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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
2. For English Learners
Introduction
Culture is a difficult subject to discuss. This universal subject is
multifunctional and has many aspects. It covers numerous
phenomena: qualities of a person, ways of doing things,
communication and a variety of miscellaneous things.
There are many definitions of culture and not one of them is
complete and comprehensive.
The unique feature of culture is considered to be language. With
the help of our mother tongue we perceive and study everything
around us. With the help of foreign languages we learn about new
and different things. Through language we compare and expand our
experiences. We broaden our horizons, enrich our own culture and
even change our values.
You have before you a unique collection of teachers’ works of the
Department of Foreign Languages at Pomor State University,
Archangelsk, Russia. The choice and presentation of material about
the Russian North is innovative. It is presented in five Languages and
aimed at both Russian and foreign readers.
 It is easy and enjoyable to read.
 The material is interpreted with the help of the authors’
feelings, hobbies and interests.
 There are elements of novelty and cultural charm.
 Each topic is autonomous and can be omitted.
 The asset of this edition is that it is presented in five languages.
 It is aimed at raising awareness of our country and region.
 All the tasks are interactive and aimed to promote
understanding.
The course-book contains material of regional interest: the
Solovetsky Isles, history of Archangel, the city emblem and painting,
etc. The texts offered are of a different genre: fairy-tales, interviews,
historical reviews, excursions, descriptions of some rites, etc. The preand post-text activities help the reader understand the contents in a
variety of ways: language differences, historical features, uniqueness
of culture and literature and differences in style.
This course-book is to facilitate the development and education of
under- and post-graduate students as well as those keen on foreign
languages, history, literature, painting, geography, icon-painting and
the fortunes of celebrities.
The materials offered can be used for independent and classbased studies in the discipline of Foreign Languages.
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2.1.
How Archangel Town Appeared
1. Read the first part of the fairy-tale and answer the questions.
How Archangel Town Appeared
(After Mikhail Popov’s fairy-tale)
Since time immemorial the Dvina river has been carrying its
waters to the White Sea. The forests that surrounded it teemed with
animals and birds. The river itself was full of fish. Therefore, people
used to settle on the Dvina river banks. So they lived there, free and
brave, working hard, raising their children and praising their God
being afraid of neither wood-goblins nor demons nor even of the ring
leader of all the evil spirits. That outraged the Devil.
He brought together his entire winged host and gave them his
menacing order to do away with the Dvina river people. So spread the
evil host its wings and rushed across the sky gathering the boulders
from all the nooks of the universe. Then it brought that entire dark
stony heap to the Dvina river banks and threw it down into the river
mouth.
The Dvina people were frightened. Their hard times began. The
Dvina river, their mother came out of its banks and flooded the
meadows and the fields. Soon the water reached the houses. It really
seemed that the Devil had decided to be the death of these people.
1) Why did people settle along the Dvina river banks?
2) What kind of people were they? (lazy, brave, kind, industrious,
cowardly, wicked, independent, cruel)
3) Why and how did the Devil decide to do away with the Dvina
river people?
2. Think of a possible continuation of the fairy-tale using the hints:
to pray, help, sinless, Archangel Michael, army, brothers-giants, the
Devil, heaps, to scatter, the way to the sea, the river bed.
3. Read the second part of the fairy-tale and compare it with your
variant. Is there anything in common?
So the Dvina river people began to pray to God asking for help.
The Lord heard their prayers and as those people were pure and
sinless, He sent the Archangel Michael to rescue them. The Archangel
Michael spread his white wings and blew his trumpet. On hearing His
call His pure army got together, rushed to the Dvina river banks,
came down to the ground and turned into giants. The Devil thought
that no one would move his heaps of stones away but not only did the
giants move them but even scattered them.
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How happy was the exhausted Dvina River when the way to the
sea was freed. Soon it returned to its bed. Birds and animals came
back to their dwelling places and after them people came. Everyone
was happy that the danger had past. The people bowed to the giants.
When the giants turned into ‘angels of light’ the people crossed
themselves and saw the angels off to the heavens.
Little by little the people began to settle returning to their usual
order and tenor of life. However, they did not forget about their
miraculous salvation. Being grateful to the God and in honour of the
holy warrior - the Archangel Michael - they erected the cloister of
Archangel Michael, which later on grew into the town.
4. Do you think this fairy-tale sounds like the truth? Read the last
part of the fairy-tale.
We are reminded of that past time by the town itself and by its
coats of arms on which the Archangel Michael defeating the Devil is
depicted. However, there exists other evidence – the stones, which
were scattered by the brothers-giants. The one that was thrown by
the youngest brother is now called Mudiug – an island that towers not
far from the Dvina river mouth. The one that was thrown by one of
the middle brothers went to several smaller pieces – these are the
Solovetski Isles. Another one got stuck in the mouth of the White Sea
– this is Morzhovets. Still another cramp-shaped boulder is Novaya
Zemlya. And also – Kolguev Island, Medvezhii Island, the Grumant
Archipelago, or Spitzbergen as it is called now… All these scattered
stones can be seen on
the map.
If you want to see
the wonderful salvation
with your own eyes, go
to the Dvina river
embankment and look
at
the
river
itself
flowing so wide, at the
islands that divide its
mouth into so many
arms.
5. Do you know any other fairy-tales, bylinas, fables, and parables
about your native places? Who wrote or told them? What stories
about your native places were you read to or told by your parents,
grandparents or friends? Retell them.
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2.2
Archangel Coat of Arms
Archangel Coat of Arms
Archangel is one of a few Russian towns that
have retained its sonorous name and historical coat
of arms. The history of Archangel is inseparably
linked with the reformatory activities of Peter the
Great; and therefore, his participation in creating
the emblem of the city was not a mere chance. There
is a design in the form of a shield with an archangel
on horseback defeating the devil with his spear in
Peter the First's notebook dating back to 1701 to be
used as an emblem by the town of Archangel.
Perhaps, this image was called up by the victory
gained over a detachment of Swedish ships by the
Novodvinsk fortress on June 25-26, 1701. This is the
earliest drawing of the Archangel emblem.
In 1712, the Archangel coat of arms - the archangel on a winged
horse defeating the devil – first appeared on the banner of the
Archangel regiment. However, the fact that it looked very much like
the Moscow coat of arms and one of the Georgian tsars did not escape
the attention of Francesco Santi, the Italian count specially invited by
Peter I to work at creating coats of arms in the heraldic office
established in Moscow in 1722. It is Santi who is considered to be the
author of the final composition of the Archangel coat of arms that has
remained unchanged to this day. The flying angel in blue garments
with a fiery sword and a shield in his hands is depicted on the
background of a golden shield. Under him – the defeated devil.
Who is he – the victor of the devil? The Archangel Michael, after
whom first the monastery and later the town was named, - the
benefactor of the Christian family, the leader of the celestial host,
struggling with the kingdom of gloom and doom - has always been
especially honoured in Russia. Every Orthodox church has the icon of
Arch-strategist Michael. Orthodox Christians offer up their prayers to
Saint Michael asking for his protection and defence from enemies
visible and invisible.
Some people, however, consider the image depicted on the coat of
arms of Archangel to be only the symbol of a warrior-defender of the
Russian land, but not the saint. The absence of a halo – the necessary
symbol of holiness - over his head is their argument.
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1. Answer the questions:
1. Which one of Russian tsars took part in creating the coat of
arms of Archangel?
2. Which one of foreigners is the author of the final composition of
the coat of arms?
3. Is there any connection between the name of the city and the
image on the emblem of Archangel?
4. How and why did the composition of the coat of arms change?
5. When did the final variant of the coat of arms of Archangel
appear?
