private households with
employed persons
Total
Added
value of the
Agglomeration
added value in
the Krai, %
1) Agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing
Krasnoyarsk
Agglomeration, %
Sectors
Krasnoyarsk
Krai, %
Table 2. Gross value added pattern by economic sectors in 20114
3,90 %
0,94 %
7,5 %
55,83 %
43,49 %
24,2 %
7,30 %
7,79 %
33,2 %
16,32 %
30,96 %
60,0 %
5,95 %
5,89 %
30,8 %
10,70 %
10,93 %
31,8 %
100,00 %
100,00 %
31,1 %
Table 3. GVA pattern by agglomeration economic sectors (million rubles/ %)
Sector
Primary
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
0,88 %
0,88 %
1,42 %
3,83 %
4,16 %
Secondary
36,43 %
36,43 %
35,17 %
42,24 %
42,49 %
Tertiary
62,69 %
62,69 %
63,41 %
53,93 %
53,35 %
Regional production pattern by economic
sectors and by activities has one common feature –
the dominance of the city of Krasnoyarsk and
existing differences by other municipalities.
Economic structure by agglomeration cities
and municipalities in the context of sectors in
whole and sub sectors differs significantly. The
major part of GVA by all sectors is produced
in the metropolitan area of the Krasnoyarsk
city. In primary economic sector less than 1 %
of GVA is produced in three municipalities and
only in three territories: Berezovskii (6,4 %),
Yemelianovskii (4,85 %) and Sukhobuzimskii
(1,65 %) GVA volume is 1,65 % to 6,4 % due to the
development of agricultural sector. These three
territories are suburban and the development of
entrepreneurship in agricultural sector is aimed
at supplying the city of Krasnoyarsk with. So, the
primary sector – Berezovskii and Yemelianovskii
territories is focused at the development of
agro- industrial complex. Secondary economic
sector is concentrated in the city of Divnogorsk
(production of electric energy and processing
industries) and in Berezovskii territory (timber
processing and food industry). Yemelianovskii
territory, where transport and logistics hub is
developing on the basis of existing airport, is
the most distinctive territory among the other
territories except for Krasnoyarsk in tertiary
economic sector (services, including transport).
# 1847 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Evgenya B. Bukharova. Evaluation of Strategic Influence of Socio-Economic Development Asymmetry…
Differentiation of the examined summarizing
indicators can be a measure of asymmetry of
socio-economic development of agglomeration
territories.
Analysis of indicators distribution by
territories shows that agglomeration processes
have a positive influence on the position of
Krasnoyarsk city and Yemelianovskii territory
both in economical- entrepreneurial and social
sense, characterized by the level of socioeconomic development which is higher than the
average of the Krai. Berezovskii territory also
favorable preconditions foe entrepreneurship
development. So far agglomeration processes has
negative consequences for the other territories.
There are two tendencies. First of all, the ongoing
agglomeration process smoothes socio-economic
asymmetry as the agglomeration labor market
is under the positive pressure of the city of
Krasnoyarsk. Against the background of high
level of able-bodied population of neighboring
territories mobility the entrepreneurial activity,
labor productivity, and incomes of the population is
growing by agglomeration in whole and by separate
territories as well. Secondly, a redistribution of
the skilled labor force from municipalities into
Krasnoyarsk city takes place followed by reduction
of investment attractiveness for entrepreneurs.
1
2
3
4
5
6
Conclusions
Due to that it is necessary to pay attention
to additional mechanisms for regulation of
agglomeration processes with an accent to a
differentiated economical policy of rural and
urban areas incorporated in agglomeration.
The development of entrepreneurship for
urban areas of Krasnoyarsk agglomeration
should focus on the growth of secondary
and tertiary sectors of economics. Within
the last time the world practice creates new
approaches in respect of rural areas, aimed
at mixed industrial and agrarian development
of entrepreneurship in primary and tertiary
sectors of economics.
