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Гвоздева Цомпутер сциенце 2011

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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ
НАЦИОНАЛЬНЫЙ ИССЛЕДОВАТЕЛЬСКИЙ ЯДЕРНЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ
«МИФИ»
Е.А. Гвоздева
COMPUTER SCIENCE
Учебно-методическое пособие
для аспирантов по специальности
«Вычислительная техника»
Рекомендовано к изданию
УМО «Ядерные физика и технологии»
Москва 2011
УДК 811.111(075)
ББК 81.2я7
Г 25
Гвоздева Е.А. Computer science. Учебно-методическое пособие для аспирантов
по специальности «Вычислительная техника». М.: НИЯУ МИФИ, 2011. – 52 с.
Учебное пособие предназначено для подготовки аспирантов, специализирующихся в области вычислительной техники.
Цель данного учебного пособия – обучение свободному чтению специальной
литературы на английском языке без использования метода перевода.
Структура учебного пособия предполагает работу в парах и мини-группах, что
дает возможность совершенствования разговорной речи в рамках предлагаемого
материала.
Поставленные цели соответствуют современной концепции образовательного
процесса, смещающей акцент с усвоения готового знания, предлагаемого преподавателем, на самостоятельную, познавательную деятельность студента.
Подготовлено в рамках Программы создания и развития НИЯУ МИФИ.
© Национальный исследовательский
ядерный университет «МИФИ», 2011
ISBN 978-5-7262-1601-0
Оригинал-макет изготовлен С.В. Тялиной
Подписано в печать 15.11.2011. Формат 60×84 1/16
Уч.-изд. л. 3,25. Печ. л. 3,25. Тираж 100 экз. Изд. № 5/9. Заказ № 95.
Национальный исследовательский ядерный университет «МИФИ».
115409, Москва, Каширское шоссе, 31.
ООО «Полиграфический комплекс «Курчатовский».
144000, Московская область, г. Электросталь, ул. Красная, д. 42.
2
TO THE TEACHER
The traditional system of education centered on the teacher is becoming obsolete. The world has developed a new education paradigm, which turns upside
down the situation in teaching. The modern conception of education revises the
proportions of its main components: the teacher, the text-book and the students,
putting new emphasis on the independent creative cognitive activity of the
learner. The new paradigm implies a shift from ‘teacher-centered learning’ to
‘student-centered learning.’ The postulate “Languages are learned, they are not
taught” (Seneca) is gaining momentum. Learning implies thinking. To learn to
think the learner needs to have a chance of finding things out for himself. That
is why the student’s independent work is very important. DIY – ‘do it yourself’
is not a home exercise, it’s a class one. Besides, group work and pair work are
welcomed because language is a social activity. The stimulus for the learner
here is not to lag behind the others.
Confucius, who was concerned with the problems of education 2500 years
ago, wrote: “I listen and I forget, I see (understand) and I remember, I do and I
learn. Any text is information. Reading the text is information processing by
the mind. Knowledge is the information which you can reproduce. To remember the information the learner has to understand it. Understanding implies penetrating into the essence of the studied phenomenon. To penetrate into the
essence of the phenomenon the learner has first to analyze the text and then to
contract it. Translating texts is an unnecessary activity in the process of learning languages. Translation is done by the knower of the language for those who
don’t know it. By making the learner translate we don’t give him a chance to
stop and think, to remember and make notes. The teacher can use translation
only in case it is necessary to check up comprehension.
To bring the learner up to the level of comprehending information the teacher is to teach him the structure and the composition on the text and sentence
level; he is to teach him to differentiate between important and unimportant
information, facts and opinions. He is to teach him to follow cause and effect
relationship, he is to teach him how to analyze the information and how to cut it
down to the minimum.
The teacher gives the learner a chance to experiment with language. But the
teacher is no longer the dominant figure in the learning process, he directs, rather than commands or instructs. According to a new education paradigm it is
the student who learns; the teacher only helps, assists, trains the learners to be
more responsible, motivates, involves everybody in the learning process, encourages learners to speak and promotes discussion. He directs, rather than
commands or instructs.
3
INTRODUCTION
HOW EVERYTHING STARTED
Study the passage.
When the work is first done it is completely impractical. Nuclear
physics before the Second World War was like studying Greek poetry.
There were only a handful of people who studied nuclear physics and it
had no practical consequences. Computer technology was a spin off a
philosophical controversy about the foundations of mathematics:
whether mathematics has a firm foundation and how to make it firm.
One of the suggestions, about a hundred years ago, was made by a
famous mathematician David Hilbert. And Hilbert said that we should
formalize mathematics, make an artificial language for mathematical
reasoning. That project failed. But the notion of total formalization, of
a completely artificial language, where it is mechanical to see what
something means, is the most tremendous technological success of the
past century: the computer! These artificial languages are everywhere
now. But they are not artificial languages for mathematical reasoning
which Hilbert wanted. They are languages for calculating, for algorithms, for programming.
Chitin, American mathematician
Vocabulary Notes
1. a consequence – an implication – a result
2. a spin off – something useful that happens unexpectedly as a result of some other activities – a by-product
3. a controversy – a dispute
4. a suggestion – a proposal – an idea that is put forward
5. to reason – the ability to think in order to make an argument
6. to fail – not to be accepted
7. a notion – a concept
8. tremendous – great – important – impressive
4
PART I
DATA PROCESSING
UNIT 1
MAN VS. MAN
PRE-READING TASK
Study some grammar points.
I. We use S seems to V – Russian – вроде бы; по-видимому; создается впечатление
We use both variants.
1. It seemed that there was no limit to what science could achieve.
2. There seemed to be no limit to what science could achieve.
1. It seems that touch-sensitive “smart” paper is an interesting new
I/O technology that can be used as an inexpensive remote control device.