6. Who is depicted on the coat of arms - a saint or the symbol of a
warrior-defender?
2. Fill in the gaps with the necessary words from the text:
1. The history of Archangel is inseparably linked with … … of Peter
the Great.
2. In 1712, Archangel coat of arms first appeared on … of
Archangel regiment.
3. The first coat of arms looked very much like the coat of arms of
… and one of … … .
4. On the background of a … shield the flying angel in … garments
with a … sword and a shield in his hands is depicted. Under him
– the defeated … .
5. The Archangel Michael has always been … … in Russia.
3. Do you know when, how and due to whom the coat of arms of your
town appeared? What is depicted on it? Describe it to your foreign
friend.
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2.3.
Merchants of Archangel
1. Read and find out:
 Is the text below a report, a scientific article, an extract from
some chronicle or any other sort of information?
 Who is it written for?
Merchants of Archangel
Archangel, founded in 1584, has rich
trading traditions. In 1553, the English
merchant Richard Chancellor came to the
mouth of the Northern Dvina on the ship
“Edward Bonaventura”, opening the way to
extensive trade. On the 4th of March 1583,
the Russian Tsar Ivan IV ordered military
leaders Nashchekin and Volokhov “to build
Archangel-town” in the place of the
monastery of Archangel Michael. Originally,
the town was called Novo-Kholmogory but
soon it became Archangel. A lot of things had
happened in the four-hundred-year history
of the town.
The beginning of the 20th century was a time of great change in
the history of Archangel. It was the time of the economic rise of
Archangel, new industrial and cultural development of the town and
its economy. Archangel entered the 20th century with a population of
30,000 people. During 15 years, it rose to 50,000, and it steadily
increased both by birth rate and an influx of people from all over
Russia.
This was also the time of a technical boom: 1871 - saw the start
of a printing industry which included 4 printing houses, 1 lithograph
and 3 printing-lithograph houses; 1897 - the opening of the
Archangel railway; 1902 – electricity; and 1903 was the year of
completion of the water supply system. Transportation by steamships
began. The autobus made its debut in Archangel in 1907.
Craft and trade were the pride of Archangel. Several hundred
shops in town and Solombala stocked everything: from merchandise
to dynamic machines and from fish to pineapples and other goods.
Four “Singer’s” markets in Archangel were supplying their sewing
machines to a large network of seamstresses in the North.
Merchants, the middle-class and the citizens of Archangel in
general were an educated and cultured people. Magazines and papers
were printed such as the “Arkhangelsk”, the “Severnoye Utro”, the
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“Gubernskiye Vedomosti”, the “Arkhangelskiye Gorodskiye Izvestiya”
and others. There were 4 large libraries in Archangel, and about 20
free libraries at the factories and in the suburbs.
Women of Archangel were important. Peasant-women and
merchant-wives, nobleman-widows and middle-class women were the
representatives of Archangel business owners. But our northern
women showed themselves not only in business, but in charity as
well. They organised the so-called “White Flower” days for sick
children, bought books and toys for orphanages, - activities which
were highly appreciated by the officials from Petersburg.
When speaking about the town of Archangel, we must mention
the Solombala district. Solombala was a unique cultural region,
where the streets bore the names of those countries, with which the
merchants were dealing - Denmark Street, Norway Street, American
Street, French Street and Irish Street.
Being in Archangel, Peter the First was present at the launching
of the first Russian commercial vessel. The standard, hoisted on that
first Russian ship, became the Russian 3-coloured standard.
In the trading square in Solombala stood the house of the famous
Archangel merchant Makarov (his house served as store and office).
Makarov was fond of the bathhouses, where business deals were
usually made. At the beginning of the 20th century, in the same
square, several schools and colleges were established (at that time,
there were about 60 educational establishments in the city, among
them 3 grammar schools, 1 institute, plus technical, trading,
commercial and marine colleges).
The Margaret Fair gave special colour to Archangel. Established
on the 1st of September 1844 and named in honour of St. Margaret
Day, it took the second place in Russia for selling manufactured
goods and was first in fish sales. The Pomors and Norwegians took a
fancy to the Margaret Fair and made it the least expensive trading
place in Archangel.
2. Give Russian equivalents to:
a) merchant/ry, b) the
economic rise, c) birth rate,
d) influx of people, e) a
technical boom, f) timber
industrialists, g) shipping
company, h) a/the reference
book,
i)
craft(s)men,
j)
descendants,
k)deeds,
l)
orphanages, m) the middleclass, n) advertisements, o)
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in the suburbs, p) unique, q) seafarers, r) launching, s) the 3colour(ed) standard.
3. Read and answer:
What are the dates of 1583, 1584, and 1844 remarkable for?
4. Agree or disagree:
1. Archangel itself was founded in 1584. 2. The date of its
foundation is 4 March 1583. 3. Archangel was built in the place of
the monastery of Archangel Michael. 4. The way to extensive trade
was first opened by English merchant Richard Chancellor. 5. The
streets of Solombala bore the names of the countries with which the
merchants were dealing. 6. The Margaret Fair was established on 1
September 1844. 7. The Pomors and Norwegians made the Margaret
Fair the most expensive trading place in Archangel. 8. The chronicle
of Archangel serves as an evidence of intensive work and
commercial activity of the town people.
5. Refer.
Go on to say:
a. Archangel, founded in 1584, has rich traditions.
b. Much has happened in the four-hundred-year history of the
town.
c. The bus made its debut in Russia in 1907.
d. When speaking about the town of Archangel, we must mention
the Solombala district.
e. The Pomors and Norwegians took a fancy to the Margaret Fair
and made it the least expensive trading place in Archangel.
f. The chronicle of Archangel serves as an evidence of intensive
work.
6. Ask 10 questions from the text together. Answer these questions in
mini-groups.
7. Break the text into several parts. Give a title to each part.
8. Retell the entitled parts one by one.
9. Role play a situation or a dialogue/conversation which might have
taken place at the Margaret Fair: a) between an English merchant
and a German/Russian merchant; b) between a merchant and a
buyer/customer.
10. What fairs are held in Archangel of today? What are they like?
Role play a dialogue “At a stand” (of the fair).
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2.4.
The Streets of Archangel
1. What is the origin of such street names as: Northern Dvina Street,
Shenkurskaya Street, Izhemskaya Street, Vologodskaya Street, and
Swedish Street?
2. Read the text and explain where the names of the following streets
come from:
Pomorskaya Street, Smolny Buyan (Resin Wharf), Obvodny Canal
(Drain Channel).
The Streets of Archangel
There is no street without a
name. In Archangel, which is older
than 400 years, more than 500
streets
and
avenues
are
interwoven like a net, and each of
them has its own history and its
own name. What is the origin of
the streets’ names?
In the past, when the town
was being established, it was
passages between houses that were given names, not streets, e.g.:
“First Passage”, “Middle Passage”, “Eleventh Passage”. After that the
streets were named after the first people who built their houses there.
Then, the streets began to be named depending on the buildings
situated in them: Theatre Street, Bread Lane, Orphanage Street.
In the 20th century certain political motives can be traced in
naming streets. For example, after the February Revolution of 1917,
the street with a "hateful" name - Police Street - was renamed later
into Freedom Street. Later the names of political leaders and famous
statesmen were given to many streets.
A reshuffle of street names was caused by a number of motives.
One of them was to put an end to the legacy of the "old" world. The
other reason was democratisation of all sides of the social life in the
80-90s of the 20th century. During those years the original historical
names of the streets and avenues were returned to them. The three
most famous cases of renaming are the following: the Embankment
named after Lenin has become the Embankment of the Northern
Dvina, Pavlin Vinogradov Avenue has become Troitsky Avenue, and
former Engels Street is now Voskresenskaya Street.