An analysis of asymmetry of socio-economic
conditions on the development of entrepreneurial
environment development conducted on the
example of the Krasnoyarsk agglomeration
shows that during the elaboration entrepreneur
development strategy in Krasnoyarsk Krai it is
necessary to establish a differentiated industrial
policy in the context of separate Krai territories
for supporting small and middle-scale business.
It will allow minimum 1,5 times reduction of
inequality level in spatial development of small
and middle-scale business between Krasnoyarsk
Krai territories.
Calculated on the basis of continuous statistical monitoring of small-scale and medium-scale enterprises activities in
2010- www.gsk.ru
Investment passport of Krasnoyarsk Krai http://passport.krskstate.ru/kras-region/territory/transport/
Web site of Federal Statistics Service www.gsk.ru
Svetlana À. Samusenko, Evgenia B. Bukharova, Vladislav N. Rutskyi and Dmitry À. Maslodudov Trends for the Development of Entrepreneurial and Innovative Activity in Krasnoyarsk Agglomeration// Siberian Federal University journal.
Issue 5 (10).2012. p. 1492-1499.
Irina P. Vorontsova, Alexander N. Pozdeev and Tatiana A. Samylkina Evolution of a Large-Scale Agglomeration Labour
Market (Based on the Example of the Krasnoyarsk Agglomeration)// Siberian Federal University journal. Issue 5(10).2012.
p. 1465-1474
Three-sector model of the economy considers economy as the combination of branches (enterprises), conventionally divided into three sectors. Primary sector integrates industries related to raw materials extraction and its processing into
semi-products. Secondary sector integrates productions of industries dealing with fi nal products manufacturing. Tertiary
sector include services (transport, communications, trade, tourism, healthcare etc.).
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Evgenya B. Bukharova. Evaluation of Strategic Influence of Socio-Economic Development Asymmetry…
References
Investment passport of Krasnoyarsk Krai http://passport.krskstate.ru/kras-region/territory/
transport/
Web site of Federal Statistics Service www.gsk.ru
Svetlana À. Samusenko, Evgenia B. Bukharova, Vladislav N. Rutskyi and Dmitry À. Maslodudov
Trends for the Development of Entrepreneurial and Innovative Activity in Krasnoyarsk Agglomeration//
Siberian Federal University journal. Issue 5(10).2012. p. 1492-1499
Irina P. Vorontsova, Alexander N. Pozdeev and Tatiana A. Samylkina Evolution of a Large-Scale
Agglomeration Labour Market (Based on the Example of the Krasnoyarsk Agglomeration)// Siberian
Federal University journal. Issue 5(10).2012. p. 1465-1474
Оценка стратегического влияния асимметрии
социально-экономического развития
на предпринимательский климат в регионе
Е.Б. Бухарова
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
В статье обоснована необходимость учитывать при формировании стратегических
направлений развития предпринимательства асимметрию пространственного социальноэкономического развития. В первую очередь территориальная асимметрия характерна для
двух типов территорий – урбанизированные и неурбанизированные регионы. На примере
Красноярского края и создаваемой агломерации проанализирована дифференциация
показателей, которые влияют на предпринимательский климат урбанизированных и
неурбанизированных территорий и степень территориальной асимметрии. Обозначена
гипотеза разнонаправленного влияния агломерационных процессов на условия развития
предпринимательства по территориям. С учетом этого обосновывается необходимость
отражения в промышленной политике региона механизмов, направленных на сокращение
уровня пространственного неравенства-асимметрии, влияющих на условия развития бизнеса
и предпринимательский климат.
Ключевые слова: стратегия развития, предпринимательство, агломерационные процессы,
многосекторные модели развития территории, экономический потенциал, асимметрия
социально-экономического развития, валовая добавленная стоимость, экономически активное
население, мобильность трудовых ресурсов.
Работа выполнена в рамках проекта «Разработка методики проведения сравнительных
международных исследований по социально-экономическому развитию региона и подготовка
научного доклада для организации экономического сотрудничества и развития (ОЭСР)
«Территориальный обзор по Красноярской агломерации», поддержанного ККФПН и НТД.
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
58
Размер файла
1 535 Кб
Теги
2343
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа