Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Æóðíàë Ñèáèðñêîãî ôåäåðàëüíîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà 2012 Journal of Siberian Federal University 5 (12) Ãóìàíèòàðíûå íàóêè Humanities & Social Sciences Редакционный совет академик РАН Е.А.Ваганов академик РАН И.И.Гительзон академик РАН А.Г.Дегерменджи академик РАН В.Ф.Шабанов чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук В.Л.Миронов чл.-к. РАН, д-р техн. наук Г.Л.Пашков чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук В.В.Шайдуров член-корр. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук В.В. Зуев Editorial Advisory Board Chairman: Eugene A. Vaganov Members: Josef J. Gitelzon Vasily F. Shabanov Andrey G. Degermendzhy Valery L. Mironov Gennady L. Pashkov Vladimir V. Shaidurov Vladimir V. Zuev Editorial Board: Editor-in-Chief: Mikhail I. Gladyshev Founding Editor: Vladimir I. Kolmakov Managing Editor: Olga F. Alexandrova Executive Editor for Humanities & Social Sciences: Natalia P. Koptseva CONTENTS / ÑÎÄÅÐÆÀÍÈÅ Stephen A. Beebe The Importance of Communication Skill Instruction and Research in a Changing Society – 1717 – Sergey G. Korkonosenko Deontology of Journalism as a Field of Moral Choice for a Professional – 1723 – Viacheslav B. Kashkin Telementation vs. Interaction: Which Model Suits Human Communication Best? – 1733 – David C. Williams, Marilyn J. Young and Michael K. Launer A Methodology for Analyzing Political Speech: Western Approaches to Rhetorical Theory – 1744 – Lyudmila V. Kulikova Technologisation of Discourse Practices: Globality Versus Cultural Specificity – 1753 – Heidemarie Salevsky Cross-Cultural Communication as a Mirror of Civilization (German Translations of Russian Literature as a Case in Point) – 1762 – Olga A. Leontovich Understanding as the Beginning of Agreement: Linguistic Aspects of Intercultural Family Communication – 1772 – Компьютерная верстка Е.В. Гревцовой Подписано в печать 23.11.2012 г. Формат 84x108/16. Усл. печ. л. 11,0. Уч.-изд. л. 10,5. Бумага тип. Печать офсетная. Тираж 1000 экз. Заказ 10926. Отпечатано в ПЦ БИК. 660041 Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 82а. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Consulting Editors for Humanities & Social Sciences: Gershon M. Breslavs Sergey V. Deviatkin Sergey A. Drobyshevsky Sergey M. Geraschenko Oleg M. Gotlib Boris I. Khasan Igor E. Kim Natalia V. Kovtun Aleksandr A. Kronik Pavel V. Mandryka Boris V. Markov Valentin G. Nemirovsky Daniel V. Pivovarov Andrey V. Smirnov Viktor I. Suslov Evgeniya V. Zander Igor S. Pyzhev Vladimir I. Suprun Liudmila V. Kulikova Olga G. Smolyaninova Nicolai N. Petro Dr. Suneel Kumar Francisco R. Cuenca Communication as a Teaching/Learning Strategy in Bilingual Education – 1781 – Vladimir I. Zhelvis Rudeness as a System of Strategies and an Object of Classification – 1790 – Elena N. Klemenova The Sense as the Dominant Generating Speech Communication – 1798 – Yana V. Popova Taboo Breaking as a Current Tendency of Discursive Interpretation of Taboo Speech Meanings – 1806 – Natalia K. Dmitrieva Academic Mobility as a Prerequisite of Cross-Cultural Communication and Professional Competency Development – 1814 – Свидетельство о регистрации СМИ ПИ № ФС77-28-723 от 29.06.2007 г. Серия включена в «Перечень ведущих рецензируемых научных журналов и изданий, в которых должны быть опубликованы основные научные результаты диссертации на соискание ученой степени доктора и кандидата наук» (редакция 2010 г.) Irina N. Rozina and Nadezda S. Zhukova Discussion Forum as the Central Element of the Online Seminar: Content-Analysis of Posts by German Students – 1823 – Nikolay D. Golev and Olga E. Yakovleva Manipulative Strategies and Tactics of Mass Media Communication (on the example of œThe Name of RussiaB television project) – 1834 – Evgenya B. Bukharova Evaluation of Strategic Influence of Socio-Economic Development Asymmetry on Entrepreneurship Environment in the Region – 1843 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 12 (2012 5) 1717-1722 ~~~ УДК 808.5: 378.016 The Importance of Communication Skill Instruction and Research in a Changing Society Stephen A. Beebe* San Marcos, Texas State University The Department of Communication Studies Centennial Hall, Room 205, 601 University Drive, San Marcos, TX 78666 1 Received 04.12.2012, received in revised form 11.12.2012, accepted 24.12.2012 The purpose of this paper is to describe the importance of communication skill development as central to the communication discipline. In addition, additional theory and research is needed to support prescriptions for enhanced communication effectiveness. The paper presents arguments suggesting that improving human communication skills should be a critical element in communication curricula. Specifically, the paper reviews the importance of communication skill development in the past, the centrality of skill development in contemporary communication curricula and makes a case that communication skill and theory and research about communication skills are needed in the future. Keywords: communication, skills, communication discipline, instruction, curriculum, competencies Introduction The development of communication skills has been a prime objective of communication research and pedagogy for centuries. Humans have been and continue to be interested in how to communicate effectively, appropriately and ethically. Contemporary books that prescribe how to enhance communication skills (e.g. The 5 Love Languages: the Secret to Love that Lasts, Chapman, 1992; How to Win Friends and Influence People, Carnegie, 1936) continue to appear on bestseller book lists. Ancient Greek and Roman philosopher/rhetoricians suggested that the study and practice of rhetoric should emerge from philosophy, the search for truth, and human virtues of goodness and ethical thought and action. Anchoring the rhetorical process in * 1 philosophy was, in part, a reaction to sophists who emphasized more behavioral elements of rhetoric rather than cognitive-philosophical perspectives. Today communication instruction de-emphasizes the philosophical underpinnings of communication in favor of the cognitive, behavioral and affective domains of learning. Historical Background Contemporary study of communication in the U.S. emerged from early 20th century academic departments that taught English literature and composition. The study of written English and literature was among the first specialized areas of study to gain department status. Embedded within early departments of English were educators who emphasized spoken rhetoric. By the late 1800s, it Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 1717 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Stephen A. Beebe. The Importance of Communication Skill Instruction and Research in a Changing Society was not uncommon for faculty members interested in elocution to form sub-groups within English departments. By the early 1900s it became clear that several teachers of elocution were growing increasingly uncomfortable teaching elocution and declamation in academic departments that primarily emphasized written messages. The Eastern Public Speaking Conference in 1910 was the first organized effort to establish a network of public speaking and elocution teachers in the United States; at their second meeting, the members approved the first journal, Public Speaking Review. The first national effort to organize a professional association of public speaking teachers occurred on November 28, 1914 at the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) conference when a group of 17 public speaking teachers met to form a new association. The new national organization was first a division within NTCE for teachers of “Oral English”. The 1914 meeting, and the subsequent organization which was established, grew and evolved into what is today the National Communication Association, the oldest and largest national communication association in the world. The Eastern Public Speaking Conference continues today as the oldest regional communication association known as the Eastern Communication Association. With a national network of speech teachers established, the study of “oral English” soon became a more robust fi xture in U.S. colleges and universities. The early focus of the association was to develop greater legitimacy and prestige for teaching public speaking; the group sought to distance itself from “elocution” and focus on more than the delivery of messages. Leaders in the speech movement believed that in order to gain academic respectability, speech teachers would need to do more than teach speech; they would need to develop a research agenda to fully join their colleagues as a full-fledged member of the academic community (Cohen, 1994). A Research Committee was established to develop a list of appropriate research topics for study. The ten topics identified in their 1915 report were: 1. Elocution and expression 2. Public speaking and oratory 3. Debate and discussion 4. Expressive reading and reciting 5. Reading and literature 6. Teaching each of the foregoing subjects 7. Physiology and psychology 8. Psychology of social groups 9. Sociology of communication (interpersonal communication) History of each of the foregoing subjects (“Research in Public Speaking,” 1915, 28 cited by Cohen 1994, p. 41). Cohen (1994) noted that the list of titles “... suggested by the committee gave a clear picture of how the discipline was received at its outset and presented us with a taxonomy which may be compared with the perceptions of divisions [in the National Communication Association] in the 1990s.” (p. 40). Contemporary Communication Research These early areas of study can still be found as echoes in contemporary communication curricula in the United States. The focus on early “speech” education was on how to improve speech and reading performance. The skills of speaking and listening also have their roots in the humanities and social sciences. Charles Woolbert, an early leader of the association, from the outset that suggested the study of speech was interdisciplinary. In 1916 he identified the disciplines of education, sociology, political economy, political science, law, history, English, physics physiology and anatomy, psychology, and philosophy as disciplines that could add to the study of speech (Cohen, 1994). The influence of # 1718 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Stephen A. Beebe. The Importance of Communication Skill Instruction and Research in a Changing Society Woolbert’s interdisciplinary vision is evident in contemporary communication curricula. The conceptual shift from a study of speech performance (a focus on skill development) to communication processes (a focus on cognitive, intellectual, cultural and communibiological processes) frames the conceptual domains of both the current foci of the communication discipline as well as how it is investigated. The evolution of the contemporary study of “communication” from an historical focus on “speech” epitomizes the importance of identifying the core conceptual domain (skills and processes) of the discipline. Macke (1991) argues that the contemporary communication discipline has evolved from the study of speech, or more specifically, a focus on “teaching the body” – vocal and physical communication skills. Starting with the Greek sophists and embodied by European and American elocutionists who broke away from English teachers to focus on public speaking and performance, the communication discipline has a long-held tradition of studying and teaching how to enhance the effectiveness of human expression by emphasizing speech delivery. Macke (1991) notes that some educators and scholars view the contemporary study of communication in a negative light because of its perceived overemphasis on skills and mere performance. Communication researchers such as Burgoon (1989) have castigated those who focus on skill development at the expense of theory development. During the past one hundred years the study of speech has evolved to focus less on “teaching the body” to a focus on “teaching the mind” by investigating theoretical and conceptual explanations to help enhance our understanding of human communication. Although public speaking classes and other skill development courses such as discussion, voice and diction, and conflict management constitute elements of contemporary communication curricula, there appear to be fewer courses that teach primarily skills, with the notable exception of courses required for general education. Contemporary communication research has a stronger theoretical focus with an emphasis on how the meaning of messages is created and interpreted. The separation of speech faculty from theatre faculty in academic departments in the U.S. in the past twenty years, coupled with dropping the word “speech” from the Speech Communication Association in 1997, changing it to the National Communication Association, were responses to the shift from a focus of the intellectual domain of the discipline from “teaching the body” to “teaching the mind”. Because of the evolution from emphasizing body (communication skills) to mind (communication process), it is less surprising that scholars who seek to identify the conceptual or core intellectual domain of the discipline focus on conceptual schema rather than speech performance. Basic Communication Competencies Although there has been a shift from a focus on speech performance to communication processes, there are nonetheless core skills that help define the nature of an academic discipline. Three clusters of communication skill sets in unmediated settings emerge from studies that identify communication practices valued in the work place: Relating skills (interpersonal communication skills), collaborating skills (group communication skills) and presentations skills (public speaking skills). These three skill contexts are the most dominant communication skill clusters. Communication competence research that has been conducted in the last two decades has sought to assess specific communication competencies in interpersonal communication (Spitzberg & Hurt, 1987) public communication (Morreale et al., 1993) and # 1719 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Stephen A. Beebe. The Importance of Communication Skill Instruction and Research in a Changing Society small group communication (Beebe & Barge, 2003). The number of people involved in the communication process (e.g., interpersonal communication involves fewer people than group or public communication) and the complexity of the communication structure (e.g., interpersonal communication is less structured and public communication messages are more structured) typically differentiate these three contexts. Rubin and Morreale (2000) developed a comprehensive classification of the most basic communication skills, specifically expectations for College Graduates. These skills are listed. As noted by Rubin and Morreale (2000), “Basic skills are minimal competencies and represent abilities, core knowledge, and attitudes necessary for effective functioning in society and in the workplace” (p. 55). Expected Student Outcomes for Speaking and Listening Basic Communication Course and General Education Speaking Competencies • Determine the purpose of oral discourse. • Choose a topic and restrict it according to the purpose and the audience. • Fulfill the purpose of oral discourse by: Formulating a thesis statement. Providing adequate support material. Selecting suitable organizational pattern. Demonstrating careful choice of words. Providing effective transitions. Delivery Competencies • Employ vocal variety in rate, pitch, and intensity. • Articulate clearly. • Employ language appropriate to the designated audience. • Demonstrate nonverbal behavior that supports the verbal message. Interpersonal Skills • Demonstrate appropriate interpersonal skills for various contexts. • Display self-awareness as a communicator. • Select from a repertoire of interpersonal skills, those strategies that enhance relationships. • Use a conversational mode through selfpresentation and response to feedback. Listening competencies • Recognize main ideas. • Identify supporting details. • Recognize explicit relationships among ideas. • Recall basic ideas and details. • Attend with an open mind. • Perceive the speaker’s purpose and organization of ideas and information. • Discriminate between statements of fact and statements of opinion. • Distinguish between emotional and logical arguments. • Detect bias and prejudice. • Recognize the speaker’s attitude. • Synthesize and evaluate by drawing logical inferences and conclusions. • Recall the implications and arguments. • Recognize discrepancies between the speaker’s verbal and nonverbal messages. • Employ active listening techniques when appropriate. Source: Speaking and Listening Competencies for College Students (1999). Annandale, VA: National Communication Association. Conclusion Regardless of which specific skill set or context is being considered, Masterson, Beebe & Watson, (1989) suggest that effective communication can be evaluated by three # 1720 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Stephen A. Beebe. The Importance of Communication Skill Instruction and Research in a Changing Society criteria: (1) a message should be understood, (2) a message should achieve the intended goal, and (3) the message should be ethical. This tripartite taxonomy is further developed by Beebe, Beebe and Ivy (2013). Students who are taught these criteria at the outset of learning communication skills learn that effective communication is more than just accurately “sending” a message or simple trying to persuade someone else to do something. References Beebe, S. A. & Barge, J. K. (2003). Evaluating group discussion. In R. C. Hirokawa, Small group communication theory and practice: An Anthology, Los Angeles, CA: Roxbury., pp. 275-288. Beebe, S. A., Beebe, S. J., & Ivy, D. K. (2013). Communication: Principles for a lifetime. Boston: Pearson. Burgoon, M. (1989). Instruction about communication: On divorcing dame speech. Communication Education, 38, 303-308. Carnegie, D. (1936). How to win friends and influence people. New York: Simon & Schuster. Masterson, J. T., Beebe, S. A., & Watson, N. T. (1989). Speech communication: Theory and practice. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. Chapman, G. (1992). The 5 love languages: The secret to love that lasts (1992). Chicago, IL: Northfield Publishing. Cohen, H. (1994). The history of speech communication: The emergence of a discipline, 19141945. Annandale, VA: Speech Communication Association. Macke, F. J. (1991). Communication left speechless: A critical examination of the evolution of speech communication as an academic discipline. Communication Education, 40, 125-143. Morreale, S. P., Moore, M., Taylor, P., Surges-Tatum, D., & Hulbert-Johnson, R. (1993). The competent speaker speech evaluation form. Washington D. C: National Communication Association. Rubin, R. B & Morreale, S. P. (2000). What college students should know and be able to do. Journal of the Association for Communication Administration, 29, 53-65. Spitzberg, B. H., & Hurt, H. T. (1987). The measurement of interpersonal skills in instructional contexts. Communication Education, 36. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Stephen A. Beebe. The Importance of Communication Skill Instruction and Research in a Changing Society Коммуникативные навыки в изменяющемся мире: исследовательский и дидактический аспекты Стивен Биби Сан Маркос, Техасский государственный университет Centennial Hall, Room 205 601 University Drive San Marcos, TX 78666 В статье рассматривается важность развития коммуникативных навыков как фундаментальной составляющей коммуникативистики. Кроме того, существует потребность дальнейшей теоретической и эмпирической разработки проблем эффективности коммуникации. В статье обосновывается положение о том, что кардинальным моментом в рабочих программах коммуникативных дисциплин должно стать развитие коммуникативных навыков. Автор останавливается на основных исторических этапах развития коммуникативного образования: в прошлом, настоящем и будущем развития коммуникативных навыков, а также исследует разработку теоретических основ их выработки, которые были, есть и будут настоятельной потребностью. Ключевые слова: коммуникация, навыки, коммуникативистика, обучение, учебные программы, компетенции. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 12 (2012 5) 1723-1732 ~~~ УДК 070.11 Deontology of Journalism as a Field of Moral Choice for a Professional Sergey G. Korkonosenko* St. Petersburg State University 26 1-ya Linia V.O, St. Petersburg, 199004 Russia 1 Received 04.12.2012, received in revised form 11.12.2012, accepted 24.12.2012 The author examines the concept and the content of the journalism deontology in comparison with professional ethics and morality. According to his estimation, deontology is a field of the principles of profession, on the basis of synthesis of which the mission appears. One of the main qualitative characteristics of deontology consists in the fact that it joins the knowledge of objective laws and the subjective position of the media professional that forces him to make a moral choice. Keywords: deontology, journalism, mission, principle, moral choice. Problem viewpoint One of the central places in the media theory belongs to deontological bases of journalism. They are in close interrelations with the laws of press. Interrelations, however, is not equivalent to direct subordination. Both one and another contain a powerful potential to regulate processes in journalism from the side of society and its agents, as well as the self-regulation processes developing inside journalism. Our aim is to characterize deontology as a phenomenon that plays a special and essential part in the theory and (especially) practices of journalism. Today there is no necessity to argue an importance of the deontology study. It is even officially recognized as an obligatory element of qualification of a mass media employee. In particular, one of the State Educational Standards of the “Journalism” speciality, in the section of general professional disciplines, mentions it in * 1 such formulations: “Journalistic deontology” and “Economic, legal, deontological nature of collisions and searching ways to settle them”. At the same time, as it seems, the role and the place of deontology in the journalism theory are determined not precisely enough. At least it did not get the standard description as an object of research (one of the largest and “influential” objects) that determines the matter and concepts of other categories. The main reason is that deontology as a separate area of scientific knowledge is young; it only tries to comprehend itself though, paradoxically, its historical roots are deep and strong. The told should be related to many disciplines that include deontology into own structure as a subdivision or a corner of sight on the basic object. Usually in a number of such disciplines medicine, jurisprudence, pedagogy, and other spheres of practical and scientific activity are mentioned, because they conduct Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 1723 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sergey G. Korkonosenko. Deontology of Journalism as a Field of Moral Choice for a Professional highly close contacts with needs of the society and a person. Undoubtedly, journalism, as practices and a field of knowledge, also belongs to the spheres with social-humanitarian dominants. And the situation of deontological disorder has a high actuality for it. This picture is in detail reflected in special research publications: somebody relates deontology to ethics, law, or certain intermediate zone between them (Prohorov, 2001, p. 214– 215). According to our observations, gravitation towards ethics is particularly typical, especially to the most formalized and instrumental part of it. Such a position is characteristic not only for the Russian authors, but also for representatives of the international scientific community. For example, the report materials made by foreign consultants for the Council of Europe and placed on a site of the Union of Journalists of Russia (1995), are entitled as the “Rules of Self-regulation in the Field of Deontology of Press”. The report gives the comparative analysis of ethical codes and practices of the press councils in the countries of the European Union. According to a subject of analysis the norms and measures directed to optimisation of activity of media organizations and their employees are considered here (Council of Europe, 1995). It is noticeable that some of the codes are named as deontological. In rather more developed scientific systems (for example in medicine) the illegitimacy of such identification is emphasized. If to accept joining to ethics as a general rule (as well as identification with other regulative systems in journalism) there would not be a necessity to separate deontology as a special subject for study. Against this objection some authors offered the idea to consider deontology as an “ex-territorial” formation that incorporates all kinds of regulations. The following definitions were proposed, in particular: “A set of legal and ethical standards of responsible behaviour of mass media employees” (Lozovskii, 2007, p. 56), “A set of duties ‘serving’ journalistic obligations and norms of their carrying out without dependence on their comprehension, as a certain system of categorical imperatives of the journalistic behaviour set by the nature of mass media operating in this or that situation” (Prokhorov, 2001, p. 232), and others. In our opinion, the way of summation causes extensive effects, but it does not lead to understanding of a qualitative originality of deontology, as well as it does not open an opportunity to consider deontology in a context of intrinsic characteristics of journalism. The list of obligations of the press is endless; the enumeration of them will take a lot of time and efforts and, most likely, from the theoretic-methodical point of view it would look like no more than a primitive description. Besides the quoted definitions concentrate attention on a normative aspect of the question, and in this respect they are similar to the position of the European experts presented above. Such deontology hardly has chances to stand at the same level with fundamental categories of journalism – it will inevitably realize itself as a collection of rules and interdictions, more or less widely spread in a profession and more or less obligatory. If it is deontology indeed, it is lowered to a utilitarian-pragmatic level. At last, if to agree that imperatives are predetermined by the nature of mass media (perhaps, in this case it would be more correct to refer to the nature of journalism) they should operate objectively, as a direct continuation of the laws of the press. This means that a set of duties and norms operates without dependence on their comprehension by media professionals – that is, objectively, without journalist’s will and feelings. We would not like to reduce our reflections to criticism of definitions and interpretation proposed by other authors. Without any doubt, the works of authoritative scientists contain a good deal of truth and benefits for the development of # 1724 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sergey G. Korkonosenko. Deontology of Journalism as a Field of Moral Choice for a Professional science. The object of research is so whimsical, that it does not allow finding room for it entirely in this or that system of analysis. At the same time deontology should not stay on secondary positions in the theory of journalism. It is able to give researchers a key to answer radical questions that can hardly be settled in other coordinates or have no solutions at all. Discussion on the matter of subject In a deontological prospect the approaches to the ideal in journalism are being opened – we mean the constructing of such model of practice that harmonizes public expectations, natural properties of the press, subjective aspirations of its leaders and employees, and also results of studying it in science. However, for this purpose it is necessary to deal with lexical and semantic distinctions between basic concepts that are chosen by the will of this or that author. The normative treatment of deontology operates with a concept of the duty. In our version the key concept is the due. The difference, on fluent impression, can seem insignificant, but we think it to be a basic one. In the first case the emphasis is done on obligations of the press, in the second case – on the necessary and true behaviour, without which the life will lose its natural order and vector of development. If so, deontology becomes an area where the ideal is being formed on the basis of laws one has got to know. Thus, the priority of objective nature (the laws) is kept in its relation to subjective knowledge produced by experience and consciousness. But the consciousness also plays an active part, it lives in a continuous search of the best choice in the whole volume of knowledge; it correlates the laws with each other, operating in the light of the laws content, but not under their dictatorship. I. Kant specified the activity of consciousness in its relation to the objective nature and also the practicality of an ideal when he described the moral world – the world that conforms to all moral laws. The moral world, according to the philosopher, is thought only as comprehensible through the intellect. Hence, in this sense it is only an idea, however a practical idea that really can and should have influence on the sensual world to make it, whenever possible, adequate to the idea (Kant, 1999, p. 596). The due in journalism, as well as in a socialmoral choice in general, is a necessity understood and accepted by people and included by them into personal world outlook and own strategy of behaviour. Such statement of a question induces to include into analysis a corresponding “measuring instrument” and representation on the due, which would give a possibility to make reflections at a level of moral foundations of journalism. The category of a principle corresponds to the given task in full. In lexicographical dimension the principle is understood as a general idea of the certain theory, then as belief and views, and then as a main feature of any system. Each of these meanings will find its place in the description of deontology performing corresponding representations on the due. Deontology is a conceptual reconstruction of journalism built on different theoretical bases. It is also an integral characteristic of professional consciousness and behaviour in journalism. It is, at last, a “mechanism” of press’s vital activity that ascends finally to its objective laws. Researchers of the journalistic ethics (which consists in direct relationship with deontology, as it was told before) formulate some principles, though the list of them differs in domestic and foreign sources (Lazutina, 2006; Lambeth, 1992). The word “principle” is included in ethical codes of press in Austria, Belgium, Germany, while in Greece the code has a name “Principles of Deontology” (Kazakov, 1999). Certainly, it is necessary to use actively all this rich theoretical experience. But there is one fundamental condition: we have to draw a differentiating line between ethics and # 1725 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sergey G. Korkonosenko. Deontology of Journalism as a Field of Moral Choice for a Professional deontology. After that some of ideas offered by experts in “a ready-made” form will pass to the category of deontological principles. Maybe, after this operation the independent category of principles of ethics will be kept, but also another way is possible: deontology becomes an area of principles, on which the “building” of ethical standards and rules should be constructed. We consider the second variant more proved and more probable. At least, inclusion of principles in research works on ethics cannot be a mechanical operation; it demands a fundamental methodological substantiation. Meanwhile it occurs not in each case. For example, in a methodical publication for students devoted to professional journalist’s ethics in the USA the following principles are performed as independent themes: freedom of speech, truthfulness, justice and humanity (Kumylganova, 2003). Indeed, in itself they cannot cause objections, they are valuable and noble by origin; this list coincides with a complex of principles proposed by the American expert Edmund B. Lambeth – the author of a monograph that is well known in Russian thanks to the translated publication. However, the authoritative scientist’s position is not a sufficient methodological basis for the solution of a complicated theoretical problem. There should be something more general, which lies under concrete formulations – the substance, from which principles arise, these ones, but not others. The investigations in the field of moral dimension of professionalism can give answers to so difficult and important questions. For a few years the Tyumen Applied Ethics Research Institute (earlier – Centre) has been working in this direction especially actively. A long cycle of research projects became the appreciable phenomenon in profession studies. Special attention was paid to such spheres of practices, in which the intention of social and humanitarian responsibility is seen extremely clear: education, management, science, etc. In this group the journalism also has its place, and special project has been aimed at moral-ethical studying of the press. The examination with a participation of a large group of experts has shown that “journalists, irrespectively to a divergence in attitudes, consider both possible and necessary to consider a choice of a profession in categories of a moral choice, according to them this component of the profession is its world outlook bases ... namely a problem of a moral choice” (Bakshtanovskii and Sogomonov, 2002, p. 208). The organizers of the project make common cause with the given conclusion, moreover, it completely corresponds to their concept of moral-ethical understanding of the profession, which goes back to the ideas of M. Weber and other outstanding sociologists and philosophers of ethics. For our research such generalization is extremely significant. It enables in reflections on the journalism deontology to come out of the territory of the press and to see journalism in a light of general category of socalled high professions, but not only in limits of corporation norms. In high professions the idea of devotion is accented which overcomes positions of pragmatic functionality and adaptability to the production needs. For this reason the course of Tyumen authors’ reflections about high professions as a whole is interesting for us. We shall reproduce it in the form of a logic dotted line. The complete construction of ethics consists of several floors, in the process of lowering of their “height”: fundamental, applied, professional. The last is divided into the practical and sense-valuable branches. Our idea of the due can be located only in the second zone, for the due is a concentrate of a sense and necessities in journalism, the existence of “justification” in the world, and this thesis does not demand the proof. On a practical level there will be representations on norms # 1726 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sergey G. Korkonosenko. Deontology of Journalism as a Field of Moral Choice for a Professional concerning labour technique and methods that are empirical manifestations of journalism. In our opinion, here the distinctions between the concepts oppositional to each other are clearly seen – the concept of a “profession”, on the one hand, and concepts of “occupation”, “labour activity”, “a source of means for subsistence”, on the other hand. The quoted authors insist that the concept of a profession by all means includes its moral dimension, assumes presence of such attributes, as an idea of predestination and devotion, altruistic motivations, and selfcontrol. Moreover, “while practically all kinds of human activity are adjusted by a certain moral… the profession norms are also characterized by a mission” (Bakshtanovskii and Sogomonov, 2005, p. 14, 52–53). The keyword is found. Mission, predestination is a central category of deontology and the result of a conscious choice among many variants. Mission as the formulated due. If a mission is not revealed in the journalism theory (and then in practice) deontology will develop as mechanical coupling of every possible rules and restrictions. If it is clearly designated and recognized in a community it is possible to speak about a consensus concerning the due. Then there appears the outlook platform for a development of principles, their carrying out during life, control of execution of them, etc. In a word, deontology becomes a systematised formation that is wholly addressed to a daily practice of the press and its relations with a society and a person. It is necessary to emphasize that in gravitating to a practice the qualitative originality of deontology as the aspect of journalism theory is concluded. It bears not only the reflection of the necessary behaviour from the ideological point of view, but also an image of real, achievable, concrete labour behaviour. We have a right to suppose, though with some exaggeration, that harmoniously developed deontology produces models of industrial practice of the press and all mass media system. In this context there are additional possibilities to reject reproaches of those who are not agree to relate journalism to high profession because such evaluation, in their opinion, stands too far from current editorial activity. Really, on a concrete workplace the pathos declarations look strange and inappropriate, and hardly all the ordinary employees of mass media are able distinctly formulate own professional-outlook attitudes. However this or that coordinated representation on predestination and purposes of editorial work, undoubtedly, exists. It will be caught in an atmosphere reigning in a pressmen body, judgements regarding values of performed work, a choice of authoritative figures and leaders, and so forth. Moreover, in the journalist’s biography there are such moments of truth when they feel the necessity to express verbally own understanding of a sense of the professional life and to describe the object of devotion. For the lack of mature deontological bases the ambiguous situations arise, up to funny things. So, one of the journalism departments in Russia has chosen the following words as its own slogan: “Journalism department is a territory of success”. Meanwhile the success obviously resists the mission, and consequently –professionalism. As researchers write: “the practice of realization of the idea of success … gives enough ground for a conclusion that in a modern society the cult of success quite often leads to the replacement of moral reference points and consequently causes the sensation of own moral inadequacy” (Bakshtanovskii and Sogomonov, 2005, p. 137). The told, certainly, does not mean denying value of career, achievements, and deserved compensation – it is a question on a cult of mercantilism. The expert from the USA in his own way describes the conflict between a mission and a professional egoism with its hopes on success. # 1727 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sergey G. Korkonosenko. Deontology of Journalism as a Field of Moral Choice for a Professional Generalizing conclusions of other American scientists about typical lacks of the press, he concludes that instead of first of all being guided by the ideals of public service, mass media set such working purposes and create such procedures that first of all serve material and economic needs of the new organization (Lambeth, 1998, p. 22). As though catching up this thesis, the Russian authors write on prevalence of a prosperity cult in the Western professional corporation “with the only one purpose – the winner managed everything, and success should be above all. For the last fifteen years a similar moral climate has begun to be cultivated in the Russian press too”. (Kirichek and Fedotova, 2004, p. 16–17) Meanwhile statements of those experts who correlate the activity with mission and devotion, sound not exotically. At a seminar devoted to becoming of the public TV in Russia, the executive director of the AETN-PBC public TV (Arkansas, USA) Susan Howarth described a qualification of her company employees. Usually they are people with the ideals wishing to change a situation, people who work not for the money, but, more likely, for the mission. You will not earn greater money at public TV in the USA, indeed, and there are problems how to enlist talents. But if to speak on the satisfaction which high-quality programs give to you – such choice differs from a choice that is done usually by commercial broadcasters (Public TV, 2000, p. 110). The editor-in-chief of the Russian professional magazine adds to the analysis of the mission one more aspect – the pragmatic one. “The nostalgia on Quixote” – so he names the article, in which he writes: “To revive in the guild the ethos of public service is necessary for our own survival. If we shall not help citizens they will cease to trust us, and the journalism will be lost as a profession” (Avraamov, 2007, p. 1). The given judgements do not contradict deontological codes accepted by journalistic communities in the world and in the separate countries at all. It would seem the problem is solved in the basis. It is only necessary to name the mission by precise words and then build related conclusions. However there is a powerful factor of the subjectivity in choice that is being done in the deontology field. The mission is not born simultaneously with the press, it is always variable – both in relation to journalism as a whole and in a case of individual behaviour. It means there is always a ground for disagreement and a competition of views, and not only in the theory, but also in a process of realization of the chosen moral orientations. It is necessary to recognize that the successful practical realization of the program idea becomes a strong argument in its protection even if this choice is incorrect from the scientific point of view or it may be suitable only for a local tactical situation. What eternal truths were opened by theorists, on a close distance the tactical triumph is better visible to the contemporary, instead of the future strategic defeat. Therefore the “correct” mission quite often turns into personal losses for its adherents. And therefore simultaneously there are at once a few versions of a true journalism, more or less distinctly articulated. Unfortunately, we hardly can find needed materials in the specialized theoreticaljournalistic literature about a competition of missions, anyway – under the name of this theme. Latently it is present in the analysis of the press social responsibility, role of mass media in the democracy process, moral standards of its employees and so on. Some of such works may be used as initial points for further movement to our aims. But one should remember that every version of mission is an ideal model, but not a concrete form of its embodiment. Actually it is impossible to isolate this or that model in its pure state, and it is necessary to deal with different # 1728 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sergey G. Korkonosenko. Deontology of Journalism as a Field of Moral Choice for a Professional combinations and noises. Figuratively speaking, practice provides the researcher with “ore”, from which he has to extract certain “metal” by means of analysis. But developing of the ore lies in the competence of science specifying how to deliver it from collateral inclusions and also sorting “metals” on a degree of their value. Value of mission is determined by two main criteria –its conformity to the objective press laws and suitability, utility of realization in the given society. Strictly speaking, the second condition “is located” in the fi rst one, as conformity to society and press paradigms in itself is the law. However it is important to see more clearly a social situation, in which the deontological choice is being done. For this area of thinking the concrete historical determinations of principles, norms and standards have an especially essential value. The mission of the press should be sufficiently corrected depending on whether we relate it to the feudal-monarchist system or to socialistic one, to stable Western democracy with its values of Protestantism or to the modern Russian space. In this connection let us listen to the European experts who actively revise so-called classic Western press theories in a view of the social and cultural diversity. They offer several groups of additional theories. “Crucial to these projects is their resistance against a too absolute interpretation of the principle of neutrality. In the tradition of development and emancipatory journalism – which should mainly be situated in developing countries – it is explicitly stated that neutrality does not apply when universalized… values such as peace, democracy, human rights, equality… progress… and national liberation, are at stake... And quite similarly vice versa… the US-based public journalism tradition pleads for reviving the public debate and for centralizing democracy as a universalized value. At the same time, advocates of public journalism plead for a tighter link between community and journalism – the so-called ‘community connectedness’” (Carpentier, 2007, pp. 159-160). In this case it is better to refrain from universal recommendations and to turn to individual-concrete object – to this country at the present stage of its history. Then it becomes visible that economic, political, socio-cultural multiformity and “intermediate” condition of the society, in comparison with its classical types, prevent from forming a clear social demand for the mission of journalism. In this sense, most likely, Russia still should live without reliable bases for the consent in discussions about press destination long enough. That’s why we offer our own hypothetical approach to the solution. In the article many times we referred to a society and human values that determine a vector and a spirit of the journalism activities. According to a strong scientific tradition, the mission that brings prosperity to a society and a person is designated as social-humanistic strategy with a great variety of semantic shades of this name. Social-humanistic destination of the press becomes a ground, on which deontological principles are being formed. We are not eager to deny those complexes of principles that are proposed in numerous sources, including the international and national ethical codes. On the contrary, the diversity stimulates to search delicate nuances of complex questions. At the same time it is necessary to agree on a minimum of the central and most capacious ideas. They as though develop the social-humanistic mission and make it a multidimensional factor of the moral existence of a society and a profession. Reasonable reduction of a principles number is also necessary to avoid duplication with concepts, which necessarily exist in others categorical fields – for example in a system of laws. # 1729 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sergey G. Korkonosenko. Deontology of Journalism as a Field of Moral Choice for a Professional Analytic conclusions. Principles Generalizing the above-said we shall name the following principles of journalism. First, a sociality. Today there is a scientific-theoretical base to use this concept as a terminologically exact one. In the special research devoted to this subject the sociality of a journalism idea relates to the “origin and functioning of the press, its organization, transforming influence, structure of journalists’ consciousness and culture, reflection in press of original social reality and all circles of participants in social practice... The sociality determines a theoretical-methodological validity of journalistic texts”. (Malugina, 2006, p. 13) This is a concept with an extensive content; a sociality is being modified and concretised in dependence on circumstances of the press existence and comprehension of it. In particular, it can be raised up to a degree of national character and patriotism. Secondly, humanism as the next component of the mission’s name. Let us use the citation from a source, in which general prospects of the Russian press are considered; even more – an attempt of modelling of humanised journalism is undertaken. So: “gradually more and more journalists will understand that a starting point, Alpha and Omega of being is not a system, not an organization, but an alive, real person. All the rest: classes, collectives, organizations, groups are the modi of his existence. … The understanding will gradually come that is necessary to regard the reader, the spectator, the listener not as a recipient or as an object of management, manipulation, education, but as an alive, doubting certain person who looks for effective ways to organize his own life. Such an approach gives an opportunity of the genuine dialogue directed on a collective search of the answer to a question: ‘How to live?’” (Dzyaloshinskii, 1999, p. 122). Thirdly, a truthfulness. The word has a lot of senses, each of which demands special explanations. In Russian the word “truth” (правда) causes a lot of associations of different kinds; it has some sacral meanings that hardly can be transferred into other languages. Let’s open, for example, Russian defining dictionaries: true in practice, true in image, in blessing; justice, fairness; honesty, incorruptibility, conscience; innocence, etc. An accuracy is not mentioned here because it reflects the most simple and formal requirement to the journalist. The truth lies much deeper under a surface of the information data; it is implanted into the essence of phenomena and processes. In contemporary community there is a strong demand in real, deep truth instead of all kinds of imitations. The Austrian authors write in this connection: “The style of communication we find in all matters today is based on what a comedian Stephen Colbert famously termed ‘truthiness’, a term reminiscent of what Harry Frankfurt calls bullshit: ‘The essence of bullshit is not that it is false but that it is phony’ … Similarly, truthiness is defined as ‘truth that comes from the gut, not books’ … and ‘the quality of preferring concepts or facts one wishes to be true, rather than concepts or facts known to be true’” (Schwarz and Hug, 2012, p. 272). Truthfulness in a subjective sense is an internal aspiration to a true understanding of the world of life and inability to renounce the extracted knowledge in favour of any benefits. In the given value it is highly close to such moral qualities as honesty and conscience. From another side, in this line of thinking there is no place for objectivity that represents an unattainable ideal in studying and reflecting the reality. Perhaps, the term “objectivity” mostly corresponds with scientific investigations. Then it leaves a sphere of moral and, hence, a set of deontological categories. This distinction is subtly noticed in publications dealing with the # 1730 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sergey G. Korkonosenko. Deontology of Journalism as a Field of Moral Choice for a Professional journalism attitudes to the reality. “The truth as a moral category is more important than the abstract true as a category of knowledge. The true that is not connected with the good and justice, is not being regarded as the truth”. And further: “Meanwhile the Truth – the true in its journalistic manifestation – is not a collection of information on the world; it is a disclosing of representation about the world” (Mansurova, 2002, p. 146, 147). Thus, deontology can and, in our opinion, should be developed as a complex of ideas with its own internal hierarchy and in the close union with other directions of research thinking. Without taking into account deontological principles the journalistic science will appear in the impoverished form. First of all it concerns the moral-outlook parties of the theory. References Avraamov, D., 2007. Melancholy on Don Quixote. Journalism and Media Market, N 9, p. 1, in Russian. Bakshtanovskii, V.I., Sogomonov, Yu.V., 2002. The moral choice of journalist. Tyumen: Applied Ethics Center, in Russian. Bakshtanovskii, V.I., Sogomonov, Yu.V., 2005. Ethics of the profession: mission, code, action. Tyumen: Applied Ethics Research Institute, in Russian. Carpentier, N., 2007. Coping with the agoraphobic media professional: a typology of journalistic practices reinforcing democracy and participation. Cammaerts, B. and Carpentier, N., eds. Reclaiming the media. Communication rights and democratic media roles. Bristol (UK), Chicago (USA): Intellect Books, The University of Chicago Press, pp.157-175. Council of Europe. Group of specialists in questions of journalistic freedoms and human rights,1995, in Russian. Available through: http://www.ruj.ru/soviet_eu_3.htm [Accessed 28 July 2012]. Dzyaloshinskii, I.M., 1999. Russian journalism in search of the model of development. Dzyaloshinskaya, M. ed. Role of the press in formation of the civic society in Russia. Moscow: Institute for Humanitarian Communication, pp. 101-123, in Russian. Kant, I., 1999. Critique of pure reason. Moscow: Nauka, in Russian; from German. Kazakov, Yu. V. ed., 1999. Professional ethics of journalists. Vol. 1: Documents and help materials. Moscow: Galeria, in Russian. Kirichek, P.N., Fedotova, O.V., 2004. Ethics of the journalist. Textbook. Saransk: Mordovia University Publishing House, in Russian. Kumylganova. I.A., 2 0 0 3 . Professional ethics of journalist in the USA. Educational materials to the special course in Lomonosov Moscow State University. Available through: Media Law and Policy Institute. Series “Journalism and law”. Vol. 55, in Russian. http://www.medialaw.ru/publications/ books/self2/10.html [Accessed 28 July 2012]. Lambeth, E.B., 1992. Committed journalism – An ethic for the profession. 2nd ed. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. Lambeth, E.B., 1998. Adherence to journalistic duty. On ethical approach to the journalistic profession. Moscow: Violanta, in Russian; from English. Lazutina, G.V., 2006. Professional ethics of the journalist. 2nd ed. Moscow: Aspect Press, in Russian. # 1731 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sergey G. Korkonosenko. Deontology of Journalism as a Field of Moral Choice for a Professional Lozovskii, B.N., 2007. Journalism and the media: brief dictionary. 