2. Touch sensitive smart paper seems to be an interesting I/O technology that can be used as an inexpensive remote control device.
II. N + to Vo (active); N + to be V3 (passive)
An infinitive (to V) after a noun characterizes it and expresses an action which must be done or could be done in the future.
Study the sentences.
1. Early computer pioneers make their programs play like people do
on the basis of knowledge-based searches (or heuristics) to choose the
best moves.
2. A new generation of researchers relied on increasingly fast hardware to conduct searches of game trees.
3. IBM got interested in the challenge to build a system to defeat a
human player.
III. We use to V to talk about the purpose of doing something (why
someone does something.
Study the sentences.
1. In 1989, the members of the Deep Blue team were employed by
IBM to develop a computer to defeat World Chess Champion Garry
Kasparov.
2. To learn to think, a machine needs to have a chance of finding
things out for himself.
5
IV. The participle
The verb changes in four forms.
V1
V2
V3
V4
to develop – developed – developed – developing
\
\
participles
Ving (ющий); Ved (нный)
The participle has two functions.
a. The participle following a noun N + Ving or N + Ved gives information about it.
The participle can be put together with other words to make an adjectival participle clause (определительное придаточное предложение –
который).
Study the sentences.
1. A new generation of researchers conducted searches of game trees
allowing the evaluation of millions of chess positions.
2. The Java language is an interpretive language based on objectoriented technology.
3. The Pentium microprocessor developed by Intel Corp. became the
workhorse of PCs.
4. Deep Blue ‘magic’ relied on human abilities hidden within a box.
b. When two things happen at the same time, you can use Ving
for one of the verbs.
These structures are used mainly in written English.
Study the sentences.
1. The team spent seven years refining the machine’s software and
adding more custom processors.
2. Kasparov also played along, proclaiming “playing such a match is
like defending humanity.”
V. When we imagine a situation we use would (could, might) + Vo
would – (Russian) бы
could, might – (Russian) мог бы
Study the sentence.
1. If a computer could play chess, then perhaps other problems that
require human intelligence might also be solved.
VI. Независимый причастный оборот
1. ………………… , S + Ving (Ved) = а, и, причём
2. ........................... , with S + Ving (Ved) = при этом
6
Study the sentences.
1. The match was really about man vs. man, that is, Kasparov vs.
Deep Blue’s programmers, a view shared by most of them as well.
2. Windows NT come in both server and client versions, the latter
accounting for 80% of total units.
3. In numbers of units, the export of LAN and Web servers will be
largest, with millions of products sold each year.
Give Russian correspondence:
then (in this case), although (though), no + N, to make (to force somebody to do something), a challenge (a task to be solved), in spite of (despite), as (in the process), like, vs. (against), at all, in fact (really), that is
(that is to say), as well (too), within (inside)
Terminology
1. heuristics – a knowledge-based search
2. a game tree – древовидная схема, дерево игры
3. a custom processor – процессор, запрограммированный по
техническим условиям заказчика
“IN CERTAIN KINDS OF POSITIONS THE COMPUTER SEES
SO DEEPLY THAT IT PLAYS LIKE GOD”
(Kasparov)
Study the passage.
The emergence of an electronic computer in the late 1940s led to
much speculation about “thinking machines.” There seemed to be no
limit to what science could achieve, including building a machine that
could think. If a computer could play chess, then perhaps other problems that require human intelligence might also be solved. For example,
in a 1949 paper, Claude Shannon, a researcher at MIT, said of programming a computer to play chess that, “Although of no practical importance, the question is of theoretical interest, and it is hoped that this
problem will be helpful in attacking other problems of greater significance.”
Work on computer chess continued mainly in universities. By the
1970s, a community of researchers emerged and began to share new
7
techniques and programs. At the same time, computers were doubling in
speed about every two years. Сomputer pioneers tried to make their programs play like people do on the basis of knowledge-based searches (or
heuristics) to choose the best moves. A new generation of researchers
included heuristics, but also conducted searches of game trees allowing
the evaluation of millions of chess positions – something no human can
do.
IBM got interested in the challenge. In 1989, the members of the
Deep Blue team graduated and were employed by IBM to develop a
computer to defeat World Chess Champion Garry Kasparov. The first
match took place at the New-York Academy of Science in 1989. Kasparov’s win was swift but the team learned many valuable lessons and
spent seven years refining the machine’s software and adding more custom processors.
A six-game rematch took place in Manhattan in 1997. Kasparov won
the first game but missed an opportunity in the second game and lost. In
the last game, he made a simple mistake and lost.
In spite of his loss, it is remarkable that a human could hold his own
against a machine that could evaluate 200 million positions per second.
But some conclusions were made. Kasparov’s typical psychological
strategy of intimidation had no effect on Deep blue. The machine never
got tired or frustrated, factors which began to affect Kasparov’s play as
the match progressed.
The popular media portrayed the match as a battle between “man and
machine.” Kasparov also played along, proclaiming “playing such a
match is like defending humanity.” In fact, it was not a battle of man vs.
machine at all. As philosopher John Searle suggests, the match was really about man vs. man, that is, Kasparov vs. Deep Blue’s programmers,
a view shared by most of them as well. Deep Blue ‘magic’ relied on
human abilities hidden within a box.
Vocabulary Notes
1. emergence – appearance
2. a speculation – a discussion
3. a significance – an importance
4. to share – if people share a task they do it together
5. to rely on – to be based on
6. a search – an attempt to find
8
7. an evaluation – a decision about the significance of something
8. to defeat – if you defeat someone, you win a victory over him
9. swift – quick – rapid
10. remarkable – surprising – startling
11. to intimidate – to frighten
12. to proclaim − to say
POST-READING TASK
(To be done at home in writing)
I. Write a summary by answering the questions.
1. Why did the researchers start developing a computer chess program although they were sure that it was of no practical importance?
2. What searches did a new generation of researchers conduct?
3. What is heuristics?
4. What does a game tree allow to do?
5. When and where did the first game between a human and a computer take place?
6. Who did the computer play with?
7. Who won?
8. What is Kasparov’s typical psychological strategy?
9. What are the advantages of a machine over man?
10. Was it a man vs. machine game or a man vs. man one?
II. Make up simple sentences with the expressions. Follow the
passage.
1. to miss the opportunity
3. to make a conclusion
2. to have no effect on
4. to get tired
III. Give words close in meaning.
1. a task to be solved
4. to have an effect on
2. to appear
5. an attempt to find
3. a discussion
6. quick
CLASS EXERCISES
Exercise 1 (do it yourself)
Translate the sentences.
1. Cкорость компьютеров удваивалась каждые два года.
9
2. Новое поколение исследователей проводило поиск древовидной схемы игры.
3. Древовидная схема позволяла оценить миллионы шахматных
позиций.
4. Ни один человек не может сделать этого.
5. Создание компьютерной программы для игры в шахматы заинтересовало IBM.
Exercise 2 (do it yourself)
Translate the sentences using: to be of importance, to be of interest, to be of significance. Follow the passage.
1. Создание компьютерной программы для игры в шахматы не
имеет никакого практического значения.
2. Эта проблема представляет чисто теоретический интерес, но
она поможет решить более важные задачи.
UNIT 2
WHAT’S NEXT?
PRE-READING TASK
Study some grammar points.
I. We use to V to talk about the purpose of doing something (why
someone does something.
Study the sentences.
1. Grandmasters and World Champions use computer chess programs to train for play, both against machines and other humans.
2. Logic is not enough to correctly answer this question.
II. Gerund
Preposition (предлог) + N + Ving (active) or N + being V3 (passive) = Russian = то, что; gerunds are used only in written English.
Study the sentence.
In spite of the millions of positions per second being evaluated, computers and humans are matched.
III. We use whether when talking about a doubt between two alternatives = Russian = V + ли
10
Study the sentence.
By the yearend it will be clear whether the network computer models
will require further work and more infrastructure.
IV. We use the infinitive To V as the subject of a sentence.
Study the sentences.
1. To determine whether a machine is intelligent requires only that it
fool a human into believing so.
2. “To raise new questions, new possibilities, to regard old questions
from a new angle require a creative imagination and mark real advances
in science.” Einstein
V. Ving is a verbal noun. Verbal nouns express processes. We
use Ving as the subject of the sentence or in combination with prepositions.
We use by + Ving to say how we do something.
Study the sentences.
1. Computer scientists make their programs by relying on knowledge-based searches.
2. The main function of network computers is to access information
by using Internet protocols.
VI. The participle
N + Ving (active) or N + Ved (passive)
The participle gives information about nouns.
The participle can be put together with other words to make adjectival participle clause (определительное придаточное предложение –
который).
Study the sentences.
1. A novice, with access to all of a Grandmaster’s games on the Internet, could defeat a Grandmaster by exploiting a weakness revealed
during a computer simulation of such games.
2. Quantum computation is the greatest challenge facing computer
science.
Give Russian correspondence:
N + that, as well as (and too), nonetheless (nevertheless, however), over
(more than), under (less than), both …. and, a way (a method, a technique, a procedure), to exploit (to use), in spite of (despite), To-date (at
present), specific (particular), though (although), therefore (so, thus,
hence), beyond (outside), an effect on something (an influence)
11
AN EXCELLENT PROBLEM SOLVER
Study the passage.
Today, computer chess programs that play as powerfully as Deep
Blue run on personal computers as well as portable chess machines that
fit into a pocket. Nonetheless, the quality of these programs is remarkable: they can defeat over 99% of all human players. Grandmasters and
World Champions use them to train for play, both against machines and
other humans. The way the game is taught and played is different: a 16year-old novice, for example, with access to all of a Grandmaster’s
games on the Internet, could defeat him by exploiting a weakness revealed during a computer simulation of such games.
In spite of the millions of positions per second being evaluated, computers and humans (at the highest level) are matched. To date, for example, there have been only two matches between a computer and a
World Chess Champion and both have ended in ties.
Deep Blue defeated the best human chess player by using large
amounts of calculation. But was it a thinking machine? As Murray
Campbell, Deep Blue team member, pointed out, “I never considered
Deep Blue intelligent. It’s just an excellent problem solver in this very
specific domain.” Campbell’s remarks bring to mind Alan Turing’s observation that to determine whether a machine is intelligent requires only that it fool a human into believing so. In other words, there is no objective test for intelligence that lies outside of human perception.
Though some argue that human thinking is simply a form of calculation
and therefore amenable to computer simulation, many disagree.
Beyond extremely impressive achievements in specific domains –
which will have far-reaching effects on our lives – a machine that can
reason in general terms is still quite a few years and many startling
breakthroughs away.
Vocabulary Notes
1. an access to information stored in a computer is its retrieval
from a computer
2. to reveal – to disclose
3. a simulation – an imitation
4. if you match something, you are as good as it
12
5. a tie – a result of a game in which two people do exactly as well as
each other
6. a perception – the realization of things by using five senses
7. to argue – to state opinion
8. to be amenable to calculations – to be calculable
9. to reason – to think – to find out things for itself
10. a breakthrough – a remarkable achievement
POST-READING TASK
(To be done at home in writing)
I. Formulate sentences to cover the points.
1. The current quality of computer chess programs.
2. The way the chess game is taught and played.
3. A novice vs. a Grandmaster.
4. Your interpretation of the fact that the two recent matches between
a computer and a World Chess Champion have ended in ties.