Pomorskaya Street is one of the most popular names nowadays (it
comes from the word “Pomor’ye”, which meant the huge region along
the coasts of the White Sea, Lake Onega, and the Arctic Ocean).
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Strange to say, but the citizens were unable to get used to this name
(for more than half a century people living in Archangel called it
Buyanova Street). This street has always been and still remains a
special trade centre of the town, which begins at the hub of suburban
communications, where a large market was earlier situated. It
finishes at the avenue of Obvodny Canal, whose name is connected
with the former existence of a special drain channel, made at the end
of the 18th Century. That channel maintained sanitary condition of
the town for one and a half-centuries and was filled in during the
Soviet period and turned into an avenue. In effect, it was a boundary
of the town, beyond which there had been swamps. The channel had
an outlet to the Northern Dvina in Smolny Buyan.
The origin of the above street’s name is very interesting. The word
“Buyan” is an old Russian name for a wharf, where more than 60,000
barrels of resin arrived every year from the upper Northern Dvina.
Gradually, the resin trade faded away, the Buyan lost its importance
and only remained in the street’s name.
3. What street do you live in? Do you know its history? What can you
tell a foreign guest about your street?
4. Give 5-7 adjectives, which can describe some street. What street is
it? Tell the class/partner about this street using these adjectives.
5. Match the words of the column A and column B.
A house/building
B Bread
town
drain
region
high
Wharf
children’s
Lane
old
orphanage
huge
channel
Resin
6. Describe one of the Archangel’s streets without mentioning its
name. Students of your group should guess which street you are
talking about.
7. A role-play: all students are given
a piece of paper each.
Everyone writes one sentence at
the top, rolls the paper and gives it
to another student. As a result,
you have as many stories about
the streets as many students in
your group are.
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2.5.
Solovetsky Isles
Solovetsky Isles
The Solovetsky Isles/the
Solovky is the well-known
archipelago in the White sea. It
consists of 6 big islands
surrounded by the big amount
of so called ludas (a small island
covered by some vegetation) and
korgas (boulders, peaking out
during tide).
The biggest island is Big
Solovetsky isle (the square is
246 km2). Here are the most of
monuments of the Christian culture and first of all the Solovetsky
monastery, founded by respected Russian Saints Zosima, Savvatiy
and German.
The next big island is Anzer isle (the square is 47 km2), where are
the Trinitie’s and Calvary-Crusifixion’s hermitages.
Big Muksalma isle is connected with Big Solovetsky isle by the
stone damb built in the second half of the 19th century.
Here were the cattle-yards and other economy buildings of the
Monastery. Here was also the small church of St. Sergiy
Radonezhskiy. Small Muksalma isle
earlier connected with Big Muksalma
isle with the help of damb, which is
now washed away by sea waters,
occupies about 1 km2. Earlier it was
used in economic aims.
The Isles of Big and Small Hare
are also little (the square is about 1
km2). They attract the particular
attention, because there are many
monuments of the late Stone Age on
their territory (labirinths, boulder
barrows and pagan simmetry of the
Stone Age). On Big Hare isle there’s
the wooden church in the tribution of
the St. Apostal Andrew, erected by
the participation of Peter the 1st.
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As
some
fairy-tales
visions come out from the
sea the ancient walls of
north
stern
monastery,
harmonically uniting with
the snow-white features of
temples, which rush their
cupolas into hight. The
biggest, majestic out the
whole ensemble is the
Transfiguration cathedral. It
was being built during
1558-1566 under the ruling
of the St. Philipp Kolychev on the means contributed by Russian
people and tsar Ivan the Terrible.
The Assumption refectory complex (1552-1557) is the oldest stone
building on Big Solovetsky isle. It involves the Assumption church
with 2 additionally erected churches of Dmitry Solunsky and Cutting
Head of John Baptist, here are also the refectory and kelar chambers.
The sizes of refectory can impress also in our time. The square of
the refectory (about 480 m2) is little bit less than the biggest Russian
refectory in the whole Russia Granovitaja chamber in Moscow.
The history of the Solovetsky monastery is connected tightly with
the history of Russia and is rich in events of all nation scale.
The Russian emperors Peter the 1st and Alexander the 2nd visited
the Solovetsky Isles. And in our time the Solovky are the centre of
attention of the cultural and political public of the whole world.
Vladimir Putin, the president of Russia, and Russian Patriarch
Aleksiy the 2nd visited the Solovetsky Isles in 2001.
1.
Answer the following
questions:
1. When did people get to
know about the existence
of the Solovetsky Isles?
2. What are the main
islands in the Solovetsky
archipelago?
3. What territory does the
biggest island occupy?
4.What is the name of the
oldest building made of
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stone on Big Solovetsky isle?
5. What churchial feast became the name of the Solovetsky
monastery?
6. What kind of famous people visited the Solovetsky Isles?
2. Describe the exterior of the orthodox church.
3. Speak about the interior of the orthodox church. How does it differ
from other churches?
Use the words: icon, iconostasis, candle, spiritual literature, choir
(part of church), church-plate.
4. Picture to yourself what it might be like to approach the Solovetsky
Isles across the White sea. What are you feeling and what can you
see?
Use the words: grandeur, beauty, solemnity, famous, big, wellknown, christian, wooden, cultural, whole, unique.
5. Who of the persons mentioned in the text are familiar to you?
Speak about one of them.
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2.6.
Malye Korely
Malye Korely
How great and wonderful the
cultural heritage of the Russian
North is! We can speak about
various traditions peculiar to the
North, for example the sense of
beauty and logic expressed in the
simple architecture of peasant
houses, bell towers, granaries,
bathhouses, wells, and windmills.
Yes, our dear guests, we are
going on an excursion to Malye
Korely. Let me introduce the pearl of
the North to you - I am speaking
about the open-air museum of
wooden architecture in Malye Korely.
The museum is 25 km away from
Archangel with an area of 130 hectares, where you can admire 70
unique examples of ancient wooden architecture and it is really an
encyclopaedia of North Russian folk culture in olden days.
So, we are passing through the beautiful wooden gates and find
ourselves as if in a different dimension - completely cut off from
civilisation. You can see a typical village of the 19th century. The
sound of bells is heard. There are people in traditional clothes and
costumes near the central bell tower. There the clip-clop of the horses'
hooves is heard and we can see a
carriage-horse in a decorated
harness. That is the way the
historical atmosphere of a village
of the last century has been
preserved in Malye Korely. The
beauty and logic, the simple
architecture of peasant houses,
barns, bathhouses, and windmills
are typical of the North.
The museum itself consists of
6 parts, each of which presents a
unique model of the Russian
North settlements. We see an
architectural ensemble consisting
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of the church, bell-tower, a
peasant's farmstead, windmills, and household buildings. Numerous expositions
of the museum give us an
idea of the life, daily
routines, and the material
and spiritual culture of
northern peasants.
Pay attention to the
harmony and logic of the
beauty,
proportionality,
simplicity, and functional design of the architectural samples. The
best examples of them are the northern peasant houses.
Just have a look! How grand and beautiful an "izba" (a peasant
house) is! Its large size is quite justified: all was under the same roof living rooms, cattle, food products and tools.
We can easily imagine our northern climate with its frequent
frosts, winds, snow and rains. All these natural factors made people
build durable houses. Pine and larch were usually used for the
construction of sturdy and warm peasant houses. It was so because
those materials had all the necessary properties such as resin
content, straightness, and good rot resistance. Pay attention to the
fact that northern peasant houses are very high which distinguishes
them from the houses of southern and central Russia.