2nd ed. Yekaterinburg: Ural State University Publishing House, in Russian. Malugina, V.Yu., 2006. Partnership of press with the socio-political institutes as a manifestation of the sociality of the press: The author’s abstract of the thesis for a candidate’s degree. St. Petersburg: St. Petersburg State University. Mansurova, V.D., 2002. Journalistic picture of the world as a factor of social determination. Barnaul: Altai University Publishing House, in Russian. Popov, V.D., 2003. Secrets of the information policy: social psychoanalysis of the information processes. Moscow: Russian Academy of Public Administration, in Russian. Prohorov, E.P., 2001. Journalism and democracy. Moscow: RIP-Holding, in Russian. Public TV and radio broadcasting for Russia: possibility and the prospect, 2000. Stenographical report. St. Petersburg: Citizen Watch, in Russian. Schwarz, C., Hug, Th., 2012. Media activism in search of truth: Questioning the mission to restore sanity. Journalism and Mass Communication, Vol. 2, N 1, pp. 271-278. Деонтология журналистики как область морального выбора профессионала С. Г. Корконосенко Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет Россия 199004, Санкт-Петербург, 1-я линия В. о., д. 26 Автор рассматривает понятие и содержание деонтологии журналистики в сравнении с профессиональной этикой и моралью. По его оценке, деонтология является областью принципов профессии, на основе синтеза которых возникает миссия. Одна из главных качественных характеристик деонтологии заключается в том, что в ней соединяются знание объективных законов и субъективная позиция профессионала медиа, которая обязывает его к моральному выбору. Ключевые слова: деонтология, журналистика, миссия, принцип, моральный выбор. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 12 (2012 5) 1733-1743 ~~~ УДК 316.772 Telementation vs. Interaction: Which Model Suits Human Communication Best? Viacheslav B. Kashkin* Voronezh State University 1 Universitetskaya pl., Voronezh, 394006 Russia 1 Received 4.12.2012, received in revised form 11.12.2012, accepted 24.12.2012 Models of communication may be classified into transmissional (linear, mechanistic, or ‘telementational’) and interactional (non-linear, dialogical, activity-oriented). Everyday conception is closer to the reification-transmissional metaphor of communication, although it admits some nonlinearity. The dialogical or interactional paradigm reflects the reality of human communication to a greater degree. Keywords: communication, model, interaction 1. Introduction To disclose the characteristics of human communicative behavior and the flow of communication activities, modeling is widely used as a method when one object is explained by another object representing its structure and/or functioning. It is practically inevitable when we are trying to explain a physically non-existent, i.e. a mental or a behavioral phenomenon. Communication does not exist in the physical meaning of the word, and what we mean by communication are sequences of actions and their results, sometimes also physically non-existent, mental and observed indirectly through human behavior. Models of communication are usually drawings or schemes where the constituent elements or participants are represented and their interrelation is shown. The way communication is represented in a model depends largely upon * 1 the conceptual approach of the scholar or on the scientific paradigm it adheres to. A model may also reflect the needs of the scientific domain it belongs to. Since communication studies are a multidisciplinary domain, models might differ if they belong originally to technology or politics, sociology or linguistics. The suggested models of communication may be classified according to the paradigmatic approaches which they were based on. Two major paradigms that are often singled out in viewing communication can be named transmissional (linear, mechanistic, or ‘telementational’) and interactional (non-linear, dialogical, activityoriented). The term ‘telementation’, or, in other words, ‘thought-transference’, belongs to Roy Harris who applies it to what he calls the ‘classical model of language’ (Harris, 2007, pp. 21-22). A bit of critical irony is felt in applying this term to the “transferring thoughts over a distance by means Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 1733 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Viacheslav B. Kashkin. Telementation vs. Interaction: Which Model Suits Human Communication Best? of words”, which is enhanced by its apparent similarity to the word ‘telepathy’. Communication in the transmissional paradigm is presented as a unidirectional process of coding and transmission of information from a source to a receiver, via a channel. In the interactional paradigm, communication is viewed as mutual activity of the communication participants, aimed at developing a shared consensual view upon things and actions performed with these things. According to the transmissional paradigm, information is transmitted from the sender to the receiver, whereas the interactional paradigm states that information is produced (or re-produced) by the recipient (under the influence of the sender). According to the first approach, the environment creates noise and may interfere with communication, while according to the second approach the environment is inevitable and influential context of communication. We are going to argue that the second, interactional paradigm reflects the reality of human communication better. 2. Communication Paradigms: A Historical Sketch The history of communication studies reflects both transmissional and interactional approaches. Lots of models suggested by the communication researchers support either the linear or the nonlinear interpretation of the communication process. There are also models which might be considered intermediary as they reflect the functional and teleological aspect of communication, although they remain mainly linear, monodirectional. Let us give a brief review of the most significant models of communication. 2.1. Linear models Claude E. Shannon (1916-2001) was the first who suggested a model of communication to optimize radio, teletype or telegraph interchange in late 40-s (Shannon, 1948, p. 380). Extended by Warren Weaver (1894-1978) to embrace other instances of communication, the “mother of models” included an information source, a transmitter or coder, a message, a transmission channel, a decoder, and a receiver (Shannon, Weaver, 1963). Particular attention to the issue of noise was later developed into a search for effective communication in general. The “telephone” terms were later applied metaphorically to other communication systems, including natural and human ones. Shannon’s model lies at the basis of any other communication model, although nowadays it might be regarded as too restricted to give detailed description of human communication. Another model was suggested by Harold D. Lasswell (1902-1978) to be applied primarily in the sphere of political communication and propaganda. Lasswel’s formula was presented in the form of a wh-sentence: Who says what to whom in which channel with what effect (Lasswell, 1948, p. 37). The resemblance is far from being coincidental, in fact, the structure of the statement reflects the prototypical communicative situation, thus giving way to connect the form and the pragmatics of human communication. What was significantly different in Lasswell’s approach – that the model included the aftereffects of communication, thus bridging the theory and the applied communication studies, and becoming less “mechanistic”. The well-known Canadian researcher Marshall McLuhan (1911-1980) was particularly concentrated on the transmission channel, and his words “the medium is the message” became a motto for the contemporary communication environment which includes technologies for multicode messages where the visual channel performs the leading role. McLuhan compared the stages in the development of communication # 1734 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Viacheslav B. Kashkin. Telementation vs. Interaction: Which Model Suits Human Communication Best? media and those in the development of culture, and his prophetic ideas about the ‘global village’ in communication were proclaimed years before the expansion of the Internet (McLuhan, 1995). 2.2 Functional Models Functional models paid more attention to the purposeful, teleologic (from Greek τελέιον ‘aim, purpose’) nature of human communicative actions. Karl Bühler’s (1879-1963) functional model is one of the most compact and rather popular in applied domains. He introduced three major functions of language and communication, related to the two communication participants and the message: expressive, related to the sender (speaker or writer); appellative, related to the receiver (listener or reader); and representative, the function of transmitting information in a message (Bühler, 1969, pp. 98-99). Roman O. Jakobson’s (1896-1982) functional model included six components: the sender (or the addresser), the message, and the addressee (or a receiver) were similar to Bühler’s interpretation, whereas the code (or the language), the context and the contact were added by Jakobson (Jakobson, 1963, pp. 350-377). Context in Jakobsonian interpretation is related to the content of the message, the information transmitted, and to the situation in the real world (or its fragment) reflected in the message. The contact is related to the regulative aspect of communication, to establishing, supporting and ending an interaction. Each constituent element is ‘responsible’ for the specific communicative function of the message. Following the tradition of the Prague school, one of the founders of which was Jakobson, the model is teleological, or purposeful, thus it displays the purposeful nature of language and other communicative systems, or the functions or purposes of using its separate units, utterances or texts. The model appeals to the human nature of communication, underlying the role of the language user, or communication participant. Functional models have a wider explanatory potential and application sphere than mechanistic ones. Thus, Bühler’s model served as a fundament for a text typology very widely applied in language teaching and translators’ training. Peter Newmark and Catharina Reiß suggested a typology which included three functional types of texts to be translated: content-oriented or informative, author-oriented or expressive, and reader-oriented or vocative (Reiß, 1971, p. 20ff.; Newmark, 1988, pp. 40-47). Communicative analysis of the text plays the leading, or even the decisive role in selecting an appropriate strategy of translation, as well as in finding definite solutions. 2.3. Non-Linear Models Norbert Wiener’s (1894-1964) cybernetics appeared simultaneously with but independently from Shannon’s model of communication (Wiener, 1948). Wiener’s conception of communication introduced the notion of feedback, thus questioning the linearity of information transfer and opening ways to explaining human communicative interchange in a more dynamic and non-linear manner. Human interaction and dialogue were stressed by Wiener’s quotation from the father of fractals theory Benoit Mandelbrot and the ‘cybernetically-minded philologist’ Roman Jakobson: “They consider communication to be a game played in partnership by the speaker and the listener against the forces of confusion, represented by the ordinary difficulties of communication and by some supposed individuals attempting to jam the communication” (Wiener, 1988, p. 92). The last quarter of the previous century also witnessed the spread of the ideas of dialogism, although originally expressed earlier. Dialogical approach to language and communication is # 1735 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Viacheslav B. Kashkin. Telementation vs. Interaction: Which Model Suits Human Communication Best? mostly associated with Mikhail M. Bakhtin (18951975), the Russian literary critic and language philosopher. There are at least two main ideas in his approach that are of particular significance to communication studies. First of all, every utterance is addressed to someone, there is no speaker without a recipient. Secondly, it is only in a context that any utterance acquires its meaning; this idea is closely related to Bakhtin’s notion of chronotope (Greek χρόνος ‘time’ and τόπος ‘place’), representing the intrinsic connection between time and space in texts. Whereas linear models can be named ‘speaker-oriented’ or ‘sender-oriented’, Bakhtin’s dialogism restores the rights of both communication participants, the speaker and the listener: “When I am construing my utterance, I am striving at defining it actively; on the other hand, I am trying to anticipate its effect, and this anticipated answer, in its turn, also actively influences my utterance” (Bakhtin, 2000, p. 293). Although Bakhtin did not suggest any elaborate model, his ideas are sometimes treated as a dialogical model of communicative interaction. Tzvetan Todorov went even further, working out this model for Bakhtin and contrasting it to the Jakobsonian one (Todorov, 1984, pp. 54-55): Bakhtin Jakobson object context speaker utterance listener sender message receiver intertext contact language code However, the specific role attributed by Bakhtin to the listener is not clearly reflected in Todorov’s representation. His most important accent lies upon intertextual relations, uncertainty and ambiguity in decoding the information, and upon the possibility of conveying implicit meanings. As for Bakhtin, the two counterparts in communication meant an “encounter of two subjects”, a joint action performed by communication participants, a text as an event, an utterance as a node, through which “language enters life”. Bakhtin’s ideas were very widely echoed in the world of linguistics, literary studies, communication theory and philosophy in the past decades. Roland Barthes (1915-1980) and Julia Kristeva introduced the concept of intertextuality: every text is a mosaic of quotations, direct or indirect references to the formerly read texts of others. A similar concept of the “associative field” or champ discursif “discursive field” of utterances or statements was put forward by a French post-modernist philosopher Michel Foucault (1926-1984): every statement has possible relations with the past and opens up a foreseen future (Foucault, 1969, 38-41). These ideas by Kristeva and Foucault have nowadays been privatized by various domains of research: cinema semiotics studies, fashion and dress semiotics, psychoanalysis, political and advertising discourse analysis, etc. Advertising, for example, very often exploits the suggestive and persuasive power of intertextual allusions, cf.: сильный, но нежный Панадол “strong but delicate (Panadol)” < строгий, но справедливый отец народов “stern but fair (father of nations = Joseph Stalin)”; абсолютная монархия “absolute monarchy” > абсолютная Россия “absolute Russia” > водка «Абсолют» “The ‘Absolut’ vodka”, etc. The recipient of the advertising message indirectly becomes its coauthor, using the fragments of earlier-read texts as an instrument of decoding and interpretation. 3. The Addressee is the Message Functional and much more transmissional models do not always clearly display the role of the addressee, limiting their view to what the speaker thinks about the listener, about the possible response. The general language background # 1736 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Viacheslav B. Kashkin. Telementation vs. Interaction: Which Model Suits Human Communication Best? and the social character of communication is disregarded, the model is limited to two minimal participants whereas group and mass communication require special consideration and have to be taken into account. Although “the addressee factor” (Arutyunova, 1981) is presented in some of the models, the feedback and the addressee’s response to the message are rarely taken into account. The model thus remains monodirectional (from a sender to a receiver). In fact, each of the participants is engaged into communication on equal terms; moreover, the participants regularly exchange their roles of addresser and recipient. If McLuhan used to say that the medium is the message, we can now say that the recipient is the message. Let us have a look at the following interchange (translated from Russian): I Saw It Myself (2005-08-11) The young people are from Channel 1. <…> The old man talks either to himself, or with the young men, it is not clear. – Kids, how fine it is that the war is over… Kids, I was in the war, I got two medals, shellshocked, I’d never wish anyone would… Thank God, the Chechnya is over… Our boys are there… Now we’ll have a better life… War is a nasty thing… One of the young men carrying a camera raises his head and says: – It’s not over, father, not over. The old man says: – How can it be that it’s not over? How can it be that it is not over, it is over! I saw it myself on TV yesterday. All the military actions are over. The forces are being pulled out. The war is over, kids. The other young man says: – It’s not over, father, he knows better. The old man says: – How can it be that he knows better? I saw it myself! The war is over! It was in the news yesterday. The actions are stopped. The troops are pulled out. That’s all. The young man without a camera says: – Look, father, we know better. Look at him, he has been sent seventeen times there. Just a week after the last one. I was there nine times. The war goes on, and it will last for a long time. The old man won’t believe. The old man says: – What are you telling me? The war is over, one has to rejoice at the good news, and what are you doing? You want more people to die? The antichrists! You are the reason why... The old man constructs his own reality, comfortable for him, and would not accept any contradictory information from the outside. This recipient is clearly the author of his own information. Heinz von Foerster (1911-2002) in cybernetics of the second half of the 20th century pointed out the dialogical essence of communication and rephrased a well-known saying: It needs two to language (von Foerster, 2003). He also coined a hermeneutic aphorism, close to Roland Barthes’ ideas about interpretation and understanding of texts: The listener, not the speaker determines the meaning of an utterance. Von Foerster’s ideas essentially influenced the Chilean biologist and ‘cognitive therapeutist’ Humberto Maturana who proposed the idea of consensual interaction of autopoietic (selforganizing and self-creative) systems, and language was one of them. He compares ‘languaging’ to dancing, the essence of which does not lie in competition and direct control of each other, but in cooperation, in mutual coordination of behavioral actions. Human beings are biologically loving (cooperative) beings, and language is our biological manner of living (Maturana, Verden-Zöller, 2008, pp. 34, 61-66). Maturana and his follower Francisco Varela consider the phrase ‘transmission of information’ # 1737 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Viacheslav B. Kashkin. Telementation vs. Interaction: Which Model Suits Human Communication Best? a misleading ‘metaphor of the tube’ since there is no real, physical transmission of anything: “biologically, there is no transmitted information in communication” (Maturana, Varela, 1992, p. 196). In fact, it is a feature of naïve linguistic minds to consider language as a collection of reified units, ‘things’-words that are exchanged in communication; the myth neatly defined chosisme by Gaston Bachelard, a French philosopher (Bachelard, 1983, p. 39). The everyday language myth presupposes that communication is material transmission of information by means of reified objects and words. The reality of communicative exchanges, anyhow, does not display any transmission; linguistic interactions constitute joint activity which leads to some sort of ‘echoing response’ in the recipient’s mind. The response is practically never absolutely similar, but subject to variation due to situational and personality factors. Communication is behavioral coordination in the domain of social coupling and consensual interaction. If we ask, like in a very simple psychological experiment, a group of people to imagine an apple, some would think of a red apple, some of a yellow or a green one, some even of a rotten apple or of a computer brand. The information is thus generated in multiple variations in the mind of a receiver under the influence of the sender, but is not transmitted. The word acts as a trigger, not as a container. In the case of interlinguistic or intercultural communication, or translation, the variability of interpretations concerns both the formal (words), and the notional (meaning) sides of communication process. The model of communication in translation processes is trifold, the translator acts as a receiver during the first stage and as a sender at the third stage. The intermediary stage is translation process. In no case the process is linear; the translator’s activity involves mechanisms of probabilistic forecasting while reading for translation and when translating, it also includes foreseeing possible translation difficulties, or the recipient’s reaction. The mechanism of auto-monitoring is also involved at further stages of the translation process, introducing possible corrective moves, etc. Thus, the process of translation involves several lines of multidirectional activities, and it should be taken into account in the process of modeling. The reality of intercultural exchanges transcends the linear paradigm, giving a more varied content to the whole scheme: cultural contexts and their variations, translator as an active agent who does not just mechanically reproduce the contents of the original text, the addressee factor, the factor of the third-party observer, etc. Translation quality in such a model can be assessed through communicative equivalence, similarity in reflecting the world, and similarity in aftereffects. 4. Communication is not Transmission of Information Naïve language users share a myth about language and communication which says that transmission of information is the primary task of language. It is taken for granted even in many linguistic books that the basic function of language and other communication systems is informational, or referential, or cognitive, if viewed from a slightly different angle. But as we now see, information is never transmitted; it is produced or reproduced by the recipient, although certainly the communicative actions of the sender act like a trigger for the recipient’s response. It does not mean, for sure, that we advocate the abandoning of this widely spread metaphor in everyday use. Languages are full of misleading “metaphors we live by” (Lakoff, Johnson, 1984). We do not, for example, think that the sun has legs when we say that the sun is # 1738 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Viacheslav B. Kashkin. Telementation vs. Interaction: Which Model Suits Human Communication Best? going down. With language it is a bit different, and both the naïve and the traditional views represent language and communication as a physical exchange of material objects, admitting the reification metaphor. One more feature of this misconception is that transmission is the primary task of language. In any case, language is not bound to transmit information; it is able to do it. The major function of language and communicative systems is to organize, to control and to monitor human actions with the help of words or other signs. Transmitting information is subsidiary to this major necessity and is carried out within the limits set out by the needs of achieving the required effect and by the communicative possibilities which communication participants have at their disposal. According to Maturana, the phenomenon of communication does not depend upon what is being transmitted but upon what is happening in the receiver. Communication creates a consensual domain of interactions based upon a referential consensus. In many cases, the message acts like a trigger to provoke joint actions not really transmitting any new information. For example, do the fans of a soccer team want to convey anything new to anyone else when they chant slogans like Spartak – chempion! “Spartak is a champion”? Does a highly reputed company want to convey anything new to anyone when it advertises a well-known product? The words It’s a Sony do not contain any information about the qualities of the product, they just borrow from the authority of the trademark the power to persuade the customer to buy it. Do the participants of a rally to support some marginal politician convey anything to anyone else outside their small community? Even if anything that looks like information is included in such texts, the basic function of such messages is not to convey information, but rather to unify the joint actions of the communication participants, or to draw a borderline between them and “the others”, very often alien or antagonistic to this social group, or to support the relations of power and submission in the social life or economy, etc. A very interesting phenomenon is observed when we contrast advertising texts in a longitudinal survey, i. e. those of 50 or 100 years ago and modern texts of the same producer and about the same product. For example, Gillette in 1913 published very voluminous texts about its shaving products. The texts contained an abundance of positive information about the razor sets: Аппарат Жиллетъ благодарнѣйший подарок к Пасхѣ...> Обратите вниманіе на сгибаніе, при помощи котораго совершается автоматическая перестановка <...> Неоцѣнимое достоинство аппарата для бритья Жиллетъ состоитъ въ его закаленномъ стальномъ клинкѣ <...> Наши новые клинки Жиллетъ вслѣдствіе ихъ гладкости и остроты всюду заслужили себѣ похвалу <...> Съ помощью Жиллета вы можете легко бритса сами. A fragment from another text: Результатъ научной конструкціи. Поразительная простота руки и сгибаемые клинки съ возможностью перестановки для всякой бороды <...> согнутая предохранительная дужка, 2 куска – очень тонкій гнущійся клинокъ и одна ручка, которая свинчиваетъ все вмѣстѣ. Клинокъ регулируется автоматически. Such verbosity is in a sharp contrast with the modern Gillette texts: Gillette, the best a man can get = Жиллетт – лучше для мужчины нет! Lack of words, though, is substituted with visual information or symbols of the product’s positive features (smooth shaving represented in a curving line, etc.). # 1739 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Viacheslav B. Kashkin. Telementation vs. Interaction: Which Model Suits Human Communication Best? An analogy is found in contrasting texts advertising “Tide” (detergent). Texts dating back to the 40-ies of the previous century combine symbolic information expressed with the help of color printing with quite a long verbal message describing the advantages of the product: He wears the cleanest shirt in the city (a family pair is pictured, the husband in a sparkling white shirt, accompanied by a loving wife; sparkling and loving are symbolized by small lines around the shirt and hearts over the head of the wife, correspondingly) <...> Tide gets clothes cleaner than any soap! <...> Not only cleaner, whiter too! <...> and brighter! <...> the fabric feels so soft, etc. The modern texts advertising the same product are confined to a couple of ‘neutral’ characteristics: Works in all machine types. Dissolves quickly in hot & cold water, etc. Such observations display what was named deinformatization of the modern communication processes, especially in such spheres as trade or advertising. At the same time, while information declines, the basic function, that of organizing and controlling mutual actions of the seller and the buyer, remains intact. A similar tendency when the informative function cedes to phatic function is observed by researchers of the political discourse (Sheigal, 2004, pp. 6870), the fact which also stresses the essential closeness of these discursive practices. Naïve communicants, again, consider that in political communication, during the election campaign, for example, the candidates transmit information about what they are going to do when they come to power. What really happens is some sort of consensual action: the voting side casts a vote following the speeches of the candidates, while this constitutes the real fi nal aim of the latter. “Fulfilling promises” the candidate had informed the electorate about before voting is somewhat different. 5. Deverbalization Trend: The Medium! No Message Deinformatization of communication is nowadays accompanied by a growing tendency towards deverbalization (while the pragmatics of action is preserved). The seemingly paradoxical prediction made by McLuhan several decades ago (the medium is the message), supported by his idea of connection between the prevalent medium type and the type of culture, nowadays is turning into reality. The contemporary age is that of non-verbal, visual, multi-media, polycode messages, computer-aided communication, and hypertextuality. Modern adolescents very often “communicate” in the social networks for the sake of communication only, without having any information to be transmitted. Their communication is predominantly phatic: Hello! Hi! I’m here! Look how cool I am, how cool my site is, etc. Informative utterances are very rare in internet forums or chats. In a survey performed as early as 1998, we found that no more than 10 per cent of all the utterances used in forums were, or seemed to be informative: Hi!; Hi, DKelly, kisses and hugs!; mmm Alessia kiss and hug; ok... time to flee people... Happy New Year, everybody!!! etc. Only one utterance on the aforementioned page looked like asking for information, but in fact it was more phatic, establishing primary connection, than informative: MMAJERCAK> a/s/l – .Lin Lin> 14/f/Mississippi, and when one of the participants really asked for information, there was no answer at all: PEANUT1> angel.. need some puter help... can you help a damsel in distress?? It is not only in the computer-mediated communication in the web that deverbalization of communication is observed. Long before this kind of media appeared and spread extensively, other non-verbal media, like illustrations, polycode printed messages, or comics as a visual substitute # 1740 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Viacheslav B. Kashkin. Telementation vs. Interaction: Which Model Suits Human Communication Best? of narration were used. The modern “clip generation” read about the world history or Anna Karenina from comics. The verbal constituent of such texts is minimal and represented in the so-called ‘bubbles’. Antagonists of Coca-Cola published a calendar where words were kept to a minimum; and one of the pages pictured a red bottle of a well-known shape, with a shooting mark over it and only one word: Smash! The word seemed to be redundant. The modern “negative” tendencies (deverbalization and deinformatization) leave the main purpose of communication intact: joint action, influence and effect, interaction and event, etc. We can repeat that information is not the main purpose of communication, but а means to attain the basic aim which is triggering an action. The priority of regulative function over informative and other functions is indirectly supported by the history of developing sign activity by animals and humans. Some scholars assume that signs, and fi rst of all nonverbal gestures, used to be part of an action, then separated from the whole and started to perform the function of a meta-action, designating the whole action (Klix, 1985, pp. 79-83). Semantics began from semanticizing elements of behavior. Language and communication in this sense can be regarded as a meta-activity. 6. Resume The models of communication studied in this paper reveal the two approaches to communication discussed earlier, or the two paradigms in the communication studies: transmissional and interactional. The first one is more mechanistic, the second reflects the specific reality of human communication better. Everyday conception is closer to the reification-transmissional metaphor of communication, although it admits some non- linearity. It does not mean that researchers who proposed models we named linear were wrong: each model was supposed to fulfill the task it was designed for, and we can use any of these models depending on the task we have. There is still much to be said about modeling communication processes, but we would like to concentrate on conclusive remarks: – a communication model should include the parameter of time and reflect such features as non-linearity, dialogicality and procedurality; – a communication model should include the teleological parameter; communication should be viewed as a goal-oriented human activity, or meta-activity; – the sender and the receiver cannot be considered as either equal or unequal in the process of communication, they are engaged in dynamic and consensual (competitive, contractual, interactional) relations; – the informative function is not the primary function of communicative systems, but a subsidiary one: we inform in order to act (to make an act, to appeal to an action); – there is no telementation, no transmission of information, information is generated (reproduced) by the receiver who interacts with the sender; – the outer world is not reflected in communication but constructed or shaped in it; – the temporal dimension of communication presupposes that there is more than one (sender-receiver) direction, and more than one aspect of communication analysis: anticipation and prognosis of the receiver’s response, auto-monitoring and auto-correction of communicative actions by the speaker, making use of short-term and long-term memory in mechanisms of textual cohesion and coherence, intertextuality as the memory of culture, etc. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Viacheslav B. Kashkin. Telementation vs. Interaction: Which Model Suits Human Communication Best? References Arutyunova, N. D., 1981. The Addressee Factor. Proceedings of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Literature and Language Series, Vol. 40, # 4, pp. 356-367, in Russian. Bachelard, G., 1983. The New Scientific Spirit. Boston, MA: Beacon Press. Bakhtin, M. M., 2000. Author and hero: toward philosophical grounds for the humanities. SanktPeterburg: Azbuka, in Russian. Bühler, K., 1969. Die Axiomatic der Sprachwissenschaften. Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann. Foucault, M., 1969. L’archéologie du savoir. Paris: Gallimard. Harris, R., 1998. Introduction to Integrational Linguistics: Language and Communication Library, Volume 17. Oxford: Pergamon; Elsevier Science. Jakobson, R. O., 1960. Closing Statement: Linguistics and Poetics. In Sebeok, T. A., ed. Style in Language. Cambridge Massachusetts: MIT Press, pp. 350–377. Jakobson, R. O., 1971. Linguistics and Communication Theory. In Selected Writings: Word and Language, Vol.2. The Hague; Paris: Mouton, pp. 570-579. Klix, F., 1985. Erwachendes Denken: eine Entwicklungsgeschichte der menschlichen Intelligenz. Berlin: Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften. Lakoff, G. and Johnson, M., 1980. Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Lasswell, H., 1948. The Structure and Function of Communication in Society. In Bryson, L. ed., The Communication of Ideas. New York: Harper and Row, pp. 37-52. Maturana, H. R. and Varela, F., 1992. The Tree of Knowledge: The Biological Roots of Human Understanding. Boston, MA: Shambhala. Maturana, H. R. and G. Verden-Zöller, 2008. The Origins of Humanness in the Biology of Love. Exeter: Imprint Academic. McLuhan, H. M., 1995. Essential McLuhan. Toronto: The House of Anansi Press. Newmark, P., 1988. A Textbook of Translation. New York; London: Prentice Hall International. Reiß, K., 1971. Texttyp und Übersetzungsmethode: der operative Text. Heidelberg: Julius Groos Verlag. Shannon, C. E., 1948. A Mathematical Theory of Communication. The Bell System Technical Journal, July, October, Vol. 27, pp. 379–423, 623–656. Sheigal, E. I., 2004. Semiotics of Political Discourse. Moscow: Gnozis, in Russian. Todorov, T., 1984. Mikhail Bakhtin: The Dialogical Principle. Manchester: Manchester University Press. Von Foerster, H., 2003. Understanding Understanding: Essays on Cybernetics and Cognition. New York: Springer Verlag. Weaver, W. and Shannon, C. E., 1963. The Mathematical Theory of Communication. Chicago: University of Illinois Press. Wiener, N., 1948. Cybernetics, or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Wiener, N., 1950. The Human Use of Human Beings. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. # 1742 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Viacheslav B. Kashkin. Telementation vs. Interaction: Which Model Suits Human Communication Best? Трансляционная или интеракциональная модель коммуникации: что лучше? В.Б. Кашкин Воронежский государственный университет Россия 394006, Воронеж, Университетская площадь, 1 Модели коммуникации можно разделить на трансляционные (линейные, механистические, телементационные) и интеракциональные (нелинейные, диалогические, деятельностные). Обыденное представление тяготеет к вещественно-трансляционной метафоре коммуникации, но допускает элементы нелинейности. Диалогическая, интеракциональная парадигма в большей степени отражает реальность именно человеческого коммуникативного взаимодействия. Ключевые слова: коммуникация, модель, интеракциональный. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 12 (2012 5) 1744-1752 ~~~ УДК 808.5 A Methodology for Analyzing Political Speech: Western Approaches to Rhetorical Theory David C. Williamsa*, Marilyn J. Young and Michael K. Launerb a Ph.D. of Florida Atlantic University, CU 201 777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, Florida, USA Florida State University b Department of Modern Languages and Linguistics Florida State University 625 University Way, PO Box 3061540 Tallahassee, Florida 32306-1540 1 b Received 04.12.2012, received in revised form 11.12.2012, accepted 24.12.2012 Rhetorical scholars have long been interested in studying the internal dynamics of political speech − not summarizing what is said, but rather describing how a speech works as a rhetorical appeal.1 In so doing, of course, one naturally examines the content of the discourse (its goals and strategies) in order to understand how the speaker seeks to influence an audience and to evaluate both the effectiveness of the speech as a rhetorical appeal and its ethical and political implications. In contemporary pluralistic societies such as Germany, Great Britain, and the United States—where political voices have access to multiple forms of communication, including television, radio, newspapers, scholarly journals, and Internet driven social media—it is expected that any national level political event will be commented upon and analyzed by both adherents and opponents. Never is this more true than when the leader of a nation, or a candidate to become that leader, speaks in any public forum. Speeches by American political leaders are routinely subjected to intensive rhetorical criticism. Just within the past few years, for instance, The Quarterly Journal of Speech has published rhetorical criticism focusing on speeches by Barack Obama (twice), Franklin Roosevelt, and Mohammad Ali. In this paper, which is aimed at presenting Western methods of rhetorical analysis to students and teachers in Russia, we have chosen to apply those methods to the most recent inaugural address given by the newly elected President of the Russian Federation, Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin, on the assumption that most readers will be familiar with that speech. Keywords: rhetoric, rhetorical criticism, communication criticism, political communication, rhetorical situation, inaugural addresses, dramatism, second persona, Vladimir Putin, Kenneth Burke, Lloyd Bitzer, Edwin Black. Rhetorical approaches to political communication focus on the dynamic relationships among speaker, text, audience, and situation. * 1 This essay draws upon Western methods of rhetorical criticism, with special emphasis on the methodological techniques associated with the Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 1744 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» David C. Williams, Marilyn J. Young… A Methodology for Analyzing Political Speech: Western Approaches… work of American theorists Kenneth Burke, Lloyd Bitzer, and Edwin Black. The political artifact that we will analyze in this study is Vladimir Putin’s third Inaugural Address, which was delivered on 07 May 2012. Our purpose in presenting this analysis is to model the process of “rhetorical criticism,” a mainstream analytic orientation in Western approaches to Communication Studies that remains relatively unknown in Russia and Eurasia. We select President Putin’s 2012 Inaugural Address as our sample text for analysis both because we are confident that Russian communication students and scholars are familiar with the speech and because of our own interests in better understanding the functions of public argument in contemporary Russia. Methodologically, we follow these procedures: 1) we engage in close textual reading of the speech2 coupled with research into the external circumstances and broader sociopolitical context; 2) we “follow” our observations concerning the text toward appropriate critical and theoretical perspectives that could illuminate and “account for” what we had observed; and 3) we analyze the rhetorical act utilizing those theoretical orientations, pursuing the implications toward critical judgment about and evaluation of the rhetorical act. (Black, 1980) Kenneth Burke was among the first to explore the rhetorical situation, focusing on a system of ratios as a means of determining underlying motive in political speech. Burke’s system of ratios, the theoretical core of “dramatistic criticism,” explores the relationship between textually featured elements of a rhetorical act: scene, act, agent, agency, purpose. (Burke, 1945). Lloyd Bitzer’s idea of the “rhetorical situation” proceeds from the notion that all rhetoric—particularly political rhetoric—is situated; that is, it is dependent for meaning and salience on the circumstances in which it arises. Bitzer conceived of the rhetorical situation as: ... a complex of persons, events, objects, and relations presenting an actual or potential exigence (острая проблема, нуждающаяся в исправлении) which can be completely or partially removed if discourse, introduced into the situation, can so constrain human decision or action as to bring about the significant modification of the exigence. (Bitzer, 1968, p. 6). “Exigence” itself is understood to be a perception of imperfection (or, of a need) “marked by a sense of urgency”: it cannot be simply ignored. Bitzer elaborated, claiming that “(i)n any rhetorical situation there will be at least one controlling exigence which functions as the organizing principle: it specifies the audience to be addressed and the change to be effected.” (Bitzer, 1968, p.7). Edwin Black focused on the audience in “The Second Persona,” arguing that the rhetor constructed [and reconstructed] the audience, asking it to adopt a particular role or identity in line with the speaker’s purpose. Through close textual analysis, Black suggests, a “critic can see in the auditor (слушающий) implied by a discourse the model of what the rhetor (говорящий) would have his real auditor become.” What the critic can find projected by the discourse is the image of a person, and though that person may never find actual embodiment, it is still a person that it is an image of. (Black, 1970, 335). Although not identical, the “second persona” functions in a manner comparable to the process of “interpellation,” a concept developed by the French Marxist philosopher Louis Pierre Althusser. (Althusser, 1987, Charland, 1987, Williams et al., 2009, Gouran, 2010) In our analysis, we appropriate insights from these three theories—dramatism, the rhetorical situation, and the second persona—to elaborate the synergy among rhetor, text, situation, and # 1745 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» David C. Williams, Marilyn J. Young… A Methodology for Analyzing Political Speech: Western Approaches… audience as they come together in President Vladimir Putin’s 2012 Inaugural Address. When Vladimir Putin first took office at the dawn of the 21st century, he ushered in a new era in Russia, one focused on gaining control of the upheaval and uncertainty of the 1990s. Upon ascending to office in 2000, Putin immediately set out to reconstruct the notions of liberty developed in the ‘90s under Boris Yeltsin. There can be little doubt that Putin’s goal in his first two terms was to overlay his notions of “continuity” and “stability” onto standard definitions of democracy, so that his conception of “managed” or “sovereign” democracy became accepted by the Russian people while also remaining acceptable to the Western powers. Putin deployed his definitions of democracy and liberty as a means of establishing his own power and authority, calling on the audience to reconstitute itself as a Russian people unified in support of a strong state. He tried to get to a definitional place where Russian ‘democracy’ fit his vision of governance, rather than a larger (Western) vision of democracy. To that end, Putin asked his audience to reconsider its history and the historical connection to democracy and freedom and to reconstitute themselves as a Russian people ideologically committed to a collectivist vision of democracy, one which is orchestrated and controlled and which functions as an instrument of the state. Putin’s emergent definition of democracy became known as “managed democracy” (управляемая демократия) or, in more recent years, “sovereign democracy” (суверенная демократия), in which the sovereignty is understood to reside in the state rather than “the people.” (Gouran, 2010, pp.558564). By all accounts he was successful in his two four-year terms, “redefining the terms in the debate over liberty, security, democracy, and free markets in Russia.” (Young, 2006). After a four-year hiatus during which he served as Prime Minister, Putin was inaugurated for his third term as President of the Russian Federation on 07 May 2012. Out-going President (and in-coming Prime Minister) Dmitri Medvedev spoke first, followed by the swearing in of Putin as President, and then by Putin’s brief inaugural address. Offstage, in the days immediately preceding the inauguration, were some of the largest public protests since the final throes of the Soviet Union. These protests followed earlier demonstrations after both the Duma and the Presidential elections. Once the new understanding or definition of a term such as “democracy” has been accepted, the rhetor needs only make reference to it. Moreover, the new definition can function as the premise or grounds for a subsequent argument. That is, the definition itself is no longer an argument claim; it is instead a starting point. Putin’s continued popularity [despite recent protests] and, to some extent, the fact that he was re-elected to a third term—even after a four-year hiatus—indicate his success in this endeavor.3 Thus, it is important to examine Putin’s rhetoric as he enters his third term in office to determine whether he believes the final transformation has taken place, enabling him to use “sovereign democracy” as a foundation for his vision of Russia’s future. In his discussion of the rhetorical situation, Bitzer focuses on the importance of exigence, that set of circumstances which has “called forth” the rhetorical act. Obviously, the immediate purpose of Putin’s address is to fulfill the expectations for an inaugural ceremony. As with all inaugural speeches, the larger intent is to set a tone, describe a direction, and provide inspiration for the audience, but the content is largely driven by the perception of exigence that exists in the world outside the inaugural ceremony. Putin’s exigence is the desire among certain segments of the population for radical change: his “exigence” is thus the existence of political exigence in the audience. This is not an # 1746 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» David C. Williams, Marilyn J. Young… A Methodology for Analyzing Political Speech: Western Approaches… exigence he seeks the audience to share directly; rather he seeks to dampen or quell any specific political exigencies that might be building in the audience. Specifically, the President seems to aim toward suppressing any sense of urgency about any matters of the public sphere. In this sense, his goal is not to activate a functional audience toward the reduction of a shared exigence but rather to de-activate or disempower the audience. A broader goal might be to deconstruct (or dismantle) the rhetorical situation itself, that is, to render the broader situation as non-rhetorical, i.e., perceptions of imperfection, even those marked by a sense of urgency, will not be perceived as addressable through audience action. Putin amplifies many of the themes Medvedev had mentioned in his introduction of the new President, beginning with Medvedev’s weaving of the will and good of the people into the fabric of the leader. Putin does this by subsuming self into a mystical union of leader and people through a merger in collective purpose (a clear expression of what Burke labels as a purpose/ agent motivational ratio). Following his salutation to “citizens” and “friends,” Putin begins in first person voice, and in doing so he quickly positions himself as the leader and decision maker as Russia moves forward. He states: ... I am aware of my great responsibility before our country. Russia’s interests and the security and prosperity of our people have always been and always will be my utmost priority. I will do everything to justify the trust that millions of our citizens have placed in me. I see the whole sense and purpose of my life as being to serve our country and serve our people, whose support gives me the inspiration and help I need to resolve the greatest and most complex tasks. (all emphasis added) Thus, Putin obscures personal motives through “service”—all that he has done is in service to his country, not for any personal gain, either in power or in wealth. Putin here depicts himself as a fully empowered hero; that is, the persona constructed is that of a hero who is “super-human” in many respects (Otis Walter says superior to the audience in both kind and knowledge). (Campbell, Burkholder, 1997). The claim that the “purpose of my life” is “to serve our country and serve our people” does not locate the source of the purpose, whether Putin has generated it within himself or whether it was conferred upon him from without, or perhaps even above. Either way, the President suggests that his motive, his being, is constituted by a larger purpose. This is Burke’s purpose/agent ratio. The dim aura of divine selection that hovers around Putin’s persona gains subtle reinforcement later in the speech when Putin shifts his language from “trust” to “faith.” At the beginning of the speech, he claims possession of the audience’s “trust” that has been “placed in” him, and through “trust” the audience transfers to Putin the political agency to fulfill his responsibilities, to make the decisions and take the actions needed to resolve problems, thereby serving the people. The audience is being constructed to defer, not to act. Putin then and throughout the remainder of the speech shifts almost exclusively to the inclusive plural voice “we,” suggesting an identification and merger between speaker and audience. “We,” says Putin, have accomplished a great deal: “We have strengthened our country and returned our dignity as a great nation. . . .We have everything we need today to continue our development and progress….” There is no crisis; there is no sense of urgency that should be attached to existing imperfections. There are challenges ahead as Russia enters “a new stage in our national development,” and the “coming years will be crucial for shaping Russia’s future in the decades to come.” # 1747 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» David C. Williams, Marilyn J. Young… A Methodology for Analyzing Political Speech: Western Approaches… But the threats are unstated, and the tasks are appealing, general goals, not specific actions (e.g., “building a new economy and developing modern living standards”). In order to “achieve our goals,” the primary requirement placed on the audience is to not change, to “remain united and stand together.” Additional injunctions are placed on the audience that repeat the pattern of describing optimistic general goals but not specific actions: e.g., “treasure our homeland,” “strengthen our country’s democracy”4 and “rights” and “freedoms,” to “expand” citizens “participation in government and in setting our national agenda,” with the result that “everyone’s desires for a better life become part of a common effort.” Unity and standing together are underscored as essential to “a common effort.” Putin offers a path for such standing together and assures the audience that “(w)e will achieve success for sure,” but only if we “stand firmly upon the solid foundation” constructed of several pillars of national identity: “our multiethnic people’s cultural and spiritual traditions, our centuries of history,” and “values that have always been the moral backbone of our life.” The audience is to look inward and become more firmly entrenched in their identities. The other condition for success, and the only call for audience action, is for “each of us” to live our “lives according to their conscience, with love for and faith in their country, their families and loved ones, and care for their children’s happiness and their parents’ welfare.” “Treasuring homeland” and “trust” in the leader have now progressed to “love for and faith in” country, as well as families and loved ones. All of these injunctions direct the audience inward, toward identity and commitment; none of them directs the audience toward actions in the public sphere or toward specific policy endorsements. Putin makes the people feel part of the process of restoring the greatness Russia enjoyed during the Soviet period. Yet leadership—authority— remains the key to such progress; the “hard work” of the people in a “common effort” was essential, but it could not have happened without guidance from above, and in this instance Putin gives a nod toward Medvedev: “I think that much of the credit here is due to Dmitry Medvedev. His presidency ensured that our country could keep developing with continuity and stability, and gave new impetus to modernization in all spheres of life” (“Vladimir Putin inaugurated”). Again, the emphasis is on stability and unity—depicting the opposition and protestors as threatening a return to chaos. On one level this gesture of humility in which the out-going Prime Minister credits the out-going President for all successes is a polite exercise in appreciation and deference, but on another it functions to obscure completely any initiative or leadership “from below,” from democratic expressions of the people themselves. Moreover, by travelling together on this road, which is defined not by its difficulties but rather by its merger of purpose, leader, and people, Russia is once again poised on the threshold of greatness. In his Inaugural Address Putin explicitly offers an operational definition of democracy and applies it in an aspirational sense: “We want to live and we will live in a democratic country in which everyone has the freedom and opportunity to apply their talents and labour, their energy. We want to live and we will live in a successful Russia that the world respects as a reliable, open, honest and predictable partner” (“Vladimir Putin inaugurated”). National success—and with it international prestige (and power)—seem to be the implied outcomes of “democratic” application of the talents, labor, and energy of the people in service to the state. Thus, Putin’s vision of “democracy” focuses on economic and national strength (national “success”), rather # 1748 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» David C. Williams, Marilyn J. Young… A Methodology for Analyzing Political Speech: Western Approaches… than collaborative decision-making. Moreover, political unity is the path to “democracy,” not a cacophony of diverse voices, not a cooperatively competing interplay of different perspectives. The President embeds his concept of democracy in a larger situational definition: stay the course. This is stability and progress; this is the way things will be; this is the new reality. The only specific action called for from a functional audience is directed not toward the public sphere, but rather toward the private sphere: to “care for” children’s “happiness” and “parents’ welfare.” The audience is exhorted toward action in the personal realm but directed toward identity commitments, unity, and faith in the public realm, orientations that deflect any emergent exigencies that might arise around specific issues in the public sphere and, through the bestowal of “trust” upon the leader, that leave the responsibility and power for resolving the greatest and most complex challenges to the leader. In his conclusion, Putin reinforces many of these same themes, embedding them in alluring, powerful, and vague goals and visions, depicted through a medley of what Kenneth Burke calls “ultimate terms.” (Burke, 1950, pp. 183-189). He features the term “democracy,” but not in a definitional sense that highlights any vision of politically pluralistic argument in public deliberation of ideas and courses of action. When Putin says, “We want to live and we will live in a democratic country in which everyone has the freedom and opportunity to apply their talents and labour, their energy,” he equates democracy with, or reduces it to, cultural and economic realms: the Western understanding of democracy as a diversity of ideas advocated by multiple voices vying for acceptance and legitimation by an empowered public is conspicuous in its absence. Instead, Putin returns to the theme of unity (and unity can be interpreted as the absence of diverse voices or ideas), proclaiming his belief “in the strength of our common goals and ideals, our determination to transform our country, our people’s united efforts, and our common desire for freedom, truth and justice.” Thus united, “We are ready for the tests and accomplishments ahead. ... We will work with faith in our hearts and sincere and pure intention.” In these concluding lines, Putin deflates concerns of any impending urgent perceptions of imperfection: tests will be met, and accomplishments, not imperfections, lie ahead. In addition to defining “democracy,” President Putin moves toward (re)defining Russia, not in the sense of expanding or contracting national boundaries, but rather in creating a meta-state, trans-historical sense of “Russia.” In this Inaugural Address, he speaks of “Russia” (not the “Russian Federation”), of “our centuries of history,” and of Russia’s “great past.” In this construction, “Russia” transcends different political states that have existed over time. This ‘meta-Russia’ seamlessly blends a glorious and heroic past into the challenges of today, illuminating the common path toward a glorious future. Conclusion In this essay we have attempted to illustrate the process of rhetorical criticism as practiced by communication scholars in the United States. The point of such criticism is not to censure or disparage, but, rather, to analyze. To that end, we have examined Vladimir Putin’s third Inaugural Address to determine how it works rhetorically— what makes it successful or unsuccessful as an example of political discourse. Our conclusion is that Putin, in advancing the state as the guarantor of freedom and prosperity, operates from the definition of democracy that he advocated in his first two terms. He ties democratization to prosperity and unity. Bitzer argues in his essay “The Rhetorical Situation” that rhetoric comes # 1749 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» David C. Williams, Marilyn J. Young… A Methodology for Analyzing Political Speech: Western Approaches… into being as the result of an exigence which must be removed. In the case of Putin’s inaugural speech, however, we believe that Putin’s rhetoric works to de-rhetoricize the situation. The exigence is not so much resolved as it is subsumed in transcendent appeals to unity. 1 2 3 4 The technique of rhetorical criticism, while focused here on the recurring situation of inaugural addresses, has broader implications for understanding and analyzing political discourse and is a defining practice in Western rhetorical studies. This work is part of an on-going study of Russian political communication conducted under the auspices of the International Center for the Advancement of Political Communication and Argumentation (ICAPCA), located at Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida, USA. The authors worked with the official English language translation of the speech as posted on the President of Russia website. Despite the limitations of working with the text in translation, we believe it sufficient for our current purposes of illustrating methods of rhetorical criticism. Western observers felt the 2012 presidential election was relatively free of voter fraud. Still, Putin’s numbers were substantially less than the last time he ran for office, and his approval rating has declined. It should be noted that this begs the question that it is a “democracy”; it argues that whatever that democracy is, it must be “strengthened,” which would seem to suggest that you make it more “purely” what it already fundamentally is, which in this case we believe is “managed” or “sovereign” democracy. References Althusser, Louis Pierre. “Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses,” Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays (Ben Brewster, trans.), New York and London: Monthly Review Press, 1971. Bitzer, Lloyd F. «The Rhetorical Situation,» Philosophy and Rhetoric, 1 (1968), 1-14. Black, Edwin. “The Second Persona,” Quarterly Journal of Speech, 56 (1970), 109-119. Reprinted in (Contemporary Rhetorical Theory: A Reader Eds. Lucaites, J. L., Condit, C.M., and Caudill S. NY: The Guilford Press, 1999: 331-340. Black, Edwin. “A Note on Theory and Practice in Rhetorical Criticism,” Western Journal of Speech Communication, 44 (Fall 1980): 331-336. Burke, Kenneth. A Grammar of Motives. New York: Prentice Hall, 1945. Burke, Kenneth. A Rhetoric of Motives. New York: Prentice Hall, 1950. Campbell Karlyn Kohrs, and Burkholder, Thomas R. Critiques of Contemporary Rhetoric, 2nd Ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1997. Charland, Maurice. “Constitutive Rhetoric: The Case of the people Quebecois,” Quarterly Journal of Speech, 73(1987), 133-150. Reprinted in Readings in Rhetorical Criticism, 3rd Ed. Ed. Burgchardt, C. R. State College, PA: Strata Publishing, Inc., 2005. Kara-Murza, Vladimir. “Putin’s ‘Soviet’ Response to Renewed Protests in Russia.” World Affairs, Feb 9, 2012. www.worldaffairsjournal.org/blg/vladimir-kara-murza King, Andrew. “Pentadic Criticism: The Wheels of Creation,” in Rhetorical Criticism: Perspectives in Action. Ed. J. Kuypers. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2009, 165-179 Krastev, Ivan. “’Sovereign Democracy’, Russian-style.” openDemocracy free thinking for the world. Nov 16, 2006. http://www.opendemocracy.net/globalization-institutions_government/ sovereign_democracy_4104.jsp Accessed 9/5/11 McGee, B. R. “The Argument from Definition Revisited: Race and Definition in the Progressive Era.” Argumentation and Advocacy, 35 (1999). Retrieved July 29, 2005 from InfoTrac. “Reception marking the 67th anniversary of victory in the Great Patriotic War.” Official Site of the President of Russia. May 9, 2012. http://emg.news.kremlin.ru. Accessed June 3, 2012. # 1750 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» David C. Williams, Marilyn J. Young… A Methodology for Analyzing Political Speech: Western Approaches… “Vladimir Putin inaugurated as President of Russia.” Official site of the President of Russia. May 7, 2012. http://eng.news.kremlin.ru/transcripts/3749. Accessed June 3, 2012. Williams, David Cratis. “Instant Democracy: Rhetorical Crises and the Russian Federation, 19912007.” Advances in the History of Rhetoric, 9 (2006): 227-242. Williams, David Cratis and Marin, Noemi, “Citizen Putin: Presidential Argument and the Invitation to (Democratic) Citizenship.” The Functions of Argument and Social Context. Selected Papers from the National Communication Association/American Forensic Association Summer Argumentation Conference, Alta, UT, August 2009. Ed. Dennis Gouran. Washington: National Communication Association, 2010: 558-564. Williams, David Cratis, and Young, Marilyn. “Managing ‘Democracy’ in the Age of Terrorism: Putin, Bush, and Arguments from Definition.” Engaging Argument. Selected Papers from the Thirteenth NCA/AFA Conference on Argumentation. Ed. Patricia Riley. Annandale: National Communication Association. 2006: 97-103. Williams, David Cratis, Young, Marilyn, and Launer, Michael. “Russian National Identity as Argument Construction: An Assessment of Political Transformations in Post-Soviet Russia,” Proceedings: Seventh International Conference of the International Society for the Study of Argumentation. Eds. van Eemeren, Frans, Garssen, Bart, Godden, David, and Mitchell, Gordon. Amsterdam: SIC-SAT Publishers, 2011: 2008-2016 (CD-ROM). Young, Marilyn J. “Liberty vs. Security in Putin’s ‘Managed Democracy’: Back to the Future?” Contemporary Perspectives on Argumentation: Views from the Venice Argumentation Conference. Eds. van Eemeren, Frans, Hazen, Michael David, Houtlosser, Peter, and Williams, David Cratis. Amsterdam: SIC-SAT Publishers, 2006. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» David C. Williams, Marilyn J. Young… A Methodology for Analyzing Political Speech: Western Approaches… Методика анализа выступлений политиков: подходы западных специалистов к разработке теории риторики Д.К. Вильямса, М.Дж. Йонг , М.К. Лаунерб a Флоридский Атлантический университет 777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, Флорида, CU 201 США б Отделение современных иностранных языков и лингвистики 625 University Way, PO Box 3061540 Tallahassee, Florida 32306-1540 б Ученые в области риторики давно проявляют интерес к исследованию внутренней динамики политической речи, т.е. не суммируют то, что говорится, а описывают, как работает речь в качестве риторического призыва. При этом, несомненно, осуществляется анализ содержания дискурса (его цели и стратегии), что позволяет понять, какие пути ищет говорящий для воздействия на аудиторию, и оценить эффективность речи как риторического призыва и ее этических и политических импликаций. В современных плюралистических обществах, таких как Германия, Великобритания и Соединенные Штаты Америки, в которых политические голоса имеют доступ к множественным формам коммуникации, включая телевидение, радио, газеты, научные журналы и социальные интернет-средства массовой информации, предполагается, что политическое событие любого уровня подвергается комментариям и анализу со стороны как сторонников, так и оппонентов. Особенно это прослеживается, когда руководитель страны или кандидат в политические лидеры выступает на каких-либо политических форумах. Речи американских политических лидеров постоянно подвергаются усиленной риторической критике. Например, журнал «The Quarterly Journal of Speech» за последние несколько лет опубликовал риторическую критику речей Барака Обамы (дважды), Франклина Рузвельта и Мохаммеда Али. В данной статье аудитории российских студентов и преподавателей представлен западный метод риторического анализа. Для этого была выбрана инаугурационная речь Владимира Владимировича Путина, вновь избранного президентом Российской Федерации, чья речь, как предполагается, хорошо знакома большинству читателей. Ключевые слова: риторика, риторическая критика, коммуникативная критика, политическая коммуникация, риторическая ситуация, инаугурационная речь, драматизм, второе действующее лицо, Владимир Путин, Кеннет Бёрк, Ллойд Бицер, Эдвин Блэк. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 12 (2012 5) 1753-1761 ~~~ УДК 81’42 Technologisation of Discourse Practices: Globality Versus Cultural Specificity Lyudmila V. Kulikova* Siberian Federal University 82а Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 04.12.2012, received in revised form 11.12.2012, accepted 24.12.2012 The issues raised in the article are connected with vivid communication trends of the 21st century: namely, its increasing technologisation and unprecedented integration, as well as national and cultural discourse markedness in the context of their existence within a certain linguaculture. Keywords: globalization of discourse, technology, discourse practices, technologisation of discourse practices. Introduction The process of human communication can be seen as a global anthropological technology. We live in the age of total “grasping” by communication, a social trend related to globalisation and rapid development of discourse technologies. In their practical activities most people are involved in the domain of communication technology as performers and participants in the scenarios: public, advertising, commercial, corporate, etc. Cultural identity today is being fragmented (‘broken into pieces’) by the communicative impact of one’s own and foreign discourse culture. Communication that uses a human being as a “fragment” is a modern social technology. I believe that these are the key touches to the “portrait” of modern communication processes. In this article I use the term ‘discourse practices’ as it largely reflects the social and practical side of human existence in communication. In this regard, discourse * 1 practices are understood as socially established, conventional and articulated actions to address recurrent communication problems and intentions in the corresponding linguacultural society in the areas of institutional and non-institutional communication. Thus, the modern world is increasingly representing the global communicative and communications space and discourse practices are correspondingly growing on a global scale and acquiring a technological character. Technologisation of discourse practices The term ‘technologisation of discourse’ emerged in the end of the last (i.e. 20th) century in the works of the well-known English linguist Norman Fairclough, who in a certain way developed the research of Michel Foucault and Erving Goffman. Analysing discourse technologies as a variety of government technologies Fairclough Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 1753 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Lyudmila V. Kulikova. Technologisation of Discourse Practices: Globality Versus Cultural Specificity connects technologisation of discourse with three domains of practice: 1) research into the discoursal practices of workplaces and institutions; 2) design of discoursal practices in accordance with institutional strategies and objectives; 3) training of personnel in such designed discoursal practices (Fairclough, 1996; in: Plotnikova, 2011, p. 22). A number of Russian authors, primarily S. Plotnikova, are also currently developing the theory of discourse technologisation, distinguishing the main features and functions of modern discourse technologies (Plotnikova, 2011). The methodological background provides an opportunity to formulate an understanding of discourse technologisation as a process of minimising communication efforts to effectively control subjects in discourse interaction. The mechanism of technological ‘packaging’ of discourse practices is based on organising a sequence of communicative actions as regulated, standardised operations to achieve the maximum (guaranteed) result at the least cost. The technology of discourse practice makes the recipient believe in the sincerity and truthfulness of face-to-face or mediated communication. Globalization of modern discourse It is noteworthy that reference to the phenomenon of globalisation, particularly drawing on McLuhan’s metaphor of the ‘global village’ and notion of implosion, has long been focused almost exclusively on technological characteristics of communicative environment, namely development of information and telecommunications systems, mass media, Internet resources, ‘squeezing’ the geographical space and time and allowing you to instantly carry out human interactions in a dialogue, an interactive mode. Therefore, by the way, new information and communication technologies of the 20th century were assumed to be radio, film, television and computer. However, the relevant attribute and characteristics of modernity is the development and expansion of not only communication (technical media), but also communicative and discoursal (content) sphere in globalisation. The research interest of my talk is directed, first of all, and most of all, at the second constituent of the modern social world. Linguo-communicative analysis of discourse reality reveals numerous examples of discourse practices globalisation in different institutional spheres that I will try to demonstrate in this article. In this regard, the world’s modern interactive television broadcasts programs identical in nature. In unified shows Russians, Americans, Germans and French are trying to win a million by answering quiz questions, guessing words, spinning the roulette wheel, etc., thus reflecting the symbolic trend of globalisation of discourse practices, especially in the virtual space. The same trends in the formation of a new phase of globalisation are demonstrated by network discourse in the numerous national and international social networks, such as Facebook, Wikipedia, ‘Vkontakte’, ‘Odnoklassniki’, etc. The feeling of global communication technology is also caused by monitoring the international dating website “www.edarling.org”, a fairly new discourse practice designed for the situation of on-line communication. This practice of virtual interaction is based on the technology called ‘matching’. In general, implementation of this technology has an exceptionally global nature, because discourse in the format of a dating website in different countries is unified within the same cognitive scenario, namely a kind of psychological compatibility test for clients of network communication space. In addition, monitoring websites for network clients from # 1754 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Lyudmila V. Kulikova. Technologisation of Discourse Practices: Globality Versus Cultural Specificity different countries finds standardised semiotic and composition markers: mostly the same visuals, the identical structure of profiles starting with gender stratification, the same text material literally translated into different languages, “Register for free and find a partner for serious relationship” (the site for Russia); “Melden Sie sich kostenlos an und finden sie den Partner, der wirklich zu Ihnen passt” (sites for Austria and Germany). Even these characteristics suggest reproduction of globally organised discourse practice. Its technology uses all the available ‘discourse manipulations’ (Marcuse), psychological ‘inventory’ and growing dependence of a human on the information medium. Deconstruction of communicative practice of virtual dating in the aspect of ‘customer’ of the disclosed technology reveals the primary intention of technologists producing this type of discourse on a global scale. The data show that we primarily deal with the phenomenon of industry / commercialisation of communication. Its aim in the studied fragment of reality is not cross-cultural marriages, but specific commercial interests, which confirms the possibility of instrumental application of discourse as a resource of management, impact and financial benefits. However, despite the obvious global trends of discourse practice in virtual dating, its detailed analysis allows us to talk about the specific national and cultural character of this interaction. In particular, communication conventions in the Russian-speaking environment tolerate intrusion into a private sphere which is clearly reflected in the profile questions for Russian clients of the websites. For instance, the requested information identifies the applicant’s ethnicity, “Which of these groups do you belong to: European, African, Asian, Arab? / Welcher ethnischen Gruppe gehören Sie an: europäisch, afrikanisch, asiatisch, arabisch?” The image of the client is designed largely in terms of external parameters, such as the interviewee’s height. This question is missing in the form for European applicants, because in accordance with the communicative norms of this cultural space it is identified as unauthorised access to personal information. By the same token, protection of the client’s private information in the materials of, for example, the German website ‘ElitePartner’ is excessively explicated by the warnings, “Andere Mitglieder sehen nur Ihr Alter, nicht Ihr Geburtsdatum”, or “Ihre Antworten auf die einzelnen Fragen sind für andere später nicht sichtbar” (other users will see only your age, not your date of birth. Your answers to individual questions will not be available to others). This discourse delicacy is not found on the corresponding websites for Russians. Thus, within the global technology of virtual dating the corpus of analysed material demonstrates cultural markedness of relevant discourse practice. Consumerist discourse in its various forms is a vivid reflection of globalisation and technologisation of discourse practices. Let us consider, for example, communicative textual space of contemporary hospitality. As a rule, high-rate hotels in Russia have a large number of signs and information plates only in English without Russian equivalents, ‘Reception’, ‘Concierge’, ‘Staff only’, ‘Exchange’, ‘Luggage Room’, ‘Cloak Room’, ‘Lobby Bar’, ‘No Smoking Area’, ‘You are in a no – smoking room’. Obviously, knowledge of a foreign language (mostly English) by Russian-speaking guests is presumed and / or the information is addressed to foreign recipients which generally reflects the globalisation of tourist flows and, consequently, of communication. It is interesting to note that in German hotels, as the empirical evidence shows, the same model of bilingual (German-English) discourse environment # 1755 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Lyudmila V. Kulikova. Technologisation of Discourse Practices: Globality Versus Cultural Specificity is observed which allows us to identify the use of English as a global lingua franca, the technology of the modern business in general. In addition, technologisation of discourse practice in this case is clearly manifested in the staff’s communication effort minimisation, optimization and economy of communication input in dealing with foreigners. As a part of the same processes accommodation rules in Russian hotels are verbalised almost everywhere bilingually, thus reflecting the desire for ostentation, quality, service, and social prestige of the hotel, which can be clearly designated as a discourse technology of presentation consumerism. In the last decade discourse practices in corporate communication are being actively technologised. Corporate structures are developing their own technologies, as a rule anonymous in terms of authorship, produced for the internal and external organisational environment. First of all, it is the interaction with customers, consumers, job applicants, etc. In the process of technological discourse construction of corporate reality all its formal and conceptual aspects are being strictly conventionalised. As an example, let us consider discourse practices of a modern banking corporation based on the scripts and regulatory documents made available to the author by courtesy of one of the city’s banks. Technological communication repertoire of a specific organisational and corporate culture involves in terms of our interest rules of addressing the customer, rules of telephone conversations and business correspondence, instructions for the image and behavioural characteristics of an employee as a corporate identity, as well as the basic guidelines for interpersonal interaction with clients of the bank. In this regard, the technological model of the ‘right’ communication with customers is embodied in the following guidelines for employees: 1. Address the customer strictly by formal ‘You’ and by name and patronymic, regardless of his/her age. The exception can only be made in case of addressing by first name and only at the client’s request. Note: It is better to write down the client’s full name in the organizer in order to remember it, and pronounce it just before the meeting, especially if it is a difficult combination of words. 2. In case of a few guests remember their names on first listen. You can write them down in the organizer according to the guests’ location in the meeting room. 3. Use only words with positive meaning like ‘thank you’, ‘please’, ‘can you …?’ etc. Note: Use the minimum number of specific professional banking terms. Do not use professional slang and diminutive word endings. 4. Comment on any necessary absence when providing customer service. For example, “Unfortunately, I have to leave you” / “Sorry, I need to make a copy of the document / get documents signed by the manager”, etc. / “It will take no more than 5 minutes”, etc. 5. When meeting a Customer you need to introduce yourself in the first place; pronounce your first and last name and position clearly. Next, you need to pause to give the opportunity to the guest to introduce himself/herself. And only if he/she did not do it for some reason, you should inquire. If it is a tripartite meeting, you should introduce the third party giving the second guest’s first and last name, position and organization. This fragment showing in fact the perfect development of bank clerk’s discourse behaviour supports the idea that some technologies “depersonalise the human completely, so that he/she becomes similar to all other speakers / writers having the same role in the standard # 1756 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Lyudmila V. Kulikova. Technologisation of Discourse Practices: Globality Versus Cultural Specificity situation” (Plotnikova, 2011, p. 42). In this case, the intentional logic of this technology order is dictated by the bank management and is apparently based on the image policy, “Bank image is an integral pattern combining business style with a friendly, positive attitude, polite and amicable communication with customers, partners and colleagues.” One can certainly talk about the didactic side of technologisation. In this sense, people that produce the so-called discourse ‘template’ have to learn, memorise and repeat developed texts and principles of normative interaction with their customers and partners conducive to the objectives of the corporation. Discourse practice of business conversations on the telephone includes no less specific and detailed list of customer-oriented requirements: 1. When answering the telephone you should introduce yourself. 2. If the Customer did not give his/her name, you should ask him/her in a tactful manner to introduce himself/herself. 3. Make a pause and listen carefully for the reason the customer calls. 4. It is unacceptable to give negative evaluations of the customer’s words, opinions, or actions. 5. Before ending the conversation, you should always summarise to avoid misunderstanding. 6. At the end of any conversation you should: Thank the customer for calling. − Let the client know that you greatly appreciate his/her information, request. − Hang up after the client has done it. 7. During outgoing calls you should also say hello, give the name of the Bank and your name. NOTE: − You cannot say the name of the customer on the phone, especially when there is another customer in the room (confidentiality) − Keep promises and call back to the Customer at the agreed time − It is necessary to return all missed calls − Telephone conversation must be constructive and short − You cannot do other things during telephone conversation. The technological linguasemiotic image and corporate behaviour of bank employees require formalization of such aspects as personal qualities: presentable appearance, customer orientation, result orientation, communication skills, active lifestyle, as well as the appearance of the staff, “Compliance with the appearance rules is an integral part of the customer-oriented conduct adopted by the Bank. The employee must adhere to the principles and rules with regard to the business style and is responsible for compliance with the Standards of service. ... Casual clothing (Business Friday) on Fridays is not accepted.” The given discourse technologies are certainly closed; access to them is open to a certain group of people, representatives of this corporate culture. As noted by S. Plotnikova, these technologies are not introduced from the outside, but are formed in the discourse community by the gradual increase of corresponding discourse experience and its dissemination through the standardisation of discourse practices (Plotnikova, 2011, p. 26). The use of technologically defined discourse scenarios ‘works’ to achieve specific goals, particularly in terms of business communication, a real economic profit. In the focus of corporate communication let us also discuss technologically defined discourse practice of a recruitment interview. The empirical data used in the article are ‘Employment Inquires’ of California Department of Fair Employment and Housing (California, USA)1, ‘Interview structure’ of the Tripartite Alliance for Fair Employment Practices (Singapore)2, as well as Russian versions # 1757 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Lyudmila V. Kulikova. Technologisation of Discourse Practices: Globality Versus Cultural Specificity of these documents, such as ‘Interview Structure’ of the recruitment agency ‘EQ – Staff’3. A recruitment interview takes place within the scope of institutional business communication which automatically ‘includes’ a number of limitations related to the content, duration and venue, the ratio of communication initiatives and speakers’ contributions to the conversation. There arises a need to develop technologies as ways of optimizing discourse interaction in the strictly determined framework. In this regard, one of the directors of a large Russian recruitment agency, a career coach, says, “There always appear new technologies, tools and techniques that are designed to improve the level of recruitment. … Recruitment, if you do not know yet, is sale. If you disagree with me, I am really sorry for your business. … A recruiter must be able to explain convincingly why your company is the best choice for the candidate and why he/she should accept these employment conditions and opportunities for career development.” This quote can be commented on in terms of N. Fairclough’s research (Fairclough, 1996). Distinguishing new discourse technologies, the English linguist refers to colonisation of institutional communication by marketing and advertising techniques. Within this technology communication between professionals and non-professionals (customers) is redesigned. The general cognitive model of these roles based on the notion of competence (having competence – being subordinate to competence) is replaced by the market model (producer – consumer). Discourse functions shift from informing and enumerating responsibilities to persuading and enumerating benefits (Plotnikova, 2011, p. 37) which in fact is found in the example above. The corpus of empirical data shows that the second global discourse technology distinguished by N. Fairclough as conversationalisation of institutional communication finds its niche in the presented discourse practice. In particular, it is reflected in the recruiters’ (interviewers’) behaviour acclaimed by the employer, recommended techniques of empathy, flexibility and two-way communication, “For example, I try to use a positive approach from the very beginning of communication. When I am contacted by applicants or they come for an interview, I am always in a good mood, I talk to them in a friendly manner, I want to know how things are going, I thank them for coming and spend a few minutes to create a relaxed atmosphere. This practice pays off, candidates talk a lot and freely.” Returning to the technological basis of discourse employment practices it should be emphasised that it is presented interactively by two sides: the recruiter as a representative of the employer and the applicant. What is relevant is that both sides prepare for a job interview. Since technologisation of communication is one of the most important aspects of its institutionalisation, it is clear that the technological scenario aimed at the discourse construction of the desired result is the employer-interviewer’s prerogative. The latter gets armed with a prepared discourse, most appropriate for his/her social role with regard to minimising their communication efforts. In this case, as noted by S. Plotnikova, understanding of the essence of the technological process, the cognitive model of what is happening, is not an indispensable duty of its participants; this is a task for discourse technologists (Plotnikova, 2011, p. 39). Specialists – discourse technologists provide ready-to-use technological materials, such as Interview structure in the example below, which includes a conversation script, guidelines, etc. Let us dwell on some elements selected during the analysis of the corpus. The fragment of the Interview structure at the stage of Interaction with candidates looks as follows, “The interviewer should be prepared and well trained on the use of effective interviewing techniques for # 1758 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Lyudmila V. Kulikova. Technologisation of Discourse Practices: Globality Versus Cultural Specificity candidate selection. The candidate is given a fair opportunity to be assessed on his / her merits and goes off with a good impression of the company, regardless whether he / she gets the job.” The pattern of standardised moves in the discourse practice is presented in a sequence of actions: − Welcome at the reception desk. − Establish rapport (Use of ice-breaker, e.g. did the interviewee have difficulty finding his / her way here)? Conduct the interview by asking prepared questions. − Close the interview with a note of thanks to the candidate. Typically, executives do not advertise that they train their employees to use strictly determined discourse involving stability and predictability of communication by adjusting the conversation to an existing prototype. Thus, the vital component of the technological scenario of the interview is training of recruiters and guidance on conducting it: Training of interviewers − How to put job applicants at ease. − Awareness of errors and pitfalls of an interview (e.g. stereotyping). − Interview and selection procedures. − Development of selection criteria. − List of interview questions. − Questioning techniques. − Awareness to ensure that all candidates for the same job should be asked the same set of questions. − Listening skills. Tips on conducting interviews − Be punctual for the interview. − Establish rapport. − Use a prepared list of questions. − Ensure that all questions asked are related to the job requirements and selection criteria. Recruitment as a type of communication vividly demonstrates, among other things, interaction / conflict of global and national components of the implemented practice because employment interviews in the modern world are the accepted norm which at the same time has its national characteristics in every country. Specific textual data of the discussed practice used in the analysis and communicative reality allow us to correlate international regulatory documents, which we consider here as explications of global technologies, with their unique implementation in a particular cultural context. A sufficiently productive example in this respect is presented by employment inquiries in the U.S. culture and communication space. We interpret this text as a technologically created discourse product for implementation of recruitment discourse practice. The text data present a standardised list of inquiries that are legally acceptable or unacceptable in the interview with an applicant (Table). Obviously, one of the main interviewer’s discourse intentions is that questions should not discriminate against candidates, which is illustrated by the aforementioned guidelines. In addition, since “technology may include a taboo on certain speech acts» (Kopylova, 2011, p. 79), this list almost taboos inquiries about private sphere, such as age, religious beliefs and ethnic origin, disability, marital status, etc. Comparison of employment practices in the Russian linguacultural context and in Europe and the U.S. suggests that in general, this type of discourse in Russia is developing under the influence of western (in the broad sense of the word) models. This fi nding suggests the unification process of communication in Russia which is acquiring a more global technological nature. At the same time research in the field of corporate business discourse, whose authors are both Russian and foreign scholars (E. Vereshchagin, R. Rathmayr, L. Kulikova), shows a clear national and cultural markedness # 1759 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Lyudmila V. Kulikova. Technologisation of Discourse Practices: Globality Versus Cultural Specificity Table ACCEPTABLE SUBJECT UNACCEPTABLE Name NAME • Maiden name Place of residence RESIDENCE • Questions regarding owning or renting. Languages applicant reads, speaks or writes if use of language other than English is relevant to the job for which applicant is applying NATIONAL ORIGIN • Questions as to nationality, lineage, ancestry, national origin, descent or parentage of applicant, applicant’s spouse, parent or relative. RELIGION • Questions regarding applicant’s religion. • Religious days observed. • Questions to indicate applicant’s sex, marital status, number/ages of children or dependents. • Questions regarding pregnancy, child birth, or birth control. • Name/address of relative, spouse or children of adult applicant. • Questions to applicant’s race, color, or sexual orientation. • Questions regarding applicant’s complexion, color of eyes, hair or sexual orientation. • Questions as to applicant’s height/weight. • Requiring applicant to affix a photograph to application or submit one at his/her option. • Require a photograph after interview but before employment. Name and address of parent or guardian if applicant is a minor. SEX, MARITAL STATUS, FAMILY RACE, COLOR, SEXUAL ORIENTATION Statement that a photograph may be required after employment. PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION, PHOTOGRAPHS of discourse practices in this field. In the Russian-language institutional interaction taboo on personal inquiries is still rarely observed, distinction between the applicant’s private and employment-related space is not often taken into account. In accordance with the Russian communication style the constant discourse challenge to the interviewee, despite the studied technologies, is speech acts of self-praise and outstanding self-presentation of his/her competence and success. Thus, the technological features of the employment discourse practice reflect, as its deconstruction shows, global as well as cultural and conventional characteristics of this social sphere. Both components in the Russian linguaculture seem to be found in a dynamic equilibrium. Conclusion Based on these examples, I would like to show that technologies, including discourse ones, form a new technological reality that changes communicative behaviour and patterns of human interaction. The correlation of global technological characteristics of discourse and its cultural deterrminacy depends, firstly, on the field of communication (to what extent the latter is the result and the embodiment of globalisation and internationalisation of production and social life), and secondly, ref lects models of at least three processes of interpenetration of discourse technological character and national specificity: domination, absorption or dynamic equilibrium between the two components of institutional communication. # 1760 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Lyudmila V. Kulikova. Technologisation of Discourse Practices: Globality Versus Cultural Specificity http://www.dfeh.ca.gov/res/docs/publications/dfeh http://www.fairemployment.sg/assets/Files/documents/ResourcesFair-Recruitment&Selection Handbook.pdf 3 http://eqpersonal.ru/index.php 1 2 References Fairclough, N., 1992b. Discourse and Social Change. Cambridge: Polity Press. Fairclough, N., 1995b. Media Discourse. London: Edward Arnold. Fairclough, N., 1996. Texts and Practices: Readings in Critical Discourse Analysis. New York: Routledge. Fairclough, N., eds., 1998. Political discourse in the media: an analytical framework in Approaches to Media Discourse. Oxford: Blackwell Foucault , M., ed., 1996. Strategies of power. Glasgow. Goffman, E., 1967. Interaction Ritual. Essays on Face-to-Face Behavior. New York: Anchor Books. Doubleday & Company. Kopylova, N.V., ed., 2011. Interaction of Speakers in a Conversation: Transition from Strategy to Technology. Irkutsk: ISLU, in Russian. Kulikova, L., 2009. Communication Style in Intercultural Communication. Moskva: Flinta, Nauka, in Russian. McLuhan, M., 1967. Understanding Media: the Extension of Man. London: Sphere Books. McLuhan, M., 1992. Die magischen Kanaele. Duesseldorf , Wien, New York, Moskau, Econ Verlag. Rathmayr, R., Reuther, T., and Vereshchagin, E. M., 1992. Verbal Tactics of the “Appeal to Frankness”. Issues of Linguistics. № 6, in Russian. Plotnikova, S. N., ed., 2011. Technologisation of Discourse in Modern Society. Irkutsk: ISLU, in Russian. Технологизация дискурсивных практик: глобальность versus-культурная специфичность Л.В. Куликова Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 82А В статье рассматриваются относительно новые для дискурсивных исследований понятия «технологизация дискурса» и «дискурсивные практики» в их соотнесении с межкультурным контекстом коммуникации. Делается попытка на основе изучения и анализа эмпирического материала русского, немецкого и английского языков соотнести глобальные и национально детерминированные дискурсивные практики как практики современной технологичной коммуникации. Ключевые слова: глобализация дискурса, технология, дискурсивные практики, технологизация дискурсивных практик. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 12 (2012 5) 1762-1771 ~~~ УДК 303.446.23 Cross-Cultural Communication as a Mirror of Civilization (German Translations of Russian Literature as a Case in Point) Heidemarie Salevsky* Translator. Berlin, Germany 1 Received 04.12.2012, received in revised form 11.12.2012, accepted 24.12.2012 In this article I would like to underscore Benjamin’s fundamental insights that on the one hand cultural life (like the greater empirical life of which it is a part) can best be seen in its temporal or historical trajectory, and that translation plays a vital role in this; and that on the other hand, translation is a temporal as well as spatial affair (Benjamin, 1923/1991). In the following I will touch briefly on some general aspects of the notions of civilization and culture (section 1), and the reflection of culture in translations (section 2) before dealing with the reflection of culture in a changing society in three German translations of Vasily Grossman’s story Vse tečet (Forever flowing)(section 3). Keywords: cross-cultural communication, culture, civilization, otherness, translation, Russian culture, German translations, Grossman, «Forever flowing». 1. Who means what by “civilization” and “culture”? Cross-cultural communication is both an act of experience of otherness and a depiction of the other in the self. The different ways in which this happens can be seen not only from translations of the same original for different civilizations/ cultures, but also from different translations for the same civilization/culture at different times. The German translator of Samuel P. Huntington‘s book The Clash of Civilizations , Holger Fliessbach, writes in a preliminary remark to the German edition (Huntington, 1998) that he found it impossible to translate the word “culture” with “Zivilisation” and “civilization” * 1 with “Kultur” throughout and that in specific instances “culture” had to be rendered as “Kultur” in German (Huntington, 1998).1 In my paper I will use “culture”. When we talk about East and West (and this also applies to East and West Germany), we usually have in mind “the other”, that which constitutes “otherness”. Understanding is a function of the depth of the subjective (rational and emotional) perception of a text from a different world. As Friedrich Daniel Schleiermacher sees it, understanding is something that is never achieved definitely, and that is, in a way, subject to a recurrent cycle. He stresses the need “to project oneself” into the author’s world of Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 1762 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Heidemarie Salevsky. Cross-Cultural Communication as a Mirror of Civilization thought. Whatever is peculiar must be sensed and guessed to some extent (Schleiermacher, 1988). The question pertains to a community of shared values, to the image and counter-image of what is called “civilized” or “cultured”. The ideas which people hold are frequently cliché-ridden and stereotyped (Wolff, 1994), the “other” being often seen as “disregard for a norm of civilized behaviour” (Stanzel, 1986). As Rorty points out, the constituting otherness works well whenever the others are declared to be less civilized people (Rorty, 2000). In the case of Russia, for example, the idea of community (the principle of sobornost’ as a positive religious-orthodox ideal) stands in marked contrast to Western individualism (Salevsky, 2010). Wolff and Yanov ask with good reason who may arrogate to themselves the right to define the terms under which a country passes muster as “civilized” (Wolff andYanov, 2003; Gramshammer-Hohl, Kaser and Pichler 2003). One might be inclined to think that “othering” has become obsolete as cultures tend to become intermingled within the context of globalization. But old images die hard. The division of Germany had brought forth a new, specific type of East (Klein, 2009). Therefore, literary documents from a bygone era may be interpreted and translated very differently in Germany. The different basic attitudes stem from what people used to read, hear and see (in the cinema and on TV) over several decades. Culture is to be seen as a dynamic system of values and actions2 which controls our perception. In the process of translating this is clearly reflected in what is translated when, by whom, how and for what purpose (Kade, 1968 and 1980). 2. To what extent do translations reflect culture in a changing society? The research findings published in the book “Translation as Systemic Interaction. A New Perspective and a New Methodology” (Salevsky and Müller, 2011) reveal that translating is a time-related, field-related and situation-related procedure for the mediation of cross-cultural communication between different sociocultural spaces. The authors try to show how the interactions and interdependencies of the different variables of the external framework conditions and the inner subsystems (with the performer as the central factor) influence the degree of attainment of the requirements of the assignment and the effect caused by the target text (Salevsky and Müller, 2011). The conclusion is that it is the real-world structure (of the whole process) behind the texts and the way the agents are embedded in it that has to be analyzed. If cross-cultural communication and translation processes are seen as systems and culture as a sub-system, we may along the lines of Posner (Posner, 19923) subdivide culture into spheres all of which correspond to specific segments of reality and comprise four aspects: − the extra-cultural aspect (completely unknown to the members of the society concerned); − the non-cultural aspect (known to the members of the society concerned, but perceived as antithetical to their own culture); − the culturally peripheral aspect (recognized by the members of the society concerned as part of their culture, but not regarded as central); and − the culturally central aspect (recognized by the members of the society concerned as part of their culture and regarded as essential for their identity) (Posner 1992, p. 36). These spheres and the demarcation lines between them may shift – from time to time, from culture to culture, from one communicative community to another and from one individual to another. This sheds light on the access to former and current segments of reality, on issues of # 1763 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Heidemarie Salevsky. Cross-Cultural Communication as a Mirror of Civilization categorization and prestige aspects of a culture in a given society in a given period. The relationship between culture and non-culture (or extra-cultural aspects) is accordingly ambivalent. In other words: The “non-cultural” and the “culturally central” aspects are dynamic entities. This becomes apparent when a society loses access to previously known segments of reality. The codes used for this purpose then also fall into disuse. The gain and loss of reality are linked to the introduction and obsolescence of linguistic codes (Posner, 1992). Such differences are often related to historical experience and to the “shifts” one’s own culture has undergone through its contacts with foreign cultures, especially if non-Western categories, notions and patterns of thinking are involved. It was the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu (1930-2002) who referred to the term habitus4 as a set of dispositions which generate certain actions and reactions. These dispositions – the set of schemes of perception, thought, speech and behavior acquired during the process of primary socialization, and confirmed or modified in the course of further socialization – functions as a structuring principle (Bourdieu, 1990), a system of internalized patterns (Bourdieu, 1991). Adopting Freud’s terminology, Bourdieu describes habitus also as the “culturally unconscious” (Bourdieu, 1991). In this way the habitus becomes a kind of interface between the outer and the inner (subjective) world, between external conditions and internal factors (Salevsky and Müller, 2011). For cross-cultural communication and translation the following idea by Bourdieu is of pivotal importance: “The habitus is at once a system of models for the production of practices and a system of models for the perception and appreciation of practices. And in both cases, its operations express the social position in which it was constructed. As a result, the habitus produces practices and representations which are available for classification, which are objectively differentiated; but they are immediately perceived as such only in the case of agents who possess the code, the classificatory models necessary to understand their social meaning. Thus, the habitus implies a ‘sense of one’s own place’ but also a ‘sense of the other’s place’.” (Bourdieu, 1990, p. 131) This concerns even East and West Germany. Klein speaks about a “communicative mist” in which West Germans found themselves when talking to East Germans after the reunification of Germany (Klein, 2009). It is all the more true when two cultures in different and changing societies are concerned. This will be illustrated by three German translations of the story Vse tečet by the Ukrainian writer Vasilij Grossman (1905-1964). 3. The reflection of culture in a changing society in three German translations of Grossman’s Vse tečet (in 1972, 1990 and 2010) as a case in point The story Forever Flowing is, in a way, a sequel to the experience of Russian history analyzed by the author in his novel Life and Fate, joining traumatic memory with hopes for a future of freedom and human dialogue. Grossman’s creed is his belief in human goodness. He asks: “Is there a common good – the same for all people, all tribes, all conditions of life? Or is my good your evil? Is what is good for my people evil for your people? Is good eternal and constant? Or is yesterday’s good today’s vice, yesterday’s evil today’s good? […] Have people advanced over the millennia in their concept of good? Is this concept something that is common to all people […]. To all classes, nations and States? Even to all animals, trees and mosses […]? […] # 1764 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Heidemarie Salevsky. Cross-Cultural Communication as a Mirror of Civilization The good of the first Christians, which had embraced all mankind, in turn gave way to a purely Christian good; the good of the Muslims [“and the good of the Jews” in the original is omitted by the American translator- H.S.5] was now distinct. Centuries passed and the good of Christianity split up into the distinct goods of Catholicism, Protestantism and Orthodoxy. And the good of Orthodoxy gave birth to the distinct goods of the old and new beliefs. At the same time there was the good of the poor and the good of the rich. And the goods of the whites, the blacks and the yellow races … More and more goods came into being, corresponding to each sect, race and class. Everyone outside a particular magic circle was excluded. People began to realize how much blood had been spilt in the name of a petty, doubtful good, in the name of the struggle of this petty good against what is believed to be evil. Sometimes the very concept of good became a scourge, a greater evil than evil itself.”6 (Grossman, 1985/2006) The story Forever Flowing was the fi rst attempt in Soviet literature to come to terms with the harrowing experience of the Stalin regime. The title, derived from Heraclitus (c. 500 B.C.E.) and his basic idea panta rhei (Heraclitus, Fragment 91), is meant to symbolize that all things are perpetually in flux. Going on from Heraclitus, Grossman seeks to demonstrate that the only way to know is to go beyond what is apparent to the senses, to break away from mere “opinions” and uncover the truth (Heraclitus, Fragment 56). Grossman’s story was first distributed as a samizdat publication before it was brought out by Posev7 publishers in Frankfurt am Main in 1970, subsequently being translated into English, French, Italian, Serbian, Spanish and Swedish. This edition provided the basis also for the first German translation, which was likewise published by Posev publishers (in 1972). The second German translation was published in 1990 (Grossman, 1990) by Volk und Welt, formerly an East German publishing house. It was based on the first version to come out in the Soviet Union in the periodical Oktjabr’ (No. 6) in 1989 – a second original, 25 years after Grossman’s death (Grossman, 1989). The third German translation was published by Ullstein in 2010, 20 years after German reunification (Grossman, 2010). Each of the three translations into German had to take into account a different context with different prerequisites for understanding. The following examples drawn from the three German translations are to illustrate how each of these translations is a mirror of culture in a changing society in a given point in time. But first let me say a few words about the plot: If one had to pick just one character, an emblematic person, to tell us about the 20th century, it would have to be a character like Ivan in Grossman’s story Forever Flowing. A nameless figure, he sits in a train, a silent old man among travelers talking politics, who is returning home after spending 29 years in the Gulag. When he reaches home, the fact that he comes across many graves is not the worst of it. Even more depressing is the fact that his return prompts his old friends to display a deceitful urge to justify their behavior. Not infrequently, they have bought their life in freedom by betraying those who now – during the “Thaw” following Stalin’s death – make their way back from the labor camps. Ivan sees that they are anything but free in both their actions and their thoughts. Now they seem to expect Ivan to grant them some kind of absolution: „Vanya, Vanyechka“, his cousin burst out, „it sounds crazy, wild, but I envy you. I envy you because in your terrible camps you did not have to sign vile letters, nor vote for the death # 1765 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Heidemarie Salevsky. Cross-Cultural Communication as a Mirror of Civilization of innocent men, nor make foul speeches.” (Grossman, 1972b).8 Ivan meets Anna, a woman who has gone through many ordeals herself. She feels love for him and understands his inner torment. But Anna develops cancer. While she wrestles with death, Ivan desperately looks for the causes of the troubled history of his people which claimed millions of human lives. But that was, however, considered reprehensible during an era in which only favorable official comments on life in the Soviet Union were allowed both in the Soviet Union and in East Germany. It is the interest in the truth or the lack thereof that characterizes both individuals and the State. The three German translations of this story are closely linked to the East German and West German communicative community as it existed at the time of publication. Nikolaj Artemoff, the translator of the first (West) German translation, which appeared in 1972, clearly had West German readers in mind. His primary concern was to put across the historical events and personalities depicted in the source text and the Soviet realia. Preceding the translation is a list of the characters with their Russian diminutives, and the annex features a list of 75 names with biographical details of the historical figures appearing in the book. There are also 53 explanatory notes in the text itself. The translator wanted to make explicit information which Soviet readers understood implicitly and which was in large part known or accessible to readers in the former GDR, a state with a different culture but the same social system (for this problem cf. also Salevsky, 1998). The translator of the second (East) German translation (1990), Renate Landa, clearly had East German readers in mind, who found it easier to follow the plot because of parallels with their own social system at the time and because of a more intimate knowledge of Russian history and culture, which can be put down to the then very close contacts between the two cultures. The translator needed only about half as many annotations and explanations. One half of the annotations found in the translation for West Germany, but not in the translation for East Germany were omitted because they were not considered relevant for understanding the text. The other half concerned circumstances and personages with which former GDR citizens were more or less familiar from textbooks, widely read Russian literature, the cinema and the media. Cases in point included Budjonny and his Cavalry Army, the leaders of the White forces in the Civil War (Denikin and Kolchak), the names of Lenin’s wife (Nadezhda Konstantinovna Krupskaja), and of the scholar Michail Lomonosov, commemorated in the name of Moscow’s oldest university (founded 1755), which were featured in textbooks for compulsory Russian lessons. The translator of the third German translation (2010), Annelore Nitschke, had to take into account the background knowledge of present day German readers which is comparable with that of the readers of the first German translation (1972). Even the appendix in the translation of 2010 features the same list of names with the same biographical details of the historical figures appearing in the book as that in the translation of 1972. Applying the four cultural aspects mentioned above to our case, it becomes clear very soon that the bulk of the differences between the three German translations and the most pronounced ones are attributable to the fact that what West German readers considered extra-cultural in 1972 was still perceived as culturally central by East Germans in 1990 and that 20 years after German reunification what was considered culturally central by East Germans in 1990 had reverted to extra-cultural status in the eyes of most Germans (excluding those who spent most of their life in # 1766 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Heidemarie Salevsky. Cross-Cultural Communication as a Mirror of Civilization the GDR). In this regard the translation from 2010 resembles the translation from 1972. Here are some examples to bear this out: The rendering of the Russian word pionervožataja (Grossman, 1970, p. 61; 1989, p. 53) The Pioneers, the Communist children’s organization, were founded in Soviet Russia in 1922. They provided the model for the Pioneer organization established in East Germany (then the Soviet occupation zone) in 1948 with a similar purpose and ritual. In both countries colleges of education offered training courses for Pionierleiter/ innen (this word is used in Grossman, 1990, p. 61). The word Pionierführerin used in the West German translation (Grossman, 1972a, p. 157) was avoided in East Germany because Führer was associated with Nazi Germany (the Hitler Youth was directed by a Reichsjugendführer). Regrettably, this word reappears in the 2010 translation (Grossman, 2010). The American translation is clear: the Young Pioneer group leader (Grossman, 1972b). The rendering of the Russian word subbotnik (Grossman, 1970, p. 159; 1989, p. 90) Subbotnik (derived from Russ. subbota, Saturday) denoted voluntary unpaid work performed on Saturdays, a practice current in Russia from 1919. The Russian word had found its way into the life and vocabulary of the former GDR (Grossman, 1990, p. 157). There is also an entry in the Duden (vol. 7., 1995, p. 3309), marked „former GDR“. Subbotnik was rendered as Samstagsarbeit (Saturday work) in the 1972 translation (Grossman, 1972a, p. 187) which expresses neither the voluntary nor the unpaid character of this work. The 2010 translation opts for gesellschaftliche Arbeit an Samstagen (work for the community on Saturdays) instead (Grossman, 2010, p. 172), which comes closer, but fails to explain that an entire movement was involved. The American translation retains the Russian word subbotnik (Grossman, 1972b, p. 191). But does an American know what subbotnik means? The rendering of the Russian word instruktaž (Grossman, 1970, p. 122; 1989, p. 77) The original says: „I kogda instruktaž byl…“. The German translation from 1972 is ambivalent (Grossman, 1972a, p. 146): Und wenn Instruktion war.... (when instructions were issued). The East German translator chose the word Anleitung (briefing) which was commonly used in the GDR in this context (Grossman, 1990, p. 122-123). Anleitungen were customary both in the former USSR and the former GDR. The third German translation from 2010 returns to the word Instruktion, employed as follows: Wenn Instruktion gegeben wurde.... (Grossman, 2010, p. 134). Admittedly, the word Instruktion means instruction, guidelines or directive (Duden, Bd. 4, 1994, p. 1716), but it was not used in this context. The American translation gives: And when commands came… (Grossman, 1972b, p. 149). Although “commands” does carry the right kind of totalitarian overtone, I suggest that “whenever commands came” would catch the implications better. This list of examples could be continued. The analysis reminds us that cross-cultural communication is a mirror of culture of a certain society at a given point of time, that translation is a temporal art, one that, as Sandra Bermann puts it, “can contribute to the action of history itself, and to the ongoing ‘conversation’ that gives it a meaning and a future” (Bermann, 2005, p. 272). Conclusion Cross-cultural communication opens up spaces and makes it possible to experience boundaries which must be explored – boundaries of latitude as well as individual boundaries and # 1767 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Heidemarie Salevsky. Cross-Cultural Communication as a Mirror of Civilization boundaries of what can be mediated and how. Thus translation has socio-cultural, linguistic and historical aspects, as well as fuzzy boundaries. Every domain of life, including literature and translation, is linked to every other one, and nothing that goes on in our world has ever been isolated and devoid of any outside influence. Reality is much more complex and dynamic than the models which have been elaborated so far. The re-presentations can be quite different, but what they all have in common is that they are connected with institutions, traditions, codes, conventions and norms: in short, a web of related interests in a certain situation of power in a certain society. Studying cross-cultural communication, literature and translation together in their interrelationships 1 2 3 4 5 6 and with all their interdependencies, it will become obvious in which way products of culture are created and operated by society, and how they reflect the habitus of the agents at a certain time (Salevsky and Müller, 2011). Concluding I would like to refer to André Lefevere: “Translation can tell us a lot about the power of images and the ways in which images are made, about the ways in which authority manipulates images and employs experts to sanction that manipulation and to justify the trust of an audience – which is why the study of translation can teach us a few things not just about the world of literature, but also about the world we live in.” (Lefevere, 1990/1995, p. 27) For the national interpretations of the words civilization and culture see the different overviews, e.g. by Kroeber and Kluckhohn 1952; for the development in Germany, cf. Elias 1976, Vol. 1, pp. 1-64 and pp. 302-306; for England cf. inter alia Cowell 1959, pp. 237-248; for the United States cf. inter alia Geertz 1973/2000. The Anglo-American authors took as their starting point the English ethnographer Edward B. Tylor who equated culture with civilization (cf. Tylor 1871; 1873/2005, Vol. 1:1). Other authors later applied the term civilization to material culture and reserved culture for mental culture. They postulated an antithesis between mental culture (literature, art, science and ideology) and the concept of civilization to denote material European culture (which included politics, society, technology and everyday life). Towards the end of the 19th century the antagonism between West European civilization and Russian culture mounted in intensity. Moreover, in Russian intellectual history, culture has since then increasingly assumed the importance of a national and religious identity. Another feature is the dual structure of the cultural layers, namely official high culture (emanating from the Church and the State) and everyday and popular culture (cf. Uspenskij/Lotman 1996:339). This is reflected right to the present day. From a different perspective, cf. Freud 1930/1993, Eliot 1949). A dynamic concept is advocated by Wierlacher/Hudson-Wiedemann who define “Kultur” (culture) as a “changeable, coherent but not entirely consistent sociographically structured system of rules, hypotheses and validities which is geared towards exchange and encompasses political and social institutions as well as works of art and activities of the workaday world”, as a “way of coping with life […], which has a great deal to do with external economic and social conditions and which consequently is not immutable, but responds to changes through changes, with the self possibly finding itself in a multidimensional and hence partly contradictory pattern of affinity” (Wierlacher/Hudson-Wiedemann 2000:221- transl: H.S.). “From the semiotic point of view culture may be regarded as a hierarchy of particular semiotic systems, as the sum of the texts and the set of functions correlated with them, or as a certain mechanism which generates these texts. If we regard the collective as a more complexly organized individual, culture may be understood by analogy with the individual mechanism of memory as a certain collective mechanism for the storage and processing of information.” (Lotman/Uspenskij/ Ivanov/Toporov/Pjatigorski 1975:73) The concept can be traced back to Aristotle who (in the second book of his “Nicomachean Ethics”) defi nes ethical virtue as a disposition to judge actions reasonably, and described habitus as “the things in virtue of which we stand well or badly with reference to the passions, e.g. with reference to anger we stand badly if we feel it violently or too weakly, and well if we feel it moderately” (Aristotle 1985:33). The concept of habitus was consequently used by different authors, including Hegel, Husserl, Weber, and Durkheim. In his foreword the American translator Chandler confesses: “I have myself omitted or abridged some of the sententious passages.” (Chandler 2006:XXX) I would hardly consider the omitted passage (“and the good of the Jews”) a sententious one since it is one of several parallel statements. In the original this passage reads as follows: “Est’ li dobro obščee, primenimoe ko vsem ljudjam, ko vsem plemenam, ko vsem položenijam žizni? Ili moe dobro v zle dlja tebja, dobro moego naroda v zle dlja tvoego naroda? Večno li, neizmenno li dobro, ili včerašnee dobro segodnja stanovitsja porokom, a včerašnee zlo segodnja est’ dobro? […] Prodvinulis’ li za tysjačeletija ljudi v svoich predstavlenijach o dobre? Est’ li ėto ponjatie, obščee dlja vsech ljudej […] ? […] klassov, nacij, gosudarstv? A byt’ možet, ponjatie ešče bolee širokoe, obščee i dlja životnych, dlja derev’ev, mcha […]? […] # 1768 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Heidemarie Salevsky. Cross-Cultural Communication as a Mirror of Civilization 7 8 Dobro pervych christian, dobro vsech ljudej smenilos’ dobrom dlja odnich liš’ christian, a rjadom žilo dobro dlja musul’man, dobro iudeev. No prošli veka, i dobro christian raspalos’ na dobro katolikov, protestantov, dobro pravoslavija. I v dobre pravoslavija vozniklo dobro staroj i novoj very. I rjadom šlo dobro bogatych i dobro bednych, rjadom roždalos’ dobro želtych, černych, belych. I, vse drobjas’ i drobjas’, uže roždalos’ dobro v kruge sekty, rasy, klassa, vse, kto byli za zamknutoj krivoj, uže ne vchodili v krug dobra. I ljudi uvideli, čto mnogo krovi prolito iz-za ėtogo malogo, nedobrogo dobra vo imja bor’by ėtogo dobra so vsem tem, čto ščitalo ono, maloe dobro, zlom. I inogda samo ponjatie takogo dobra stanovilos’ bičom žizni, ból’šim zlom, čem zlo.” (Grossman 2008:400-401) The Posev publishing house was founded in Germany in 1945 by Russian émigrés with the aim of publishing works by Russian authors which were proscribed in the former Soviet Union for political reasons (for details see Salevsky 2002:466467). In the original this passage reads as follows: “Vanja, Vanečka, diko, stranno, no ja zaviduju tebe, zaviduju tomu, čto ty ne dolžen byl podpisyvat‘ podlych pisem, ne golosoval za smertnuju kazn‘ nevinnym, ne vystupal s podlymi rečami.” (Grossman 1970:39) References Aristoteles, Rolfes, E., transl., Bien, G., ed., 1985. Nikomachische Ethik. Hamburg: Meiner Benjamin, W., 1923/1991. Die Aufgabe des Übersetzers (1923). In: Benjamin , Walter (1991): Gesammelte Schriften. Bd. IV/I: Kleine Prosa, Baudelaire-Übertragungen: Charles Baudelaire, Tableaux parisiens / Rexroth, Tillman (Hrsg.). Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp, pp. 9-21 Bermann, S., 2005. Translating History. In: Bermann, Sandra; Wood, Michael (eds.): Nation, Language, and the Ethics of Translation. Princeton; Oxford: Princeton University Press, pp. 257-273 Bourdieu, P., 2005. Die männliche Herrschaft. Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp Bourdieu, P., 1991. Zur Soziologie der symbolischen Formen. Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp (Suhrkamp Taschenbuch Wissenschaft 107) Bourdieu, P., 1990. In Other Words: Essays Towards a Reflexive Sociology. Oxford: Polity Press Chandler, R., 2006. The Text and the Translation. Grossman 1985/2006, pp. XXX-XXXI Cowell, F. R., 1959. Culture in Private and Public Life. London: Thames & Hudson Duden. Das große Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache in acht Bänden. Vol. 4 (1994); Vol. 7 (1995). Mannheim; Leipzig; Wien; Zürich: Dudenverlag Elias, N., 1976. Über den Prozeß der Zivilisation. Soziogenetische und psychogenetische Untersuchungen. Vol. 1:Wandlungen des Verhaltens in den weltlichen Oberschichten des Abendlandes. Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp Taschenbuch Eliot, T. S., 1949. Notes Toward the Definition of Culture. New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co. Freud, S., 1930/1993. Abriß der Psychoanalyse. Das Unbehagen in der Kultur. Frankfurt a. M.: Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag (= Psychologie Fischer), pp. 63-132 Geertz, C., 1973/2000. The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays. New York: Basic Books Gramshammer-Hohl, Dagmar, Kaser, K. and Pichler, R. (Hrsg.), 2003. Wieser Enyklopädie des Europäischen Ostens. Bd. 11: Europa und die Grenzen im Kopf. Klagenfurt (u.a.): Wieser Grossman, W., 2010. Alles fliesst. Mit einem Nachwort von Franziska Thun-Hohenstein. Berlin: Ullstein Grossman, V., 2008. Žizn‘ i sud’ba. Moskva: Slovo Grossman, V., 1985/2006. Life and Fate. New York: New York Review Books Grossman, W., 1990. Alles fließt. Erzählung. Berlin: Volk und Welt Grossman, V., 1989. Vse tečet. Oktjabr‘ 66 (1989), No. 6, pp. 30-108 # 1769 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Heidemarie Salevsky. Cross-Cultural Communication as a Mirror of Civilization Grossman, W., 1972a. Alles fließt… Frankfurt a.M.: Possev Grossman, V., 1972b. Forever Flowing. New York; Evanston; San Francisco; London: Harper & Row Grossman, V., 1970. Vse tečet… Frankfurt a. M.: Posev Heraclitus. Fragmente. In Kranz, Walther (1956) (ed.): Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker. Griechisch und deutsch von Hermann Diels. Berlin: Weidmann; Fragment 56 – p. 163; Fragment 91 – p. 171 Huntington, S., 1998., Kampf der Kulturen. The Clash of Civilizations. Die Neugestaltung der Weltpolitik im 21. Jahrhundert. München. Wien: Europa Kade, O., 1980. Die Sprachmittlung als gesellschaftliche Erscheinung und Gegenstand wissenschaftlicher Untersuchung. Leipzig: Enzyklopädie Kade, O., 1968. Zufall und Gesetzmäßigkeit in der Übersetzung. Leipzig: Enzyklopädie Klein, O. G., 2009. Ihr könnt uns einfach nicht verstehen. Warum Ost- und Westdeutsche aneinander vorbeireden. Berlin: Pro BUSINESS Kroeber, A. L. and Kluckhohn, C., 1952. Culture. A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions. Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Lefevere, A., 1990/1995. Translation: Its Genealogy in the West. In Bassnett, Susan; Translation, History and Culture. London: Pinters (1990); New York: Cassell (1995), pp.14-28 Lotman, J. M. et al., 1975. Theses on the Semiotic Study of Cultures (as Applied to Slavic Texts). The Tell-Tale Sign: A Survey of Semiotics. Lisse: Peter de Ridder Pr., pp. 57-84 Moebius, S. and Quadflieg, D., 2006. Kultur. Theorien der Gegenwart. Wiesbaden : Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften Posner, R., 1992. Was ist Kultur? Zur semiotischen Explikation anthropologischer Grundbegriffe. Kultur-Evolution. Fallstudien und Synthese. Frankfurt a. M.; Berlin; Bern; New York; Paris; Wien: Lang, pp. 1-65 Rorty, R., 2000. Menschenrechte, Vernunft und Empfindsamkeit. Wahrheit und Fortschritt. Frankfurt a. M. : Suhrkamp, pp. 241-268 Salevsky, H., 2010. Die Vermittlung russischer Kultur in der Übersetzer- und Dolmetscherausbildung. pp. 1-30 Salevsky, H. and Müller, I., 2002. Translationswissenschaft. Ein Kompendium. Frankfurt a. M.; Berlin; Bern; Bruxelles; New York; Oxford; Wien: Lang Salevsky, H., 1998. Über die Sprache hinaus. Heidelberg: TEXTconTEXT, pp. 237-244 Salevsky, H. and Müller, I., 2011. Translation as Systemic Interaction. A New Perspective and a New Methodology. Berlin: Frank & Timme Salevsky, H. and Müller, I. eds., 2010. Die russische Kultur und ihre Vermittlung. Frankfurt a. M.; Berlin; Bern; Bruxelles; New York; Oxford; Wien: Lang Schleiermacher, F. D. E., 1988. Hermeneutik – Wahrheit und Verstehen. Darstellung und Texte. Berlin: Akademie, pp. 253-317 Stanzel, F. K., 1986. Das Nationalitätenschema in der Literatur und seine Entstehung zu Beginn der Neuzeit. In: Blaicher, Günther. ed. Erstarrtes Denken. Studien zu Klischee, Stereotyp und Vorurteil in englischsprachiger Literatur. Tübingen: Narr, pp. 84-97 Tylor, E. B., 1871. Primitive culture: researches into the development of mythology, philosophy, religion, language, art, and custom. Vol 1. London: Murray # 1770 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Heidemarie Salevsky. Cross-Cultural Communication as a Mirror of Civilization Tylor, E. B., 1873/2005. Die Anfänge der Cultur : Untersuchungen über die Entwicklung der Mythologie, Philosophie, Religion, Kunst und Sitte. Vol. 1. Unter Mitw. des Verf. ins Dt. übertr. von J. W. Spengel und Fr. Proske. Hildesheim; Zürich; New York: Olms Uspenskij, B. and Lotman, J., 1996. Rol‘ dual’nych modelej v dinamike russkoj kul’tury (do konca XVIII veka). In: Uspenskij, Boris: Izbrannye trudy. Vol. 1: Semiotika istorii. Semiotika kul’tury. Moskva: Škola „Jazyki russkoj kul’tury“, pp. 338-350 Wierlacher, A. and Hudson-Wiedemann, U., 2000. Interkulturalität. Wierlacher, A. ed.: Kulturthema Kommunikation. Konzepte, Inhalte, Funktionen. Festschrift und Leistungsbild des Instituts für Internationale Kommunikation und Auswärtige Kulturarbeit (IKK Bayreuth) aus Anlaß seines zehnjährigen Bestehens 1990-2000. Möhnesee: Résidence, pp. 219-232 Wolff, L., 1994. Inventing Eastern Europe. The map of civilization on the mind of the enlightenment. Stanford: Stanford University Press Wolff, L. and Yanov, A., 2003 Is Russia a European country? http://www.eurozine.com/articles/ article_2003-10-08-yanovwolff-de.html. [Accessed 02 August 2011] Межкультурная коммуникация как зеркало изменяющейся цивилизации (Перевод на немецкий русскоязычной литературы) Хайдемари Залевски Переводчик. Берлин, Германия В статье получает подтверждение одно из фундаментальных положений Bальтера Беньямина о том, что культура (как часть эмпирической жизни) распознается лучше всего в ее временном, историческом ракурсе. Перевод при этом, с одной стороны, сам играет немаловажную роль, а с другой – является феноменом, непосрественно зависящим от времени и пространства (Benjamin, 1923/1991). В первой части статьи рассматриваются понятия «цивилизация» и «культура», во второй – обсуждаются проблемы отражения культуры в переводах. Третья часть посвящена трем разным немецким переводам повести Василия Гроссмана «Все течет». Ключевые слова: межкультурная коммуникация, культура, цивилизация, чужое, перевод, русская культура, немецкие переводы, Гроссман, «Все течет». Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 12 (2012 5) 1772-1780 ~~~ УДК 808.5 Understanding as the Beginning of Agreement: Linguistic Aspects of Intercultural Family Communication Olga A. Leontovich* Volgograd State Socio-Pedagogical University 27 Lenina Prospect, Volgograd, 400131 Russia 1 Received 04.12.2012, received in revised form 11.12.2012, accepted 24.12.2012 The paper discusses the issues connected with the use of language in an intercultural family, which include: 1) the choice of language, 2) bilingualism / polylingualism, 3) code mixing and code switching, 4) the use of an oikolect. Linguistic difficulties, which can lead to communication problems, can occur on the phonological, graphic, lexical or linguocognitive level, as well as the level of communication strategies. The paper brings together the theoretical frameworks of communication studies, linguistics and semiotics in order to identify the key problems, which arise in intercultural marriages, and suggest possible solutions. Methods employed in the research include observation, questionnaires and interviews, narrative, biographic, and semiotic analysis. The study is done from the Russian perspective and is aimed at overcoming the difficulties intercultural families face both in Russia and abroad. The results of the study may lead to their practical application in family counselling, crosscultural education and training, as well as in real-life situations. Keywords: intercultural family communication, bilingualism, polylingualism, code mixing, code switching, oikolect, linguistic difficulties, communication strategies. A family containing representatives of different cultures is almost an ideal model of intercultural communication, which allows research into its different aspects and characteristics. This miniature model – a microcosm of sorts – embodies both the opportunity for combining and integrating different cultural traditions and the problems, which invariably result from the clash of languages, mentalities, values, and behavioural patterns. Achieving harmony in intercultural family communication in today’s multicultural world is * 1 a significant problem, which can be studied at the intersection of different disciplines. The paper brings together the theoretical frameworks of communication studies, linguistics and semiotics in order to identify the key problems, which arise in intercultural marriages, and suggest possible solutions. The study is done from the Russian perspective and is aimed at overcoming the difficulties intercultural families face both in Russia and abroad. The approach taken in the study, which was carried out by two scholars – the author of this article and Y. Bondarenko – can be described as Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 1772 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga A. Leontovich. Understanding as the Beginning of Agreement: Linguistic Aspects of Intercultural Family… a mixed method research design. We employed observation, questionnaires and interviews, narrative, biographic, and semiotic analysis. The questionnaires addressed to 193 intercultural family members generated detailed accounts of their family life, indicating its positive and negative features, reasons for conflict and the ways cultural identity of family members is expressed in everyday interactions. The follow-up was faceto-face interviewing of married couples living in Russia, which enabled us to clarify and expand the data about intercultural families and ask more personal questions. The employment of narrative analysis provided an opportunity to explore firsthand information given by people who were willing to share their thoughts and feelings with others. Biographic analysis dealt with materials about famous intercultural marriages: the British Queen Victoria and the German Prince Albert; the King of Morocco and the U.S. actress Grace Kelly; the U.S. dancer Isadora Duncan and the Russian poet Sergei Yesenin; the Spanish artist Salvador Dali and his Russian wife Gala, etc. Through the prism of semiotic analysis intercultural family communication was viewed as a complex system of signs (language, food, artefacts, religious signs, etc.). Y. Bondarenko distinguishes the following constituent features of intercultural family communication: 1) combination of interpersonal and group interactions, manifested in different cultures in the form of such variables as family structure; age and sex of people getting married; number of spouses and children; relationship between family members, etc.; 2) socialization, which is understood as the interdependence of an individual family and society and presupposes the knowledge of the host country’s language and culture; 3) territoriality represented by communicative distance, eye contact, density and stratification of communicative space, construction of inner and outer communication boundaries; 4) continuity in time expressed both diachronically (family history, name-giving traditions, family narratives) and synchronically (conceptualization of time, tempo and rhythm of communication, expression of time in language, etc.); 5) degree of (in)formality displayed in verbal and nonverbal behaviour in different cultures (ratio of improvisation and ritual, intergenerational communication, subordination, taboos, attitude to physical contact, etc.); 6) cultural variability defined by the system of individual, parental, family, culturally specific and universal values, which can be transferred to the level of family communication and cause interpersonal barriers; 7) marginalization, which can be overcome when the foreign spouse becomes assimilated in the host culture (Bondarenko, 2010). Using Yuri Lotman’s term “semiosphere,” Y. Bondarenko views family communication as a continuum filled with semiotic formations of different types, which constitute the nucleus and the periphery of the communicative space (Ibid.). The use of verbal signs in intercultural family communication is defined by a number of peculiarities differentiating it from monocultural communication. The first peculiarity is t h e c h o i c e o f l a n g u a g e to be used in an intercultural family. Research shows that the decision is made according to the following three patterns: 1) the domination of one language over the other; 2) their coexistence based on equality; 3) the use of a third language non-native for both spouses functioning as an intermediary (usually the language of the country of residence or an international language, such as English). Sometimes families make individual # 1773 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga A. Leontovich. Understanding as the Beginning of Agreement: Linguistic Aspects of Intercultural Family… decisions about the choice of languages, e.g. by distinguishing the situations where a particular language is spoken or inviting a foreign nanny, as in the following example: This German / Polish couple living in Germany are raising their twins with “three and a half” languages <…> with Mom speaking Polish, Dad speaking German, and their au pair speaking Spanish with their boys. The “half language” refers to the fact that the children also hear the parents speaking English to each other since it’s the language they’ve used with each other since they met (Language Systems …). The second peculiarity is b i l i n g u a l i s m (or even p o l y l i n g u a l i s m ), which acquires its specific features in intercultural family communication. According to our data, the formation of a real bicultural individual is possible only when a person is born in a bilingual family or enters a foreign culture in an early childhood. No matter how talented people are, they never become one hundred per cent bilingual if they start speaking a foreign language when their first language has already been acquired and retains a leading role. F. Dostoyevsky wrote: “<...> there is a secret of nature, its law according to which you can completely master only the language with which you were born, i.e. which is spoken by the community to which you belong” (Tomashevsky, Levin, 1954, p. 542). Our findings suggest that children from intercultural families naturally develop bilingualism or polylingualism, which is seen as a positive phenomenon by most of the family members and other people. The growing number of intercultural marriages all over the world and, consequently, the number of bilingual people results in the development of a unique generation of cosmopolitans with bicultural identity who are expected to possess a high level of tolerance and communicative competence, a broad outlook, and a lack of conservatism. The third peculiarity is the use of c o d e m i x i n g and c o d e switching in communication, i.e. the insertion of foreign words in speech; the creation of linguistic hybrids and internationalisms; switching from one language to another, etc. In this connection it is interesting to quote a Russian woman married to an American: English has somehow entered me incompletely and sideways. And it doesn’t go any further, no matter how hard I try. <…> It is living inside me, awkward and unwieldy. The Russian language has had to move aside, and it is sitting there hurt, losing words as our orange tree was losing leaves when my husband transplanted it. “Er… what is the Russian for…?” I drawl, inserting an American word in my Russian speech (Sapp, 2006). The reasons for code mixing and code switching include: • low level of linguistic competence, such as in the following conversation between Russian immigrants in Brooklyn where they insert English words welfare, garbage, share, dentist, Medicaid in their Russian speech: — Сонечка, ну как твои устроились? — Да что тебе сказать? Сидят пока на велфаре. Вся мебель с гарбиджа, квартиру шерят с молодой парой из Киева. А ты как? — Да вот хотела зубы вставить у одного дантиста, а он медикейт не принимает, надо другого искать (Professionals for Cooperation, 1997, p. 327); • absence of particular notions in another language: I bought a venick for the banya at the market... If you have to choose between eating holodets and being run down by a trolley, seriously consider the trolley variant. I used my medical spravka for toilet paper on a train... (Red Tape, 2001). # 1774 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga A. Leontovich. Understanding as the Beginning of Agreement: Linguistic Aspects of Intercultural Family… Besides, a person can switch from one language to another because of the influence of positive or negative emotions; wish to conceal certain information from others; desire of extended family members to form coalitions on the basis of ethnicity, etc. The fourth peculiarity is the use of an o i k o l e c t (language spoken by a household) formed as a combination of signs from two or more linguistic systems. It usually exists in closeknit families with well-established traditions of speech communication. One of the examples is the formation of family nicknames: e.g. a Turk by name of Pinhas is called Pinny or Pinkusik by his Russian wife; an American called Steve becomes Stepan in a Russian family; a Kyrgyz woman Yulia gets a nickname Shrimp from her Libyan husband. The use of two or more languages in a family can result in a variety of linguistic difficulties, which can lead to communication problems. The phonological level includes: • inability to distinguish or correctly pronounce sounds in a foreign language; • wrong division of the word chain; • inability to correctly reproduce or interpret the prosodic characteristics of the interlocutor’s speech, etc. Paralinguistic means are widely used by family members to express meaning, modality, and emotions, but can cause misunderstandings in intercultural family communication due to the differences in intonation, loudness, tempo and rhythm of speech, e.g.: (Russian-Chinese family): The Chinese often say “ah” at the end of a sentence. We, Russians, usually see it as an urge or an incentive (Let’s go for a walk, ah?), and for them it just signifies the completeness of a phrase <…> they pronounce this “ah” with different intonation, sometimes interrogative, and sometimes affirmative. But I always think they are asking or suggesting something. (Russian-Japanese family): What fascinates me in the Japanese is their manner of expressing surprise. They accompany it with “ehhhh”, so sharp and sonorous, as an unexpected roar of a beast. At first it used to scare me. Now I try to surprise them more often! Interesting situations occur in BritishAmerican marriages, where allegedly there should not be any language barriers between the spouses. However, the phonetic differences between the two variants of the English language are quite significant, like in the following story told by the American journalist S. Lyall about the first meeting with her future English husband: I could barely understand half of what he said, but I was hooked by his charismatic arrogance, glinting brown eyes and an expert way with the English language (Lyall, 2008, p. 4). The Britons also had trouble understanding her: Sometimes it seemed as if nobody believed I was even speaking English, so hard was it to make them comprehend what I was trying to say (Ibid., p. 5). She remembers how her husband Robert was trying to hire a car during their trip to the US: ‘Hello,’ he said, sounding like Hugh Grant in “Four Weddings and a Funeral”. ‘I’d like to high-ah a cah.’ ‘Hah?’ said the Avis operator. ‘I’d like to high-ah a cah.’ ‘What?’ she repeated. Robert immediately adopted a Prince Philip-addressing-the-peasants approach, which meant that he enunciated with exaggerated slowness and increasing volume, as if the operator were feeble or deaf, rather than just American. Eventually he got her to understand that he had said ‘hire’, and that ‘hire’ did not mean ‘employ’, but ‘rent’, and we got our car. But # 1775 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga A. Leontovich. Understanding as the Beginning of Agreement: Linguistic Aspects of Intercultural Family… multiply this little exchange by a million, imagine me as the ignorant peasant surrounded by people like my husband, and you will have an idea of what my early days in London were like (Ibid., p. 3-4). Misunderstandings on the g r a p h i c l e v e l can seriously complicate the life of an intercultural family. Possible problems may include the use of exotic alphabets, abbreviations, differences in document structure, correspondence peculiarities, etc. The difference in alphabets can cause problems already at the stage of acquiring a visa and getting married. One of the possible difficulties is the transliteration of a name and surname between Russian and English, e.g.: Екатерина – Ekaterina or Yekaterina? Noir – Нуар, Ноэр or Нойр? Kersey – Керси or Кёрси? Muskett – Маскетт or Мускетт? Correct and consistent transliteration of proper names is very important because it deals with documents. We know of situations in which partners had serious problems because in the first visa and all the other documents the names were spelt one way and in the second visa differently, which made all the other documents invalid. One can expect that the situation will be even more complicated with the use of the Arabic or Chinese characters. Intercultural problems also occur in connection with the way numbers are written. One of the examples is the graphic representations of dates: 11.01.12 for Europeans denotes January 11, 2012 and for Americans – November 1, 2012. No need to explain, such differences can disorient communication partners and produce dubious situations. Difficulties occurring on the l e x i c a l l e v e l include: the discrepancy between the semantic structures of words in different languages; existence of intralinguistic and interlinguistic homonyms and paronyms, polysemantic words, euphemisms, words which have no equivalents in another language; differences in connotations, etc. Family Everyday lexicon. communication unfolds on a day-to-day level; however, everyday lexicon is seldom part of the vocabulary learned in foreign language classes. It is often difficult to immediately remember how to word in a foreign language such simple notions as grater, buckwheat, enema, put a wash through, or pull out the weeds. Intercultural family members seldom walk around their home with a dictionary in their hands, and situations creating this kind of difficulties cause the feelings of annoyance and frustration. A b s e n c e o f e q u i v a l e n t s between the native languages of the spouses is explained by the existence of nationally specific objects and phenomena in one culture but not in the other, such as Russian квас, каша, щи, солянка, кефир, рубль, интеллигенция, повесть; English muffi n, privacy, efficiency, mainstream, backsight, etc. This leads to code mixing mentioned above, as well as the need to create family nominations for such notions; e.g. Larisa (Russian) and David (English) often use the following phrases: We’ve run out of smetana. Shall we go and get tvorog? I’ll have some kompot. Another example from our survey (Russian-American family): My wife occasionally makes traditional Russian food ( pirozhki, salad Olivie, vinegrette)… I n t r a l i n g u i s t i c p a r o n y m y can create communication problems because the phonetic similarity between words often leads to their confusion in speech, especially by nonnative speakers of a language: inflammable (instead of inflatable) mattress; the bone of contentment (instead of contention); too much water had flown (instead of flowed) under the bridge; у меня тоже есть такая вонючка (instead of внучка); # 1776 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga A. Leontovich. Understanding as the Beginning of Agreement: Linguistic Aspects of Intercultural Family… вам идиот (instead of идет – intended as a compliment). I n t e r l i n g u i s t i c p a r o n y m y can also result in misunderstandings, embarrassing situations and even conflicts. Vera (Russian) remembers how she was hurt when her English husband Nat told her during a family rift: I don’t like it when you scowl. She associated the word scoul with Russian cкалиться (show one’s teeth – often said about animals). Another source of intercultural communication problems is the d i f f e r e n c e in linguistic connotations. According to V.I Shakhovsky, the connotative component of word meaning includes a complex set of characterizing semes, due to which it can both express the attitude of the speaker to what is being said and provide information about the speaker’s emotional state (Shakhovsky, 2008, p. 334). The word exists in the lexical system of a language, on the crossroads of numerous associations with other linguistic units. In every particular context it acquires new connections and associations, which can be later realized in new contexts. The Russian language possesses an elaborate affixation system capable of expressing a rich variety of emotions, which cannot be easily rendered by means of other languages. Therefore, it is difficult to explain to a non-Russian speaker the difference between different diminutives from mother: мама, мамочка, мамуля, мамаша or from the name Sergey: Сергей, Сережа, Сереженька, Серега. English has a limited number of diminutive suffixes, but if we remember that American presidents are sometimes called Billy Clinton or Teddy Roosevelt in mass media or public discussions, it becomes evident that this form of “diminutiveness” is different from what is used in family communication. However, in an intercultural family space permeated with emotions there constantly arise situations when spouses, parents and children want to express their emotions, and if a non-native language does not allow it, this results in disappointment and frustration. Sometimes in such situations diminutive names and nicknames are produced on the basis of Russian patterns, even if the language of family communication is English: Jimka (from Jim), Tomchik (from Tom), Misha (from Mike). Linguocognitive level. Communication problems on this level emerge due to the differences in the worldview, categorisation and conceptualisation of reality. One of the possible differences is the divergence of interlinguistic equivalents in the scope and c o n t e n t o f m e a n i n g ; e.g. the Russian word палец means both finger and toe, hence the misunderstanding in the following situation: Maria (Russian) was painting her toenails when her Canadian husband called her on the phone and asked what she was doing. “I am painting fingers on my feet,” she replied. Her husband burst out laughing when he imagined what fingers on her feet would look like. Systematisation of objects can also be different; e.g. a tomato is seen as a vegetable in Russia and a fruit in the UK. Other divergence points can include: • conceptualisation of time and space; • quantification; • conceptualization of gender; • division of the colour spectrum; • localisation of emotions (e.g. in the European worldview emotions are concentrated in the heart, whereas from the Chinese perspective part of the emotions are localised in the liver and the bowels). Possible problems on the g r a m m a t i c a l l e v e l include incorrect use of articles and pronouns; mistakes in the use of verb forms; interference of grammatical structures of the # 1777 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga A. Leontovich. Understanding as the Beginning of Agreement: Linguistic Aspects of Intercultural Family… native language; wrong use of syntactical constructions, etc. Level of communication s t r a t e g i e s . The relationship in an intercultural family largely depends on the communication strategies as lines of communicative behaviour aimed at achieving one’s aims in the course of interaction. The degree of explicitness can significantly influence the communication process: whereas representatives of low-context cultures are proud of their directness, people from high-context cultures, on the contrary, tend to use hints, imagery, and circumlocution, which can cause misunderstandings in intercultural families, like in the following example from the life of Milee (Vietnamese) and Harry (Australian): She felt some things were better left unsaid <…>, while he couldn’t understand what he couldn’t hear (Romano, 2001, p. 140). Harry didn’t understand that she couldn’t verbally express to him her inner feelings, that she expected him to be able to intuit them if he loved her; and Milee didn’t understand that he was escaping from what he saw as her silent hostility towards him (Ibid., p. 28). In the UK and the US the notions of explicitness / implicitness have their specific features. Americans tend to be more straightforward and assertive than the English who prefer politeness and compromise. The above-mentioned journalist S. Lyall (British – American marriage) writes: Things in Britain are so coded, so unstraightforward, so easy to misinterpret (Lyall, 2008, p. 6). She goes on to describe how her communicative strategies have changed over the ten years of life in the UK: I cushion my statements with qualifications, disclaimers, apologies, unnecessary modifying adverbs and back-handed ironic remarks. I am ‘quite upset’, ‘slightly depressed’, ‘a little unhappy’; I think that Hitler was ‘not exactly the nicest person in the world’. When I dislocated my shoulder and lay in a heap at the bottom of a flight of stairs at the hairdresser, with tinting foil all over my hair, feeling pain that was worse than anything I have ever felt before – even when I had the children – my overwhelming emotion was embarrassment. I said ‘Sorry’ in a meek little voice. Then, ‘I think I’m in a bit of pain,’ and ‘I might possibly at some point need an ambulance’ (Ibid., p. 10). The degree of explicitness is closely connected with the use of u n d e s t a t e m e n t or o v e r s t a t e m e n t . The following joke illustrates the difference between the English and American communicative strategies: “I speak four languages,” proudly boasted the door man of a hotel in Rome to an American guest. “Yes, four – Italian, French, English, and American.” “But English and American are the same,” protested the guest. “Not at all,” replied the man. “If an Englishman should come up now, I should talk like this: ‘Oh, I say, what extraordinarily shocking weather we are having! I dare say there’ll be a bit of it ahead.’ But when you came up I was just getting ready to say: ‘For the love o’ Mike! Some day, ain’t it? Guess this is the second flood, all right.’” (Pocheptsov, 1974). If Americans tend to exaggerate, understatement is one of the most typical British strategies. Our Russian respondent Larissa says that her English husband who was impressed by the Russian frosts characterised such weather as a bit chilly; his negative attitude is expressed by the word different, and extremely unlikely is used as a very strong statement. The success of family communication often depends on the choice of the s t y l e and # 1778 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga A. Leontovich. Understanding as the Beginning of Agreement: Linguistic Aspects of Intercultural Family… t o n e of discourse. Irina (Russian) married to an American writes: At the beginning of our family life I, as it later became evident to me, adopted a very typical Russian style of communicating with a spouse: somewhat casual, without due respect, without the magic words “thank you” and “please”. I wrongly assumed that it was no longer necessary to show off, since everything was already in place. Of course, it hurt my husband’s feelings. I am very grateful to him for pointing it out without humiliating me or making rows. I started noticing that it was the way normal families interacted – with love and respect – and started appreciating my American even more. The for m of self-presentations is a strategy of expressing one’s “self” in discourse, which largely influences the way family members position themselves and build their interactions. It has been noted that Russians display self-deprecation and inferiority complex in intercultural communication; Americans, on the contrary, demonstrate “aggressive selfpresentation” strategies. The British, in their turn, are terrified of bragging and try hard to play down their merits and achievements. The famous anthropologist K. Fox remembers that when she first met her boyfriend – a neurosurgeon, she asked him why he had chosen this profession: ‘Well, um,’ he replied, ‘I read PPE (Philosophy, Politics and Economics) at Oxford, but I found it all rather beyond me, so, er, I thought I’d better do something a bit less difficult. <…> It’s just plumbing, really, plumbing with a microscope – except plumbing is much more accurate’ (Fox, 2004, p. 69). Communication strategies also include: modalit y of discourse; p oli t i c a l c o r r e c t n e s s; degree of involvement in communication; the use of humour and silence, etc. The analysis allows us to draw the following conclusions: 1) the linguistic peculiarities of intercultural family communication include: the choice of language(s) to be used as a means of interaction; bilingualism or polylingualism; code mixing and code switching; the use of an oikolect; 2) linguistic difficulties, which can lead to communication problems, can occur on the phonological, graphic, lexical, grammatical, and linguocognitive levels, as well as the level of communication strategies; 3) in spite of the existence of universal characteristics of human interaction, the achievement of harmony in intercultural family communication requires a modification of the patterns of linguistic use on the part of its members. The results of this study may lead to their practical application in family counselling, crosscultural education and training, as well as in reallife situations. References Bondarenko Y.V. Intercultural Family Communication as a Specific Form of Interaction: doctoral dissertation. Volgograd: Volgograd State Pedagogical University, 2010 (in Russian). Language Systems and Why Your Family Needs It? URL: http://www.multilingualchildren.org/ getting_started/_baks/language_system.html.0003.d520.bak [Accessed 08.09.2012]. Lyall S. A Field Guide to the British. Glasgow: Quercus, 2008. Pocheptsov G.G. Language and Humor. Kiev: Vyshcha Shkola, 1974. Professionals for Cooperation. Issue 1. Moscow: Yanus-K, 1974 (in Russian). Red Tape. Peace Corps Western Russia. Summer, 2001. # 1779 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga A. Leontovich. Understanding as the Beginning of Agreement: Linguistic Aspects of Intercultural Family… Romano D. Intercultural Marriage / Promises and Pitfalls. 