5. The advantages of a machine over a human being.
6. Human thinking & computer simulation.
II. Give words close in meaning.
1. more than
8. so
2. less than
9. outside
3. a method
10. an influence
4. to use
11. remarkable
5. at present
12. to disclose
6. particular
13. an imitation
7. though
14. a remarkable achievement
III. Make up sentences with the expressions.
1 to fit into a pocket
3 in other words
2 to match something
4 to be amenable to
CLASS EXERCISES
Exercise 1 (in groups)
Discuss the passage covering the points (post -reading task I).
13
UNIT 3
AN INTERVIEW WITH BRUCE MAGGS, VICE_PRESIDENT
FOR R@ DEVELOPMENT AT AKAMAI TECH
PRE-READING TASK
Study grammar points.
I. We use should when we give an
opinion about something. Should is not
as strong as must.
Study the sentences.
1. What should the general structure
of a parallel computer be?
2. What should the network look like?
II. N + Ving (active) or N + Ved (passive)
The participles give information about nouns.
The participles can be put together with other words to make adjectival participle clause (определительное придаточное предложение –
который).
Study the sentences.
1. You have many independent processors connected with some sort
of communication network.
2. The customers use Akamai for the actual delivery of the bits making up the images or the video streams transmitted on the end user
workstation
III. Would is used to talk about the natural course and behavior of
things and events as a result of some action. It is the less definite form
of will.
Study the sentence.
According to Gordon Moore the number of transistors contained on a
computer chip would double every year.
Give Russian correspondence:
engineering efforts, in particular (ant. in general), to make use of (to
use), somewhat (a bit), actual (real), say (for example), close to (near),
to consider (to analyze), in the thorough fashion (carefully), yet (but), a
14
number of (a range of, a set of), although (though), both … and, a way
(a method), close to (near)
Terminology
1. parallel computing – параллельная обработка данных
2. networking – передача данных по сети
3. communication network
4. content delivery – доставка данных
5. the end user workstation
6. a master Web server − центральный компьютер в сети
Study the interview.
I: Can you tell us a little about yourself?
B: Sure. I am a computer scientist. I am a professor at Carnegie Mellon (CMU). I went to the university at MIT, in Boston; I received my
undergraduate degree and my PhD there. After that I served as a postdoc
at MIT and then I went to NEC labs, a big research institute, established
by the Japanese company. After spending three and a half years there I
came to CMU. I have been here for seven years. I took three semesters
off to a company called Akamai that started. While at Akamai I was the
vice-president for research and development and I was in charge of
managing all engineering efforts.
Note
to be in charge of – to be responsible for
a. Discuss the passage (in pairs).
One of you is an interviewer, the other is Bruce Maggs.
1. What is your field?
2. What is your position in Carnegie Mellon?
3. What university did you go to?
4. What did you do after that?
5. What are NEC labs?
6. What company is it established by?
7. How long did you spend there?
8. What did you do then?
9. How long have you been here?
10. How did you come to Akamai?
11. What was your position at Akamai?
15
I: Can you tell us about your research interests?
B: I worked in the general area of parallel computing. In particular I
studied the problem of what should the general structure of a parallel
computer be. You have many independent processors connected with
some sort of communication network: how should the network look
like, and how should the processors make use of it? I have become interested in networking after my stay at Akamai and I’ve shifted my focus. I
was mostly a theoretician before, but now am working on problems that
are somewhat more intermediate.
b. Discuss the passage (in groups).
One of you is Bruce Maggs, the others are computer scientists
from MEPHI.
1. In what area did you work there?
2. What is the general structure of a parallel computer?
3. What problems did you study?
4. You are mostly a theoretician, aren’t you?
5. Why have you shifted your focus after your stay at Akamai?
6. What problems are you working on now?
I: Say some words about Akamai.
B; Akamai is the leader in Internet content delivery. What that
means is that Akamai serves the images that appear on the most popular
web sites in the world. Akamai has 1400 customers. The customers use
Akamai for the actual delivery of the bits making up the images or the
video streams transmitted on the end user workstation. Akamai has a lot
of high-profile customers, such as Yahoo, Microsoft, Apple and CNN.
Akamai has established servers all over the world; over 8000 servers in
more than 50 countries at 500 locations. When the end user goes to visit,
say, Yahoo, the pictures will be sent to the user not from the central location, where Yahoo has its master Web servers, but from one of Akamai’s locations, which is much closer to the end user than the central
location.
Discuss the passage (in groups).
One of you is Bruce Maggs, the others are computer scientists.
1. How many customers does Akamai have?
2. What do the customers use Akamai for?
16
3. What high-profile customers does Akamai have?
4. How many servers has Akamai established?
POST-READING TASK
(To be done at home in writing)
I. You are looking for a job. Write your resume using the key
words.
1. a computer scientist
2. to go to a university
3. to be a …. graduate of
4. to go to … after graduation
5. to serve as
6. I have shifted my focus
7. I have been here for
8. I am
9. to perform the duties
10. I am in charge of managing engineering efforts
II. Add some words about your research interests using the key
words.
1. to work in
2. to do research
3. under the guidance of
4. to study a problem
5. to consider a problem
6. to be interested in
7. to have (a lot of, no, little) experience of working with
8. to deal with a problem
III. Prepare a short talk concerning the Internet using the key
words.
1. Internet content delivery
4. the end user workstation
2. to serve images
5. high – profile customers
3. to have customers
6. to establish servers
17
CLASS EXERCISES
Exercise 1 (in pairs)
Of the above suggested questions (a, b, p. 15, 16) write out the
ones you would like to ask your partner and make up a dialogue.
UNIT 4
FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS
PRE- READING TASK
Study some grammar points.
I. S + proves + to V = Russian – оказывается, что
S + turns out + to V = Russian – оказывается, что
Study the sentence.