And now let's drop in one of the peasant houses. We see a big
stove, the only source of heat in the house. At the sides you see
benches and above them (about a man's height) are built-in polaty
(planking fixed between ceiling and
stove used as sleeping places). There
are kitchen utensils near the stove,
which occupy the greater part of the
house. It's a women's half - ”babii kut” the prototype of a modern kitchen. In
the peasant houses, where the well-todo peasants lived, we can see carved
sofas, wooden beds and chairs which
resembled urban furniture in style.
There you see dishes standing in the
cupboards. The living quarters are
decorated with homespun towels,
beautiful pieces of embroidery.
The Archangel open-air museum of
wooden architecture is a traditional
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place of rest of the city dwellers and guests of the city. Grand festive
occasions often take place in the Museum and folklore groups
perform to the public. Here you can hear bell-ringing, ride a horse,
ride swings, in a word, dive into the atmosphere of olden-days and
feel yourself closer to the culture of the North.
I. Yershova
1. How do you understand the expression "spiritual culture"? Give
your definition.
2. Why, do you think, peasant houses are high? What determines this
peculiarity? How can you account for it?
3. What moral features are peculiar to peasants in the North? Try to
connect your reasoning with the traditions of ancient wooden
architecture in the North.
4. Name some main unique traditions of the northern architecture.
Analyse the formation of nouns describing them. Give your own
examples.
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2.7.
Wedding Rite in the North
1. Read the title of the text. What wedding traditions do you know?
2. Remember the words related to the topic “Wedding”.
Wedding Rite in the North
Good
afternoon,
dear
guests.
Welcome
to
our
Northern land. Our region is
rich in songs and rites. We keep
and bequeath them to our
successors. According to an old
custom, guests are met with an
offer of bread and salt. Newlyweds, try the wedding cake.
There is a sign: the one who
takes a bigger bite will be the
master of the home.
Now I suggest we invite the bride and groom to sweep along a
Russian village. Here is a sledge waiting for them. And you, guests,
come with me to a peasant house of olden times. Let us meet the
young couple at the front steps.
According to a Russian custom I shall tie the newly-weds’ arms
with a towel very tightly for them to live hand in hand. And you,
guests, sprinkle rice and grain over them so that they live in
prosperity.
Well, it is no use keeping
guests outside for long. Please
enter the house and take your
seats on the benches. And you,
dear bride and groom, please
pass to the “red corner”. It is
the main place in the house,
the place of master and
mistress,
and
that
of
honourable guests. It is here
that the icon of the Blessed
Virgin, i.e. the mother of Jesus, the Virgin Mary, and embroidered
towels are placed.
The master of the house had many things to care about, for
example to bring some water from the well, to chop firewood, to heat
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the bathhouse, to feed the cattle, etc. The mistress had even more
things to do, for example, to make a fire in the oven, to cook cabbage
soup and porridge, to feed her husband and the children, to tidy up
the house, to look after the children, to mend clothes, etc. Every girl
was accustomed to it since her childhood. She prepared a dowry for
herself. She wove, knitted, and embroidered clothes for her family and
husband’s relatives.
So let us check the bride’s skills. Here is a kerchief. Please
embroider wedding rings on it, meanwhile the guests will be singing a
song of olden days. Singing always accompanied girls’ fancywork,
didn't it? Well, now mill some flour and bake a berry-pie for us.
While the bride is baking a pie, come out here, dear groom. I shall
show you two articles, guess what they were used for in
housekeeping. Dear guests, help the bridegroom.
1
2
That’s right. Now we know that you will be a good master.
But while you were watching and listening to me, your bride, as it
often used to happen at weddings, has been stolen. So to obtain the
release of her, you have to sing, dance and solve the riddles:
1) It’s a new dish but full of holes.
2) It never eats and only drinks. And when it starts making noise, it
attracts everybody.
Well, you have fulfilled all the tasks so we will return your bride.
To honour this great day, we present you with a charter.
Live in harmony. Love and respect each other.
O.S. Yelsakova
3. Solve the riddles from the text.
4. Help the bridegroom, think how these objects were used in the
household.
5. Answer the questions:
 What wedding rites have you learnt about from the text?
 What were the master’s household duties? And what are they
now?
 What were the mistress’ duties about the house? Compare them
with the ones today.
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2.8.
Saint Nicholas' Church
Saint Nicholas' Church
Guide
Ladies and gentlemen, we are now
coming up to Saint Nicholas’ Church,
which is at the corner of the Embankment
and Pomorskaya Street. The church is
famous for its unusual history.
Saint Nicholas’ Church was sanctified
three times.
For the first time, the church was
sanctified in 1866, immediately after it had
been put up in Nikolskoye Podvorye in the
place of the former chapel.
I mean the podvorye, which belonged to
the Nikolo-Korelsky monastery and was the
largest of all its podvoryes.
Sightseers
What is it unusual
about it?
What was it connected
with?
Which podvorye (guest
house) do you mean?
And where was the
monastery situated?
It was rising above the wilderness of the
White Sea like a beacon showing the way to
the lost seafarers that called to Saint
Nicholas for help. The monastery was
rising in the Northern Dvina delta. It is
believed to have been founded by an old
man, Evfimy by name. It happened in the
14-15th centuries. Unfortunately, the exact
date of the foundation of the men's NikoloWhat has become of
Korelsky monastery is unknown.
the monastery? Does it
still exist?
In 1920 the Nikolo-Korelsky monastery
was closed. In the 30-s there sprang up a
And what about the
factory and a settlement which later on church? You said it had
became the town of Severodvinsk.
been sanctified three
times.
That's right. For the second time, the
church was sanctified in 1889 after it had
been restored. Ten years later the church
came into decay. It was decided to pull it
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down and to put up a new stone church.
The construction of the new church was
over in 1904 and the church was sanctified
again. After it had been built, the new
Nicholas’ Church with its remarkable
architecture became the centre of the
What happened to the
monastery podvorye.
church in the years of
the Soviet power?
Before the 1990-s the building belonged
to some military organisation. With the
resumption of the church community the
building returned to the church.
1. Find in the text the proper names and learn how to pronounce
them.
2. Translate the following words and word-combinations into Russian:
is famous for, the former chapel, the wilderness of the White Sea,
lost seafarers, was sanctified, the church community.
3. Express the following in some other way:
a) The church was put up. b) A factory sprang up there.
c) The church came into decay. d) The church was pulled down.
e) It took place in the 14-15 centuries. f) The construction was over.
4. Give derivatives to the following words:
a) organisation, b) resumption, c) construction, d) wilderness,
e) sanctify.
5. Make up a list of the words referring to church and religion.
6. Find in the text the sentences where the
Passive Voice is used. Translate them into
Russian.
7. What do dates 1866, 1889 and 1904 mean?
8. Complete the sentences according to the text:
1. Saint Nicholas’ Church is famous for... .
2.The church is situated ... . 3. Saint Nicholas’
Church was sanctified... . 4. The Nikolskoye
Podvorye belonged to... . 5. The Nikolo-Korelsky
monastery was situated... . 6. The NikoloKorelsky Monastery was founded... . 7. In the years of the Soviet
power Saint Nicholas’ Church... .
9. Imagine that you are a guide. Tell the tourists what you know
about Saint Nicholas’ Church.
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2.9.
Icons in the North
1. Read the text. Speak about the peculiarity of northern icon
painting.