2nd ed. Intercultural Press, Inc., 2001. Sapp O. My Emigration // Russian Women Magazine. April, 2006. http://www. russianwomenmagazine.com/russian/life/myemigration.htm [Accessed 06.11.2012] (in Russian). Shakhovsky V. I. Linguistic Theory of Emotions. Moscow: Gnozis, 2008 (in Russian). Tomashevsky B.V. and Levin Y.D., eds. Russian Writers on Language. Leningrad: Soviet Writer, 1954 (in Russian). Понимание – начало согласия: проблемы межкультурной семейной коммуникации О.А. Леонтович Волгоградский государственный социально-педагогический университет Россия 400131, Волгоград, пр. им. В.И. Ленина, 27 В статье рассматриваются специфические особенности вербальной коммуникации в межкультурных семьях, которые включают: 1) выбор языка семейного общения; 2) билингвизм/ полилингвизм; смешение и переключение кодов; 4) использование ойколекта. Лингвистические помехи в межкультурной семейной коммуникации могут возникать на фонологическом, графическом, лексическом, грамматическом и лингвокогнитивном уровнях, а также на уровне использования коммуникативных стратегий. Исследование проводилось в междисциплинарном аспекте, на стыке теории коммуникации, лингвистики и семиотики с целью выявления ключевых проблем, возникающих в межкультурном семейном общении, и раработки путей его оптимизации. Методика исследования включала: наблюдение, письменные и устные опросы, нарративный, биографический и семиотический анализ. В работе сделан вывод о том, что, несмотря на наличие универсальных закономерностей человеческого взаимодействия, достижение гармонии в межкультурной семейной коммуникации требует от ее участников усвоения знаковых систем друг друга, а также существенной модификации паттернов вербального поведения. Результаты исследования могут найти практическое применение в тренингах по межкультурной коммуникации, работе семейных консультационных служб, а также в реальных жизненных ситуациях. Ключевые слова: межкультурная семейная коммуникация, билингвизм, смешение и переключение кодов, ойколект, коммуникативные помехи, коммуникативные стратегии. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 12 (2012 5) 1781-1789 ~~~ УДК 808.5: 378.016 Communication as a Teaching/Learning Strategy in Bilingual Education Francisco R. Cuenca* Universidad de Cádiz (Spain) Campus Río San Pedro Avda. Saharaui, s/n, 11519 Puerto Real (Cádiz), Spain 1 Received 04.12.2012, received in revised form 11.12.2012, accepted 24.12.2012 This paper is based on my experience as a member of the coordinating team of the Plurilingual Education Programme (PEP) at the School of Education, Universidad de Cadiz (Spain). We have been working with a group of 23 subject-matter teachers belonging to up to 13 content areas and three target languages: English, French and German. The main purpose of the project was to train lectures on the CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) methodological approach. We have focused our training on content and communication (based on Coyle (1999)’s four C’s framework) with an emphasis on constructing the communicative channels appropriate to convey content with language as a medium of communication, not as an aim itself. As communicative exchanges will be between non-native teachers and non-native students, teachers have been trained on some communicative strategies typical of the CLIL approach in order to improve the teachers’ communicative competence. In this paper, some of these strategies and their benefits will be depicted : using the foreign language as the language of communication in the class, improving clarity of speech, enhancing oral interaction with/among students, visual aids, rephrasing, reformulating, redundancy or content reduction are amongst the most essential strategies to improve communicative exchanges in bilingual settings. Keywords: communication, communicative strategies, communicative competence, oral interaction, teacher training. 1. Introduction The development of a Plurilingual Education Program (PEP) aims to respond to the needs of a society in which the quality of communication is presented as an essential factor affecting both interpersonal relationships and the development of appropriate professional profiles in the context of a globalized world. In contemporary society there are many reasons to implement communicative educational strategies based upon a thorough command of at least two foreign languages * 1 which, together with the learner’s command of her mother tongue, promote the integration of individuals within the 21st century society. The PEP is aimed primarily at enhancing the level of vehicular languages by using them for specific content learning in undergraduate studies taught at the School of Education. First among these languages is the learner’s mother tongue, whose proficient command is taken as a reference point, and as the first language of communication, understanding advanced mastery of it as a priority Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 1781 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Francisco R. Cuenca. Communication as a Teaching/Learning Strategy in Bilingual Education objective facing the exercise of any profession. Hence, all subjects in the learner’s curriculum should take a part in improving the learner’s communicative competence in her mother tongue (Méndez and Pavón, 2012). Furthermore, the PEP takes up the challenge of developing the plurilingual and pluricultural competence of learners. Plurilingualism conveys pluriculturalism1 and interculturality (Trujillo, 2002, p. 109), thus integration of content and languages involves cultural integration between the cultural background of the language of instruction and that of the learners’ native language, whether it is the language of instruction or not. Currently, university students are aware of the importance of mastering languages, in general, as an integral part of their academic training, given the nature of contemporary society and specifically as a potential expansion of career opportunities. The following are just some of the many reasons for designing a curriculum that develops plurilingual and pluricultural competences: - The position of the university in the international arena requires the use of strategies of mutual approach in which the knowledge of a second or foreign language is a must. - Linguistic diversity is a social reality considered as a valuable resource by national and supranational institutions to develop plurality policies that the university is called to accept and strengthen (Skutnabb-Kangas, 2002). - Foreign language knowledge greatly improves the profile of university students and teachers in the face of different types of actions (mobility, research, etc.). Moreover, the resolutions adopted by the Andalusian University Council regarding the implementation of official teachings under the European Higher Education Area, promote the inclusion of foreign language learning as a transversal competence across the curricula (Consejo Andaluz de Universidades, 2009). Finally, the University of Cádiz Governing Board approved the Language Policy Framework Document (Universidad de Cádiz, 2011) which considers different aspects of language learning including the broad concept of plurilingualism (see note 1 below). It was in this context that we started working with lecturers from a variety of content areas such as: Music, Physical Education, Mathematics, Psychology, Didactics, Sociology, etc. (Herrero et al., 2012, p. 66). The main purpose of the project was to train lectures on the CLIL methodological approach. CLIL stands for Content and Language Integrated Learning. It refers to teaching subjects such as science, history and geography to students through a foreign language. This can be by the English teacher using cross-curricular content or the subject teacher using English as the language of instruction. Both methods result in the simultaneous learning of content and English. The term CLIL was coined by David Marsh, University of Jyväskylä, Finland (Marsh , 1994, 2000): “CLIL refers to situations where subjects, or parts of subjects, are taught through a foreign language with dualfocused aims, namely the learning of content and the simultaneous learning of a foreign language”. 2. Communication within the CLIL approach As the main purpose of the project was to train lectures on the CLIL approach, following Do Coyle’s four C’s framework (content, communication, cognition and culture), we have focused particularly on content and communication with an emphasis on constructing the communicative channels # 1782 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Francisco R. Cuenca. Communication as a Teaching/Learning Strategy in Bilingual Education appropriate to convey content with language as a medium of communication, not as an aim itself. On introducing how communication should be treated in CLIL, Do Coyle stated that “Language is a conduit for communication and for learning which can be described as learning to use language and using language to learn.” (Coyle et al, 2010, p. 54) In fact, this is how authentic communication works: using language as a vehicle to exchange information, with the additional benefit that in bilingual educational settings, learners improve their knowledge of the foreign vehicular language (L2) with learning subject-matter content. Communication in this sense goes beyond the grammar system, but at the same time does not reject the essential role of grammar and lexis in language learning. It involves learners in using language in a way which is often different from more traditional language lessons. It is perhaps useful here to differentiate between language learning (often with an emphasis on grammatical progression) and language using (with an emphasis on the communication and learning demands of the moment). CLIL is innovative as a didactic approach because it has the benefits of integrating content and language as a strategy into the education programs bringing together a variety of previous educational approaches and proposals. Thus, CLIL is deeply rooted in the tradition of Piaget’s constructivism and Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory and his concept of the zone of proximal development (ZPD). Vygotsky “…theorized that learning occurs through participation in social or culturally embedded experiences.” (Raymond, 2000, p. 176). In Vygotsky’s view, the learner does not learn in isolation. Instead learning is strongly influenced by social interactions, which take place in meaningful contexts. In academic bilingual settings these contexts will be provided by the particular nature of subject-matter content (Rubio, 2011). Access to these contexts will be supported by building scaffolds, that is, by breaking down a task or activity into manageable steps and using appropriate skills and strategies to complete the different steps successfully. Oral interaction is one of those contexts in which scaffolding takes place: pair or group work activities are situations in which learners tend to communicate naturally as they are dealing with content through language. Recalling Cummins division between BICS (conversational language) and CALP (academic language), Walqui (2007, p. 207) proposes that the spoken language of conversations among students can be used as scaffolds for academic discourse. The more opportunities we give our students to interact in pairs or groups, the greater their linguistic, cognitive and academic development. CLIL also has similarities with the communicative approach, CBI (content-based instruction), and TBI (task-based instruction), as all of these approaches explore the relationship between language learning and the content within which it is situated. CLIL integrates content learning and language learning so that both are important. (Coyle, 2010, p. 54). It thus represents a step forward in the evolution towards a more communicative environment for language learning. In Table 1, we sketch the three main steps in the evolution of language learning in academic settings, with CLIL as a major turning point, as previous approaches had been language-centered whereas the new approach is content-centered. Communication strategies should be adapted to the limited and/or specific communicative needs of teachers and learners within each particular learning environment. At the School of Education’s PEP coordinating team, we have been trying to meet communicative needs of the teachers involved in the plurilingual program in order to improve their communicative competence # 1783 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Francisco R. Cuenca. Communication as a Teaching/Learning Strategy in Bilingual Education Table 1. Evolution of foreign language teaching/learning methodological approaches Audio-Lingual & Grammar Translation (1960’s) • More attention paid to correct syntax and pronunciation. • Text books • Homogeneous learning • Grammar and lexis • Imitate native speakers • Mainly individual work • Repetition and drills • Fluency favours correctness • Assessment: syntax and pronunciation Communicative Approach (1970’s – 1980’s) • Use of appropriate social language • The target language is the language of communication • Simulations of real-life communicative contexts (roleplays, games, etc.) • Mainly pair or group work • Correctness favours fluency • No specific language model • Assessment: skills LANGUAGE-CENTERED in the foreign language they have chosen as their language of instruction. First and foremost, the L2 should be the language of communication and instruction. Therefore, we encouraged our teachers to use the four communicative skills (speaking, reading, listening and writing) with the aim of providing a natural learning environment. Oral interaction between teacher and learner and amongst learners should also be encouraged. Communicating becomes more important than correctness. 3. Initial problems and their solutions Teaching in a foreign language at our School of Education is mainly motivated by the fact that we are training students to become primary school teachers. Many of these prospective teachers will be working at schools with bilingual sections, that is, schools where some subjects are partly taught through a foreign language, mostly English and French. Thus, teachers should feel motivated to adopt CLIL as part of their teaching methodology. However, teachers at the School of Education showed many insecurities and fears with the very thought of planning a didactic unit CLIL (1990’s – Today) • Communicative context is provided by subject-matter content • Content is the target • Academic context • Non-native • Multiplicity of resources and activities • Grammar and lexis are subsidiary to communication • Individual, pair or group work • Correctness favours comprehension • Assessment: subject-matter content CONTENT-CENTERED in a foreign language, even though some of them had a high command of the language. In order to cope with this initial situation, the coordinating team of the PEP, whose members were all foreign language and teaching methodology specialists, devised a work schedule consisting in regular meetings between content area teachers and language specialists. In those meetings, content teachers were given some guidelines on how to structure and plan a didactic unit within the CLIL approach, part of their work had to be presented to their fellow mates at monitoring workshops2. Below, we show a short list of their worries about planning and implementing a CLIL session and how we have been mitigating them as we proceeded with our project. Their main concerns and insecurities aroused on the one hand because they did not feel sufficiently competent to adapt and/or reduce teaching materials and resources in a foreign language, especially when dealing with content which might require high cognitive abilities from the learners. On the other hand, they did not feel confident with the fact of having the foreign language as the language of communication. At the coordinating team we # 1784 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Francisco R. Cuenca. Communication as a Teaching/Learning Strategy in Bilingual Education came out with some remedial strategies to cope with these insecurities. Different levels of command of the foreign language by teachers. At the beginning, most teachers were not sure about their level of command of the foreign language, and only a few had gained a CEFRL certificate in English or French. So here we faced an initial concern affecting the basic linguistic competence of non-language teachers in the foreign language. The initial command of the foreign language ranged from very basic (A1-A2) to advanced (B2-C1). Throughout the different projects, teachers committed themselves to attend both free general language courses at the university’s Center of Modern Languages and tailor-made subject-specific courses based on the CLIL approach. Planning of didactic units was done in coordination with a language specialist, and, to dissipate fears, only content objectives were set and the exposure by learners to content in the foreign language was adjusted to the teacher’s degree of manipulation of that language. Another of the initial fears of teachers was whether content would be satisfactorily conveyed to learners as they might have missed much of their explanations or they may feel that essential knowledge might have been left out for simplicity. One of the CLIL principles that teachers should take into account is that they are not supposed to check or control the use of the foreign language but the acquisition of academic knowledge through the L2. From the very beginning we made them aware of the fact that class time should be devoted to content, not language. On the other hand, simplifying contents does not mean leaving out crucial concepts as simplicity is balanced by scaffolding. Some of the scaffolding techniques that teachers learned to use in the monitoring sessions were redundant presentation of information in a variety of formats, e.g., slideshow, audio/video recording, journal articles, etc.; rephrasing and reformulating new ideas or concepts, providing previous knowledge clues, administering introductory activities or pretasks to be completed before the CLIL session, etc. All these strategies help make input more comprehensible and teachers more confident with achieving set objectives. Teachers also felt insecure regarding communication and oral interaction in the class. Because they felt they had to conduct a lesson in a foreign language, they thought they might go through anxiety and stress as they were going to teach outside the comfort zone provided so far by teaching in their mother tongue. First of all, we made them aware that CLIL is not just teaching academic content in L2 in the same way as they teach that content in their mother tongue. CLIL is a learner-centered approach as opposed to traditional teacher-centered instruction. The new approach should thus be more participative by enhancing oral interaction between students, so that they become more active and the teacher stands behind as a helper or resource provider, thus focusing the students’ attention on their tasks and their mates, and not just on the teacher (Bonwel et al, 1991; Scott Armstrong, 2012). Learners should learn by taking an active part in their learning process by applying appropriate communication skills. There is nothing prejudicial in getting out of the comfort zone. There must be a change of attitude towards the teacher’s part in the lesson. He/she should feel that he/she is the conductor in full command of the communication situation and of his/her performance. Short pauses, speaking at a slow pace, gesturing and use of the blackboard will contribute to make teachers more confident. Because both teachers and learners shared their mother tongue, they feared that communicating in a foreign language would be felt as an unnatural setting and even completely unnecessary, slowing down the pace of the lesson and making it unattractive for learners, so # 1785 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Francisco R. Cuenca. Communication as a Teaching/Learning Strategy in Bilingual Education that some of them may ‘disconnect’ from what is going on. Remedial strategies were administered once both teachers and learners were aware of the sociological context in which today’s teaching takes place, as we are immersed in a globalized world with millions of international exchanges. Moreover, a huge amount of up-todate academic and professional information is provided in English and other languages, most of which may be accessed on the Internet, strongly encourage by social networks. The use of more than one language is essential to feel that you are part of that context. This context is sufficiently motivating to start acquiring at least part of the specialized knowledge learnt at the university in a foreign language. Our experience tells us that communication works smoothly after a couple of CLIL-oriented bilingual sessions between teachers and learners and amongst learners themselves, as the learning atmosphere created makes the class “community” partly unconscious of the fact that they are talking about a subject or a topic in a foreign language. Obviously, there may be some short breaks in which the learners might require the help of the teacher with some expressions or key words and, in this case, clarification may mean switch to the mother tongue. These breaks are perfectly normal during a bilingual session, and they are highly recommended, at least at the initial stages, where language command and subjectmatter knowledge are scarce. These breaks make both teachers and learners feel more relax and confident to immediately go back to the foreign language environment as they feel that they are really improving, not just content, but also improving their command of the foreign language. Teachers with a good command of the L2 might tend to speak so fast that learners might miss the comprehension of part of the content. This is where communicative strategies come into action. Faerch and Kasper (1983, p. 16) view communicative strategies as “systematic techniques employed by a speaker to express his meaning when faced with some difficulty and the difficulty here refers to the speaker’s inadequate command of the language used in the interaction”. We have been training our teachers in some of the communicative strategies we have considered more suitable to bilingual settings. We have adapted these strategies with one common goal: making communication real and input comprehensible. Improving clarity of speech helped with face and hand gestures is a basic communicative strategy. Mehisto et al (2008, p. 226) recommended a balanced pronunciation of lower-pitched vowels and higher-pitched consonants, speaking at a slow pace and keeping closer to the listener. Other strategies we recommended our teachers are: rephrasing and repeating utterances, framing teacher performance with visual supports, encouraging learners to take part in the communicative exchange by organizing their activities into pairs and groups, naturally allowing code-switching between L1 and L2. The teacher’s discourse should be supported by using hedges or introductory utterances, such as “We all know that”, “Perhaps you did not know that”, “by the way”, “I believe”, “you should be aware of”, etc., (Peccei and Stilwell, 2001) together with concept checking questions, i.e., those questions made by the teacher to elicit simple answers from learners in order to check that they follow the thread of her explanation. Yes/No questions such as “Do you understand?”, “Is this clear?”, or more specifically, “Should medication be administered on the first stage?” may be used though feedback from learners is very poor with this type of questions, as most of them will reply with a handy though useless “Yes”. Instead, we encourage teachers to use wh-questions to elicit more elaborate answers from learners, # 1786 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Francisco R. Cuenca. Communication as a Teaching/Learning Strategy in Bilingual Education so questions such as “How does this work?” or “How often should you administer medication?” are more appropriate and communicatively enriching, though more cognitively demanding than Yes/No questions. The use of L1 structures interfered communication in L2 making content transmission difficult for learners. Interlanguage interferences have been dealt with at length in second language acquisition research (Bhela, 1999; Horwitz, 2008; Richards et al, 1992; Swan and Smith, 1987). Interference mainly affects productive communicative skills such as speaking and writing. Remedial strategies concerning interference or negative transfer consist in turning language interference into interlanguage strategies (Selinker, 1972, 1992). One of these techniques is language and content reduction. Faerch and Kasper (1983) introduce the concept of ‘avoidance behaviour’, when classifying communicative strategies, as consisting of formal reduction and functional reduction strategies. “Formal reduction strategies could be phonological, morphological, syntactic and lexical strategies. Learners tend to use formal reduction strategies either to avoid making errors and/or they want to increase their fluency (Faerch and Kasper 1983, p. 40; quoted by Al Maamari, 2010). On the other hand, functional reduction strategies include reduction of speech act and reduction of propositional context and these two are used by learners to reduce their communicative goals in 1 2 order to avoid problems in interactions (ibid: 43; quoted by Al Maamari, 2010). Conclusion After three academic years training teachers on the CLIL approach, we are plainly satisfied that most of the objectives for the different projects have been accomplished and we have conformed a faculty team ready to cope with teaching at the initial stages of our PEP. First and foremost, content teachers feel more at home with teaching in a foreign language, communication strategies have been very valuable to control the pace of the lesson. Formal and functional reduction of both language and contents facilitates understanding. Learners’ exposure to discourse in the foreign language has been gradual, starting at a more passive, receptive level, just limited to listen to the teacher’s instructions and simple concept checking questions, with the scaffolding of short-length texts, vocabulary lists, information organizers and visual aid. Active learning and oral interaction should be encouraged by making learners work in pairs or small groups. Progress in the acquisition of subject-matter contents is necessarily slower in L2 than in L1. Both teachers and learners should be motivated by feeling that they belong to a speaking ‘community’ in the foreign language whose boundaries are the physical limitations of the classroom, the particular features of the conceptual framework of each academic discipline and the pace of oral interaction. The terms plurilingualism and pluriculturalism are used in the context of the CLIL approach, as the prefix pluri- is understood as the integrated learning of languages and cultural aspects conveyed through those languages. Within this approach, learners will acquire knowledge within the communicative, cognitive and cultural environments of the languages of instruction, which will be at least two: the learner’s mother tongue and a second or foreign language. All the details about the organizational structure of the teacher-training programme are depicted in the unpublished Plan de Lenguas de Centro (Plurilingual Education Programme) draft document approved by the School of Education Sciences’ Board at the University of Cádiz. References Al Maamari, R., 2010. Learning and communicative strategies, published online at www. articlesbase.com. [Accessed September 2012]. # 1787 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Francisco R. Cuenca. Communication as a Teaching/Learning Strategy in Bilingual Education Bhela, B., 1999. Native language interference in learning a second language: Exploratory case studies of native language interference with target language usage. International Education Journal Vol 1, No 1, 1999 at: http://iej.cjb.net. [Accessed September 2012]. Bonwell, C. and Eison, J., 1991. Active Learning: Creating Excitement in the Classroom. AEHEERIC Higher Education Report No. 1. Washington, D.C.: Jossey-Bass. Consejo Andaluz de Universidades, 2009. Acuerdos adoptados por el Consejo Andaluz de Universidades en relación con la implantación de enseñanzas oficiales conforme al Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior. Junta de Andalucía. Consejo Andaluz de Universidades. Consejería de Educación Junta de Andalucía, 2006. Plan de Fomento del Plurilingüismo. Una política para la sociedad andaluza. <htt p://w w w.juntadeandalucia.es/aver roes/ html/por tal/com / bin /contenidos/ B/Innov acionEInvestigacion/ProyectosInnovadores/Plurilinguismo/Portada/1182945265640_w ysiwyg_plan. pdf>[Accessed 06 April 2011]. Coyle, D., 1999 Supporting students in content and language integrated learning contexts, in J. Masih (ed.) Learning through a Foreign Language: Models, Methods and Outcomes, Grantham Book Services Ltd: Grantham, UK, pp.46 – 62. Coyle, D., Hood, P. and Marsh, D., 2010. CLIL: Content and Language Integrated Learning, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. Faerch, C. and Kasper, G., 1983. Strategies in Interlanguage Communication. London: Longman. Herrero, F. et al., 2012. “Proyecto AICLE en la formación de maestros en la Universidad de Cádiz”, in A. Ambrós, J. Perera & M. Suárez (Editors), Didàctica de la llengua i la literatura: Experiències d’innovació docent a la universitat. Series: Recerca d’Innovació Docent en Didàctica de la Llengua i la Literatura 1. Institut de Ciències de l’Educació. Universidad de Barcelona, pp. 61-70. Horwitz, E.K., 2008. Becoming a language teacher. Boston: Pearson. Marsh, D., 1994. Bilingual Education & Content and Language Integrated Learning. International Association for Cross-cultural Communication, Language Teaching in the Member States of the European Union (Lingua) University of Sorbonne. Paris. Marsh, D., 2000. An introduction to CLIL for parents and young people. Using Languages to Learn and Learning to Use Languages. Jyväskylä: University of Jyväskylä. Mehisto, P., Marsh, D. and Frigols, M. J., 2009. Uncovering CLIL. Macmillan. Peccei, J. S., 2001. Pragmatics, Routledge. Méndez-García. M. C. and V. Pavón, 2012. Investigating the coexistence of the mother tongue and the foreign language through teacher collaboration in CLIL contexts: perceptions and practice of the teachers involved in the plurilingual programme in Andalusia. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, pp. 1-20. Routledge: London. Raymond, E., 2000. Cognitive Characteristics. Learners with Mild Disabilities (pp. 169-201). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon, A Pearson Education Company. Richards, J.C., Platt, J., and Platt, H. (Eds.), 1992. Longman dictionary of language Teaching & applied linguistics. Essex, England: Longman Group UK Limited Rubio, F., 2011. Dictogloss, a technique for integrating language skills and specialized content in higher education curricula. Proceedings of X AELFE Conference. Universitat Politècnica de València: Valencia. # 1788 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Francisco R. Cuenca. Communication as a Teaching/Learning Strategy in Bilingual Education Scott Armstrong, J., 2012. Natural learning in higher education. Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning. Heidelberg: Springer. Selinker, L., 1972. “Interlanguage”. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 10, 209-241 Selinker, L., 1992. Rediscovering interlanguage. New York: Longman, Inc. Skutnabb-Kangas, T., 2002. Why should linguistic diversity be maintained and supported in Europe. Some arguments. Guide for the Development of Language Education Policies in Europe From Linguistic Diversity to Plurilingual Education. Language Policy Division Directorate of School, Outof-School and Higher Education, DGIV, Council of Europe, Strasbourg. Swan, M., and Smith, B., 1987. Learner English. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Trujillo, F., 2002. Towards interculturality through language teaching: Argumentative discourse. CAUCE, Revista de Filología y su Didáctica, No 25, pp. 103-119. Universidad de Cádiz, 2011. Documento de Política Lingüística de la Universidad de Cádiz. Cádiz: BOUCA, No 116, enero 2011. Walqui, A., 2006. Scaffolding instruction for English learners. A conceptual framework. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 9/2: 159-80. Коммуникация как обучающая стратегия в билингвальном образовании Ф.Р. Куэнка Университет Кадиса, Испания Кампус Рио Сан Педро, пр. Сахарауи 11519 Пуэрто Реаль (Кадис), Испания Данная статья основана на личном опыте члена координационной команды Полилингвальной образовательной программы (Plurilingual Education Programme (PEP)) в школе образования университета г. Кадис (Испания). Была проведена работа с группой из 23 преподавателей, 13 различных предметов и 3 целевых языков: английского, французского и немецкого. Главной целью проекта было преподать методологический подход предметно-языкового интегрированного обучения (CLIL). В работе отображены некоторые коммуникативные стратегии, типичные для вышеобозначенного подхода, и их преимущества. Ключевые слова: коммуникация, коммуникативные стратегии, компетенция, устная интеракция, обучение преподавателей. коммуникативная Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 12 (2012 5) 1790-1797 ~~~ УДК 808.5 Rudeness as a System of Strategies and an Object of Classification Vladimir I. Zhelvis* K.D. Ushinsky State Pedagogical University 108 Respublikanskaya St. Yaroslavl, 150000 Russia 1 Received 04.12.2012, received in revised form 11.12.2012, accepted 24.12.2012 In the article rudeness is considered as a strategy aimed at achieving a certain pragmatic effect. The author considers it possible to subdivide rudeness into rudeness of repulsion, cathartic rudeness, authoritative rudeness, rudeness as an expression of dissoluteness, aristocratic rudeness, rudeness as an expression of “buddy-buddy manners”, friendly rudeness, carnal rudeness, rudeness as an expression of class solidarity, etc. Different versions of rude abuse are also observed. Keywords: politeness, rudeness, abuse, repulsion, catharsis, class solidarity, level of competence, cultural patterns You spoke your words as though you denied the very existence of the shadows or of evil. But would you kindly ponder this question: What would your good do if evil didn’t exist, and what would the earth look like if all the shadows disappeared? M. Bulgakov. Master and Margarita The present article regards rudeness as a sort of strategy aimed at achieving a certain pragmatic effect. In the Russian online Philosophical dictionary one may read: “Rudeness is a negative moral quality characterized by neglect of behaviour culture; opposite to politeness. One of the most disrespectful attitudes towards other people, rudeness expresses itself in undisguised hostility to other people, in lack of attention to other people’s interests and needs, in an impudent attempt to impose one’s own will and wishes on * 1 others, in an inability to restrain one’s annoyance, in an unpremeditated, or premeditated, attack on other people’s self-respect, in undue familiarity, in dirty language, in making use of humiliating nicknames, as well as in rampageous actions”. As we can see, this detailed definition builds up an opposition between rudeness and politeness, and points out that rudeness may express itself in action as well as in words. The present research dwells on verbal rudeness, although rude actions cannot be neglected either. If the phenomenon of politeness has always been popular among the research workers all over Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 1790 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir I. Zhelvis. Rudeness as a System of Strategies and an Object of Classification the world (Brown and Levinson, 1987; Larina, 2009, et al.), that of rudeness interested the scholars much less. Nevertheless, there is no doubt that the role rudeness plays in communication is in no way smaller than that of politeness, for all their behavioural differences. The fact is that politeness as well as rudeness in their typical manifestations is nothing else than two opposite means of achieving one and the same aim, namely an attempt to gain a certain profit. Metaphorically, politeness may be compared to peaceful negotiations of two competing powers, while rudeness may be equalled to a military conflict, the final aim in both cases being an attempt to get in possession of certain resources. For all that, one cannot assert that politeness and rudeness are opposite mirror-like, that is where one has a “plus” the other exposes a “minus”. Things are more complicated, it seems. Still, it is evident that they both allow themselves to be arranged in a certain classification. Though a necessary reservation seems due here. Where politeness may easily be structured in a more detailed way, a similarly fine gradation of rudeness is hardly possible. Tautology excused, rudeness is, by definition, too rude, too unceremonious to be able to fit into a strict and exact classification net. As it has been mentioned above, rudeness may be physical and verbal. Naturally, so can be politeness. But in the case of rudeness the difference is much more noticeable. Not that the problem is in which is stronger. After all, we know that verbal rudeness may be, literally, more deadly than a physical blow. According to Prof. T.V. Larina, politeness may be absolute semantically, and relative pragmatically (Larina, 2009). Similarly, one may try to subdivide rudeness into absolute, like a fist blow, a deliberate push or exposing one’s middle finger. Evidently, here we have physical, or visual, rudeness. Verbal rudeness, on the contrary, is mainly pragmatic, which is accepted in accordance with the norms of the given social group. On the practical level, every social group possesses its own concept of rudeness. The fact is that rudeness is discursive and cannot be regarded in isolation from the context, while the context in this case is a social milieu in which any act may be or may be not looked upon as rude. To a very great extent decision on what is more rude and what is less rude depends on the addressee; for example, even Russian dirtiest language, like the so-called “mat” may be received by the opponent as something much less offensive than a humiliating order without a single bad word, as “Get away!” Different reactions to rudeness may well be illustrated by two Russian proverbial idioms, «Собака лает, ветер носит» (A dog’s bark is blown away by the wind) and «Ему плюнь в глаза, а ему всё божья роса» (You may spit him in the eye, yet he will say it was holy dew). The first idiom refers to the indifferent or spiteful reaction to an invective attack, while the other describes the behaviour of a shameless fellow with very low morals. In both cases the invective shell bursts but just does not hurt. Still, the first “victim” admits that what he hears are swear words hurled at him and meant to harm, otherwise he would not have called the opponent’s words “dog’s bark”. In the second case, however, offensive language is taken for granted and is placidly ignored. All the difficulties of classification notwithstanding, one may subdivide rudeness into several groups. Let us consider some of them. 1. First will come what one may call rudeness of repulsion, i.e. a deliberate desire to push the opponent away, literally or verbally, to offend them, to humiliate them, to ruin their self-esteem. This may be put in effect by a physical blow, a slap in the face, a rough repulsion, as well as # 1791 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir I. Zhelvis. Rudeness as a System of Strategies and an Object of Classification calling names, cursing, using obscene language, etc. 2. In a way, rudeness of repulsion is related to cathartic rudeness, when one swears and thus, by breaking a strong taboo, feels better, “relieves his soul”. In this case a physical reaction is also possible, when a person may crush anything in sight. But more often we speak about a verbal attack, when violating a universally accepted taboo offers the actor a satisfaction similar to, say, a plate broken during a noisy family row. See in this connection a story from the memoirs by the great Russian social anthropologist Prof. Yu.M. Lotman who describes his war-time adventures (Translated from the Russian): The place was absolutely deserted. I was completely broken down, but I somehow found a means to support myself: I was walking and shooting tracer bullets, one by one, right up into the blue sky. Strangely, it somehow helped to overcome the feeling of being lost. At the same time I shouted at the top of my voice the most unprintable swear words. This mixture of shooting and swearing gave me the necessary relief. At last I waded the last tributary, dropped to the ground and immediately fell asleep. Crossing the river Don was over (Lotman, 2003, p.25 in Russian). 3. A part of this strategy may be named authoritative rudeness, an attempt to humiliate one’s subordinate to show who the boss is. Naturally, such rudeness is always one-sided, and answering back is looked upon as an unprecedented violation of the norm. 4. One may speak about rudeness as an expression of dissoluteness, a deliberate neglect of etiquette. A convincing example is the behaviour of the popular Russian hairdresser Zverev, who, according to yellow press reports, makes use of the most repulsive obscenities regardless of where and with whom he chooses to speak. Zverev’s lazily slow manner of speech proves that the fellow does not experience any need to “let out the steam”, it is just a means to demonstrate his indifference to other people’s feelings. 5. Next comes “aristocratic rudeness”, rudeness with the sole purpose to shock and startle. Unlike the followers of Zverev, actors are rude only in their own company. Their language is a way to express their “democratic views”. Examples are numerous, especially among artists, actors, but most of all among military and political leadership. Among Russian foul-mouths one might mention emperors (Peter the Great and Alexander the Third) politicians (Chernomyrdin and Gorbachev), army generals (G. Zhukov) and many others. 6. Close to this one stands rudeness as an expression of buddy-buddy manners. This is, so to speak, “good-natured rudeness” of the type “Hello, fartface, haven’t seen you for ages” Strictly speaking, this is no rudeness in the direct sense, the speaker demonstrates his friendly attitude, always supported by a benevolent intonation. Still, the use of the rude idioms allows us to list this case among all the others. See the following example from the memoirs of the famous Russian ballet dancer Maris Liepa (Translated from Russian): (Yermolaev says, “You are such a bastard, such a true bastard, such a good bastard that you’re the best in this show. Ulanova and Timofeeva praised me, too.” (“Ogonyok” Journal 1989, No5, in Russian). It is an imitation of rudeness, an # 1792 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir I. Zhelvis. Rudeness as a System of Strategies and an Object of Classification attempt to conceal a friendly attitude under the disguise of calling bad names. 7. The detonating power of rudeness is visibly diminishing when it demonstrates itself in a friendly push, even quite tangible, or verbally, when the speaker wants to exhibit their “swearing art”. Genuine bad language, as a rule, lacks any desire to impress the opponent with its eloquent artistic skill; its super destructive power is hidden, above all, in their primitiveness and artlessness, which make them more emotional. Similarly, to inform others of the death of a dear relative, we never use high-flown idioms like “He left us”, “He met God our Lord” etc., but just say “He died”. Contrarily, a set of brightly coloured invectives, often rhymed, rather amuses than makes one angry. 8. Carnal rudeness occupies a noticeable place among all other types. Here aggressive attitude, unavoidable in sexual experience, is completed by intentionally rough language which, however, is meant to express tenderness and endearment. A good example may be observed in D. Lawrence’s “Lady Chatterley’s Lover”: “Th’art good cunt, though, aren’t her? Best bit o’ cunt left on earth” (…) “All on’t,” she teased. “Cunt! It’s like fuck then.” “Nay, nay! Fuck’s only what you do. Animals fuck. But cunt’s a lot more than that. (…) Cunt! Eh, that’s the beauty o’ thee, lass?” Even today the word “cunt” is considered the most obscene word in the whole of the English language, as well as its Russian equivalent. Yet, in the example above, it is an expression of the highest form of intimacy, another case of “fake rudeness”. 9. One more case of rude language is worth mentioning. It is rudeness as a means of expressing class solidarity, whose motto is akin to R. Kipling’s “We’re of one blood!” Russian philologist A. PlutzerSarno quotes Yu. M. Lotman who, in one of his lectures, describes a visit of Maxim Gorky to Lev Tolstoy. The two famous authors engaged in a friendly talk, during which Tolstoy garnished his speech with the worst obscenities possible. Gorky, well-known for his low-class origin, was morbidly offended by such a behaviour of Tolstoy, he thought the count was imitating the speech of the low classes to humiliate him, to show the former tramp his place, while Gorky wanted to keep the image of an intelligent and well-brought up fellow. But Gorky was wrong, Lotman pointed out. Tolstoy meant no offence; on the contrary, his manner of speech was an indication that the count included Gorky in his intimate circle in which such use of dirty language was commonplace (Plutzer-Sarno, 2001, p.30). In this case, again, it is not easy to talk about rudeness as an aggressive tool. In fact, here we do have an aggressive speech act, but this time aggression is shared by all those present, it is aggression as a tool of relieving co-habitation, a sort of modus vivendi. It is about such cases that Russians say jokingly, “We do not just use obscenities in our speech, we speak Obscenese”. In some Russian subcultures one who avoids obscenities is looked upon as an alien and an enemy by definition. Sometimes such rudeness may be classified among different versions of phatic speech. Thus there exists a strategy of politeness as well as a strategy of rudeness. The first is thoroughly studied and minutely classified. Certain “rituals of politeness” are described in detail. “Rituals of rudeness” are much more difficult to deal with. To begin with, rudeness, # 1793 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir I. Zhelvis. Rudeness as a System of Strategies and an Object of Classification as has been mentioned above, is devoid of nuances, which are so typical of politeness. Secondly, perception of rudeness to a very great extent depends on the “receiving party”. “Thank you very much!” is more polite than the curt “Thanks!”, while “Millions of thanks!” is the “gratefullest” of the three. At the same time, one cannot likewise arrange “Get out!”, “Get off!”, or even “Fuck off!”, “Go to hell!”, or “Drop dead!” Each of the mentioned uncomplimentary wishes possesses approximately similar repulsive power, and in some circumstances the seemingly mild “Get off!” may sound ruder than “Fuck off!” Still, one cannot deny that the strategy of rudeness does exist. Its existence is especially visible when two or more cultures are opposed to each other. As we know, Russian speech practice is a proud possessor of only a few basic obscenities plus a limitless multitude of their derivatives. Remarkably, the more elaborate and decorative these derivatives are, the less their explosive power is. In case of politeness things are just the other way round, elaborate and expanded politeness being appreciated much more than short and formal. The exception is when polite idioms are used ironically, sarcastically or humiliatingly. In many cultures the bulk of the list of rude idioms is based on sex, in Germanic cultures the stress is laid on the scatological concept of dirt and filth. There are cultures which concentrate on profanities, as well as cultures which avoid rude speech altogether (Zhelvis, 2001, in Russian). Which, presumably, does not mean that the latter cultures have no idea of what rudeness is, they just make successful use of other means to make their opponents life unhappy. The strategy of rudeness by no means limits itself with the use of rude vocabulary. Here are some behavioural patterns of different cultures, when what is considered rude in one culture looks quite acceptable in another. In other words, different cultures make use of different conventionalist strategies. Thus, for Russians it seems rather strange and excessive when some Westerners try to avoid direct address, especially when addressing strangers. Instead of the common Russian «Вы выходите на следующей остановке?» (Do you leave at the next stop?) natives of a few other cultures would rather say “Excuse me, next stop is mine!” thus avoiding direct address altogether. In the similar fashion, instead of direct question “Are you the last in the line?” (Russian way) the English would rather prefer non-personal “Where’s the end of the line?” The much more preferred way of asking for direction would be “I’m looking for “such-and-such street”. Sometimes even a formal thank-you letter may be regarded as too rude or even offensive. Arab cultures are well-known for their colourful expressions of gratitude. G. Triandis quotes a thank-you letter of a leading figure from a university in Jordan (in back translation from Russian): “May I thank you for your exceptional hospitality which you received us with. You were extremely generous and magnanimous. All your guests, ladies and gentlemen were examples of nobility. The schedule of our visit was also exceptionally well arranged”. It would be only appropriate to mention that the visit described so eloquently included an informal meal of hamburgers and non-alcoholic drinks (Triandis, 2011, p.254). Rude gestures are sometimes just as national-specific as idioms. Russians are sure it is more polite to face those sitting when you are walking to your seat in the theatre; the British consider it impolite and in similar circumstances insist on showing the others their backs. An unasked piece of advice sounds very rude and unceremonious in England and is welcome # 1794 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir I. Zhelvis. Rudeness as a System of Strategies and an Object of Classification in Russia where it is looked upon as a sincere wish to help. There are cultures where soft and quiet intonation is a sign of good manners, while loud speech is frowned upon. At the same time, now that estrangement among people is visibly increasing, rude vocabulary and gestures may sometimes serve as a means to attract attention to the speaker, to give him voice, to help him speak for himself. Scholars who study politeness single out negative or “distant” politeness (Brown and Levinson, 1987, p. 129; Larina, 2009, p. 172). The aim of such politeness is establishing between the speakers a certain distance to give room to demonstrate respect. To that effect all sorts of artificial obstacles and barriers are being created, both material and spiritual. As the English would have it, “Good fences make good neighbours”. It is assumed that keeping a certain distance helps make interhuman communication smoother, it also helps avoiding unwanted intrusion into other people’s affairs, and, last but not least, save one’s face. But the same negative strategy is used by rudeness. Politeness tactfully keeps a respectful distance, while rudeness creates distance by rudely pushing you off. A simile may be due here: personal distance is reduced to minimum in the situation of intimacy and in that of fight; physical contact is more or less the same, the aims being absolutely different. Two polite persons should take care to observe distance, which, however, should not be too large for fear it may create estrangement. What is most important, this distance is nationally specific. Breaking national rules may lead to a misunderstanding or even conflict, to what is called cultural shock. Two quarrelling people may send each other to the most distant address possible, including hell or death. In case of the conflict growing worse, the two parties, on the contrary, may come closer and closer, violating all the polite norms, intentionally entering the opponent’s personal space, pushing or striking him. Quoting Howell (1982), Triandis suggests that the communicators should carefully observe the level of their competence. Wrong interpretation of one’s competence may lead to the incorrect interpretation of the other’s behaviour as rude (Triandis, 2011, Chapter 7 “Culture and Communication”). The following versions may be observed here: 1. Someone is rude, but does not know it, being ignorant of another (sub)culture’s norms. 2. Someone is rude to you, but you do not know the rules of answering back under the norms of the given (sub)culture. A witty example of an appropriate reaction: A tough guy in public transport insults an elderly man: “Old pepper-box, it’s high time you were in grave already!” “Sonny, with your impudence you will push your way there ahead of me!” 3. Someone is rude to a person of another (sub)culture, using methods or idioms unknown to the attacked side. As a result, the offended party may even feel flattered, to an extreme joy of the attacker. The Russian “golub” (dove) may mean a passive homosexual, as well as the English epithet “gay” may produce a favourable impression on those foreigners who do not know the humiliating meaning of the word. 4. Finally, there is a sort of exchange of more or less traditional invectives, when one of them almost automatically calls forth the other: “You’re a fool!” “You’re another!” (2) is an example of conscious competence, when one knows the rules of “fighting norms” and # 1795 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir I. Zhelvis. Rudeness as a System of Strategies and an Object of Classification applies them with a sort of artistic skill, while in (4) one replies automatically, without thinking. The short notes on rudeness offered above are meant to prove the need to further study this important communicative phenomenon. Among the possible achievements of further research one may mention “a dictionary of rude manners and idioms”, a logical parallel to numerous dictionaries and encyclopaedias of good manners and polite idioms. At present, a number of dictionaries of all sorts of abuse are being published, but all of them are nothing but collections of various obscenities. While what is needed is a thoroughly structured volume where there might be chapters devoted to methods of sending the opponent away, defaming him, cursing, deriding, etc. If there are manuals teaching table manners, there should be manuals teaching us what should not be done in polite society. Semantic and anthropological analysis of such lists might be of use to all those studying the phenomenon of aggression and its manifestation in different cultures. References Brown, P. and Levinson, S.D., 1987. Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Dictionary of Philosophy (http://www.onlinedics/slovar/fil/g/grubost.html) [Accessed 12 October 2012]. (In Russian) Larina, T.V., 2009. The Category of Politeness and the Style of Communication. A Juxtaposition of English and Russian Lingvocultural Traditions. Moscow: Yazyki slavyanskikh kultur. (In Russian) Lotman, Yu.M., 2003. Non-Memoirs. // Remembrances of My Soul. Saint-Petersburg: Iskusstvo. (In Russian). Plutzer-Sarno, A., 2001. Great Dictionary of Mat. Vol.1. Saint-Petersburg: Limbus-Press. (In Russian). Triandis, H.C., 2011. Culture and Social Behavior. Moscow: Forum. (In Russian) Zhelvis V.I., 2001. The Field of Abuse. Swearing as a Social Problem in Languages and Cultures. nd 2 Ed. Moscow: Ladomir. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir I. Zhelvis. Rudeness as a System of Strategies and an Object of Classification Грубость как система стратегий и объект классификации В.И. Жельвис Ярославский государственный педагогический университет им. К.Д.Ушинского Россия 150000, Ярославль, ул. Республиканская, 108 Грубость определяется в статье как стратегия, нацеленная на достижение определённого прагматического эффекта. Категорию грубости можно подразделить на грубость отторжения, катартическую, начальственную, аристократическую, дружескую, плотскую, выражающую классовую солидарность и др. Существуют различные виды грубых обменов репликами. Ключевые слова: вежливость, грубость, оскорбление, отторжение, катарсис, классовая солидарность, уровень компетенции, культурные модели. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 12 (2012 5) 1798-1805 ~~~ УДК 801.73 The Sense as the Dominant Generating Speech Communication Elena N. Klemenova* Southern Federal University 53, 22/1 Dobrovolskogo Str., Rostov on Don, 344113 Russia1 Received 04.12.2012, received in revised form 11.12.2012, accepted 24.12.2012 The article contains the review of approaches to the description by the humanity of one of the most interesting phenomena of the mankind – the sense. Ideas of valuable and conceptual approach to understanding of the sense, sense- and text-forming and the author as the sense source are considered. Keywords: sense, sense-forming, author, values, text, concept. In modern science the problem of sense forming is ambiguously solved in various areas of humanitarian knowledge. According to psychologists, the solution of this problem is possible only at a support on such important categories as personality, activity, and communication. So, from the point of view of D.A. Leontyev, sense is the subjective significance of objects and the reality phenomena, manifested in two forms: 1) in emotional colouring of images of perception and representations of these objects and phenomena; 2) in understanding (interpretation) by the subject of their role and a place in the activity, in satisfaction of certain requirements, or actualization of these or those motives, values» (Leontyev, 1999, p. 423-424). The human-being’s need for optimization of the activity determines the sense forming process vector. Therefore it is not a coincidence that in modern psychological researches the idea on creating the semantic concept of personality * 1 (Leontyev, 1999) is persistently repeated. «But personality, – R.H. Shakurov writes, is just a set of semantic contours and systems. Personality is a human-being as a creator of senses, a creator of pleasures (underlined by E.K.)» (Shakurov, 2003, p. 31). Sense forming is guided by values, abilities, nature of knowledge and thinking of a complete personality. In some way this process is also the manifestation of integrity of the personality. V. Frankl, one of the largest researchers of sense, wrote that senses are objective and exist around us (Frankl, 1990); S. Frank argued that the meaning of life is «a certain eternal element», value (Frank, 1994). In reality, values are a sense forming source, and to explain the nature of sense psychologists resort to the all-round description of personal senses (Shakurov, 2003; Bratus, 1981). Various definitions of the “sense” concept, its forming and identification in the text show not Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 1798 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena N. Klemenova. The Sense as the Dominant Generating Speech Communication only the depth of the problem as a whole, but also its fragmentariness. The reason is the phenomenal character of sense. The program guideline of specific allocating the sense itself as a pure phenomenon of consciousness is associated with the name of E. Husserl, a representative of philosophical phenomenology. Following the general phenomenological guideline, a special role in judgment of the perspective of sense was played by works by Shpet, A.F. Losev, who, according to V. G. Lankin, made comments from the different points of view, developed some phenomenological ideas and actively included them into the context of a perspective of art originality and aesthetic phenomena. The aesthetic analysis of art by M. M. Bakhtin who writes that «each thought of mine with its contents is my individual and responsible act, one of those acts of which my one and only life as a continuous receipt is composed …» (Lankin, 2003, p. 8) is also close to their point of view. The Hermeneutic branch considers the category of sense in a different way: uniting thought with language in its live selfinterpretation, hermeneutics allows seeing the realization act from the inside. Linguistic philosophy (R. Bart, C. Morris, S. Langer, Y. Lotman), information theories (A. Mol) and analytical philosophy (R. Carnap, B. Russell, L. Wittgenstein, etc.) consider the sense and its understanding as a secondary problem in relation to identification of reference (matrix) directions of use of signs and values corresponding to them in these or those verbal or nonverbal «language games» (Lankin, 2003, p. 12). Sense and sense forming as the central components of understanding in their alternativeness and intermodality are considered in semiotics (E. Cassirer, S. Later, etc.), structuralistic (R. Bart, M. Foucault, etc.) and poststructuralistic conceptions (Z. Derrida, Z. Lakan, etc.). «The concept of sense, being discredited as a metaphysical installation, V. G. Lankin writes, – in Z. Derrida's deconstructive philosophy is replaced with sense forming as with effect of open eventful game of consciousness on the verge of madness» (Lankin, 2003, p. 11). The same phenomenon is analysed by G. Deleuze in his book «Logic of Sense», where art acts as the dominating manifesto of deconstructive logic of eventful semantic game. Deleuze considers sense as a non-existent essence adjoining on nonsense (Deleuze, 1998). Sense as an individual phenomenon with the need to be materialized in the course of communication is the object of attention in linguistic studies as well. G. Frege, B. Russell, L. Wittgenstein, M. M. Bakhtin, T. Todorov, A.A. Ufimtseva, N. N. Arutyunova, A.I. Novikov, B. M. Gasparov devoted their works to the problem of sense forming. The primacy of sense in relation to language material, apparently, does not raise any doubts, but as B. M. Gasparov fairly noticed, in all of its transformations sense always remains embodied in the language material, and we always deal with its embodiments in the language material, instead of sense itself (Gasparov, 1996, p. 291). It becomes especially topical in the description of sense and text forming. «The sense and language material», – Gasparov points out, – exist «inseparably and non-blendingly». They are not identical with each other, and between them there are multiple relations: any movement of thought can receive infinite number of language transformations, the same as any «piece» of language material can receive infinite number of reconsiderations» (Gasparov, 1996, p. 292). A.R. Luria paid attention to the fact that what lies behind a word of an individual is impossible to consider as a consistently developed linear # 1799 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena N. Klemenova. The Sense as the Dominant Generating Speech Communication chain, even as a hierarchically constructed tree. The sense is suggested to be a certain multidimensional simultaneous structure which corresponds to the modern understanding of the concept (Luria, 1983). A.A. Zalevskaya specifies a similar type of concept, designates it an «Indus» index and opposes to an «Invus» concept (functioning in a super big system as a product of social interactions and communication). The author defines «Indus» as «spontaneously functioning in informative and communicative activity of an individual, basic perceptive and cognitive and affective formation of dynamic character submitting to regularities of mental human life and thereof in a number of parameters different from concepts and values as products of the scientific description from positions of the linguistic theory (Zalevskaya, 2005, p. 411). It is the subjectivity of sense / concept that is considered by L.N. Churilina as the distinctive sign of a text as a whole, whereas «the possible world» breaks into separate, in a certain extent, independent worlds, subjective text spheres, and appears «as a system of the subjective spheres difficult to coordinate». In her thesis research, L.N. Churilina presents sense as a concept, as an absolutely anthropocentric phenomenon, and concept in literary text is presented as a polysubjective speech structure existing in two dimensions at the same time: as an element of the represented world view and as a base concept of text space, i.e. as an element of the individual picture of the world of the subject (author) embodied in a separate text (Churilina, 2003, p. 10-11). The idea of the text sense as the author's concept sphere is characteristic for L.A. Chernyakhovskaya (Chernyakhovskaya, 1983) and for B. M. Gasparov (Gasparov, 1996). «The sense mechanism, – writes A.I. Novikov, – in the most generalized look can be presented «as such mental device which transforms the linear sequence of any units to hierarchical structure of other units. With reference to text, it is possible to say that sense allows to carry out the algebraic transformation of a narration into the «geometry» of content presentation» (Novikov, 2004). From our point of view, the position of Novikov is interesting but disputable, as the hierarchical relations all the same result in linearity, but downwards, and, unfortunately, as we can see, sense appears as some substance which is not been limited to the framework of a certain text, but going beyond its limits, enveloping it. Long ago, H.-G. Gadamer noticed that «language never will reach the last, deep-rooted secrets of the individual personality» (H.-G. Gadamer, 1999). So, on one hand, sense acts as the basic concept of activity, thinking, language and culture, and on the other hand, it is the main concept of generating and understanding speech communication. The phenomenon of sense forming cannot be considered irrespectively to the central figure of the communication process, which is the author. It is impossible to disagree with M. Foucault, who wrote: «The author is not the source of the work sense; the author does not precede the work, he is the functional principle which complicates the uncontrolled cycling of senses in culture» (Foucault, 1996, p. 71). And here let us remember the words by F. Nietzsche: «Everything that has value in the present world, has it not by itself, not by nature, as in nature there are no values, − but because it was given the value once, presented it, and we were the details and the donators! It was only we who created the world about which people care!» (Nietzsche, 1990, p. 638). Addressing to the author’s model of the world embodied in the text, K.A. Dolinin prefers to say that it does not exist in a complete form before the text is created, and is self-constructed and specified in the course of text formation. # 1800 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena N. Klemenova. The Sense as the Dominant Generating Speech Communication Incompleteness felt by the author or discrepancy of his model of the world can be an impulse to creation, according to Dolinin (Dolinin, 2004, p. 84). This is what Yu.A. Shreyder also writes about: «The found and realized contradiction serves as the peculiar dialectic engine putting in action the mechanism of creativity» (Shreyder, 1976, p. 31). The personality is taken out by K.A. Dolinin as the significant sign of the art text (Dolinin, 2004, p. 85). Cognitive approach to author’s outlook revived the definition of art concept brought up by S.A. Askoldov in 1928 (Askoldov, 1997, p. 274). In this kind of concept the primeval position is occupied by the units of the author’s individual consciousness, verbalized in the uniform text of the author’s creativity. The cognitive ability to reinterpret old and to create new mental designs in a creative way is given to human-being, and as a result, it is the person, his / her “Self” as the source of all new and creative, is creative, which is impossible to say about language. But, in our opinion, no matter how the researchers call the phenomenon («the current consciousness of the narrator» by A.V. Bondarko (Bondarko, 2001), author’s concept sphere (Proskuryakov, 2000; L.V. Miller, 2000), author’s consciousness (Maryin, 2000) or author’s will (Gasparov, 1996)), its essence is the same: actualization of personal senses or “Self”. And “Self” (conscious or unconscious) is a secret of universal scale. Entering communication (written or spoken), the author aspires to convey this or that semantic matter to offer their own “Self” for dialogue with the world. Not without reason E.I. Dibrova defines the text as «difficult multidimensional language space where the psychology author’s Self» (Dibrova, 1999, p. 27). So, accepting the idea of the subject centrality, we consider any text as the manifestation of the author’s model of the world, the influence of which is shown at all levels of the text, beginning with its semantic structure and finishing with its superficial structure. But as a result of text generation, the certain compromise between what the writing / speaking “was intended” to express, and what it “turned out” to be, owing to use of a language material (L.S. Vygotsky also wrote about it), occurs. «It is a compromise between the dug-out, not integrated fields of the possibilities induced by the thought of the speaker, – writes Gasparov, – and his communicative will, aspiring to catch in this stream of associations, spreading in all directions, such particles which, on one hand, would be a suitable material for embodying his plans and, on the other hand, would be capable of uniting with each other, and, being integrated in a whole the image of which would more or less correspond to what was there in his thought. It also a compromise between the press of the previous uses, which each recurring to the memory expression bears on itself, and the desire to adapt it to a unique, and always to a new task and combination of circumstances, in which and for the sake of which each statement» is created (Gasparov, 1996, p.104-107). And the more separate “pieces” of the language fabric is stored in the speaker / writer’s memory, the richer is «the grid of associative courses, analytical assimilations, plastic modifications of the available material» on the basis of which the speaking / writing subject creates statements and texts (Gasparov, 1996, p. 112). As sense unit, Gasparov points out a communicative fragment possessing the feature of complete sense: «Each CF is not simply ready to take a certain place in the cell intended to it, in the statement it actively predicts and directs the course of communication, from direct courses of growth to more separate subject, thematic and genre consequences» (Gasparov, 1996, p. 131). # 1801 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena N. Klemenova. The Sense as the Dominant Generating Speech Communication M.Ya. Dymarsky also addressed to search of the main unit of semantic structure of text, which directly corresponds to concept (contents of text) as a whole; includes the subject and actual information on some (significative) situation, incorporated not only by the unity of situation, but also by the community attributed by it (information) of modal value; forms a cover of the subject and actual information on the basis of modal value, and represents information in general way. Two signs became the border of this minimum unit which Dymarsky called the conceptually significant sense: а) change of modal value; б) change of the subject and actual basis, i.e. transition to other microsubject (Dymarsky, 2001, p. 61-62). Similar representation of the unit of sense, in our opinion, in many respects follows Gasparov, thus is better coordinated with the topic – comment approach to text of I.M.Boguslavsky and E.Farino. But at Gasparov presents the generation of statement / text in a more precise way from the point of view of associative background: thought stimulated by activity gets various sets of expressions from the memory, in each case capable of serving as some certain material from which the resulting phrase (Gasparov, 1996 p. 165) is weaved. According to Gasparov, sense develops from some separate components, because in the memory of speaker / writer a large quantity of ready pieces of language fabric, comprehended in advance, is stored; the problem of the speaker / writer includes only the operation of “adjustment” of these pieces, so that the resulting whole makes the impression of correctness and intelligence (Gasparov, 1996, p. 167). Sense is organized under the influence of the text structure, but it is not a linear, but a manytier organization. So, L.A. Chernyakhovskaya presents it in the shape of an “umbrella”. «As a rule, – the researcher writes, – the existence of umbrella communication in the model of text semantic structure allocates those semantic units which are usually referred to as the “subject” of the text. … If the text deals with only one “subject” which throughout the text is exposed to the characterization, in the semantic structure of the text there is one umbrella. But, as a rule, such umbrellas proving the existence of the narration subject, are multiple in the text» (Chernyakhovskaya, 1983, p. 124-126). Besides this configuration the sense can be described also from the point of view of information structure of communication. Jerzy Faryno, for example, establishes a related connection between the topic-comment articulation of the text and structure of signs, but projected from the hierarchy axis on the sequence axis, and writes that «the subject takes the position of the plane of expression whereas comment takes the position of the plane of content; the reviewer, as well as in the case of sign, is localized beyond the statement» (Faryno, 1991, p. 153-154). For M. Proskuryakov, the idea by Faryno is also actualized in another way: the topic «is not only invariable, but also practically non-textual: it is what the comments» are strung on; «both topic and comment taken separately are incomplete: topic, though it has its referent, is semantically incomplete. Comment, though has its semantics is not referential enough». The problem of topic is to identify the object, which conditions its referentiality, and the problem of comment is to conceptualize it, describing it attributing it with these or those properties and features. At the same time, according to Faryno, «nothing from the outside can enter the text, and everything is derived (or: revealed, developed) from some initial motives and word forms. (…) all that is saved up behind this motive and the word form in culture, semantics and even formal history of word (obsolete archaisms, forgotten morphology # 1802 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena N. Klemenova. The Sense as the Dominant Generating Speech Communication and etymology)» (Proskuryakov, Bugaev, 2005) are unexpectedly actualized. Thus, in relation to semantic articulation of the text, the notion of topic should be treated in an expanded way. Topic is not any this, known content; it is the thing known to both interlocutors. It becomes a point, some kind of “springboard” for expanding actual information. Comment is something new that is reported about the topic that is the “kernel”, i.e. macroinformation. Not without reason Van Dijk referres to it as to the “focus” of narration which, in its turn, in case of change draws our attention to the change of «the possible world»: «It can be a transition from more or less « general world» to a more special one, and vice versa …, at last, a transition from the real world to unreal …». The scientist calls transition an invariable phenomenon, though mentions some distinctions: focus «as a choice of one or several worlds» and focus as «a choice of the facts» where « facts and worlds are not absolutely diverse concepts», since «focusing on a certain fact is at the same time imposing of some restriction on that set of possible worlds in which the subsequent offers of sequence should be interpreted» (Van Dijk, 2001, p.152, 158). N. V. Shkurina pays attention to the apt remark by Janco, saying that «comment is an absolute property of the sentence because it forms it as a piece of speech with a certain communicative task, and the role of topic is relative: it bears responsibility for the communication between the sentence, the text and extralinguistic reality» (Shkurina, 2003, p. 17). Lack of functional symmetry between topic and theme does not raise any doubts, and concerning this matter the solution is to be provided by the author / speaker, who, according to the fair remark of G.A. Zolotova, resorts to any ways to express the thought in the most understandable way, therefore the words bearing on a logical stress within the text fragments of various standard contents, often become the object of linguistic research. The dominating role of comment is defined by its dual nature: on one hand, it is opposed to topic of the sentence, and on the other hand it is connected to comments of the other sentence, creates the comment dominant of the text (Zolotova, 2003, p.317-318). It confirms the fact that the theory of topiccomment articulation has already overstepped the bounds of traditional grammar and extended its influence on all text. So, at semantic and structural level of the organization of the speech, language means fix not only objective senses set by the author, but also subjective ones. The extent of the correct interpretation of the message only depends on the exact description of contours of the author’s sense personal concept sphere. References Askoldov S. A. Russian literature. From the literature theory to text structure. Anthology (Moscow, 1997), 267-279, in Russian. Bondarko A.V. Text linguistics in system of functional grammar” in The Text. Structure and semantics (Moscow, 2001), 4-13, in Russian. Bratus B.S. “To studying of the semantic sphere”, the Messenger of the Moscow university, 14 (2) (Moscow, 1981), 46-55, in Russian. Gadamer H.G. “Text and interpretation”, Hermeneutics and deconstruction (S- Petersburg, 1999), 202-242, in Russian. Gasparov B. M. Language, memory, image. Linguistics of language existence (Moscow, 1996), in Russian # 1803 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena N. Klemenova. The Sense as the Dominant Generating Speech Communication Dijk Van T.A., Kinch V. “Macrostrategies”, Language. Knowledge. Communication (Moscow, 1989), in Russian. Deleuze J. Logic of sense (Moscow, 1998), in Russian. Dibrova E.I. Text space in composite partitioning, Structure and semantics of the art text: Reports of the VII International conference (Moscow, 1999), 23-29, in Russian. Dolinin K.A. Text interpretation: French (Moscow, 2005), in Russian. Dymarsky M I. Problems of text building and the art text (on a material of Russian prose of the XIX-XX centuries) (Moscow, 2001), in Russian. Zalevskaya A.A. Psycholinguistic researches. Word. Text: Selected works (Moscow, 2005), in Russian . Zolotov G. A. Communicative aspects of Russian syntax (Moscow, 2003), in Russian Lankin V. G. Phenomenally sense: Philosophical and methodological analysis: Dissertation on philological sciences (Tomsk, 2003), in Russian. Leontyev D. A. Sense psychology (Moscow, 1999), in Russian Luriya A.R. On pathology of grammatical operations, Aphasia and regenerative training: Texts (Moscow, 1983), 91, in Russian. Maryin L.P. Virtual modus cultures: text as special form of expression of author’s consciousness in Virtual space of culture (S-Petersburg, 2000), 108-111, in Russian. Miller L.V. Art concept as semantic and aesthetic category, World of Russian word (4) (2000), 39-45, in Russian. Nietzsche F. The gay science, Works in 2 volumes (V.1) (Moscow: Mysl`, 1990), 638 in Russian. Novikov A.I. The mechanism of dominance and sense formation (Electronic resource: access Mode: www.dialog-21.ru), in Russian. Proskuryakov M., Bugayev L. Russian mentality and the text in self-organizing terms (Electronic resource: access Mode: www.fixed.ru), in Russian. Proskuryakov M., Bugayev L. Russian mentality and the text in self-organizing terms (Electronic resource: access Mode: www.fixed.ru), in Russian. Frankl V. People in search of meaning of the life (Moscow, 1990), in Russian. Frank S.L. Meaning of the life (Moscow, 1994), in Russian. Foucault M. “What is the author?” in Will to truth: on that party of knowledge, the power and sexuality. Works of different years / Lanes with fr. (Moscow, 1996). Chernyakhovskaya L.A. “Semantic structure of the text and its units”, Linguistic Issues (6), (1983), 117-126, in Russian. Churilina L.N. Anthropocentrism of the art text as principle of the organization of its lexical structure: Abstract of doctoral dissertation on Philological sciences (S-Petersburg, 2003), in Rusian. Shakurov R. H. “Psychology of senses: theory overcomings”, Psychology Questions (5), (2003), 18-33, in Russian. Shkurina N. V. Functional aspect of front units of the art text (on an example of stories of L. Dobychin): Abstract of doctoral dissertation on Philological sciences (S-Petersburg, 2003), in Russian. Shreyder Yu.A. “Aspiration to new synthesis”, Literature Questions, (11), (1976), 28-38. Faryno J. “Some notes to topic-comment in the text” in Words are physicians for an ailig mind (Munich, 1991), 153-162. # 1804 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Elena N. Klemenova. The Sense as the Dominant Generating Speech Communication Смысл как порождающая речевую коммуникацию доминанта Е.Н. Клемёнова Южный федеральный университет, Россия 344113, Ростов-на-Дону, ул. Добровольского, 22/1, 53 В статье представлен обзор подходов к описанию гуманитарной наукой одного из самых интересных феноменов человечества – смысла. Рассматриваются идеи ценностного и концептуального подхода к пониманию смысла, смысло- и текстообразование и автор как источник смысла. Ключевые слова: смысл, смыслообразование, автор, ценности, текст, концепт. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 12 (2012 5) 1806-1813 ~~~ УДК 81’42 Taboo Breaking as a Current Tendency of Discursive Interpretation of Taboo Speech Meanings Yana V. Popova* Siberian Federal University 82 A Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 04.12.2012, received in revised form 11.12.2012, accepted 24.12.2012 The article offers an extract from the research of communicative-pragmatic means used for discursive interpretation of taboo speech meanings in intercultural mass media mediated discourse. The work focuses on a presentation of modern approaches to understanding of taboo breaking phenomenon and the analysis of discursive practices of intercultural mass media mediated discourse participants in terms of taboo speech meanings explication. The materials in German are analysed as examples of two most important tendencies: taboo creating and taboo breaking phenomena. The ways how the phenomena appear in discourse exactly are the methods of speech meanings explication. However the discursive practices intermingle with each other in intercultural discourse so that it is very difficult to detect and separate one method from another. And only the context, communicative goals and intentions of discourse participants can help here. Keywords: taboo creating, taboo breaking, discursive practices, taboo speech meanings, intercultural mass media mediated discourse, taboo speech meanings explication. Introduction Many scientists pay much attention to the phenomenon of taboo creating, studying taboos from various points of view either basing on the original interpretation of taboo, or inclining to the modern explanation: V. Kashkin, E. Melikova, O. Ruter, I. Sadykova, Zh. Varbot, I. Kon, N. Mechkovskaja, S. Ullmann, S. Luchtenberg, H. Schroeder and others. Despite some inconsistency in defining of the term “taboo”, discrepancies in classification and characteristics of methods, themes, spheres of taboo creating, researchers lay special emphasis on this phenomenon for communicative linguistics. * 1 The ways of taboos transmission in communication particularly with the help of euphemisms are of great interest. A lot of research on euphemization has been done by such significant scientists as G. Paul, Zh. Vandries, Sh. Brjuno, Sh. Balli, E. Benvenist, L. Blumfild, S. Vidlak, I. Gal’perin, B. Larin, H. Nirop, Zh. Varbot, V. Zhelvis, A. Kacev, B. Kuper, L. Krysin, E. Shejgal, G. Kuzhim, V. Zabotkina, V. Moskvin, E. Senichkina etc. Euphemisms are defined “not only as lexical units used instead of forbidden taboo nominations and permitted by speech behavior norms but also as rhetorical quality of speech that makes any communicative situation comfortable Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 1806 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yana V. Popova. Taboo Breaking as a Current Tendency of Discursive Interpretation of Taboo Speech Meanings or helps to avoid possible communicative conflicts” (Vildanova, 2007, p. 22). The other perspective sphere for the researchers is the process opposite to taboo creating – taboo breaking. However, the idea of taboo breaking is often limited to the description of the process of dysphemization, understood as “deliberate making speech rude” (Kovshova, 2007 p. 118). At the same time the approaches towards the definitions of dysphemism, its differentiation with other language und communicative means such as basilects, vulgarisms, colloquial and strong language, phraseological units etc. are controversial. M. Kovshova writes, that “the act of making speech rude is accompanied by the speech acts of abuse, quarrel etc. That is the main difference between dysphemism and euphemism” (Kovshova, 2007 p. 118). V. Moskvin differentiates between dysphemisms, “tabuisms” and invectives. Herewith, the scientist understands dysphemisms as “direct expressions that deliberately or undeliberately contradict the situational relevance.” “Tabuisms” are defined as “taboo nominations” and invectives are explained as “offences” (Moskvin, 2010, p. 23, 24). All these phenomena the researcher opposes to the euphemisms, i. e. “words or phrases used instead of other words or phrases undesirable or inconvenient in a certain situation” (Moskvin, 2010, p. 22). E. Senichkina distinguishes “basilect euphemisms” and vulgarisms: “There are no euphemisms among vulgarisms. The vulgarisms are negatively colored words and word combinations. Low style euphemisms make the denotation heavily contaminated and as a result they become dysphemisms” (Senichkina, 2006 p. 7-9). Theoretical framework In this work dysphemisation is understood as taboo speech meanings explication with the help of ruder negatively connotated nominations in relation to the taboo denotation. Herewith, deliberate or indeliberate making language rude, negative communication, offence, abuse, expression of aggression, making speech deliberately or undeliberately crude are understood as functions which dysphemisms perform in discourse. The explication of taboo speech meanings is considered as any communicative means of expression of some content of some phenomenon. Herewith, the phenomenon is interpreted as a private (personal), national or international (intercultural) taboo. In its turn, the explication of taboo speech meanings can be realized not only by means of dysphemisms but also by means of direct nominations in relation to the taboo denotation. It should be mentioned that there can appear some difficulty while differentiating between dysphemisms and direct nominations. It can be explained by dependence of these phenomena on time, social and other factors. It happens when a taboo speech meaning loses its taboo meaning due to the social change, perception of something or some other reasons. Moreover, a direct nomination or an euphemism can become dysphemisms. “Scurrile von heute signalisieren die neuen Grenzen von morgen.” (Bizarre things today are the signals of opportunities tomorrow) (Sander, 2006, p. 91). For example, the nomination “prostitute” used earlier only as an euphemism has lost its veiling function. However, it can be hardly referred to the dysphemism (cf. “bitch”). So “prostitution”, “prostitute” nominations are more likely to be direct in relation to the taboo denotation. But the reference of a nomination to dysphemism or to direct nomination is context-restricted. For example, the usage of “prostitution” nomination in reference to a politician in political debates (as a transfer of meaning from # 1807 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yana V. Popova. Taboo Breaking as a Current Tendency of Discursive Interpretation of Taboo Speech Meanings one subject to another “on the principal of their real or associative adjacency” by the common characteristics: vendibility, unscrupulousness etc.) can appear as a dysphemism, direct offence. Thereby, the explication of taboo speech meanings by means of direct nominations is one more way of taboo breaking. Statement of the problem To reveal taboo speech meanings and their discursive interpretation it is not enough to know only taboo themes, as taboo speech meanings basically do not exist out of a defi nite context and discursive practices: “…Realisierung in der Kommunikation notwendigen sprachlichen Verhaltensweisen sollen gelernt warden…” (Realization of necessary language behavior ways shall be learned) (Trad, 2001, p. 47). We understand discursive practices as units of communicative language activity depended on some factors (cultural, social, psychological, individual) used to take and interpret the reality by a definite person in a definite communicative situation. As we know many taboo themes, areas and nominations have a relative character: in monoculture situation they can be both a taboo and not a taboo, but becoming an object of intercultural communication their meaning can change. A theme, phenomenon, nomination, phrase understood neutrally by representatives of one culture, in intercultural communication can accept a taboo speech meanings that can be found in communicants’ discursive practices. Discursive practices, in their turn, have much greater research potential, when they intermingle with each other in intercultural discourse. The intercultural discourse is understood as a speech communicative activity directed to alien characteristics of any subject in any aspect. Methods As practical material we use intercultural mass media mediated discourse, namely, German TV broadcast recordings about various events in other countries, representatives of different cultures, intercultural projects etc. For example, a German documentary film about the Chukchi and Chukotka from “Zapping international” series on “Arte” channel, broadcast series devoted to the 20th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall, “Hart aber Fair” talk show, documentary film “Liebesgrüße nach Moskau”, cultural news real “Schlingensiefs Container: Ausländer raus!”, world news, intercultural TV project of RTL II channel “Das Experiment: 30 Tage Moslem” etc. It should be mentioned that any mass media mediated discourse is subjected to a definite kind of processing. It means that beyond its characteristics it gains new ones typical for mass media discourse. However, political correctness – avoidance of direct assessment and direct nomination of unpleasant notions and phenomena which are understood by many researchers as basic characteristics of mass media discourse – today are questionable (Pryadinikova, 2007, p. 78). L. Krysin says that “there are two main different tendencies: making speech crude, on the one hand, and euphemization, on the other hand (Krysin, 2004, p. 262]. The process of making speech rude is connected with an earlier forbidden public discussion of private life and increase of aggression level in speech of modern people. Speech aggression is a usual phenomenon not only in the colloquial speech of modern people but also in public communication (Kovshova, 2007, p. 260). It seems that its participants prefer more and more “hard words” and rough expressions breaking language (cultural usual), personal thesaurus and even intercultural context-restricted taboos. This fact is explained by various researchers differently: # 1808 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yana V. Popova. Taboo Breaking as a Current Tendency of Discursive Interpretation of Taboo Speech Meanings as a tendency of mass media discourse to make a sensation, to manipulate people and also as various genres specificity etc. However, any mass media mediated discourse gets this specificity when intimate and private things become public. “Viele Menschen sagen, wenn man wissen wolle, was Werte seien und was in einer Gesellschaft tabu sei, müsse man nur die Medien, speziell das Fernsehen beobachten. Das Fernsehen sei der größte Zerstörer von Worten und breche mindestens einmal in der Woche ein Tabu... Eine weit verbreitete Auffassung lautet: Werte muss man fördern, Tabus muss man brechen…“ (Many people are sure that to understand what is valuable today and what is taboo, one can just switch on a TV. The TV is the main taboo breaker; minimum one taboo is broken minimum once a week when it is on the screen. There is a widespread opinion: values must be kept but taboos must be broken) (Sander, 2006, p.110). So taboos visualization and their social functioning, presentation of a usual material as a hot sensation or an extra urgent topic, event, breaking norms, moral rules, making things absurd, creation of comicality, mockeries, wipes, – these are mass media discourse possibilities realized by means of dysphemization which is one of the current tendencies of discursive interpretation of taboo speech meanings. The mediated intercultural discourse is subjected to such a tendency. But due to its own peculiarities such as intention to avoid a communicative conflict, to succeed, percepting discourse participants as equal communicative partners, preserving their cultural self-sufficiency – intercultural discourse has rather high intensity of euphemization. So two different tendencies: taboo creating and taboo breaking coexist within one discourse. In this work we have tried to find out if taboo breaking is a current tendency of discursive interpretation of taboo speech meanings in mass media mediated intercultural discourse and how this process is brought into life. Some extracts of our analysis are given in the table below. Conclusions Having analyzed the material we came to the following conclusions: - To understand the process of taboo creating only as euphemization and taboo breaking as dysphemisation is not quite correct, because there are many ways to interpret taboo speech meanings in discourse. Along with euphemization of mass media mediated intercultural discourse taboo breaking techniques are up-to-date. As a rule, they are brought into life by means of 1) dysphemization; 2) direct nominations of taboo speech meanings; 3) “making a sensation” strategy (it is originally used in mass media discourse. It can be referred to dysphemization, if we examine this in its wider sense: not only as making speech rude but also as using more negative nominations in reference to the taboo denotation); 4) communicative strategy “sich belehren lassen” (let somebody explain something to you); - Taboo breaking is always connected with taboo speech meanings explication, transmission, while other discursive interpretation ways are aimed at their saving, masking, concealing (euphemization, communicative intended silence, hints, exemplification, jokes etc.). However, the reference of any phenomena to the definite discursive interpretation method of taboo speech meanings is always context-restricted; - The choice of taboo speech meanings interpretation technique and the usage of definite nominations directly depend on intentions of discourse participants, their social status, age, belonging to a particular culture, communicative situation and some other factors; # 1809 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yana V. Popova. Taboo Breaking as a Current Tendency of Discursive Interpretation of Taboo Speech Meanings - In intercultural communication in the modern multicultural society the intention to make communicative aims of communicative partners more transparent, to influence the recipient, to succeed increases greatly. This causes the necessity to use simple constructions, direct nominations and often dysphemisms. It can be one of the reasons why taboo breaking tendency is extremely essential in mass media mediated intercultural discourse today. Table 1. Examples Source 1 Example Translation Discursive interpretation and notes 2 3 4 „Zapping international“ «arte» channel The documentary plot «Das Fernsehen der Tschuktschen» 30 min.10 sec. 1. Die Miss Tschukotka ist keine Tschuktschin, sondern eine lächelnde Maske… Wenn du diese Maske herunterreisst, dann siehst du die Grimasse des Teufels! - Miss Chukotka doesn`t have any relation to the Chukchi. It’s just a mask with a faked smile… But if you tear this mask away you will see the devil’s grimace! The German journalists’ documentary film about Chukotka and the Chukchi. The plotline is built on the basis of contrast expressions and opposite opinions of the Russians and the Chukchi concerning the same things. The plots are accompanied by film authors’ comments. The Chukchi blame the Russians for imposing Russian culture, discrimination and even racism. The Russians blame the Chukchi for drunkenness, life criminalization, ignorance, and unwillingness to work, to study. This expression says about “Miss Chukotka” beauty parade where Russian girls with European features always win. It sends shock wave through the native population. A middle-aged man, a Chukcha gives sharp comments, uses colorful metaphors “faked smile which conceals the soul but behind this smile there is only hypocrisy and anger”. The conceptual world division into “we” and “enemies” categories is obvious. All the negative associations concerning wicked power, hypocrisy hidden behind the faked smile, cowardice and inner emptiness are connected with enemies. Negative compressed comparison as a metaphor serves dysphemization. The same 2. Bevor der Abramowitsch kam, steckte nicht nur das Fernsehen in Krise, sondern ganz Tschukotka. Die Leute sind einfach verhungert, viele Krankheiten führen zu Opfern, die Kinder haben sich gegenseitig todgeschlagen, um zu überleben -Before Abromovich came to power, not only TV had been in crisis but also the whole Chukotka. People died from hunger, diseases. Children beat each other to death to survive. “A myth about an honourable well-doer” is a method typical for mass media discourse (Danilova, 2009, p. 119). Making the expression more emotional with a help of direct nominations of taboo speech meanings connected with taboo themes: hunger, death, murder, crisis etc. Herewith direct nominations manipulate people`s consciousness. The usage of Past Perfect and Passive intensifies emotional influence and shows the attitude to the real state of things. Homogeneous predicates forcing the negative atmosphere before Abramovich` coming with a help of gradation method. Schloss Bellevue: Feiern zum Mauerfall Series of broadcast devoted to the 20th aniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall n-tv 20 Jahre Mauerfall 01:51:50 3. Seine Gesundheit machte einen sehr … sehr angeschlagenen Eindruck. Er ist schwer krank. - He looked wornout (word-for-word: his health seemed broken down). He is very ill. This expression belongs to Angela Merkel, the chancellor of Germany. Thus she explains the absence of H. Kohl at the anniversary. The negatively colored epithet with negative sense and direct nomination “very ill” are used in the direct sequence. Ascending gradation method, development of the word combinations into synonymic row. The gradation in this case serves to intensify text expressiveness to get emotions and reaction from the audience. # 1810 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» 1 2 3 4 Hart aber Fair, The 1 channel 01:44:12 4. Verschlagene - Artful (cunning, Manager des Bösen sly) managers of evil German talk-show with absolutely different participants (according to social status, jobs etc. They should be directly related to the problem being discussed in the show. Here experts, scientists, public people and a moderator are always present. The show is not of an entertainment character but aimed at constructing the discussion between the supporters and opponents. In this part “Scientology” sect is under discussion. A representative of evangelistic church having leading position in Germany uses this metaphor. A sharply negative assessment expressed by the metaphor and pejorative epithet shows taboo speech meanings and represents a dysphemization method. Herewith, this metaphor can be examined as “speech indicator of the social status” of the communicant (Karasik, 1991, p.37) The same 5. Ich kriege immer - I always lose my Emotionen, wenn temper when I see ich den Typ sehe! this guy! One of the representatives of the show speaks about the sect leader in such a manner. Earlier the speaker was a member of the sect and became its dupe. Then he left the sect and now he is trying to reveal the sect leader. The expert uses an interesting tactics. Giving estimation to the actions of the sect leader the speaker doesn’t look at him but turns to the moderator and experts showing a distance. Social status detraction, cultural self-sufficiently derogation by means of addressee change. However, he talks to the moderator as to an equal participant of the discourse with an equal social status mentioning another discourse participant in third person to detract him and to demonstrate that he is not worth direct address. The defi nite article is used as a demonstrative pronoun to show belonging to a defi nite category. “This guy” colloquial nomination demonstrates aggression to a discourse participant. The euphemistic expression with the second part of the phrase doesn’t veil taboo meanings. Nachrichten weltweit 6. Kinderschlagerei und Missbrauchen. Ein polnischer Bischoff soll die Kinder geschlagen haben - Beating and rape of children. A priest from Poland is accused of beating children An alogism is used to reach a stylistic effect. It is a tactics of “making a sensation” strategy put into practice with some methods: Spectacularity strengthening The usage of sexual implication Presenting something as a disaster Criminalization Presenting something as a deviancy (Sander, 2006, p. 24) The making a sensation strategy can be examined as dysphemization if we understand dysphemization not only as making speech rude but also as a usage of more negative, unacceptable nominations in relation to the taboo denotation. In this example direct nominations of taboo speech meanings in the announcement are used to attract attention of the audience. In the parallel construction apart from the repetition, there is also a modal verb in its subjective meaning “supposedly” pointed to an eventual informant. So taboo speech meanings expressed with a help of a direct nomination, verb “to beat”, on the one hand, and modality of the supposition, on the other hand, used to veil the confidence, to show doubts about the truth of the information and to disclaim responsibility for taboo breaking and direct accusation. 7. Ich fühle mich mit dem Kopftuch nicht wohl, nicht… nicht… nicht attraktiv genug - With this kerchief I feel unfree, not… not… not attractive enough The program is an international TV project. It consists of experiments series where real people participate as representatives of different cultures. In the experiment “to be Moslem for 30 days” a young girl, German student, takes part. She should live in a Muslim family. Moreover, the girl has to follow all the rules and traditions of this World news Das Experiment 30 Tage Moslem „ For 30 days to be Moslem“ TVexperiment RTL II 01:59:44 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yana V. Popova. Taboo Breaking as a Current Tendency of Discursive Interpretation of Taboo Speech Meanings 1 2 3 4 culture. TV viewers can see her life. In addition to this, each day all the participants of the experiment should tell about their feelings and ideas in front of the video camera so that no other experiment participant can hear this. The pausation when the girl tries to fi nd an appropriate epithet shows that there is a taboo speech meaning. The girl tries to interpret and to adapt this not to offend other discourse participants, not to detract their cultural self-sufficiency. The fi rst epithet expressing physical uncomfortable condition is quite direct: the kerchief is too tight. But the second nomination is more neutral to the taboo denotation and is used as an euphemism. Direct negation is shaded with a help of the word “genug” (enough). “Not enough attractive” expression is used instead of “unbeautiful, unsexy, unattractive”. Meiosis, incompleteness of an action or a quality is an euphemization method. The same 8. Und wie ist es bei euch?... Schüttelt man bei euch die Hand? And you? Do you also shake hands with each other? One more expression of the German girl. She is afraid to do something wrong and to break Muslim traditions. So she shows her willingness to take and to understand other traditions and rules and breaks taboo speech meanings in an interesting way. She shows the fear of an eventual communicative conflict because of different rules and traditions in discourse quite directly. This is one of the communicative strategies called “sich belehren lassen” (let somebody explain something to you) used in intercultural communication to succeed (Trad, 2001, p. 161). In this case the strategy of direct interrogative form of address is used to lose cultural otherness. This method can be examined as one more tactics of taboo creating, saving. References Vildanova G.A. “Problem of euphemistical nomination”, Structural-semantic, kognitive, pragmatic and drugie aspekts of researches of different level units. Modern Problems of linguodidactics, 3, (2007), 21-27, in Russian Danilova A.A., Manipulation with words in mass media (Moscow: «Dobrosvet», 2009), in Russian Karasik V.I., Social status language (Moscow: Institut og linguistics of USSR Science Academy, Pedagogical Institute Volgograd, 1991), in Russian Kovshova M.L. Semantics and pragmatics of euphemisms. Shorter thematic dictionary of modern Russian terms (Moscow: Gnozis, 2007), in Russian Krysin L.P. “Euphemisms in modern Russian speech” Russian words, 2 (2004), 262-286, in Russian Moskvin V.P. Euphemisms in the lexical system moder Russian language (Moscow: LENAND, Edition 4, 2010), in Russian Prjadil’nikova N.V. Euphemisms in Russian MSM at the beginning of XXI century: complex characteristics: PhD (Samara, 2007), in Russian Sander Uwe, Ganguin Sonja. Sensation, absurdity and taboos in mass media (VS Publishing house for social sciences, Wiesbaden, E.1., 2006), in German Senichkina E.P. Euphemisms in Russian: Special course: course book (Moscow: Higher scool, 2006), in Russian # 1812 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yana V. Popova. Taboo Breaking as a Current Tendency of Discursive Interpretation of Taboo Speech Meanings Trad Ahmed Rafik. Taboo topics in intercultural communication: a work for cultural linguistics didactics in studying German as a foreign language. (Peter Lang. European Publishing house of sciences, 2001), in German Детабуирование как актуальная тенденция дискурсивной обработки табуированных речесмыслов Я.В. Попова Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный 82а Проблематика данной статьи отражает один из фрагментов исследования коммуникативно-прагматических средств, служащих для дискурсивной обработки табуированных речесмыслов в межкультурном дискурсе, опосредованном масс-медиально. Цель статьи – систематизация исследовательских подходов к феномену детабуирования, а также анализ дискурсивных практик участников межкультурного масс-медиально опосредованного дискурса с точки зрения трансляции табуированных речесмыслов. На материале немецкоязычного межкультурного дискурса разграничиваются две ведущих тенденции: табуирование и детабуирование. Способы реализации этих тенденций в дискурсе и представляют собой способы дискурсивной обработки табуированных речесмыслов. Однако дискурсивные практики, переплетаясь между собой в межкультурном дискурсе, осложняют выявление и распознавание этих способов. И только благодаря анализу контекста, интенций участников дискурса, коммуникативных целей такие задачи могут быть реализованы. Ключевые слова: табуирование, детабуирование, дискурсивные практики, табуированные речесмыслы, межкультурный масс-медиально опосредованный дискурс, экспликация табуированных речесмыслов. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 12 (2012 5) 1814-1822 ~~~ УДК 371.314 Academic Mobility as a Prerequisite of Cross-Cultural Communication and Professional Competency Development Natalia K. Dmitrieva* Petrozavodsk State University Russia 185910, Petrozavodsk, Lenina, 33 1 Received 04.12.2012, received in revised form 11.12.2012, accepted 24.12.2012 The article is concerned with the problem of academic mobility as an integral personal quality facilitative in the development of cross-cultural communication skills and enhancement of professional competency. Targeted development of academic mobility occurs in the process of professionally oriented foreign language learning and acquisition. A component structure of the academic mobility is revealed, described, and substantiated. The rational for a particular pedagogical environment instrumental in the development and enhancement of academic mobility in students is provided. The experimental data substantiating the hypothesis concerning special pedagogical environment contributing to the academic mobility development are provided. Keywords: academic mobility, social phenomenon, integral character quality, foreign language competence, motivation of achievement, motivation of affiliation, pedagogical environment. Introduction Higher professional education has become a part of the globalizing economy and consequently a subject of such aggressive processes of modern time as integration and internationalization. A Canadian scholar Jane Knight describes internationalization of higher education as a process of integrating an international/ intercultural dimension into the teaching, research and service function of the institutions. (Knight, 1993, p. 21) One of the core features of internationalization in education is academic mobility of students and staff. In the frames of the Bologna process, which Russia joined in 2003, by this proclaiming its will to become a competitive agent in the area of higher * 1 education, academic mobility is understood as a free and equitable access to educational institutions, equitable approach in assessment of skills, knowledge and competences, equal employment rights. (Baidenko, 2002, 2004) The countries-signatories of the Bologna Declaration view academic mobility as one of the most effective instruments in the development and enhancement of the European Higher Education Area. The aim of the EHEA is to create a competitive and attractive European educational system that can resist the challenges of globalization and meet the needs of the global market and the individuals receiving higher education. Some researchers of the modern Russian higher professional education broaden interpretation of the category academic Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 1814 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia K. Dmitrieva. Academic Mobility as a Prerequisite of Cross-Cultural Communication and Professional… mobility to the understanding of it as a personal character trait or integral personal quality. This personal characteristic is viewed both as a result of professional education and a prerequisite for cross-cultural communication and professional competency development. (Koropchenko, 2003) The European community realizing the value and importance of academic mobility development has paid special attention to the elaboration of the academic mobility recognition mechanisms. At present the following steps have been approved as a recognition mechanism: easily readable and comparable degrees organized in a three-cycle structure (e.g. bachelor-masterdoctorate); introduction of European Credit Transfer Unit (ECTU) to measure students’ workload; Common European Framework of Reference to measure the level of mastery and depth of foreign language acquisition; recognition of foreign qualifications; Diploma Supplement; effective use of knowledge and experience of the European Student Association of Academic Mobility. All these measures are taken in order to educate individuals in accordance with their personal needs and demands of the market; to provide contemporary society with specialists able to adjust quickly and easily to a dynamic variety of the changing environment (educational, cultural and professional); to educate people capable of interaction with representatives of other cultures and different worldviews; to promote enhancement of such individual qualities as tolerance to alien or adverse opinions; to encourage ability to think independently, and assess results of the accomplished work critically. It seems reasonable to contemplate about particular skills and abilities intrinsic to an academically mobile individual, which he needs to be able to cross borders of different countries, to study in foreign universities, to interact with colleagues and professors, to self-educate, to work in teams, to approach matters both critically and creatively. In light of the resent demands of the postindustrial society, responsibility to educate specialist capable of intellectual and behavioral mobility is laid on the universities: centers of knowledge, research, and new technologies. The essence and structure of academic mobility Academic mobility as a new category of the higher educational system has become a subject of interest and research. As a result of our analysis of scientific, methodological, and pedagogical literature we came to a conclusion that the understanding of the category academic mobility depends on the approaches used in the process of definition and fields of study. It has also become evident that there is no firm consensus on what the essence (abilities, skills and competencies) of the academic mobility is, and what learning environment is most facilitative in the enhancement of this personal quality attained in the process of language learning and acquisition. The dual nature of the term mobility is reflected in its contemporary interpretation: 1) ability of moving freely across borders and through different social strata; 2) essential attribute of someone who can think creatively, learn independently, adopt quickly, and assess results of personal work critically. Therefore, mobility can be viewed both as a social phenomenon instrumental in social promotion (social lift) and as a personal integral character trait (quality). Such approach to the understanding of the category academic mobility is shared by a number of researchers (O.A. Gladkaya, 2002; L.V. Gorjunova, 2005: P.A. Sorokin, 1999). We understand academic mobility as an integral personal quality characterized by its dynamic nature and represented by the ability and # 1815 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia K. Dmitrieva. Academic Mobility as a Prerequisite of Cross-Cultural Communication and Professional… readiness to adapt quickly and easily to a variety of the changing learning, cultural and business environment, to enhance personal development, and to make intellectual investments into the life of the society for the purpose of the progress and prosperity. Development of particular individual qualities is perceived as a development of the individual as whole, as a change in its dynamic structure and content under the influence of external and internal factors. All character traits and individual qualities develop in the process of active engagement or task oriented activities. Considering the fact that every mobile individual needs to have a good command of one or more foreign languages, development of the academic mobility as a personal integral quality can occur in the process of the active goal-oriented (oriented on the formation of academic mobility) foreign language teaching aimed at foreign language competency enhancement. A language is a reflection of culture, and every language class is an intersection of cultures. The nature of the language, interactive methods of teaching employed in the process of language acquisition, the functions of the language (a tool of communication and understanding of foreign cultures) facilitate in the development of the targeted personal character traits and qualities. Considering the above-mentioned arguments and characteristics inherent to the academically mobile individual, we elaborated a component structure of the academic mobility in students receiving higher professional education. The approach to view academic mobility as a structure consisting of a number of interdependent and interrelated components is based on the personality development theory of the Russian researcher and psychologists A.N. Leontiev. (Leontiev, 1983) The component structure of academic mobility is reflected in Table 1. All components of the academic mobility are interrelated and interdependent. Enhancement of one of them is correlated with the progress of the others and vise versa. It has already been stated that all character traits develop in the process of active engagement. A driving force of any activity is motivation, which is understood as needs, desires, or drives within individuals. It is a process of stimulating people to actions to accomplish the goals. People are social beings and a need for socialization, communication is inherent to them, because verbal and nonverbal interactions are learning styles helping individuals to realize who they are and understand their life goals. Table 1 Academic mobility Motivation component Cognitive-content component Task-oriented component Reflexive component Criteria Motivation criteria Task- based criteria Motivation of affiliation Motivation of achievement 1. Capability and readiness to work independently and in teams Cognitive-communicative criteria 1. Developed foreign language communicative competence 2. Knowledge and understanding of cultural specifics and business environment # 1816 # Reflexive criteria 1. Ability and readiness to assess results of the personal work and performance critically 2. Ability to assess incoming information critically Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia K. Dmitrieva. Academic Mobility as a Prerequisite of Cross-Cultural Communication and Professional… To overcome language barriers an individual needs to be motivated to achieve positive outcomes. On the other hand, determination to become successful encourages communication aimed at getting new information and new experience. An academically mobile person is driven to promote himself socially and professionally. To gain valued outcomes he has to be motivated for both affiliation and achievement. Interaction (affiliation) is a process involving one or several people. Successful cooperation is based on the ability to work in teams and demonstrate respect, tolerance, and mutual support. On the other hand, personal growth and ability to make intellectual investments requires well-developed self-study skills and independent thinking skills. Assessment of the achieved outcome given by the educator or peers is very important for every studying individual, though true enhancement and progress of the individual character traits occurs in case of critical assessment of personal progress by the individual himself. Analysis of the performance, achievements, and failures helps students to learn better planning and avoid the same mistakes in the future, which in turns enhances their motivation for achievement and success, makes them more open for communication and learning. In the process of foreign language acquisition students get introduced to new cultures. Introduction to new cultures broadens the students’ horizons; unveils mysteries of foreign worlds and nations; acquaints them with the unknown world of sometimes alien values, traditions, different worldviews, and ways of thinking; equips learners with skills and knowledge necessary for cross-cultural communication and effective business cooperation and negotiations. Foreign language skills and knowledge of foreign culture, traditions and customs together with abilities to accept people with tolerance, to work productively and socialize effectively, to assess situations and personal behavior critically, to approach matters with an open mind (which are characteristic features of academic mobility) facilitate in crosscultural communication. The term cross-cultural implies interaction with persons of different cultural, ethnic, racial, religious, and class backgrounds. Cross-cultural communication is a process of exchanging, negotiating, and mediating one’s cultural differences through language, nonverbal gestures, and space relationships. Barna’s “six stumbling blocks” unveil difficulties, which can hinder an efficient cross-cultural interaction. The “stumbling blocks” include assumption of similarities, language barriers, nonverbal misinterpretations, preconceptions and stereotypes, tendency to evaluate and high anxiety. (Barna, 1977) “To ensure cross-cultural communication one should not only know the language but also be aware of the system of communicational culture, rules of etiquette, forms of nonverbal communication and have deep background knowledge of values and perceptions accepted in other cultures” (for example, knowledge of religious beliefs, taboos, public and historic facts, etc.) (Ter-Minasova, 2004, p. 34). From that point of view the goal of the foreign language teaching is derived from the needs and demands of the multilingual society. Now a “perfect command” of one or two, or even three languages, taken separately from each other, is not the goal anymore. The purpose is a development of the linguistic repertoire where all linguistic skills are presented. In other words, the development of the foreign language communicative competence is now considered as one of the main categories of the foreign language teaching. (Nazarenko, at al., Sizykh, Fandei, 2011) The foreign language teaching aimed at the foreign language communicative competency enhancement leads to subsequent development of personal qualities, (Borzova, 2009) which in term # 1817 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia K. Dmitrieva. Academic Mobility as a Prerequisite of Cross-Cultural Communication and Professional… helps to further improvement of competencies, inclusive of professional competencies that a course of foreign language teaching can secure. Professional competencies enhanced in the process of language learning and acquisition are defined as abilities to solve problems in different professional environment, to self-educate and to think creatively and independently, to cooperate and to be effective team players. These abilities are based on professional knowledge obtained and internalized in the process of professionally oriented language teaching. The most common definition of professional competency used today is Epstein and Hundert’s which defines it as “the habitual and judicious use of communication, knowledge, technical skills, reasoning, emotions, values, and reflection in daily practice for the benefit of the individual and community being served.” (Epstein, and Hundert, 2002) Achievement of the defined objectives is feasible in case necessary learning environment is provided. Having analyzed the essence and characteristic features of academic mobility it is reasonable to suggest that the following requirements should be observed in the process of language teaching aimed at the academic mobility development. 1. Language teaching should be conducted in the context-conditioned (based) environment, which implies modeling of social and professional content of the students’ future professional occupation; 2. New educational technologies based on the interactive methods of teaching, including project teaching, should be employed in the process of language learning to enhance motivation of affiliation and strengthen motivation of achievement; to promote tolerance, ability to work independently and teams; to further creative thinking and critical self-assessment of personal progress and achievement; 3. Competence developing and studentcentered approaches should steer foreign language teaching to guide both educators and learners toward conscious development of communicative and professional competencies and responsible elaboration of personal educational trajectory; 4. Educational technology targeting at the academic mobility development should be elaborated and implemented in the process of professionally oriented language teaching. To verify our hypothesis concerning a particular set of learning environment instrumental in the development of academic mobility as an integral personal quality we conducted an experiment consisting of surveys, questionnaires, discussions, essay and letter writing. 180 students from the Department of Civil Engineering of Petrozavodsk State University participated in the experiment consisting of three stages: diagnostic stage, advanced stage and final stage. During the diagnostic stage of the experiment, we studied students’ attitude toward English learning and their understanding of what academic mobility as a personal character trait implies. 75 % of the surveyed students defined their interest toward learning English at high level, 23 % have some interest in studying English and 2 % have very little or no interest at all. When defining value of learning English they ranked it in the following way : 1) a tool of communication 2) instrument of personal development 3) one of the ways to promote professional growth and professional competency enhancement 4) a requirement of the time 5) a tool of entertainment 6) an instrument of adaptation to new # 1818 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia K. Dmitrieva. Academic Mobility as a Prerequisite of Cross-Cultural Communication and Professional… informational technologies 7) necessity when traveling abroad. When questioned about academic mobility as personal integral quality, students attributed the following characteristics to this category: 1) well educated, 2) quick, 3) interested in learning, 4) full of new ideas and 5) capable of speaking a foreign language. Unfortunately, a command of the foreign language was listed as the last requirement. The ability to cooperate and work in teams as well as the capability to assess personal learning outcome critically were not mentioned. Analyzing the data of the survey, we concluded that even though students realize the value and importance of a good command of English, they have little understanding of how they can apply it in their future personal and professional life. There is also a lack in full and deep understanding of what academic mobility is. We defined three levels of academic mobility development: 1. High, 2 Medium and 3) Low. Levels of academic mobility development are estimated as high when all of the components of the category are assessed as high, if any of the components are at a medium level or one of them is at a high level we assess it as medium, if any of the components is at a low level we assess such level as low. To conduct our experiment aimed at verifying our suggestion about a particular learning environment instrumental in the development of academic mobility, we set up a control group (CG) consisting of 11 second-year students from the Civil Engineering Department and an experimental group (EG) of 11 second-year students from the same department. At the initial stage of the experiment, we defined the level of the academic mobility development in accordance with elaborated criteria. Motivation of success or achievement (MS) and motivation of affiliation (MA) in both groups was at approximately the same level. In CG – MS (motivation for success) was at 1). high level 36.4 % – 4 students, 2) medium level 36.4 % – 4 students, 3) low level 27.2 % – 3 students, and in EG – MS was at 1) high level 45.4 % – 5 students, 2) medium level 36.4 % – 3 students, 3) low level 27.2 % – 3 students. In CG – MA (motivation for affiliation) was at 1) high level 27.2 % – 3 students, 2) medium level 27.2 % –3 students, 3) low level 45.45 % – 5 students, in EG – MA was at 1) high level 36.4 % – 4 students, 2) medium level 45.45 % – 5 students, 3) low level 27.2 % – 3 students. Independent study skills (ISS) in CG was at 1) high level 18.2 % – 2 students, 2) medium level 45.45 % – 5 students, 3) low level 36.4 % – 4 students, and in EG (ISS) was at 1) high level 27.2 % – 3 students, 2) medium level 54.5 % – 6 students, 3) low level 18.2 % – 2 students. Level of tolerance (LT) in CG was at 1) high level 18.2 % – 2 students, 2) medium level 36.4 % – 4 students, 3) low level 45.45 % – 5 students, and in EG (LT) was at 1) high level 27.2 % – 3 students, 2) medium level 36.4 % – 4 students, 3) low level 36.4 % – 4 students. The level of Foreign language Competency (LC) in CG was at 1) B1 level was 9.1 % – 1 student, 2) A2 level 36.4 % 4 –students, 3)A1 level 54.5 % – 6 students, and EG –LC 1) B1 level 27.2 % – 3 students, 2) A2 level 54.5 % – 6 students, 3) A1 level 18.1 % – 2 students. The level of critical thinking and ability to assess incoming information, including information in a foreign language was very low in both groups at the initial stage of the experiment. Having analyzed the following data we concluded that because of a very low level of reflection ability in both groups we affirm that the students had a low level of academic mobility. When tested at the final stage of the experiment, we have in the CG – 2 students # 1819 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia K. Dmitrieva. Academic Mobility as a Prerequisite of Cross-Cultural Communication and Professional… Table 2 Control group Experimental group Criteria Level MS % MA % ISS % LT % LC % MS % MA % ISS % LT % LC % Initial stage high 36.4 27.2 18.2 18.2 9.1 med 36.4 27.2 45.45 36.4 36.4 18.2 45.4 36.4 27.2 27.2 27.2 36.4 45.4 54.55 36.4 54.5 27.2 low 27.2 45.4 36.4 45.4 54.5 81.8 27.2 27.2 18.2 36.4 18.2 63.6 Final stage high 27.2 27.2 18.2 18.2 med 54.5 54.5 72.7 36.4 18.2 36.4 72.7 45.4 54.5 54.5 45.4 45.5 63.6 54.5 27.2 54.5 36.4 36.4 45.5 45.5 low 18.2 18.2 9.1 9.1 18.2 18.2 0 0 9.1 9.1 9.1 9.1 (18.1 %) with low language competency level (A1 level) and none with low level (A1 level) in EG. Assessment skills (RF) in both groups have improved and we have in CG – (36.4 %) 3 students – high level, (54.5 %) 6 students – medium level and (18.1 %) 2 students – low level, in EG – assessment skills (RF) – (45.5 %) 5 students – high level, (45.5 %) 5 students – medium level, and (9.1 %)1 student – low level. Motivation level in CG – (18.2 %) 2 students with low level of MA and MS. EG has no students with low MS and MA, level of tolerance (LT) in CG – (9.1 %) 1 student – low level, (36.4 %) 4 students – medium level and (18.2 %)2 students at high level, EG has one student (9.1 %) with low level tolerance, (36.4 %) 3 students – medium level, (54.5 %) – 6 students – high level. Based on the results of the experiment we may ascertain that a certain progress in the development of academic mobility in students is observed in both groups, though a number of students with developed academic mobility as a personal character trait is higher in the experimental group. Correlation between the level of foreign language competency and growth of the rest of the components in the structure of academic mobility is also observed in both groups. The higher the level of foreign language competency, the higher the level of academic mobility. Therefore, it is reasonable to conclude that traditional teaching methods RF % RF % remain effective in the enhancement of personal character qualities, but higher learning outcomes are obtained by the creation of the learning environment instrumental in the enhancement of personal qualities demanded by the society and by the studying individual himself. This learning environment includes: employment of pedagogical technologies based on interactive methods of teaching; creation of the context based environment; employment of the elaborated technology based on the principles of competence developing and student-centered approaches, and targeting academic mobility enhancement. Conclusion Academic mobility is an integral personal quality with a complex structure, consisting of a number of interrelated and interdependent components. Their enhancement leads to the development of academic mobility as an integral entity, facilitative in the process of adaptation and integration into the changing academic, economic, cultural, and political world. To achieve a desired outcome in the process of foreign language learning and acquisition, a set of instrumental learning environment needs to be introduced. Results of the experiment revealed strong correlation between the level of Foreign Language Competency Development and improvement levels of the other components of academic mobility. # 1820 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia K. Dmitrieva. Academic Mobility as a Prerequisite of Cross-Cultural Communication and Professional… Academic mobility as a personal integral quality is a prerequisite for successful cross-cultural communication and effective enhancement of professional competency. Its dynamic structure and intrinsic nature substantiate its function. References Baidenko, V.I., 2002. The Bologna Process: structural reform of higher education in Europe. Moscow: Research Centre of Quality of Professional Training, Russian New University. Baidenko, V.I., 2004. Bologna process: a course of lectures. Moscow: Logos, in Russian. Borzova, E.V., 2009. Student-oriented foreign language teaching in senior classes of secondary schools. Petrozavodsk: Karelian State Pedagogical Academy, in Russian. Barna, L. M., 1997. Stumbling blocks in intercultural communication. Intercultural communication (eighth ed.) Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company. Epstein, R.M. and Hundert, E.M. 2002. Defining and assessing professional competence. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 287, (2). pp. 226-235. Gladkaya O.A., 2002. Professional mobility as a leading character trait of the modern teacher. Issues of pedagogical training, 13. Irkutsk: Institute for continuing education, pp. 45-55, in Russian Gorjunova, L.V., 2005. Professional mobility components of modern specialists. Natural science and humanism ,. 2. Tomsk: Tomsk State University, p.p. 8-11. in Russian Knight, Cf. J., 1993. Internationalization strategies and issues. International education magazine, 9, p. 21-22. Koropchenko, А.А., 2003. Acknowledgement and recognition of qualifications as a factor of academic mobility. Scientific Bulletin, 67, pp. 22-26 Leontiev, A.N. 1983. Activity, consciousness, personality. Moscow: Pedagogics Sorokin P.A., 1997. Social and cultural dynamics. Moscow: MFK, in Russian Ter-Minasova, S.G., 2004. Language and cross-cultural communication. Moscow: Moscow State University Press Академическая мобильность как необходимое условие межкультурной коммуникации и становления профессиональной компетентности Н.К. Дмитриева Петрозаводский государственный университет Россия 185910, Петрозаводск, пр. Ленина, 33 В статье рассматривается проблема академической мобильности как интегративного личностного новообразования студентов, необходимого для формирования навыков межкультурной коммуникации и развития профессиональной компетентности. Целенаправленное становление академической мобильности происходит в процессе обучения профессионально-ориентированному иностранному языку. В статье выявлены, описан и обоснованы компонентный состав академической мобильности; педагогические условия, # 1821 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia K. Dmitrieva. Academic Mobility as a Prerequisite of Cross-Cultural Communication and Professional… содействующие становлению академической мобильности; приведены данные опытноэкспириментального исследования, подтверждающие гипотезу о необходимости создания определенных педагогических условий с целью формирования академической мобильности. Ключевые слова: академическая мобильность, социальное явление, интегративное личностное качество, иноязычная коммуникативная компетенция, мотивация достижения и мотивация аффилиации, педагогические условия. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 12 (2012 5) 1823-1833 ~~~ УДК 37.018.43 Discussion Forum as the Central Element of the Online Seminar: Content-Analysis of Posts by German Students Irina N. Rozinaa* and Nadezda S. Zhukovab a Institute of Management, Business and Law 33А/47, Nagibina Pr. Rostov-on-Don, 344068 Russia b Distance and Independent Studies Center Technical University of Kaiserslautern Erwin-Schrödinger-Straße, 57 Gebäude, D-67663 Kaiserslautern, Germany 1 Received 04.12.2012, received in revised form 11.12.2012, accepted 24.12.2012 The Role of the tutor for distance courses moderation, as well as the aims of discussion forum usage by learners are discussed. Discussion forum posts have been analyzed and the importance of asynchronous computer-mediated communication for knowledge acquisition by learners has been proved. Gender aspect is also taken into consideration. Keywords: discussion forum, computer-mediated communication, content analysis, online seminar, gender aspect. Discussion Forum in Education: Virtual Communication or Virtual Silence? Despite the number of advantages a discussion forum offers for distance learning processes, some researchers claim that forums are seldom, if ever, used by the learner. (e.g. see Puntschart, 2006; p.10). Even if they are used, the only purpose of it is to discuss organizational issues (e.g. see Hinze et al., 2003; p.61). It is no use waiting for the learners to discuss the current topic, apparently, if they find only social messages from co-learners and instructions on the course from the teacher and/or the tutor in the discussion forum (e.g. see Grotlüschen, 2004; p.72). * 1 So, as Schulmeister puts it, “Quality moderation of the discussion, published messages and topics content, tutor’s recommendations for learners‘ support in educational process – they all play the key part“ in computer-mediated communication. (Schulmeister, 2004, p. 3637). He also stresses the significant influence of communication process continuity on the quality of the educational process itself, in contrast with several other researchers who claim the importance of the cost and technical features of electronic educational means. I. Rozina, for example, singles out technological, organizational and didactic components of modern information-educational Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 1823 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Irina N. Rozina and Nadezda S. Zhukova. Discussion Forum as the Central Element of the Online Seminar… environment organization (Rozina, 2005, p. 102). Efficiency of educational processes, however, can be achieved only when promptly controlled methods of education are used together with direct communication and feedback between learners and teacher in individual and group communication (Rozina, 2005, p. 125). Petko comes to similar conclusion, saying that “tutors need to influence the quality of discussion by posting substantial messages relevant to the topic studied and then by requiring well-grounded argumentation and pointing at delusions if answering posts are far from being close to reality” (Petko, 2003, p. 206). We agree with the researchers that the quality of computer-mediated communication depends directly on the level of tutors’ active moderation of discussions. The consequence of the increased level of the tutor’s activity, as a number of authors’ point out, is a considerable raise in the tutor’s workload. (Puntschart, 2006; Rinn et al., 2003; Hesse et al., 1997). A research by Hyesse, for instance, shows that the number of the tutor’s posts amounts to 50 % of the total number of messages. But at the same time, 60 % of students’ posts are written by only 10 % of all learners in the group. So, the authors give recommendation on the ways to lower labour contribution of the tutor and to raise learners’ activity. They include advice on preliminary preparation of all distance courses’ components including planned discussion’s components. Such preparation is a prerequisite for distance learning rather than a suggestion for classical forms of education. Following the recommendations described, Pauli et al. have lowered tutor’s labour contribution on moderation, the tutor’s messages amount to 10 % of all the posts, and increase the learners’ activity, 50 % of all the posts attribute to 60 % of learners (Pauli et al., 2000). Another example of this kind is Puntschart’s survey, the aim of which is to organize an efficient forum discussion; efficient both from the learners’ knowledge achievement’s point of view and from the tutor’s labor contribution. Due to thorough distance course tasks’ planning, the author has managed to lower the tutor’s labour contribution (from 12 % to 3 % of all the posts). The result is achieved because the learners fulfilled their planned tasks, which comprised active discussion of current topic studied in the forum. The author has also managed to increase the number of new topics suggested by the learners up to 29 % of all the posts, and to enhance learner’s reaction to their groupmates’ posts up to 68 % (Puntschart, 2006). Similar approach to online seminars that is based on their strict structure is used at the Distance and Independent Studies Center (further referred to as DISC) of Kaiserslautern Technical University, Germany. Online seminars at DISC, as well as discussion forums of online seminars at Virtual Campus of Rheinland Pfalz University (Virtueller Campus Rheinland Pfalz, VCRP), have been analyzed in detail by Sabine Hemsing (Hemsing, 2008). The aim of the survey is to analyze the problems tutors solve at asynchronous discussion moderation as well as forum discussions moderation influence on learners’ educational achievements. Pedagogical Design of Distance Educational Course at an Example of Online Seminar The planning and structuring of educational process traditionally lies in wellknown pedagogical theories and is connected with both information and communication technologies of online seminars development. In contrast to pedagogic technology understood by the authors of “InternetEducation: Pedagogic Design Technology” # 1824 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Irina N. Rozina and Nadezda S. Zhukova. Discussion Forum as the Central Element of the Online Seminar… as “… purposeful consecutive description of teacher’s and learners’ activities to achieve the didactic goals”, pedagogic design means “… development of educational materials and types of activities as well as their methods and means” (Internet-Education, pp. 39,43). Thus, pedagogic design is an indispensable part of any pedagogic technology by being a procedural and technological mechanism that brings pedagogic technology to its real application in the classroom (Internet-Education, p. 44). When organizing online seminars at DISC, professors use the following parameters of pedagogic design for an online seminar: • Duration of the distance course and teaching load for it; • Subject scope of the course and its aims; • Learners’ group characteristics such as their level of knowledge, e.g. beginners, number of learners in the groups, their motivation; • Tutor’s preparedness to conduct the course; • The place of the course in the curriculum; • Technical means the tutor has at their disposal (Hemsing, 2008; p.104). Both classical and online seminars comprise the following stages: • Introductory; • Main; • Final and feedback or reflection (Bloh, 2005; p.22). At each stage, the tutor can use different pedagogic technologies and variants to conduct the course. Thus, at an introductory stage, the learners share personal and/or professional information to create a comfortable atmosphere of trust in class. This stage is decisive for further activity of learners1. That is why the well-timed welcoming post by tutor to open the online seminar officially is very important. The introductory stage also gives learners the opportunity to share their expectations of the course and to become acquainted with the system of distance learning (SDL). The phase is even more important for the learners who take their first course in the virtual educational environment. Thus, having been acquainted with technical possibilities of SDL during the introductory stage, the learners will further focus on the subject scope of the course. The central part of online seminal is the main part, of course, when the learners work with new educational materials. The stage consists of several thematic phases, as a rule. A six- to eight-week seminar, for example, will have from four to six thematic phases. Such thematic distribution and structuring of online seminar is very important for the learners as they use different asynchronous means of learning. It is necessary to consider the fact that distance study of a topic requires more time comparing with that at traditional education models. This way, one hour of traditional class work corresponds to about one week of asynchronous communication at online seminar (Hemsing, 2008; p.106). At the final stage the main aim of tutors is coordinated conclusion of online seminars. During the phase the learners are asked to assess the seminar, filling in the online evaluation form or questionnaire. The stage can also be used to finish up individual tasks if necessary. Educational methods used at online seminars are usually not a novelty by themselves. Traditional techniques that can be adjusted to the conditions of distance learning are used, such as pros and cons group discussion, role play, brainstorm, mini-group projects, quizzes, mind maps, presentations, web-portfolios, webquests and many others. Online seminars often employ, for example, “circle of acquaintances” exercise taken from psychological practice and adapted to asynchronous computer-mediated # 1825 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Irina N. Rozina and Nadezda S. Zhukova. Discussion Forum as the Central Element of the Online Seminar… communication of distance courses. To inspire learners for an active and interesting discussion the tutor very often gives them a task that requires not only to write a very short introductory essay but to share an incredible story that had previously happened to learners personally or to attach a photo illustrating professional activities of the learner. The aim of the task described is acquaintance and psychological liberation of learners as well as their acknowledgement of SDL media peculiarities (Hemsing, 2008; p.153). To find out the methods to inspire active discussion in the forum we have conducted a content analysis of text messages posted by learners. Participants’ Characteristics and Survey’s Methods In her survey Hemsing has analyzed tutors’ posts in forums with the aim to study problems tutors have to solve when conducting an asynchronous discussion. To our mind, the problems tutors have to solve basically determine the problems learners face in the meaning of the posts they make. That is why we have analyses both the tutor’s messages and online learners’ posts, the latter being of prime interest to us. Three different seminars conducted by different tutors in 2012 are chosen for analysis: “Labour Relations Law”, “Distance Technology in Education” and “Fundamentals of Scientific Work”. 65 people (15 men and 50 women) of the average age of 38 have taken the courses. All of them are the students of Master’s programmes such as “Educational Management”, “Human Resources” and “Andragogy”. The choice of such a variety of seminars and tutors is intentional with the aim to allocate common trends and to compare groups on several features. “Fundamentals of Scientific Work” online seminar, for example, is different from the rest because it has no group work in the process of education. Group method is not used deliberately because the seminar is a prerequisite part of the professional aptitude exam to qualify for Master’s Degree Program. The feature gives us the opportunity to understand if group work influences the tendencies in using discussion forum by the learners, or not. The basics for analyzed posts differentiation are taken from the classification of tutor’s duties by Berge and classification of comments types for blog analysis by Schulmeister (Berge, 1995, p.23; Schulmeister, 2010, p.320). As Berge puts it, the tutor’s tasks when conducting an online seminar can be classified the following way: • Pedagogical tasks (thematic content messages); • Social tasks (social messages); • Organizational tasks (to solve organizational problems); • Technical tasks (to solve technical problems). The given classification is useful to determine the type of the post and to assign it to one category or another and, thus, to detect the aim of discussion forum usage by learners at different moments of time. To analyze the tendencies of the comments in web-blogs Schulmeister singles out six basic categories (see Table 1). In our survey we do not discuss the category of “Net etiquette rules reminder” because the category is irrelevant for the groups in question. Content of some posts can be attributed to several categories at the same time, but we still attributed one post to only one of the above mentioned categories, depending on its meaning. Berge’s classification, in our opinion, suits well for all kinds of posts both for new topics and for comments on them. Comments to new topics are also worth analyzing according to Schulmeister’s classification (see Fig. 1). # 1826 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Irina N. Rozina and Nadezda S. Zhukova. Discussion Forum as the Central Element of the Online Seminar… Table 1. Web-blogs Texts Categories by Schulmeister Text’s Characteristics Content Reactive statements Response to a statement, direct discussion of partner’s posts (continues to give reasons, asks again, criticizes, asks to clarify, etc.) Active statements Doesn’t go beyond the topic discussed, but doesn’t comment on the information posted earlier and doesn’t ask questions. Begins their own independent statement (claims, shares knowledge, cites other authors, describes personal experience). Statements of personal Emotional assessment of partner’s point of view (“As far as I know…”, “If you ask opinion me…”, “I fully agree with…”, “I’m afraid I disagree on the point that…”, etc.) Net etiquette rules Appeals to the necessity to follow rules and norms properly: gives remarks on reminder inappropriate behaviour on the net, reminds about rules of appropriate behaviour, etc. Chain of arguments and Having taken the earlier posted information as the basis (as a rule, the information conclusions is taken from the post that opens a new topic), participants give a logic chain of arguments and conclusion. They use different reasons, compare pros and cons, find a tendency, etc. Language gestures Statements are irrelevant to the topic of the course, do not serve to establish social contacts, neither they attribute to other types of communication. They are different from personal opinion statement because they comment on the quality of the posts not on its meaning, e.g. “Super!”, “I am delighted!”, “LOL”, “That is terrific!” etc. General Statistic Data For the period from two to four weeks 1953 posts have been published, 1560 of them by learners and 393 posts by tutors at all three seminars studied. In average, men publish 18 posts at a seminar and women – 26. Average length of a message is about 100 words regardless the gender of the poster. Total numbers of messages posted by learners and tutors of all three seminars are given at table 2. So, 24 % of posts open new topics, 4 posts by men and 6 posts by women at average, 58 % of them contained comments of seminar’s participants. In average, 14 posts by men and 19 posts by women are the comments on the current topic, and every new topic receives about 5.4 comment by learners (see table 2). Main Research Results As Hemsing points out, discussion forums are the central element for DISC online seminars (Hemsing, 2008; p.52). According to her survey, learners’ educational achievements are determined by discussion forum participation (23 %) together with individual tasks fulfillment (26 %) and online educational materials (23 %) (see Fig. 2). It is necessary to note that the number of tutor’s posts at discussion forum moderation at DISC which make up the biggest part of tutor’s workload alongside with individual tasks checking, amount to 20 % of total number of posts. This number significantly increases the figures of the earlier mentioned authors who accomplished to lower the tutor’s workload for discussion forum moderation while preserving the quality of education. Nevertheless, DISC professors do not have lowering the tutor’s workload at discussion moderation as their aim because they consider it to be justified. For 17 % of seminar’s participants, for example, consider tutor’s comments important for the process of learning as they give confidence to know # 1827 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Fig. 1. Discussion Forum Text Messages (Posts) Differentiation Table 2. Posts’ Distribution for Three Seminars Parameter Number of posts Labour Relations Law Distance Technology in Education Fundamentals of Scientific Work Total Quantity Average Quantity Average Quantity Average Quantity Average 672 28 1185 49 96 6 1953 30 Men 83 21 179 36 14 2 276 18 Women 460 24 791 44 33 3 1284 26 Tutor Number of words in a message 129 129 215 215 49 49 393 131 64122 95 95163 80 10690 111 169975 87 Men 8838 106 15869 89 2895 207 27602 100 Women 49910 109 62861 79 4678 142 117449 91 Tutor 5374 42 16433 76 3117 64 24924 63 Fig. 2. Learners’ Educational Achievements Components (Hemsing, 2008; p.272) Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Irina N. Rozina and Nadezda S. Zhukova. Discussion Forum as the Central Element of the Online Seminar… Table 2. New Topics and Comments Distribution to the Number of Posts Labour Relations Law Distance Technology in Education Fundamentals of Scientific Work Total New topics 132 289 54 475 New topics / messages, % 20 24 56 24 New topics with comments 79 166 29 274 60 540 57 896 54 41 58 1477 6.8 5.4 1.4 5.4 Type of post New topics with comments / New topics, % Comments Comments / New topics with comments, average Fig. 3. Students’ Aims When Using Discussion Forums the learning is going the right direction and they are very helpful if any difficulty arises. Hemsing also comes to the conclusion that the more messages the tutor posts the higher is the learners’ satisfaction level conserving the quality of online seminar (Hemsing, 2008; p.284). Moreover, the learners’ satisfaction grows with the increasing number of words in tutor’s posts (Hemsing, 2008; p.291). Under the existing circumstances of competition between higher educational establishments especially in the sphere of distance learning, the positive mood of learners is viewed by DISC as a very important component. Using content analysis of posts in forums we affirm pedagogic orientation of asynchronous discussion. Thus, 44 % of all the posts are solely devoted to the subject scope, 25 % are of social nature, 27 % are connected with organizational questions and only 4 % deal with technical problems (see Fig. 3) Surprisingly enough, during the “Fundamentals of Scientific Work” online seminar where group work of seminar’s participants was not employed, the number of posts concerning organizational problems is zero (see Fig. 4). Percentage of comments to new topics is the following: 58 % are reactive statements, 23 % are active statements (see Fig. 5). Relatively few posts are those of personal opinion (4 %), chains of arguments and conclusions (5 %) and language gestures (10 %). An interesting fact is that during the “Fundamentals of Scientific Work” online seminar where seminar’s participants don’t work in groups, there are no personal opinion posts. Moreover, there is no discussion to lead to a chain of arguments and conclusions (see Fig. 6). # 1829 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Irina N. Rozina and Nadezda S. Zhukova. Discussion Forum as the Central Element of the Online Seminar… Fig. 4. Distribution of Aims to Use the Forum at Three Different Seminars Fig. 5. Types of Statements Used by Students as Comments It is also easy to note that during the “Fundamentals of Scientific Work” seminar the number of language gestures increases, so do the active statements. They prevail over reactive statements in comparison with the statements at two other seminars. But the fact that active statements prevail does not imply that the participants are able to lead a constructive discussion. Sometimes the tutor or other learners posted questions requiring a new independent statement, to describe personal experience at a particular situation, for example. Such statements were also common at group work when a group was supposed to solve a problem, for example, and one of the participants started the discussion, the others then added their suggestions. From gender point of view it is important to mention that types of posts by men and women do not differ much. Only at the two seminars where learners worked in groups the number of social posts, statements relate to the subject scope and reactive statements by women exceeded the number of them by men. # 1830 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Irina N. Rozina and Nadezda S. Zhukova. Discussion Forum as the Central Element of the Online Seminar… Fig. 6. Distribution of Learners’ Posts Types in Three Seminars Conclusion Whether students will use discussion forum actively or not during their online or distance course depends on pedagogic design of the course and the goals the teacher sets. Despite the fact that asynchronous discussion moderation by tutor is an important element of a distance course and determines the level of learners’ satisfaction by the quality of education, students’ participation in discussion forum can be activated at minimal tutor’s labour contribution into discussion moderation. To make it possible, thorough content and pedagogic scenario development is necessary. Main peculiarities of asynchronous communication at discussion forum of DISC online seminars we have found out by content analysis of posts in forums are: • Women write more posts in discussion forums than men; • Discussion forums are mainly used to discuss the subject scope (44 %) and to establish social contacts (25 %); 1 • Organizational questions arise in forum only when groups work needs to be coordinated. During the online seminar where group work of seminar’s participants was not employed, the number of posts concerning organizational problems amounts to zero; • When commenting, learners mostly use reactive statements, giving relative answers to other posts and discussing partners’ messages; • When group work is not employed, learners do not give their personal opinion and discussion forums do not lead to a chain of arguments and conclusions; • Aims of men and women to use discussion forums as well as their commenting styles differ slightly: the number of social posts, statements devoted to subject scope and the number of reactive statement in women’s posts is a little higher. Here we need to consider the fact that students at DISC take distance courses and, as a rule, are not acquainted before the beginning of the online seminar. Furthermore, in Germany there is no fixed assignment of students to groups, so, choosing a course the students meet new co-learners each time they have a new course. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Irina N. Rozina and Nadezda S. Zhukova. Discussion Forum as the Central Element of the Online Seminar… References Berge Z.L. Facilitating Computer Conferencing: Recommendations from the Field. Educational Technology, 35(1), (1995), 22-30. Bloh E. Grundzüge und Systematik einer Methodik netzbasierter Lehr-Lernprozesse / B. Lehmann & E. Bloh (Hrsg.), Online Pädagogik, Bd.2, Baltmannsweiler: Schneider Verlag Hohengehren, (2005), 7-85, in German Grotlüschen A. Virtuelle Interaktion oder virtuelles Schweigen? // Zeitschrift für Weiterbildungsforschung, Nr.1, (2004), 68-75, in German Hemsing S. Online-Seminare in der Weiterbildung. Berlin: Mensch & Buch Verlag, (2008), in German Hesse F.W., Giovis C. Struktur und Verlauf aktiver und passiver Partizipation beim netzbasierten Lernen in virtuellen Seminaren. Unterrichtswissenschaft, 25 (1), (1997), 34-55, in German Hinze U., Blakowski G. Soziale Eingebundenheit als Schlüsselfaktor im E-Learning- Blended Learning und CSCL im Konzept der VFH // A. Bode, J. Desel, S. Rathmeyer & M. Wessner (Hg), DeLFI. Bonn: Köllen, (2003), 57-66, in German Internet-Education: Pedagogic Design Technologies / Edited by М.V. Moisseyeva. Мoscow: Kameron, (2004), in Russian Pauli C., Reusser K. Zur Rolle der Lehrperson beim kooperativen Lernen. Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Bildungswissenschaften, 22 (3), (2000), 421-442, in German Petko D. Diskutieren in virtuellen Lehrveranstaltungen. Beiträge zur Lehrerbildung, 21(2), (2003), 206-220, in German Puntschart I. Wissensaustausch über (un)moderierte Diskussionsforen. Dissertation, KarlFranzens-Universität Graz, (2006), in German Rinn U., Bett K. Lernplattformen zwischen Technik und Didaktik / K. Bett & J. Wedekind (Hrsg.), Lernplattformen in der Praxis. Münster: Waxmann, (2003), 193-209, in German Rozina I. N. Pedagogic Computer-mediated communication. Theory and Practice: Monograph. Мoscow: Logos, 2005, in Russian Schulmeister R. Ansichten zur Kommentarkultur in Weblogs / P. Bauer, H. Hoffmann & K. Mayrberger (Hrsg.): Fokus Medienpädagogik – Aktuelle Forschungs- und Handlungsfelder. Festschrift für Stefan Aufenanger. Kopaed: München, (2010), 317-347, in German Schulmeister R. Didaktisches Design aus hochschuldidaktischer Sicht – Ein Plädoyer für offene Lernsituationen / U. Rinn, D.M. Meister (Hrsg.). Didaktik und Neue Medien. Konzepte und Anwendungen in der Hochschule. Münster: Waxmann,( 2004), 19-49, in German Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Irina N. Rozina and Nadezda S. Zhukova. Discussion Forum as the Central Element of the Online Seminar… Дискуссионный форум как центральный элемент онлайнового семинара: контент-анализ текстовых сообщений студентов Германии И.Н. Розинаа, Н.С. Жуковаб а Институт управления, бизнеса и права Россия 344068, Ростов-на-Дону, пр. М. Нагибина, 33А/47 б Центр дистанционного и самостоятельного обучения Технический университет г. Кайзерслаутерн Erwin-Schrödinger-Straße, Gebäude 57, D-67663 Kaiserslautern, ФРГ В статье рассматривается роль тьютора при модерации дистанционных курсов, а также цели использования обучаемыми дискуссионных форумов. Проведен анализ сообщений дискуссионного форума, подтверждающий значимую роль асинхронной компьютерноопосредованной коммуникации для приобретения знаний обучаемыми. При анализе текстов учитывался гендерный аспект. Ключевые слова: дискуссионный форум, компьютерно-опосредованная коммуникация, контент-анализ, онлайновый семинар, гендерный аспект. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 12 (2012 5) 1834-1842 ~~~ УДК 811.161.1’27 Manipulative Strategies and Tactics of Mass Media Communication (on the example of «The Name of Russia» television project) Nikolay D. Golev and Olga E. Yakovleva* Kemerovo State University 6 Krasnaya St., Kemerovo, 650043 Russia 1 Received 04.12.2012, received in revised form 11.12.2012, accepted 24.12.2012 This article is devoted to the research of “The Name of Russia” project regarded as an example of manipulative strategies and tactics of mass media communication. The research is done in terms of cognitive and communicative linguistics, speech act theory, ordinary political science in linguistics and the conception of practice in social sciences. Keywords: mass media communication, discourse, speech manipulation, identity, political science in linguistics, proper names. Introduction This article refers to the research paradigm of the natural language manipulative potential, actively used in different sorts of modern forms of communication such as commercial, media, and political ones. It appeared due to a famous PR campaign focused on “The Name of Russia” TV project which was shown in 2008 and caused a great public response (and discourses): academic, journalistic, advertising and political. “The Name of Russia” term has become a brand, combining ordinary and scientific reflections, ideological and pragmatic (marketing) ideas, people’s expectations and the political elite’s interests. In this paper only a few aspects of this enormous mental-communicative phenomenon are considered. The subject of this article is to * 1 reconstruct “The Name of Russia” project as a communicative act and, more specifically, to reveal a peculiar character of communicative intentions realization from the speech act theory perspective (Austin, 1986) (that is, to identify the project’s illocution, locution and perlocution, transposing the terminology traditionally applied to a particular act of speaking, to a TV show multi-code communication). Materials The idea that a human lives in the world of names, which can be proper and common, more or less known, doesn’t already seem revolutionary. However, using a large arsenal of language means daily, an average human is absolutely sure that language is completely dependent on him and Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 1834 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nikolay D. Golev and Olga E. Yakovleva. Manipulative Strategies and Tactics of Mass Media Communication exists for him in fact. This reflects the immanent capacity of language, which L. Wittgenstein defined as “absence of problems” and “involvement in everyday practice”. And yet this very daily routine, everyday practices that construct a human’s everyday activity are of a special interest for modern science as well as for different types of pragmatically oriented communication. So, a modern commercial doesn’t seek only to report about the time and place of the goods sale (what? where? when?) and to make its main attributes (brand name, shape, color, special features of packaging, music, commercial characters, etc.) recognizable but also to specify the goods with the help of these techniques in order to induct them into the structure of an individual’s nonreflective everyday life. Therefore, people will sooner or later get used to the fact that a better toothpaste, guarding their mouths against all possible diseases, is “Colgate”; and it keeps every person from a potential danger. So, an endless flow of supporting commercial information doesn’t let anyone doubt the correctness of their choice. Thus, the names don’t just help us choose the goods from a set of similar ones. At some point they start foisting them on us. However, a commercial is still a relatively “honest” way of manipulating our consciousness: the rules of the game are more or less clear to us and no one expects any “disinterested” advertising from well financed communication. But it is much worse when a communicator’s intentions are not so obvious and he is not “a clearly defined customer” which is required by the advertising legislation. We mean various regulatory discourses that daily construct our loyalty or, conversely, orderliness, ethicality, culture, etc. Some of them can be attributed to PR-communications, the subjects of which are represented by various commercial and public organizations. The other part belongs to the discourse of power. Its realization can be gained, in addition to usual Soviet-era pathos, by using the methods which are not so explicit. Apart from a rich arsenal of logical and rhetorical techniques (facts selection, antithesis constructions, “pinning the labels”, etc.), the media widely use the methods of the so-called “right nomination”: the militants were annihilated but the Russian army soldiers were killed; the conflict in South Ossetia is memorable due to the “forcing Georgia to peace” phrase; in order not to hurt the public with the reports of a considerable number of deaths at the Sayan-Shushenskaya hydro-electric power station mass media gradually increased the lists using the “death toll reached ...” locution. Representing discursive practices of power, these examples form a unified field due to the identity of each of the four characteristics (following Foucault): 1) what type of phenomena can be the subject of this discourse, 2) who can take the position of a speaking subject, 3) what kinds of concepts can be acceptable in this discourse, and 4) what theories can be conceived and formulated in it. In this article a particular interest is given to how the first and second principles interact with the third one. We daily face the accomplishment of the following interaction: if someone calls a servant of the law “a militiaman” he indirectly determines his belonging to the discourse of a law-abiding citizen who respects the power and its individual members; if he calls him “a ment” he expresses a marginal discourse with a typical cynical attitude towards life. However, the discourses, responsible for the formation of the Russians’ national identity with its diffuse and heterogeneous structure, are of a particular relevance to the manipulation, while the success of “power-people” communication requires a certain and predictable recipient. Without going into a social and historical background we should only note that the issue of the modern Russians’ identity is associated, among other things, with the absence of a consistent historical foretime comprehension. # 1835 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nikolay D. Golev and Olga E. Yakovleva. Manipulative Strategies and Tactics of Mass Media Communication According to V. Morozov (2009), after the Soviet Union’s breakup Russia had to build a new nation’s state and form the national identity as many former Soviet republics did. But we have chosen the conception of the state following the Soviet State traditions and the imperial historical narrative as such. This prevented from forming a clear view of Russian (including Soviet) history. Thus, one of the most important factors of the national identity formation is the attitude towards the past, its “assumption”. Mass media (including visual media) play a great role in this process in modern society. According to V. Zvereva, “in today’s media culture TV is an authoritative source which broadcasts images of the past to the enormous audience and forms an image of a particular historic epoch, its major events and meanings” (Zvereva, 2004: p. 160). That is why the appearance of “The Name of Russia” TV project which was positioned as nothing less than “a historical choice of the year 2008”, became non-random and predictable. In fact, no communication is possible without the audience’s interest in the project. So, obeying the requirements of media industry, the choice of a historic person number 1 gained the following classical-stage form, which could make the audience watch the project: on May 7, 2008 the list of 500 great names of the past was published and the on-line voting was launched; on June 12, 50 people who received the most backing on the project site were selected; on October 5, a television show began (it was based on the discussion of 12 “finalists” of the polls); on December 27-28, the final took place, and on December 28, according to the TV debates results the name of Alexander Nevsky was chosen. The very essence of the project appeared to be dependent on “the media” factor. In general, the fact that the newsmakers can be represented not only by people who are alive but by dead souls as well is a rich idea. For a good reason, great and famous people are far more among the dead than among the living. Due to this there is such a space for all sorts of ratings, sociological measurements, shows, etc. which any “Ice Ages” and other “Star Academies” could never dream of (The News, 11/13/2008). In addition to these errors, there were other reasons to doubt the a priori installed objectivity of the project: why were just these 500 “great dead persons” selected, why were just these 12 public and cultural figures chosen, why did the “lawyers” for these12 historic persons only pass “the final”, etc. In the very beginning of the project there happened a scientific scandal concerning the stuff of 500 historic names: the Institute of Russian History of the Russian Academy of Sciences, which was announced the project’s scientific base by “Russia” TV channel and participated in forming the list of 500, denied this information later. What caused the historians’ greater anxiety was the way the material was represented at that stage (a brief historical background about this or that person often included the data distorting not only the facts but also merits and significance of these figures for the Russian history). It is obvious that the project creators’ illocution (communicative intention) is represented by at least two types of intentions: an explicit (or declared) one and an implicit (or real?) one. The explicit intention can be found on the project site http://www.nameofrussia.ru. According to its authors, “The Name of Russia” is the choice of the most valued, conspicuous and symbolic personality of the Russian History <…> and that choice is not only leisured but also evaluative. Further, they concretize the alleged “value” of the personalities and offer a possible semantic opposition such as, for example, what is dearer to the Russians: Pushkin’s cheerful poetry or Dostoevsky’s sapiential prose, Alexander Nevsky’s ice of righteous sword or Vladimir Lenin’s fierce revolutionary speech. This means # 1836 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nikolay D. Golev and Olga E. Yakovleva. Manipulative Strategies and Tactics of Mass Media Communication the project’s objective, declared by its organizers, has no ideological background and is ultimately reduced to the choice of a “favorite” historic character. The project’s “historicity” and the lack of purpose to make an idol are stressed by its producer, Alexander Lyubimov: “When we decided to adapt our British colleagues’ idea to choose the main historic character of Russia we completely changed the format. We discussed the characters more deeply that corresponds to the attitude towards history in Russia. We don’t choose the best and greatest but review the history” (MC, 5/12/2008). However, the transparency of the project’s objectives was quite doubtful from the very beginning, and mass media and forums responded by the “true” goal wording. So, the questionnaire survey on the project’s official forum in December 2008 also contained the issue of “What, in your opinion, is the main objective of “The Name of Russia” project?” The participants’ answers reveal the attitude of some part of the public towards the goal and rules of the game, such as the following one, for example: I used to think that the goal was to choose a Name honestly. Now, my own experiment, which was conducted yesterday (02/11/2008), makes me doubt it to a great extent, though it didn’t regard my candidate; I expected to get independent votes of the project’s active participants, i.e. those who are interested in it (the project). In fact, it led to the struggle against Stalinism, Leninism, Marxism and attempts to persuade to vote for Pushkin (a gifted gentleman and a slacker); Commercial + the next portion of zombie injections. Thus, the project’s active audience offered other objectives which can be reduced to the following four versions: The project’s goal is the national identity formation. The project’s goal is a sociological survey aimed at identifying the audience’s expectations and their subsequent effective exploitation in preelection promises. The project’s goal is the substitution of a real political process, missing at present, by the choice simulation. The substitution of a “real” (going from the bottom) passionary national idea by its imitation and the imposition of its construction from “the top”. If we reconstruct the project makers’ illocution, basing on its results, the hypothesis of their original programming seems quite reasonable, the ideological consistency of the “choice” providing a civil society’s unity, is too evident: 1) Alexander Nevsky is a symbol of the victorious nation (predicated by his subsequent canonization as a saint), 2) Stalin is a successful manager, and 3) Stolypin is a symbol of a strong government hand and the only person capable of successful implementation of economic reforms. Pushkin’s ideas of cultural unity and, moreover, his liberal ideas, diminishing the role of the state in the country development, appeared to be unused. There occurs an unintentional association with Mr. Uvarov’s “slogan” of XIX century – “Orthodoxy – autocracy – nationality”. There was a so-called trial run of its present time resemblance on the project (something like “Orthodoxy – state – modernization”). Thus, “The Name of Russia” communication project should be viewed not as a dialogue with a provided opportunity of feedback (survey) but as a managerial communication, the purpose of which is to create a certain sense in the receptive audience. This assumption is valid at least due to the fact that the project was broadcast on “Russia”, a state TV channel. That is, instead of the expected assertive communicative act we get a directive one. Technologically this communication is much like a brand communication, and this is confirmed by A. Lyubimov’s corresponding considerations: “The Name of Russia” brand is developing the “Russia TV Channel” brand, the “Country of # 1837 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nikolay D. Golev and Olga E. Yakovleva. Manipulative Strategies and Tactics of Mass Media Communication Russia” brand. A certain post-modernism in “clumsy” declension gives the necessary feeling of a brand aggression”. The illocution type causes the locution embodiment of the message (in this case the project’s form is meant). Thus, the ordinary form of the opinion poll, deprived of the show elements, corresponds to the declared objective (to identify a historic figure considered the most valuable by the Russians) to a greater degree and could help to avoid at least three types of errors: 1) the unrepresentative sample (those who don’t watch “Russia” channel are not involved into the project), 2) the unreliable methods of the votes gathering (on-line voting, technical organization and results of which are doubted even by the cast, caused a special buzz); 3) the possibility of results falsification by the project organizers, who were repeatedly accused both by the common audience and different political forces. The next stages of the project were not unequivocally accepted by the public either. Thus, the Ukrainian edition of “The Gazeta 24” calls the show “finalists” the product of a new Russian imperial identity: it had to go through the years, Vladimir Putin’s two-term presidency, a long period of fantastic energy prices increase, before the Russian society has once again felt the imperial itch (24.ua, 03/12/08). As for the “seconds” of the final dozen, their line-up is not obviously driven by presentation of scientifically reliable information, but the intention to make a program rating. Consequently, the recognition (sometimes scandalous) and the skills of public speaking, but not professional knowledge of history, became the main communication skills of such a “second”. However, according to V. Zvereva, history, being a delicate matter related to the memory and identity issues and enshrining a “high” sense of culture, becomes generally accessible on TV. Any person who became famous and realized his / her potential in any sphere (politics, literature or show business) can act as an expert in the field of history there (Zvereva, 2004). So, a famous film director Nikita Mikhalkov, metropolitan Kirill, the governor of Krasnodar Territory Alexander Tkachev, the literary critic Yu. Kublanovsky, the communist party leader Gennady Zyuganov, the Russian ambassador to Ukraine Viktor Chernomyrdin, etc. joined the staff of the “defenders”. However, being nonprofessional historians, the “lawyers” took their role with great responsibility. M. Davydova, an observer of “The Izvestiya”, emphasizes the contradiction between the pathos of the defense of their heroes and a real media significance of such defense: We could frequently read that the project experienced the lack of a scientific basis. And any temptation to attach scientific and historical character to them would be the history profanation, for scientific format of mass popular spectacle is impossible. What confuses me, honestly, is not the lack of historicism but the participation of serious people who are involved in a post-modern game show and believe in an important mission entrusted to them. On the contrary, by all means I would try to leave the project in the space of Social Art (Izvestiya, 13/11/2008). Results On the locution level the project’s communication can be characterized as the substitution of discourses: under the guise of the expected scientific (sociological) discourse the media discourse and ideological discourse were represented. However, the project has generated some other discourses in the communicative space: - a nationalistic one: What is the name of Russia? Whose name represents the motherland in our minds? Millions of people have already voted (on the Internet, yet). Here are the first six: Stalin, Nicholas II, Lenin, Vysotsky, Peter I, Pushkin. # 1838 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nikolay D. Golev and Olga E. Yakovleva. Manipulative Strategies and Tactics of Mass Media Communication The main contenders for the name of Russia are a Georgian, a German, a evrokalmyk (not in the sense of European Kalmyk, but in the sense of the Jewish quarter), a semi-Jewish, a Russian. Hence, people, solving such an important issue, choose a person not by blood. That means that the frenzy of nationalism, so much spoken about, has been a little bit exaggerated (MC, 17/07/2008); - a political one: Vladimir Lavrov, the deputy director of the Institute of Russian History, Doctor of Historical Sciences, who is worried about Stalin’s and Lenin’s leadership on “The Name of Russia” RTR television project, calls on “Russia” TV channel for changing the rules of voting in order not to allow the communists, consolidating around their idols, to win. According to Professor Lavrov, “Lenin’s or Stalin’s victory in the referendum will cause the communists to declare even more loudly that the results of presidential and parliamentary elections in the country have been rigged”; - a geopolitical one (which is more global in relation to the previous discourse): Perhaps, the project supervisors quickly added the voices to Nicholas, fearing that Stalin had got the first place in the game they started. They started worrying about the opinion of the West about them. But the West really associates us with Stalin, vodka, frost, bears (MC, 17/07/2008). By the perlocution (impact implementation on the audience) we mean the project results. Strictly speaking, not only final published data should be considered as the result. All sorts of discourses which appeared in the course of the project and were discussed in the article should be taken into consideration However, the name of the key Russian figure, detected (or presented as such) during the project, still remains the central problem. The project perlocutionary effect determination has generated at least two levels of doubt and two types of discourse. The first and seemingly suggesting itself is the possible manipulation with the election results. A striking Stalin’s and Lenin’s leadership in the first two phases of the project made not only the communist ideology supporters doubt the final outcome. Thus, according to the project’s official version, “Echo of Moscow” radio station (with a clearly “non-communist” audience), which announced a similar vote in July 2008, faced the following results: Stalin was given the first place and left Nicholas II far behind. We can assume that in order to avoid the undesirable “communist” finale the project organizers gradually began promoting a less controversial historic figure. Thus, in the course of the project Alexander Nevsky became known as St. Alexander Nevsky and then as a blessed saint prince Alexander Nevsky. Watching this transformation, some viewers of the project proposed: “Should we, probably, just add “a blessed saint prince Alexander Nevsky, the project winner, a new Name of Russia”?” Meanwhile, the figure of Alexander Nevsky in the final draft is not accidental. The researcher I. Danilevsky analyzes a similar evolution of the assessment of Battle on the Ice’s and Alexander Nevsky’s significance in Russian history: the battle, small and local by its relevance, was reinterpreted first by the church in the period of Orthodoxy crisis (as a result a politically not-irreproachable Prince Alexander was canonized as a faithful for his refusal to join the catholics’ action against the Horde). Later, in Soviet times, when “Alexander Nevsky”, the film made in 1937 but kept notshown till the beginning of World War II, became the basis for the formation and retention of a new myth of Battle on the Ice in public consciousness, in which a religious aspect gave the way to a geopolitical one. Prince Alexander became the main defender of Russia from Western encroachments. Thus, Battle on the Ice became a symbol of success. Summing up his historical excursus, I. Danilevsky states that the impartial # 1839 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nikolay D. Golev and Olga E. Yakovleva. Manipulative Strategies and Tactics of Mass Media Communication approach to the assessment of Battle on the Ice has not yet found a due recognition in Russia. He concludes: “On the contrary, there are the signs that it will become popular to combine two heroic traditions – “Orthodox” and “geopolitical” – in the near future” (Danilevsky, 2004, p. 28-39). Thus, we can assume that the project’s outcome and, in particular, the discourses generated by it fully correspond to our assumption about the initially proposed directive, myth forming communication. And, undoubtedly, “historical” myth-making, the theme of historical memory extends beyond the boundaries of individual psychology. According to B. Dubin, memory “can be adequately understood here as a metaphor or a nest of metaphors, which symbolically transcribe, signify and resignify a more or less stable or, conversely, unstable structure of the society and its basic institutions in people’s minds” (Dubin, 2004, p. 68). In Russia the collective identification and the structure of an imaginary identity of people were subject to a significant transformation in the course of the past 20 years [Ibid.] In this case not only the problem of adults’ heterogeneous identity is relevant today. The quality of teaching history in modern Russian school makes the researchers talk about the loss of the unified cultural language between generations, and it is largely due to the gaps in presentation of the recent historical past, including cultural studies, in school textbooks (Veselov, 2004, p. 126-131). Consequently, there is the ground for the planned perlocutionary effect implementation in our contemporary Russian society. However, here comes another level of doubt about its attainability. In our opinion, the idea looks doubtful from the very beginning: as the project organizers’ probable task is to find a “new” historical identity of Russia, i.e. the creation of the “Russia = N” rule, where N is “a right historic figure in ideological terms”, it becomes obvious that a single project, even if it was broadcast weekly and for several months, is unable to create the conditions for the emergence of a regular “Russia = N” association. According to Wittgenstein, “it is impossible that the rule is followed by one person only and only once” (Wittgenstein, 1994, p. 199). In other words, the rule is usually observed in case of a repetitive behavior in a similar situation (Volkov, 2008). In addition, when we learn proper names we investigate the background, the unconscious people’s practice (Heidegger). Therefore, identification of such categories as “The Name of Russia” is a priori impossible if the study is not done in the field but constructed artificially within a TV project with the elements characteristic to a show and demagogy. Discussion Therefore, the project results are not the identification of the Russians’ real attitude to a historic character but their attitude towards the project and its participants. In order to make the results of this experiment reliable it is necessary to study people’s everyday attitude to history. However, the issue of the most appropriate method remains open as even a question like “Which historic figure ...?” turns the practice from the background to the foreground. Therefore, it is likely that if we examine the actual practice of the “relationship” between historic figures and people who studied in a Soviet school, Stalin and Lenin would have the highest rates. For example, Lenin is not just an abstract historic figure. He is a part of the history of Soviet children’s personality development (the stories about little Volodya Ul’yanov were an essential component of kindergarten and elementary school curricular, asterisk of October children, joining the pioneers’ organization on the leader’s birthday anniversary, a solemn pioneers’ guard at Lenin’s bust at school, etc.) while all the other “members” of the project # 1840 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nikolay D. Golev and Olga E. Yakovleva. Manipulative Strategies and Tactics of Mass Media Communication are usual characters of the Russian history who are better or worse studied at school. It is also very important that the very format of this show is been still undeveloped by the Russians who have no cultivated habit to reflect on their historical preferences and, moreover, to participate in their public rankings. The thoughts about this phenomenon can be found on the site of the “Russian Line” Orthodox Christian Information Agency: the question itself contradicts the essential quality of Russian patriotism – his conciliarism, when each person supplements another, and when there can be neither the first one nor the second one nor the twenty-fifth one. However, it is hardly just to exaggerate this side of national mentality. The comparison of epochs, events and national leaders is a key instrument to form the nation’s ordinary historical consciousness. Some interest to “ratings” can be already seen at the lowest level – children’s “political science”. For example, in the Soviet era there was a popular question among children – “Who is the main (smarter, more significant for the history) person – Lenin or Stalin?” But, in fact, this issue is also highly relevant for adult Russians. Let’s recall the ideology of perestroika, where they seriously discussed the role of Lenin and Stalin in our history. For example, in the plays by M. Shatrova Lenin is presented as an idealist, ideological leader, the genius, whereas Stalin is shown as a forger, discrediting Lenin’s ideas. At the beginning of the show it might have been assumed that the established project objectives wouldn’t be achieved due to the essential impossibility to respect the requirement for the illusion formulated by Bourdieu and understood as a necessary aspect of refinement, or insertion in any game (Kharkhordin, 2008). However, in this case the “The Name of Russia” project was a success. Its initiators were able to “force” the viewers (read: people) to play some symbolic actions (e.g., to appoint a person, identified with the state), to instill that the rates of the game are valuable for all its participants. In this case in the version of mass consciousness the designers managed to hide the fact that both the game itself and its rules are conventional in every instance. That is why the project captured a certain share of Russian population, rather than a limited group of its creators and participants, the search for the declared value turned out to be up-to-date. Conclusion The very fact of the project’s existence gave the incentive for parallel and quasi-voting, including “The Anti-Name of Russia” and “The Shame of Russia”. This indicates that the issue of our attitude towards the names and significance of their bearers for the Russian history and for a contemporary Russian’s world view remains open. However, our society’s mental activity and a new energy discursive field, generated by it, as well as activation of important fragments of the Russian conceptual picture of the world, included into the general ideological space of modern Russia, have become the most important manifestations of the project’s communicative success. The analysis of such discourses and modelling the national mentality on their basis are major tasks of communicative and cognitive linguistics. Their solution will lead to a successful study of Russian society’s everyday ideology as an important component of national mentality. References Веселова А. Ю. [A.Yu. Veselova] Советская история глазами старшеклассников // Отечественные записки. 2004. № 5 (20). С. 126–131. # 1841 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nikolay D. Golev and Olga E. Yakovleva. Manipulative Strategies and Tactics of Mass Media Communication Витгенштейн Л. [L. Witgenshtein] Философские исследования // Философские работы. Ч. 1. М.: «Гнозис», 1994. Волков В. В. [V.V. Volkov] Витгенштейн и проблема «следования правилу» // Волков В. В., Хархордин О. В. Теория практик. СПб.: Издательство Европейского университета в СанктПетербурге. С. 84–102. Данилевский И. Н. [I.N. Danilevsky] Ледовое побоище: смена образа // Отечественные записки. 2004. № 5 (20). С. 28–39. Дубин Б. В. [B.V. Dubin] «Кровавая» война и «великая» победа // Отечественные записки. 2004. № 5 (20). С. 68–84. Зверева В. В. [V.V. Zvereva] История на ТВ: конструирование прошлого // Отечественные записки. 2004. № 5 (20). С. 160–168. Морозов В. Е. [V.E. Morozov] Россия и Другие: идентичность и границы политического сообщества. М.: Новое литературное обозрение, 2009. Остин Дж. Л. [J. Austin] Слово как действие // Новое в зарубежной лингвистике. Вып. XVII. М., 1986. С. 22–131. Манипулятивные стратегии и тактики СМИ (на примере телевизионного проекта «имя Россия») Н.Д. Голев, О.Е. Яковлева Кемеровский государственный университет Россия 650043, Кемерово, ул. Красная, 6 Исследуется проект «Имя Россия» как пример осуществления манипулятивных стратегий и тактик средствами массовой информации в аспекте когнитивной и коммуникативной лингвистики, теории речевого акта, обыденной политической лингвистики и концепции практики в общественных науках. Ключевые слова: СМИ, дискурс, речевое манипулирование, идентичность, политическая наука в лингвистике, имена собственные. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 12 (2012 5) 1843-1849 ~~~ УДК 658.5 Evaluation of Strategic Influence of Socio-Economic Development Asymmetry on Entrepreneurship Environment in the Region Evgenya B. Bukharova* Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 04.12.2012, received in revised form 11.12.2012, accepted 24.12.2012 The article gives the ground to the necessity of considering asymmetry of spatial socio-economic development for the process of elaborating entrepreneur development strategic trends. First of all, the regional asymmetry is specific for two types of territories- rural and urban. The differentiation of indicators has been analyzed by the example of Krasnoyarsk Krai and the developing Krasnoyarsk Agglomeration, which influences an entrepreneurial environment of rural and urban areas as well as the degree of territorial asymmetry. The hypothesis of multi-directional influence of the agglomeration processes on conditions of entrepreneur development by territories is being justified. Taking this into consideration, the necessity to reflect mechanisms aimed at reduction of level of spatial inequalityasymmetry, influencing business development and entrepreneur environment, in industrial policy is substantiated. Keywords: development startegy; entrepreneurship; aglomeration processes; multi-sector models of territory development; economical potential; assymetry of socio-economic development; gross value added ; economically active population; workforce mobility. The work is performed in the frames of the project “Development of procedure for conducting comparative international researches on social-economic development of the region and preparation of the scientific report for the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) “Territorial Review of Krasnoyarsk agglomeration” supported by Krasnoyarsk Regional Fund of Support to Scientific and Scientific-Technical activity Introduction Development of entrepreneurial sphere is localized within a certain territory: subject of Federation, municipality, city, settlement. Entrepreneurial environment as a combination of factors, determining dynamics and scale of entrepreneur’s development in the region are substantially determined from one hand- by a * 1 supporting strategy of territorial authorities, on the other hand- by existing socio-economic conditions, internal and external disproportions. Let’s take as an example the policy of supporting small-scale and middle-scale entrepreneurship in Krasnoyarsk Krai and developing Krasnoyarsk Agglomeration. Strategic goal of supporting small-scale and middle-scale entrepreneurship Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 1843 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgenya B. Bukharova. Evaluation of Strategic Influence of Socio-Economic Development Asymmetry… in Krasnoyarsk Krai is creation conditions for sustainable development of small-scale and middle-scale businesses, which provide improvement of Krai population`s life level and quality, creation of workplaces, income growth, consumer`s market satiety with goods and services, alignment of asymmetry of socio-economic development in the territory of Krasnoyarsk Krai. Among supporting actions of public authorities are: providing stable conditions for entrepreneurial activity through enhancement of Krai legislative and normative documents, reduction of administrative barriers, ensuring an excess to infrastructure facilities, suppression of growth rates for products and services of monopolies; strengthening small-scale business positions in Krai first-priority economic activities via stimulation of integration with large-scale business enterprises, including mechanisms of sub-contracting and supporting cluster initiatives; promotion of produced services and goods to regional, national and international markets; implementation of specific programs for innovative and youth entrepreneurship supporting; contribution in the development of entrepreneurial personnel potential. Among the regional priorities in the development of small-scale and middle-scale entrepreneurship are such activities as: innovations commercialization, energy saving technologies, sub-contracting with large-scale business enterprises (engineering industry); foodstuff production; equipment after-sale services; vegetable growing, vegetables processing; wild plants harvesting and processing; deep processing of timber; low-rise housing; industrial facilities construction; tourism activities. As of the end of 2011 there were around 251 thousand employees in the sphere of smallscale and middle-scale entrepreneurship of the Krai, which is 17,2 % of total employed in Krai economics. Most of them are engaged in retail and wholesale trade (31 %), real estate transactions (19 %), construction (12 %), processing productions (12 %), agriculture and forestry (7 %). Turnover of small-scale and middle-scale businesses (including micro enterprises) was 458,9 billion rubles and investment volume comprised to 20,8 billion rubles.1 Some of Krasnoyarsk Krai entrepreneurial activity indicators have certain deviations from due Russian and Siberian Federal Okrug (SFO) indicators. However, the level of entrepreneurial development in Krai can be evaluated as relevant to average Russian and SFO`s levels. Krai corresponds to SFO and Russia by the number of small-scale and middle-scale businesses (including micro enterprises) per one thousand inhabitants (13.0 units), and yields by the share of employees engaged in small and medium businesses enterprises in the average total number of employees of all companies and organizations – 24.0 % (SFO – 24,8 %, Russia – 25,1 %) as well as by investments in fixed capital of small business ( excluding micro enterprises) – 1,9 thousand rubles per capita (SFO – 2,6 thousand rubles, Russia – 2,0 thousand rubles). At the same time small enterprises turnover per capita (excluding micro enterprises) in Krai significantly exceeds the average meanings in SFO approaching to the average Russian indicator ( Krai- – 87,0 thousand rubles, SFO – 69,0 thousand rubles, Russia – 90,3 thousand rubles.). The level of entrepreneurship development varies considerably by Krai territories. 74 % of all small-scale entrepreneurship subjects (69 % in Krasnoyarsk city) are concentrated in the Central area (including the Krasnoyarsk Agglomeration); in West area – 6,8 %, in East area – 4,9 %, in South – 3,9 %, in North – 5,5 %, in Angara River region – 4,9 %. The most intensively small and # 1844 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgenya B. Bukharova. Evaluation of Strategic Influence of Socio-Economic Development Asymmetry… middle entrepreneurship is being developing in cities and large municipalities. At the same time on 26 % of Krasnoyarsk Krai territory where almost 30 % of population reside, supporting of socio- economic equilibrium is possible only through the development of smallscale business, which provides workplaces, stable income, filling of local customer`s market 2. Within the certain year period financial measures are being applied in Krai for supporting small enterprises. Costs for supporting small and middle-scale entrepreneurship are being increased annually, the number of financial assistance recipients is growing, supporting infrastructure developing. Financial support per one small and middle enterprise has increased in Krai from 1,7 thousand rubles to 22,2 thousand rubles (considering federal budget funds) within the period 2008-2011. In the framework of strategic trends of socio-economic development of the Krai and its industrial and social policy for the period up to 2020 it is projected that for small and middlescale business support the following indicator`s level will be reached: the share of employed in the sphere of small and middle entrepreneurship in the total number of employed in economics will increase up to 30 %; turnover of small enterprises per one inhabitant of the Krai will be double increased, turnover of middle enterprises – will increase by 1,5 times; the share of production segment in small and middle entrepreneurship will come up to at least 35 percents. Rezults The most important element of entrepreneurial development strategy in the region is the reduction of spatial inequality under the conditions of forming of entrepreneurial environment and socio-economic development asymmetry. Mechanisms of Krai agglomeration processes development and management can be such an element. Agglomerations formation is an objective and actively developing process in the Russian reality. However, along with the evident positive economic, social, infrastructural and town planning effects, which appear in the process of agglomeration establishment, it is necessary to evaluate possible negative influence of agglomeration processes on entrepreneurial environment development. It is connected with the fact that agglomeration as a compact combination of settlements, mainly urban, been integrated in a complicated, multi-component dynamic system with an intensive production, transport and cultural interconnections, can have a deep internal territorial differentiation. Settlements proximity determines an agglomeration effect as an economic and social benefit due to reduction of expenditures coming from spatial concentration of productions and other economic facilities within agglomeration frames, thus creating prerequisites for further establishment of businesses. However, the nature of influence of world and Russian urbanization processes on the entrepreneurial environment and economics of the territory could not be described by a definite socio-economic trend as different regions have both various t levels of industrial development and differentiated conditions. Agglomeration processes in Russia are tightly connected with an interaction of two types of territories: urban and rural areas. Herewith, 10 to 80 % of different Federation subject`s territory is mainly rural areas. The problem is how to adjust the existing all-Russia strategies for entrepreneur development which are often branch-wise and uniformly applied in the whole country excluding established trajectories for rural and urban areas development. The Krasnoyarsk Agglomeration with its center in the city of Krasnoyarsk, which potential significantly exceeds municipalities # 1845 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgenya B. Bukharova. Evaluation of Strategic Influence of Socio-Economic Development Asymmetry… incorporated in Agglomeration, is considered in the boundaries of the following municipalities: cities- Krasnoyarsk, Sosnovoborsk, Divnogorsk (urban areas); municipalities- Berezovskii, Yemelianovskii, Manskii, Sukhobuzimskii (rural areas). Unlike the most agglomeration of European part of the country, the Krasnoyarsk Agglomeration first of all, has the less population density, and secondly incorporates rural areas (rural area is sizeable and is more than 40 %). Key conditions for entrepreneurial environment development in Krasnoyarsk Agglomeration are accumulated economic and labor potential of the Agglomeration in whole, the depth of asymmetry of socio-economic development of territories incorporated in agglomeration; entrepreneurial activity by types of economic activity in territories; the possibility of large industrial facilities placement on the existing production sites within agglomeration territory; availability of relatively cheap electric energy; transport potential; institutional mechanisms providing coordination of territory cooperation2. Gross value added (GVA), generated within the Krasnoyarsk Agglomeration, exceeds gross regional product (GRP) in number of SFO regions. Along with the fact that the gross value added (GVA) of Krasnoyarsk agglomeration is more than in some Siberian regions, GVA per employed or working in the agglomeration is also higher than the average in SFO regions. So, in 2010 GVA in current prices per capita in the agglomeration was 1,2 times higher than the average in SFO regions and GVA in current prices per one worker was 1,4 times higher compared to SFO and 1,2 times higher compared to average Russian indicators in RF3. The level and scale of Krasnoyarsk Agglomeration development is significant for Krai economics by number of all-Krai socioeconomic indicators. The Krasnoyarsk Agglomeration is one of the key sources for generating value added in Krai. However a pattern of the produced value added by the agglomeration territories varies. (See Table 2). In spite of unfavorable demographic trends, the agglomeration labor potential is much higher than that in Krai due to a high economic activity of population and low unemployment level in the territories incorporated in the Agglomeration Krasnoyarsk city has a determining impact on the number of economically active population of the Agglomeration. It is a center of attraction of migration flows from Krai cities and territories, including agglomeration municipalities. Migration processes with the migration inflows prevailing are an important factor of changing the total number of urban population and the number of its economically active share. The urban share in agglomeration workforce number was being increased from 82 % in 1999 to 84 % in 2011. Resultant effect of other agglomeration territories does not exceed 18 %. The level of economical activity of population was relatively high starting from 2007 by all agglomeration territories, and it slightly varied by territories due to a commuting. The low unemployment rate is also due to a commuting as the share of employed by place of abode in the total number of labor force is increasing. The number of employed by place of abode in 2010 has exceeded the number of employed by main workplace. The growth rate of employed by place of abode also exceeds the growth rate of employed by main workplace5. The basic trend of changing production pattern in the Krasnoyarsk Agglomeration within the last decade within the framework of threesector model, is connected with the increase of tertiary economic sector up to the level of secondary sector6 (See the Table 3). # 1846 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgenya B. Bukharova. Evaluation of Strategic Influence of Socio-Economic Development Asymmetry… 2) Mining and quarrying, manufacturing, electricity, gas and water supply 3) Construction 4) Wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles, motorcycles and personal and household goods; hotels and restaurants; transport storage and communication 5) Financial intermediation; real estate rending and business activities 6) Public administration and defense, compulsory social security; education; health and social work; other community, social and personal service activities; private households with employed persons Total Added value of the Agglomeration added value in the Krai, % 1) Agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing Krasnoyarsk Agglomeration, % Sectors Krasnoyarsk Krai, % Table 2. Gross value added pattern by economic sectors in 20114 3,90 % 0,94 % 7,5 % 55,83 % 43,49 % 24,2 % 7,30 % 7,79 % 33,2 % 16,32 % 30,96 % 60,0 % 5,95 % 5,89 % 30,8 % 10,70 % 10,93 % 31,8 % 100,00 % 100,00 % 31,1 % Table 3. GVA pattern by agglomeration economic sectors (million rubles/ %) Sector Primary 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 0,88 % 0,88 % 1,42 % 3,83 % 4,16 % Secondary 36,43 % 36,43 % 35,17 % 42,24 % 42,49 % Tertiary 62,69 % 62,69 % 63,41 % 53,93 % 53,35 % Regional production pattern by economic sectors and by activities has one common feature – the dominance of the city of Krasnoyarsk and existing differences by other municipalities. Economic structure by agglomeration cities and municipalities in the context of sectors in whole and sub sectors differs significantly. The major part of GVA by all sectors is produced in the metropolitan area of the Krasnoyarsk city. In primary economic sector less than 1 % of GVA is produced in three municipalities and only in three territories: Berezovskii (6,4 %), Yemelianovskii (4,85 %) and Sukhobuzimskii (1,65 %) GVA volume is 1,65 % to 6,4 % due to the development of agricultural sector. These three territories are suburban and the development of entrepreneurship in agricultural sector is aimed at supplying the city of Krasnoyarsk with. So, the primary sector – Berezovskii and Yemelianovskii territories is focused at the development of agro- industrial complex. Secondary economic sector is concentrated in the city of Divnogorsk (production of electric energy and processing industries) and in Berezovskii territory (timber processing and food industry). Yemelianovskii territory, where transport and logistics hub is developing on the basis of existing airport, is the most distinctive territory among the other territories except for Krasnoyarsk in tertiary economic sector (services, including transport). # 1847 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgenya B. Bukharova. Evaluation of Strategic Influence of Socio-Economic Development Asymmetry… Differentiation of the examined summarizing indicators can be a measure of asymmetry of socio-economic development of agglomeration territories. Analysis of indicators distribution by territories shows that agglomeration processes have a positive influence on the position of Krasnoyarsk city and Yemelianovskii territory both in economical- entrepreneurial and social sense, characterized by the level of socioeconomic development which is higher than the average of the Krai. Berezovskii territory also favorable preconditions foe entrepreneurship development. So far agglomeration processes has negative consequences for the other territories. There are two tendencies. First of all, the ongoing agglomeration process smoothes socio-economic asymmetry as the agglomeration labor market is under the positive pressure of the city of Krasnoyarsk. Against the background of high level of able-bodied population of neighboring territories mobility the entrepreneurial activity, labor productivity, and incomes of the population is growing by agglomeration in whole and by separate territories as well. Secondly, a redistribution of the skilled labor force from municipalities into Krasnoyarsk city takes place followed by reduction of investment attractiveness for entrepreneurs. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Conclusions Due to that it is necessary to pay attention to additional mechanisms for regulation of agglomeration processes with an accent to a differentiated economical policy of rural and urban areas incorporated in agglomeration. The development of entrepreneurship for urban areas of Krasnoyarsk agglomeration should focus on the growth of secondary and tertiary sectors of economics. Within the last time the world practice creates new approaches in respect of rural areas, aimed at mixed industrial and agrarian development of entrepreneurship in primary and tertiary sectors of economics. An analysis of asymmetry of socio-economic conditions on the development of entrepreneurial environment development conducted on the example of the Krasnoyarsk agglomeration shows that during the elaboration entrepreneur development strategy in Krasnoyarsk Krai it is necessary to establish a differentiated industrial policy in the context of separate Krai territories for supporting small and middle-scale business. It will allow minimum 1,5 times reduction of inequality level in spatial development of small and middle-scale business between Krasnoyarsk Krai territories. Calculated on the basis of continuous statistical monitoring of small-scale and medium-scale enterprises activities in 2010- www.gsk.ru Investment passport of Krasnoyarsk Krai http://passport.krskstate.ru/kras-region/territory/transport/ Web site of Federal Statistics Service www.gsk.ru Svetlana À. Samusenko, Evgenia B. Bukharova, Vladislav N. Rutskyi and Dmitry À. Maslodudov Trends for the Development of Entrepreneurial and Innovative Activity in Krasnoyarsk Agglomeration// Siberian Federal University journal. Issue 5 (10).2012. p. 1492-1499. Irina P. Vorontsova, Alexander N. Pozdeev and Tatiana A. Samylkina Evolution of a Large-Scale Agglomeration Labour Market (Based on the Example of the Krasnoyarsk Agglomeration)// Siberian Federal University journal. Issue 5(10).2012. p. 1465-1474 Three-sector model of the economy considers economy as the combination of branches (enterprises), conventionally divided into three sectors. Primary sector integrates industries related to raw materials extraction and its processing into semi-products. Secondary sector integrates productions of industries dealing with fi nal products manufacturing. Tertiary sector include services (transport, communications, trade, tourism, healthcare etc.). Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgenya B. Bukharova. Evaluation of Strategic Influence of Socio-Economic Development Asymmetry… References Investment passport of Krasnoyarsk Krai http://passport.krskstate.ru/kras-region/territory/ transport/ Web site of Federal Statistics Service www.gsk.ru Svetlana À. Samusenko, Evgenia B. Bukharova, Vladislav N. Rutskyi and Dmitry À. Maslodudov Trends for the Development of Entrepreneurial and Innovative Activity in Krasnoyarsk Agglomeration// Siberian Federal University journal. Issue 5(10).2012. p. 1492-1499 Irina P. Vorontsova, Alexander N. Pozdeev and Tatiana A. Samylkina Evolution of a Large-Scale Agglomeration Labour Market (Based on the Example of the Krasnoyarsk Agglomeration)// Siberian Federal University journal. Issue 5(10).2012. p. 1465-1474 Оценка стратегического влияния асимметрии социально-экономического развития на предпринимательский климат в регионе Е.Б. Бухарова Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 В статье обоснована необходимость учитывать при формировании стратегических направлений развития предпринимательства асимметрию пространственного социальноэкономического развития. В первую очередь территориальная асимметрия характерна для двух типов территорий – урбанизированные и неурбанизированные регионы. На примере Красноярского края и создаваемой агломерации проанализирована дифференциация показателей, которые влияют на предпринимательский климат урбанизированных и неурбанизированных территорий и степень территориальной асимметрии. Обозначена гипотеза разнонаправленного влияния агломерационных процессов на условия развития предпринимательства по территориям. С учетом этого обосновывается необходимость отражения в промышленной политике региона механизмов, направленных на сокращение уровня пространственного неравенства-асимметрии, влияющих на условия развития бизнеса и предпринимательский климат. Ключевые слова: стратегия развития, предпринимательство, агломерационные процессы, многосекторные модели развития территории, экономический потенциал, асимметрия социально-экономического развития, валовая добавленная стоимость, экономически активное население, мобильность трудовых ресурсов. Работа выполнена в рамках проекта «Разработка методики проведения сравнительных международных исследований по социально-экономическому развитию региона и подготовка научного доклада для организации экономического сотрудничества и развития (ОЭСР) «Территориальный обзор по Красноярской агломерации», поддержанного ККФПН и НТД.