1. Moore’s law has proved to be somewhat accurate.
2. Sun’s Java OS development could prove (to be) more important
than Solaris.
3. Time will tell which of these products will turn out to be favourites.
II. Ving is a verbal noun. Verbal nouns express processes.
We use by + Ving to say how we do something.
Study the sentences.
1. We are trying to solve ethical problems by developing better computer security and by passing regulatory laws.
2. When Turing was 23 years old, he impressed his peers at the University of Cambridge by inventing the mathematical characterization of
the machine that became one of the most important contributions in the
history of computing.
III. We use to V to talk about the purpose of doing something (why
someone does something.)
Study the sentences.
1. Individuals, companies and governments are working to solve ethical problems
2. The distinction between PCs and workstations will dissolve, to be
replaced by a range of client systems.
18
Give Russian correspondence:
somewhat (partially), currently (at present), such as, a range of (a set
of, a number of), specific (particular)
Terminology
1. a human and computer interface
2. virtual reality program languages
3. Virtual Reality Modeling Language – язык моделирования
виртуальной реальности
4. a broadband communication system – широкополосная система связи
5. an application-specific supercomputer – суперкомпьютер специального назначения
6. a desktop supercomputer – настольный
7. an information appliance – an application specific computer
8. a local area network (LAN) server – сервер локальной сети
9. a legacy mainframe – традиционное базовое вычислительное
устройство
10. data mining – поиск данных
11. speech recognition – распознавание речи
COMPUTERS WILL BECOME MORE ADVANCED
AND EASIER TO USE
FYI
Ethics – moral beliefs and rules about right and wrong
Study the passage.
In 1965 semiconductor pioneer Gordon Moore predicted that the
number of transistors would double every year. This is now known as
Moore s Law, and it has proved to be somewhat accurate. The number
of transistors and the computational speed of microprocessors currently
double approximately every 18 months. Components continue to shrink
in size and are becoming faster, cheaper and more versatile.
New ethical issues have arisen, such as how to regulate material on
the Internet and World Wide Web. Individuals, companies and govern19
ments are working to solve these problems by developing better computer security and by passing regulatory laws.
Computers will become more advanced and they will also become
easier to use. Reliable speech recognition will make the operation of a
computer easier. Virtual reality, the technology of interacting with a
computer using the human senses, will also contribute to better human
and computer interfaces. Standards for virtual reality program languages, called Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML), are currently
being developed for the World Wide Web.
Communication between computer users and networks will benefit
from new technologies, such as broadband communication systems that
carry much more data and carry it faster, to and from the vast interconnected data bases that continue to grow in number and size.
Over the next years, computers will move toward a client-server
segmentation of products. The distinction between PCs and workstations will dissolve, to be replaced by a range of client systems ranging
from application-specific to desktop supercomputers. PC and workstation servers will give way to a wider range of servers, from home servers – a new class for the needs of home offices and information appliances – through Web and local-area network (LAN) servers to legacy
mainframes and supercomputers.
The new servers will include specialized servers for a variety of new
applications, such as video-on-demand and data mining.
Vocabulary Notes
1. a development – an innovation – the process of making a basic
design more advanced
2. versatile – used for many different purposes
3. an issue – an important subject that people are discussing
4. reliable – something you can be sure of
5. to contribute to – to help to make better
6. to benefit from – to profit from
7. vast – very large
8. operation of something – control
9. a distinction – a difference
10. to dissolve – (here) -to disappear
11. to range from …. to – to vary from …. to
12. If something gives way to something it is replaced by it
20
13. a variety of – a group of different kinds
14. an application – a usage
POST-READING TASK
(To be done at home in writing)
I. Innumerate the points of computer development.
Begin with:
1. Computers will become more advanced.
II. Say what you mean by ‘a more advanced computer’?
III. Innumerate the newly arisen ethical problems in the Internet
and World Wide Web. Formulate your attitude to them.
IV. Give words close in meaning.
1 at present
6 to profit from
2 a number of
7 very large
3 particular
8 a difference
4 an innovation
9 a device
5 control
10 a usage
CLASS EXERCISES
Exercise 1 (in groups)
Checking up understanding
1. What field did Gordon Moore specialize in?
2. How did Moore formulate his law?
3. How accurate has his law proved to be?
4. Along what lines will computers develop?
5. How can computer scientists make the operation of a computer
easier?
6. What is virtual reality?
7. What computer languages are being developed for the World
Wide Web? Why?
8. What is the advantage of broadband communication systems?
9. What is a client system?
10. What are the new applications of servers?
Exercise 2 (do it yourself)
21
Formulate questions.
1. Moore predicted …. (What?)
2. Moore’s law has proved to be accurate. (General question)
3. New ethical problems have arisen. (What ethical problems?)
4. ……… will make the operation of computers easier. (What technologies?)
5. Virtual reality is ………………. (What?)
6. …………….. are being developed for the World Wide Web.
(What languages?)
7. The advantage of broadband communication systems is ………..
(What?)
8. PCs and workstations will be replaced by …… (What ……….
by?)
9. The new servers will include …….. (What?)
Exercise 3 (in groups)
Ask the above formulated questions and give answers to them.
UNIT 5
QUANTUM COMPUTING
“The classical purely mathematical theory of computation
is not complete because it does not describe all physically
possible computations”
David Deutch
PRE-READING TASK
Study some grammar points.
I. N + to V (active); N + to be V3 (passive)
An infinitive (to V) after a noun characterizes it and expresses an action that must be done or could be done in the future.
Study the sentences.
1. Quantum computers use components of a chloroform molecule
and a medical procedure called magnetic resonance imaging to compute
at a molecular level.
22
2. One of the new technologies uses the cable-TV network to transmit data by cable modems.
II. Modal verbs show the attitude of the speaker to the idea he
expresses.