Icons in the North
Northern icon painting is an original art and
handicraft. Blessing and fasting before the work
contributed to the spiritual strength of the
images. You could not find any particular school
giving the basic pattern of icon painting in the
North. That is why northern icons are various in
size and painting technique.
Icons of so-called “Northern Letters” tend to
be rough and simple, they remind us of the severe
and modest life in the North. Icons of the XV-XVI
centuries have their peculiarities: colours were
laid heavily and were contrasting and pure. Images of figures are
clear-cut. Icons of the XVI-XVIII centuries are remarkable for their
thin, transparent, colourful layers. The combination of colours is calm
and soothing. The main part was devoted to the design of costumes,
different articles and outlines of figures. The names of the first icon
painters are mentioned in the documents of the XVI century. There
were few of them and they preferred to work in the monasteries, big
houses and cities. Gregory, Ivan, Mikhey worked in Antonio-Siysky
monastery, the elder Sadoff in Solovetsky monastery, Stenka
Stepanov in Kholmogory, Fedor Trofimov in Kargopol.
In the XVII-XVIII centuries the craft of icon painting was passed
from father to son. Four sons of Mikhail Alexeyev (Savka,
Andryushka, Vaska, Koz’ma) learnt this kind of art. Alexeyev was an
icon painter. The generations of icon painters are
known nowadays, among them the Strunins
(Kholmogory), the Zubovs (Pinega), the Chalkovs
(Pomorye), and the Maximovs (Onega).
Icons were esteemed greatly, especially the
images of Spas, the Blessed Virgin and the
Saints. The most favourite to northern people is
Nicholas the Miracle Worker. Also, we can name
other saints: Frol and Lavr - the saints of horsebreeders, landlords, carpenters and tradesmen;
Vlasy - the protector of cows and sheep;
Paraskeva - the patron of women in all situations
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and business affairs. There were protectors of those in trouble, in the
north: Ilya-the prophet who saved people from bad weather, droughts,
and lightnings; Koz’ma and Domian – protected people from illnesses;
Christophor – protector from epidemic; Efstafy and Trifon - protected
from field pests.
2. Choose the combinations of words which are known by you.
the Virgin
gates
Maria
Mir Likiyskiy
Spas
Friday
Ioan
Afon
Nicholas
Spirit
Artemiy
Egyptian
Ilya
Nerukotvorny
Tsar’s
Vladimirskaya
Mountain
Michael
Uncorched
Prophet
Archangel
Guardian
Angel
Kronshtadskiy
Paraskeva
Verkolskiy
Optina
Kupina
Saint
Hermitage
3. What combinations of words does this information belong to?
 This icon protects houses from fire and strikes of lightning.
 The saviour from the conquerors.
 He is always near, directs and helps. He is the protector and the
patron from the moment that humanity was baptised.
 This place is called the Garden of the Virgin, there are no women
here. Monks live here.
 The place of pilgrimage, the centre of spiritual life of prerevolutionary Russia.
 One of the images of the Holy Trinity.
 The image of Jesus Christ left by Him on a towel.
 The main gates of an iconostasis.
 In her youth she was a prodigal woman. She lived in repentance
for 47 years.
 The main military leader in the battle with the enemies of the
God.
 He helps if it is difficult to study and saves from drinking.
 He died in 1532 at the age of 13, being caught in the field by a
strong thunderstorm. He saves from the majority of illnesses.
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Find in the text some information connected with 3 more
combinations of words.
4. Catholicism and the Orthodox Church are the main branches in
Christianity. What is the difference between them? Prepare the
report for the next lesson.
5. Write or tell your friend about icon-painting, saints, and the
Orthodox Church in the North. Ask questions about religion and
the spiritual life of believers in the country of your friend.
6. Read the text “Renovated Icon”. For an orthodox believer it is a
miracle. And what about you?
In
Artemyevo-Verkolskoye
Podvorye
(Chumbarov-Luchinsky Street, 37A) the icon of
Saint Maria Egyptian is getting bright. This icon
was a gift from Galina Papulova. When the icon
was brought to the podvorye only the image
and veil were seen on it. Now, all details of the
icon can be observed clearly.
(Article “Spiritual Saver”, April #7-8, 2001)
7.
Spiritual life is an immense topic, an
inexhaustible source. If you want to continue
working in this direction we advise you to get
acquainted with the following sections in the library:
 monasteries;
 orthodox saints;
 saint places of pilgrimage;
 orthodox churches;
 ecclesiastic writers.
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2.10.
Styles of Northern Dvina Painting
Styles of Northern Dvina Painting
Northern Dvina painting is an original and striking phenomenon
in Russian folk art. Painted household articles were in great demand
in Russia. The demand exceeding the supply and the sources they
came from were kept secret. Little was known about the places where
those wonderful works of art were produced since ancient times till
the beginning of the 19th century. The painting of this kind can be
divided into three major independent categories or styles.
The first includes the painted woodworks from villages bearing
the common name of Mokraya Yedoma in the Krasnoborsk region,
four kilometres away from Permogorye Port. The characteristic feature
of Permogorye painting is a narrative composition depicting scenes
from everyday peasant life and bordered with a fine foliate pattern on
a white background. The combination of colours in a design found in
Permogorye paintings is dominated by the white background and the
red design, with yellow and green colours concomitant. Black outlines
are a characteristic of the paintings. The basic motif recurs in a foliate
pattern with large flowers and leaves of similar shape. In the 19th
century Mokraya Yedoma craftsmen used to decorate dishes
for a festive table such as “skobkar’ ” (in the
form of a duck) for beer, “bratina” (a very large
round vessel on a base), “yendova” (a bowl of
individual use) for mead or beer.
In the centre of a dish they often depicted a fabulous
“sirin”, a bird with a woman’s head. Some of the
wooden things were adorned with a series of
pictures, which taken together told a story. The
figures of men and animals were also included
in the composition. Bright painting accentuated the structure of
things.
The second style, of white background painting, can be observed
in Borok, Puchuga and Toima painted woodworks. In Borok, just as
in Permogorye, spinning wheels rank first among the large variety of
painted woodworks. In terms of composition, the pattern can be
divided into three parts. The upper part depicted golden windows with
flowers, in the middle there were fabulous blossoming bushes with
birds sitting on them and in the bottom were genre scenes from young
people’s lives. Such composition resembles that of a traditional
church icon. Rich in colour and large in size, it is full of dynamics.
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Puchuga and Toima sapinning wheels are similar to those in Borok,
and the tops carried an almost identical design.
Rakulka is proud of its long traditions in Northern Dvina painting
too. The style had nothing in common with Permogorye or Borok
ones. The dominant colours of Rakulka painted woodworks are gold,
ochre and black with deep green and brownish red. The ornament
primarily consists of decorative leaves, outlined in black. The upper,
and the largest, part is decorated with an S-shaped branch, the leaves
of which are painted in two or sometimes more colours.
Folk painting on the Northern Dvina is of the same origin. The
painted woodworks of the 19th century show excellent workmanship
and skilled composition.
1. Draw a spidergram and write down some words related to the topic
of Folk Arts.
2. “Style is a means of analyzing works of art and their effect.” Go on
to say, why.
3. What does a fabulous bird look like?
4. Find the exact English equivalents of малиновый, лиловый,
палевый, алый, песочный, бежевый, кремовый.
5. Do you see any likeness between stone carving and painting?
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2.11.
The Russian Village
1. Which words do not
tea
kitchen garden
fence
samovar
stove
log shed
mowing-machine
refer to the topic?
trunk
water pipe
cellar
hayloft
coffee
bench
povet’
well
scythe
cast iron
oven fork
necklace
path
bathroom
2. Enrich your topical vocabulary about the Russian village while
reading the text:
Where does strength come from?
Village
people
know everything about
their
neighbourhood:
who went to the forest
to gather mushrooms
and berries, what was
brought
from
the
forest,
who
went
fishing early in the
morning, who overslept
and did not walk the
cow out in time, who is
lazy and whose kitchen
garden is full of weeds, who has fallen ill - a fire in his or her stove is
not lit and there is no smoke coming out of the chimney, who has a
special family occasion (funeral, guests) - not only have they a bath
on Saturday, but on other days as well. Hence, there are some
proverbs: "A city is a big village", "The morning sets the mood for the
day" ("A good beginning makes a good ending").
The Russian village without Russian steam baths (saunas) is not
a village. It is an old Russian tradition to go and steam in Russian
baths, to sweat thoroughly on the sweating shelf in the bath, to lash
the body with a birch besom (broom of twigs) splashing a dipper of
water on the heated stones, to breathe that special hot steamy air and
then to dive naked into the river. If you ever missed out on Russian
steam baths in a village, people would say, "You have not been to the
village".
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If you are treated to tea from a samovar with herbs, pies, and
jam, there is a saying that you get “all 33 pleasures”.
Have you caught a cold and fallen ill? Climb onto a warm stovecouch. It will cure you and warm you up as well as “feed and soothe
you”. The Russian stove is a live soul. When the stove is being heated
- look at the fire, listen to the firewood crack and all the evil will leave
your body and soul. After a bath you feel completely regenerated and
relieved of your ailments.
Come into a Russian house. The hosts and the house itself are
hospitable and you will be received with a special friendliness. They
will talk to you unhurriedly, comfort you and restore your spirits.
M.V. Druzhinina
3. Why does the countryside soothe and calm you?
4. Match the words:
samovar
bath
bread
fish soup
stove
cattleshed
icon
hayloft
tea
barn
scythe
mushrooms
besom
fire
charcoal
salt
hay
candle
pies
cow
grass
corn
fish
forest
5. Have you been to a village? When? Where? What did you do? What
do/don't you like about the village?
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2.12.
From the Golden Fund of Pomor Culture
1. What do you think "alive book" means? Express your ideas in 3-5
sentences. Use these patterns:
I suppose
I think
To my mind
May be
Probably
2. Make your reasoning complete with the help of the text.
From the Golden Fund of Pomor Culture
Here is the book of Ludmila Egorova which is called "Pushkin in
Archangel". There are a number of illustrations on the cover and
flyleaf: Pushkin is depicted walking along the embankment and
contemplating our city from Peter I Park…
While reading this book I was trying to find the answer to the
question: Do I have the right to touch upon this sensitive theme?" The
first reaction was negative. I cannot do this, as I do not have the
slightest idea how to go about it. It is a
great responsibility, too. However,
some unknown force returned me to
reading this book. The stories of
Pushkin’s relics are kept in the
personal correspondence of Pushkin’s
great-grand
daughter
(Irina
Evgenievna Klimenko-Gibshman who
lives in Archangel), the family photos
of Pushkin's descendants of 6
generations.
You
feel
some
extraordinary intimacy with the
relatives of the great poet. More than
10 descendants (5-7 generations of
Pushkin) were born and have lived in
Archangel. How many people are
connected with Pushkiniana! The pictures of Masha Egorova - the
daughter of the famous Pushkinists (Ludmila and Boris Egorov) living
in Archangel - weaves a single lace of the text and picture. The
majority of the materials is unique and tells us about a great love of
this topic.
M.V. Druzhinina
3. What do you know about Pushkin and his family, his works?
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4. What books are live for you? Tell us about them.
5. Look at the photo of I. Gibshman (8.08.1908 - 17.05.1996). The
history of Pushkin's descendants started with her in Archangel.
What can you say about her appearance and character?
6. What moral features do you value in people? To your mind, is it
important to understand each other? You may need these words:
pride
love
good
humility
patience
offence
humiliate
ethics
understanding
evil
respect
anger
forgiveness
faith
Form corresponding adjectives.
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2.13.
Vladimir Boorchevsky's School
Vladimir Boorchevsky's School
Vladimir Boorchevsky's School of Folk Handicrafts appeared in
Archangel in 1992. Here apprentices get real and rare skills that can
become not only their hobby but also their profession.
Before
founding
his
school
Vladimir
Boorchevsky travelled a lot all through the
villages of the Archangel region. Old craftsmen
readily shared their experiences with him,
presented him with ancient household articles.
Now in the School Museum, side by side with
works of young apprentices, you can see the
articles brought from different parts of the region:
earthenware, woodenware, towels and rugs,
painted spoons from Pizhma, mittens from
Leshukonye. There are photos of old masters, a
lot of whom are no longer around.
About 300 apprentices are taught at the
school now. They study there for three years. Children choose the
craft to their liking: woodcarving, birch-bark carving, decorative
painting on wood, clay toy making, pattern weaving and embroidery,
and patch work.
Pupils get knowledge on the history of northern folk crafts, on
national art and on world art. They work in the Regional Museum of
Local Lore with primary sources, travel to different Northern villages,
and store up natural raw material for their work. There is an unusual
folk ensemble “Kurazh” at school. Children play balalaika, zhaleika,
spoons, treshchetka - all made by their own hands.
There are School’s workshops in Pomor
State University, secondary schools, and a
kindergarten in Archangel. Besides, there are
its “branches” in many districts of Archangel
region. Works of apprentices and teachers of
the school are exhibited at international
exhibitions and festivals.
Vladimir Boorchevsky’s School of Folk
Crafts has become a place of interest of
Archangel region and Russia.
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1. Your hobby is folk crafts. Your friend's hobby is history. Discuss
folk crafts as a historical subject with your friend.
2. You are a teacher at Boorchevsky’s
School. Inform the children of the
subjects they may choose. Ask them to
choose a particular course. Let them
explain why they prefer this or that
course.
3. You are a third-form pupil at Boorchevsky’s School. You have to
hold an excursion at the School Museum. What will you speak
about? What exhibits will you show?
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2.14.
Romantic from Solombala
1. Who is depicted on the photo? Describe him.
2. Read the title. What can you tell us about
E.S.Kokovin? What works of this writer can you
name?
3. Read the text. Make the plan.
Romantic from Solombala - children's writer
E.S.Kokovin (09.01.1913 - 07.08.1977)
I live in Solombala, the real romantic place of Archangel. This
island is connected with the name of my great-grandfather Kokovin
Eugeniy Stepanovich. Unfortunately, I was unable to communicate
with my interesting and well-known great-grandfather writer as I was
born in July 1977, and he died in August of the same year at the age
of 64.
E.S. Kokovin was born on January 9, 1913 in Archangel, in the
family of a seaman. After finishing Seamanship School he went to sea
as a mechanic on ships of the merchant marine fleet. At that time his
literary activity also began. His first sea story was printed in the
magazine "Pioneer" in 1933 when he was only 20 years old. In 1934
E.S.Kokovin turned to journalistic work as an independent
correspondent of the newspaper "Wood Industry" in the Northern
region. In the Great Patriotic War (WWII) years E.S.Kokovin was a
military correspondent and received 6 governmental awards.
During the 30 years of his professional literary work Eugeniy
Stepanovich wrote 18 books - stories and shortstories for children
and youth, many of which have been entered in the treasury of
children's literature. All of his books, from the first collection of
stories "Return of the Ship"(1939) up to the uncompleted novel about
Solombala’s shipbuilders, are exciting narratives about his past,
where he was both a witness and a participant. He created such
stories as "Garrison of a Small Fortress", "Leader of a Health Team",
"Story about Suvorovtsy", "Happy Voyage", "Fire of Friendship", a fairy
tale "Din-Dag", "Sun on the Legs", "The White Wing", "Boatswain
Rjabov’s Crew" and other works.