S + may (might) + V = perhaps
Might is more unsure than may
Study the sentences.
1. Quantum computers may one day be thousands to millions of
times faster than current computers.
2. Home servers may also play a role in home automation systems in
the future.
III. Gerund = preposition + N + Ving = Russian – то, что
Study the sentence.
1. Instead of many processors working in parallel we have only one
quantum processor.
Give Russian correspondence:
a procedure (a method, a technique), current (present day), to take advantage of (to use), at one time (at once), instead of (rather)
Terminology
1. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) − томография
2. a state vector – вектор состояния
A BREAKTHROUGH IN COMPUTING
Study the passage.
Breakthroughs occurred in the area of quantum computing in the
late 199Os. Quantum computers under development use components
of a chloroform molecule (a combination of chlorine and hydrogen
atoms) and a medical procedure called magnetic resonance imaging
(MRI) to compute at a molecular level. Scientists used a branch of physics called quantum mechanics, which describes the activity of subatomic
particles (particles that make up atoms), as the basis for quantum computing. Quantum computers may one day be thousands to millions of
times faster than current computers, because they take advantage of
the laws that govern the behavior of subatomic particles. These laws
23
allow quantum computers to examine all possible answers to a query at
one time.
Quantum computers can compute faster because they can accept as
the input not a one number but a coherent superposition of many different numbers and perform a computation (a sequence of unitary operations) on all of these numbers simultaneously. This can be viewed as a
massive parallel computation, but instead of many processors working
in parallel we have only one quantum processor performing a computation that affects all components of the state vector.
Vocabulary Notes
1. to occur – to take place
2. the computers that are under development are the computers that
are being developed
3. a query – a question
4. to accept – (here) to use
5. to perform – to make
6. a sequence – a chain – a series
7. simultaneously – at the same time
8. to view – to consider
POST-READING TASK
(to be done in writing)
I. Write a summary by answering the questions.
1. At what level will quantum computers make calculations?
2. What is the basis of quantum computing?
3. What do the laws of quantum mechanics allow quantum computers to do?
4. Why will quantum computers compute faster?
5 How many times will quantum computers compute faster than current computers?
6. What is the difference between parallel computing and quantum
computing?
II. Give words close in meaning.
1. a method
4. at once
2. present day
5. rather
3. to use
6. to take place
24
7. a question
8. to make
10. at the same time
9. a chain
11. to consider
III. Formulate questions.
1. Breakthroughs occurred in the area of quantum computing …….
(When?)
2. Computer scientists used a branch of physics as the basis for quantum computing. (What branch of physics?)
3. Quantum mechanics describes ………….. (What?)
4. Quantum computers may be ………… faster than current computers. (How many times faster?)
5. Quantum computers can compute faster than current computers.
(Why?)
CLASS EXERCISES
Exercise 1 (in pairs)
Answer the questions formulated in post-reading III.
Exercise 2 (do it yourself)
Translate the sentences.
1. Сейчас разрабатываются квантовые компьютеры.
2. Прорыв в области квантовой обработки данных произошёл в
конце 90-х годов.
3. Учёные используют квантовую механику в качестве основы
для квантовой обработки данных.
4. Для обработки данных используются законы взаимодействия
ядерных частиц.
5. Эти законы позволят квантовым компьютерам проверять все
возможные ответы на вопрос одновременно.
6. Поэтому, квантовые компьютеры будут в миллионы раз быстрее, чем современные компьютеры.
25
UNIT 6
THE QUANTUM THEORY OF COMPUTATION
Interview with Dr. David Deutch
PRE-READING TASK
Study some grammar points.
I. We use one(s) to replace the noun(s) mentioned before.
Study the sentences.
1. Any computer will be able to completely duplicate all the functions of any other one.
2. A single-sided DVD will hold 4.7 GB or 7.5 GB, a double-sided
one, up to 17 GB.
II. We use to V after the first, the second etc, the last and the next.
Study the sentence.
Alan Turing was the first person to postulate a universal computing
machine.
III. Ving is a verbal noun. It is formed from a verb + ing. While
an infinitive expresses an action, a verbal noun expresses a process.
We use Ving as the subject of the sentence or in combination with
prepositions.
Study the sentences.
1. Going to the moon is nothing compared with quantum computation.
2. Instead of having many processors working in parallel we have
only one quantum processor.
3. Trying to write software that accounts for every possibility leads
to what computer scientists call “combinatorial explosion.”
Give Russian correspondence.
in terms of (as regards), any, within (inside), an impact (an effect), no
matter (regardless), extra (additional), in general (ant. in particular), a
challenge (a problem to be solved), compared with, before, well before
26
Terminology
1. information processing
2. a memory capacity − объем запоминающего устройства
In this interview, a Special Topics correspondent talks with Dr. David Deutsch, of the
Centre for Quantum Computation at the University of Oxford, about his
career in quantum theory and computer research.
Study the interview.
ST: What is a universal computer?
DD: All existing computers, the one you have on your desk, the supercomputers that the National Security Agency uses, and the computer
in your watch and so on, all of them are, in terms of their repertoire of
possible computations, completely identical to each other. They differ
only in speed and memory capacity. Any one of them, if you let it run
long enough or give it enough memory, will be able to completely duplicate all the functions of any other one. That property is called universality. Alan Turing was the first person to postulate a universal computing machine and prove it was universal within a certain domain. But
that was for classical physics, not quantum physics. My innovation was
to redo his work using quantum physics instead of classical physics.
ST: When did you do that work; where was it published and what
was the impact?
DD: That was in the early 1980s and published in 1985 in the Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. That paper began the modern
subject of the quantum theory of computation, which provides many
types of computation that a quantum computer can do but a classical
computer cannot do, no matter how much extra memory and extra time
it is given.
ST: What about the future of quantum computation in general?