E.S.Kokovin's literary carreer was also affected by his friendship
with the writer A.P. Gaydar, on whose advice he began to create a
story for children about his native Solombala. The story "Childhood in
Solombala" (1947) has brought E.S.Kokovin a wide popularity in our
country and abroad, as it was translated into many European
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languages. Young readers were delighted by it. In the course of time
this work became a solid trilogy.
K.S. Shtykhina
4. Reply:
1) Who is the text written by? 2) As you think, what has affected the
choice of the author’s profession? 3) Can you imagine yourself in
this profession? What are its advantages and disadvantages? 4)
Have you read any E.S. Kokovin’s books? Tell us about your
impressions.
5. There is a small fragment from E.S.Kokovin's book "Childhood in
Solombala".
We were island men. Solombala was surrounded by water – the
Northern Dvina, its tributary Kuznechikha and the narrow river
Solombalka. This river was unusual: it had two mouths, but it had no
source. One mouth of the Solombalka fell into the Dvina, another –
into the Kuznechikha. This twisting river runs deep into the forest.
Curves of decrepit alders bend down to it from the banks. In a storm
when the Dvina under a strong wind hisses and boils and in the big
river it is terrible to go in a boat, even then the Solombalka is only
slightly rippling. Trees on the banks become only more talkative and
more mobile. Having embraced small deciduous forests on Solombala
isle, the river converges with the Northern Dvina. There is
Maymaksa, a navigable tributary of the Dvina. Schooners, boats and
steamships arrive at the port of Archangel from the ocean and from
the White Sea".
6. Answer the questions:
1) Why is the island named
Solombala? 2) Prove that
Solombala is an island!
3) What houses are mainly in
Solombala?
4)
What
is
Solombala well known by?
7. In what tense is this
narration? Find some sentences
in the passive voice and explain
them. Write out the lexicon on sea subjects and make a mini-story
(dialogue) with these words.
8. The project: Choose any of E.S.Kokovin's literary works and make a
literary translation of any fragment you like (50 and more words).
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2.15.
Living Legend
Polyarina - the Daughter of Poonukh
There are some people who are referred
to as “living legends”. There is such a
person who is working at Pomor University,
she is Polyarina Timofeyevna Sinitsyna. In
1948 she graduated from Archangel
Teachers’ Training Institute and has been
devotedly serving her alma mater ever
since. She has worked her way up from
teacher of English to pro-rector (responsible
for research work). In the last few years
Polyarina Timofeyevna has been a professor
at the Department of Foreign Languages.
Being
her
colleagues,
we
have
th
interviewed Polyarina Timofeyevna on the eve of the 30 anniversary
of Foreign Languages Department.
 - Polyarina Timofeyevna, you have such an extraordinary and
beautiful name. Where does it come from?
 - I was born on the isle of Novaya Zemlya late in November. That is a
period of the Polar night there and the brightest star in the sky is
the Polar Star. So my father gave me the name of Polyarina.
 - Your father, Timofey Petrovich Sinitsyn, was a famous educator
and writer. What role did he play in your life?
 - A very great one. On my father’s advice I entered Archangel
Teacher’s Training Institute. Later I became a journalist of the
newspaper “Archangelskaya Zvezda” (“Arctic Star”). This was also
according to my father's will. For some time I resisted my father's
persuasive arguments to take a post-graduate course, until I
finally got convinced of the necessity of gaining a more profound
knowledge for University teaching. My father's real family name
was Sinitsyn and “Palya Poonukh” is his pen name. Palya means
“half” in Nenets and a poonukh is a polar songbird, which flies to
the arctic North in spring. My father is considered to be a pioneer
of the Northern literature about Nenets people.
 - Your destiny is so wonderful but not very easy. What invigorates
you in this difficult life?
 - Yes, my destiny hasn’t been very favourable: war, father's arrest,
work at the port, long years of studies and work... What
invigorates me? I think our common family traditions. I don't
believe in any bad things. I am convinced that common sense will
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finally triumph. I never complain about life. I have no grudge
against anyone. I have always loved and still love people. I enjoy
working with students. We always have something to talk about
and not only in English.
 - Thank you, Polyarina Timofeyevna! We wish you good health and
success in everything!
T.G. Alekseeva, L.V. Anisimova
1. Write out words and word-combinations used to:
- characterize a person,
- describe his/her life and destiny,
- stimulate life powers and optimism.
2. Answer the questions.
1. What would you like to ask Polyarina Timofeyevna about? What
do you think would be her answer?
2. Do you have any acquaintances (relatives) with some interesting
life stories? Speak about them.
3. What would you like to devote your life to? Speak about your
plans for the future.
3. Interview a veteran of the Great Patriotic war, a teacher of your
school, your grandfather or grandmother, your fellow-student,
University teacher or any other person with a very unusual life
story. Make a project based on this interview and introduce it to
your groupmates.
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2.16.
Marpha's House
Marpha's House
Marpha’s house is well
known to all the citizens of
Archangel. Only a few know its
history.
In 1865 there appeared a
new building in the plan of
Archangel. It was a club for
businessmen, built with the help
of
pecuniary
aid
from
commercial society according to
the design of a provincial architect: A.P.Shakhlarev.
Until 1917 the commercial club was considered to be the most
prestigious public institution in Archangel and common people were
not allowed in there. Behind a simple facade there was hidden a
wonderfully planned interior. The main room was a huge dancing hall
accommodating 300 people, with a gallery for the orchestra. Next to it,
there was a dining room of nearly the same size with seats. On both
sides of the hall there were two spacious sitting rooms - for ladies and
gentlemen. Above them, on the first floor there were situated playing
card and billiard rooms.
One of the first electric power stations in Archangel was attached
to the club in 1907. In 1911, some decorative works were added and
the facade of the building became stylish.
In 1914, the building suffered from fire: the imposing furniture
was damaged and they had to dismantle a tile stove and a fireplace.
After the revolution of 1917 the building of the former commercial
club turned into the garrison club of the Red Army. In April 1920 a
show theatre was opened here. The building watched performances
and listened to the bylinas of the Northern folk tales’ narrator M.
Krivopolenova, and to recitations of B. Shergin, P.Kalashnikov and I.
Molchanov.
In the following years, the Young Audiences Theatre, the house of
Pioneers and during the Great Patriotic War - the House of Officers,
and the cinema "Chronicle" were located in that building.
In the sixties it housed a theatrical company and guest
performances of different theatres were given.
When in 1976 the law protecting monuments of history and
culture was adopted, the Central Council of the Society gave the
protection of the building to the State. In 1978, the building was
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transferred to Chumbarov-Luchinsky Avenue. Later it became known
as the House of Propaganda of Historical and Cultural Monuments.
A new period in the history of the building is connected, in
people’s minds, with Marpha Ivanovna Menshikova.
M.I.Menshikova was born in Kholmogorsky district in 1918. Her
childhood was hard but she managed both to study and help about
the house.
After finishing Zootechnical school she worked on a collective
farm and took an active part in the life of the village.
Later, Marpha Ivanovna became chief of a department in the
Archangel Communist Party Committee where she had to solve
problems of culture, trade, and education. That is why in 1974, when
she retired, she was offered a job in the Society for Protecting the
Monuments of History and Culture. One of her main aims was the
foundation of the historical street of old Archangel. The first building
in this street was the former Commercial Club, which is now known
as Marpha’s house. Since then exhibitions, concerts, musical and
literary parties have been held here. After Marpha’s death, the
traditions introduced by her were continued by her followers.
1. Answer the questions:
1. What was Marpha’s house called before the revolution in 1917?
2. What was the building of the Commercial Club famous for?
3. What institutions were housed in this building after 1917?
4. What is the official name of the former Commercial Club today?
5. Why is it called "Marpha’s" house?
2. Fill in the gaps.
1. It was a club of businessmen built … … … from commercial
society. 2. Until 1917 the Commercial Club was considered to be
… … … in Archangel. 3. A huge … … hall accommodating 300
people with … … for the orchestra made the main room there. 4.
… … there was a dining room of nearly the same size. 5. … … on
the first floor there were situated playing card and … rooms. 6. In
1914 the building … from the …: the … furniture was damaged.
7. In 1978 the building … … to Chumbarov-Luchinsky Avenue. 8.
Since then …, …, … and … … have been held.
3. Choose the correct answer.
1. A new building of the commercial club appeared on the map of
Archangel in _______ .
a) 1898
b) 1865 c) 1921
2. The building was built with the help of pecuniary aid from _____.
a) the merchant guild b) workers and peasants
c) the commercial society
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3. In 1911 __________________________________ .
a) the facade of the building became smart
b) the house was transferred to a new place
c) the building was restored after the fire
4. Marpha Ivanovna was offered a job _______________ .
a) in the local authority of Archangel
b) in the society protecting the monuments of culture and history
c) in the Fund of culture
5. In 1907 there was attached ___________________ .
a) an electric power station b) a broadcasting station
c) a dining room
4. Match the two halves
1. the former building
2. to suffer
3. to dismantle
4. managed
5. solve
A. a tile stove and a fire place
B. from the fire
C. of the Commercial Club
D. the problems of the town
E. both to study and help about
the house
5. Arrange the sentences in the proper order.
1. After the revolution of 1917 the building of the former
Commercial Club turned into the garrison club of the Red Army.
2. The building of the Commercial Club was built according to the
design of provincial architect A.P. Shakhlarev.
3. The Central Council of the Society for protecting the monuments
of history and culture gave the protection of the building to the
State.
4. The building suffered from the fire.
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2.17
Week-end Advertisements
1. Look at the events advertised on the notice board. Say which event
is for:
 theatre goers
 children
 people in love
 people who love classical music
2. Find a word or phrase in the advertisements that means:
 songs, composed by the performer
 lyric, poetry
 in honour of sb
Week-end Advertisements
Concerts
Small Philharmonic Society Hall
February 17 at 17.00 invites you to the concert of the
Honoured Artist of Russia Grigori Osipov (baritone),
accompanied by Ludmila Nikolayeva (piano).
Marpha’s house
February 15 at 18.30 presents the concert “You are verses, I
am music”. Bard songs by Vladimir Petrov and poems by
Natalia Leonovitch.
Ancient private residence
February 14 at 18.30 invites you to a party, devoted to the Day
of All Who Are In Love “She, and the music, and the word...”.
Romances, songs, poems about love, gypsy music and jazz.
Theatres
Puppet theatre
February 17 at 11.00 and 14.00 welcomes
audiences from 5 years old to the performance
“Three little pigs”.
Archangel regional youth theatre
March 17 at 17.00 presents the comedy “Karol” (by S.
Mrojec).
Drama Theatre
February 15 at 18.00 presents the romantic comedy
“Savage”.
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3. Say which events these people would like. Give your reasons:
1. Vera plays a guitar, writes poems for her songs. She’d like to
meet people to share her interests with.
Model: I think Vera would like the concert “You are verses, I am
music” because she enjoys bard music and she looks for new
friends.
2. Helen and Olga are good friends. They have children of 5 and 7
years old. They’d like to go out on Sunday together.
3. Valentina and Paul have just got acquainted. It’s a pleasure for
them to spend their time together.
Valentina likes Russian romances and Paul is fond of rhythmic
music.
4. Tatiana Sergeyevna is 45. She likes to read love stories.
Sometimes she goes to the theatre to see some classical
performance.
5. Veronica goes to Music College and she is fond of classical music.
6. A group of students attend an amateur theatre studio and they
are fond of the comedy theatre.
4. Which events would/wouldn’t you like to go to? Say why (not).
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Conclusion
The culture of the Russian North is rich and unique. Its internal
(inner) world is mysterious and majestic, independent and original. In
the North people are said to rest with all heart, to set one’s mind at
rest, to heal one’s soul.
The authors have tried to touch the inexhaustible source, which
has inspired and has been nourishing to a lot of people. In the course
of this endeavour we ourselves made our own discoveries and became
aware of something new. We did our best to convey the elements of
what is native and dear to us Northerners; to perform a so-called
transfer of cultures by means of other languages. Sometimes we
racked our brains trying to find words, phrases and/or notions close
in meaning. We have become closer to each other learning how to be
tolerant and how to co-operate.
We would be sincerely happy if we succeeded in arousing or
touching your feelings and emotions, taking your interest in the ideas
of lingual and cultural diversity.
The materials you have just read represent part of culture of
Archangelsk region. Each individual topic or some topic of your
particular interest can be further worked at. Subject to your
willingness or future profession, you could study some supplementary
materials in foreign languages or in Russian. Working out further
text- or course-books of similar nature such as Culture of Norway,
Culture of North-Western Europe looks very attractive.
The authors would like to thank our colleagues: Marie-Gabrielle
Lafitte (France), Dany-Sophie Klukas (Germany), Arthur Lister (Great
Britain), Roy Karstansen and Marit Bjerkeng (Norway), Alice Murrey
and Bill Riley (USA) for their help, valuable advise, proof reading and
their opinion of the text.
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Keys
2. 3. Archangel of Merchants
2. а) купе(ц)чество, b) экономический подъем, c) рождаемость,
d) приток людей, e) технический бум, f) лесопромышленники, g)
пароходство, h) справочная книга, i) ремесленни(ки)чество, j)
потомки, k) дела, сделки, l) детские приюты, m) мещане, n)
рекламы/рекламные объявления, o) в пригороде/на окраине, p)
уникальный, q) мореплаватели, r) спуск (судна), s) трехцветное
знамя.
2.7. Wedding Rite in the North
3. 1). bolter (sieve), 2). samovar.
4. 1) to embroider, 2) to make bricks.
2.10. Styles of Northern Dvina Painting
1.
painting
folk art
folk song
folksinger
folk dance
folklore
folklorist
2. In process, the student acquires knowledge and skill to produce
something in a good or original style.
3.A fabulous bird is coloured like the deep sea when the sun is
shining.
4. Crimson, lilac, straw-coloured, scarlet, sandy, beige, creamcoloured. 5. Painting on the wall of the earliest times belongs to
primitivism too.
2.16. Marfa’s House
2. 1. with the help of pecuniary aid 2. the most prestigious public
institution 3. Two-lighted dancing hall; a gallery 4. next to it 5.
above them; billiard 6. suffered; from the fire; imposing 7. was
transferred 8. exhibitions, concerts, musical and literary parties
3. 1b, 2c, 3a, 4b, 5a
4. 1. the former building of the Commercial Club 2. to suffer from
the fire, 3. to dismantle a tile stove and a fire place 4. managed
both to study and help about the house 5. solve the problems of
the town
5. 2, 4, 1, 3.
2.17. Week-end Advertisements
1. 1 - II 3,2; 2 - I 2; 3 - II 1; 4 - I 3; 5 - I 1. 2. 1 - bard songs; 2 poems about love; 3 - concert; 4 - devoted to...
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