DD: Practical applications of quantum computation in general are
far more distant. Quantum computation is one of the greatest challenges
facing experimental physics. Going to the moon is nothing compared
with it. We are talking about decades before anything useful comes out.
Well before quantum computers are practical or before we know how to
do quantum computation in the laboratory, the quantum theory of com27
putation is teaching us a lot about physics, because any experiment is
information processing.
POST-READING TASK
(To be done in writing)
I. Write a summary by answering the questions.
1. In terms of what characteristics are computers identical to each
other?
2. What do computers differ in?
3. What property is called universality?
4. What do you know about Alan Turing?
5. How soon would quantum computers become practicable?
II. Make up sentences using the expressions.
1. to be identical to each other
2. to differ in
3. no matter how
4. the greatest challenge
5. information processing
III. Formulate some questions you would like to ask Dr. David
Deutsch.
IV. Write a short essay on Data Processing Development using
passages 4, 5 and 6 as the basis.
CLASS ACTIVITY
You are participating in the conference: Data Processing Development. Give a talk. The audience is asking questions.
UNIT 7
THEORY OF COMPUTATION
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
PRE-READING TASK
Study some grammar points.
I. We use whether when talking about two alternatives. (Russian
V + ли)
28
Study the sentences.
1. The theory of computation is the branch of computer science that
deals with whether and how efficiently problems can be solved on a
computer.
2. The coming months will reveal whether the very long instruction
word (VLIW) is a candidate for inclusion in the next wave of highperformance microprocessor architecture.
II. Active and Passive
A verb has two categories: tense (past, present and future) and voice
(active and passive). There are two infinitives: active to V and passive
to be + V3.
On the basis of an active infinitive we form active sentences and use
active when it is important who or what does the action.
On the basis of a passive infinitive we form passive sentences and
prefer passive when it is not important who or what does the action.
In passive sentences we use be (is, are, was, were, has been, will be
etc) + V3.
Study the sentences.
1. The theory of computation is divided into two main branches.
2. The specifications for DVD have been accepted by the consumer
electronics, computer and movie industries.
Note: We use the passive infinitive after model verbs.
Compare:
1. A computer can solve this problem.
This problem can be solved on a computer.
2. You can manage the network computers remotely and centrally.
The network computers can be managed remotely and centrally.
III. We use must and have to (do) to say that it is necessary to do
something. Often it doesn’t matter which you use.
Study the sentences.
1. If we say there are n numbers in the list, then if the list is not
sorted or indexed in any way, we may have to look at every number in
order to find the number.
IV. You translate a past participle V3 without any words referring to
it before you translate a N.
29
Study the sentences.
1. For any problem solved by a Turing machine the memory used
will always be finite,
2. Any problem that can be solved on a Turing machine could be
solved on a desktop PC which has enough memory installed.
3. Over 55% of printers sold are ink-jet models.
V. Modal verbs show the attitude of the speaker to the idea he
expresses.
S + may (might) + V = perhaps
Might is more unsure than may
Study the sentences.
1. We may have to look at every number in order to find the number
we're seeking.
VI. When we imagine a situation we use would (could, might) +
+ Vo
would – (Russian) бы
could, might – (Russian) мог бы
Study the sentences.
1. The infinite memory capacity might be considered an unphysical
attribute.
2. So in our previous example we might say that the problem requires O(n) steps to be solved.
3. Any problem that can be solved on a Turing machine could be
solved on a desktop PC.
Give Russian correspondence:
in order to (to V), While (if), actually (really), so (therefore), any, at all,
as (because, since), both ….. and, closely (intimately), to consider (to
analyze), respectively, particular (certain), as (in the process), then (in
this case), in some way (somehow), thus (hence), a number of (a set of,
a range of), rather (we use ‘rather’ to introduce a correction = instead of)
COMPUTABILITY THEORY & TURING MACHINE
Study the paper and translate the passage marked with asterisks
in writing.
The theory of computation is the branch of computer science that
deals with whether and how efficiently problems can be solved on a
30
computer. The field is divided into two major branches: computability
theory and complexity theory, but both branches deal with formal models of computation.
In order to perform a rigorous study of computation, computer
scientists work with a mathematical abstraction of computers called a
model of computation. There are several formulations in use, but the
most commonly examined is the Turing machine. A Turing machine can
be considered as a desktop PC with an infinite memory capacity, though
it can only access this memory in small discrete chunks. Computer
scientists study the Turing machine because it is simple to formulate, it
can be analyzed and used to prove results, and because it represents
what many consider the most powerful possible "reasonable" model of
computation. While the infinite memory capacity might be considered
an unphysical attribute, for any problem actually solved by a Turing
machine the memory used will always be finite, so any problem that can
be solved on a Turing machine could be solved on a desktop PC which
has enough memory installed.
Computability theory
Computability theory deals primarily with the question of whether a
problem is solvable at all on a computer. The halting problem is one of
the most important results in computability theory, as it is an example of
a concrete problem that is both easy to formulate and impossible to
solve using a Turing machine. Much of computability theory builds on
the halting problem result. Computability theory is closely related to the
branch of mathematical logic.
Complexity theory
Complexity theory considers not only whether a problem can be
solved at all on a computer, but also how efficiently the problem can be
solved. Two major aspects are considered: time complexity and space
complexity, which are respectively how many steps it takes to perform a
computation, and how much memory is required to perform that computation.
* In order to analyze how much time and space a given algorithm
requires computer scientists express the time or space required to solve
31
the problem as a function of the size of the input problem. For example,
finding a particular number in a long list of numbers becomes harder as
the list of numbers grows larger. If we say there are n numbers in the
list, then if the list is not sorted or indexed in any way we may have to
look at every number in order to find the number we're seeking. We thus
say that in order to solve this problem, the computer needs to perform a
number of steps that grows linearly with the size of the problem.*
To simplify this problem, computer scientists have adopted Big O
notation, which allows functions to be compared in a way that ensures
that particular aspects of a machine's construction do not need to be
considered, but rather only the asymptotic behavior as problems become large. So in our previous example we might say that the problem
requires O(n) steps to be solved.
Vocabulary Notes
1. major – basic
2. rigorous – scrupulous
3. a chunk – a large amount or a part of something
4. a notation – a set of written symbols
5. to ensure – to guarantee
6. a previous example – the one that was described above
POST -READING TASK
(to be done in writing)
I. Cut down each paragraph to the topical sentence(s) and write
a summary.
II. Formulate questions using the question words.
1. The theory of computation deals with whether and how efficiently
problems can be solved on a computer. (What …………. with?)
2. This field is divided into two major branches. (Into what
branches?)
3. Computer sciences work with a mathematical abstraction of computers called a model of computation. (What ………..with?)
4. The most commonly examined formulation is the Turing machine.
(Which formulation …..?)
5. A Turing machine can be considered as a desktop PC with an infinite memory capacity. (How?)
32
6. Computer scientists study the Turing machine …………... (Why?)
7. Computability theory deals primarily with the question of whether
a problem is solvable at all on a computer. (What ……….. with?)
8. The halting problem is one of the most important results in computability theory. (Why?)
9. Complexity theory considers ………………... (What?)
10. Two major aspects are considered. (What aspects ……?)
11. Computer scientists express the time or space required to solve
the problem as a function of the size of the input problem. (Why?)
12. Computer scientists have adopted Big O notation. (What …….
for?)
CLASS EXERCISES
Exercise 1 (in groups)
Using the questions formulated in post-reading task II discuss
the theory of computation.
Exercise 2 (do it yourself)
Put the verbs into the passive.
1. This problem can (solve) on a computer.
2. This field (divide) into two major branches.
3. Several formulations (use).
4. A Turing machine can (consider) as a desktop PC with infinite
memory capacity.
5. The infinite memory capacity might (consider) an unphysical
attribute.
6. Any problem that can (solve) on a Turing machine could (solve)
on a desk PC.
7. Computability theory closely (relate) with a branch of mathematical logic.
8. How efficiently can this problem (solve) on a computer?
9. Two major aspects (consider).
10. How much memory (require) to perform this computation?
11. The list (not sort).
12. The list (not index).
Exercise 3 (do it yourself)
33
Translate the sentences.
1. Предметом теории вычислений является изучение возможности и эффективности решения задач на компьютере.
2. Существует несколько формулировок модели вычислений.
3. Учёные изучают Turing машину, потому что она является самой мощной из всех приемлемых моделей вычисления.
4. Эту задачу нельзя решить на компьютере.
5. Чтобы решить задачу компьютер должен выполнить целый
ряд операций.
6. Количество операций возрастает линейно увеличению размера задачи.
7. Чтобы упростить эту проблему учёные приняли систему обозначений Big O.
UNIT 8
SUPERCOMPUTERS
PRE-READING TASK
Give Russian correspondence:
such as, and the like (and so on), conventional (usual, standard), through
(due to), as well as (and too), to perform (to operate, to work), performance (characteristics), is due to (is caused by), to tend (to have a tendency), to make great efforts (to try hard), a bottleneck (a difficult problem), at least (as a minimum)
Terminology
latency − время ожидания
CALCULATION-INTENSIVE TASKS
Study the text and translate the passage marked with asterisks in
writing.
Supercomputers are used for highly calculation-intensive tasks such
as problems involving quantum mechanical physics, weather forecasting, climate research (including research into global warming), molecular modeling (computing the structures and properties of chemical compounds, biological macromolecules, polymers, and crystals), physical
34
simulations (such as simulation of airplanes in wind tunnels, simulation
of the detonation of nuclear weapons, and research into nuclear fusion),
cryptanalysis, and the like. Major universities, military agencies and
scientific research laboratories are heavy users.
DESIGN
*Supercomputers using custom CPUs traditionally gain their speed
over conventional computers through the use of innovative designs that
allow them to perform many tasks in parallel, as well as complex detail
engineering. They are used for certain types of computation, usually
numerical calculations, and perform poorly at more general computing
tasks. Their memory hierarchy is very carefully designed to ensure the
processor is kept fed with data and instructions at all times – in fact,
much of the performance difference between slower computers and supercomputers is due to the memory hierarchy. Their I/O systems tend to
be designed to support high bandwidth, because supercomputers are not
used for transaction processing.
Amdahl's law applies here as with all highly parallel systems, and
supercomputer designers make great efforts to eliminate software serialization, and use hardware to accelerate the remaining bottlenecks.*
SUPERCOMPUTER CHALLENGES
A supercomputer generates large amounts of heat and must be
cooled. Cooling most supercomputers is a major HVAC problem. Information cannot move faster than the speed of light between two parts
of a supercomputer. For this reason, a supercomputer that is many meters across must have latencies between its components measured at
least in the tens of nanoseconds.
Vocabulary Notes
1. to gain – to get – to obtain
2. to eliminate – to exclude
35
POST – READING TASK
(to be done in writing)
I. Give examples of highly calculation-intensive tasks.
II. Write a summary by formulating sentences with the key
words.
1. highly calculation- intensive tasks
2. heavy users
3. gain their speed through
4. to be used for certain types of computation
5. to be carefully designed
6. the performance difference
7. to make great efforts
8. a major problem
36
PART II
COMPUTER SECURITY TECHNOLOGY
UNIT I
CRYPTOGRAPHY
PRE-READING TASK
Study some grammar points.
I. S + is supposed (is considered, is believed, is supposed, is expected, is assumed) + to V can be used in this way. These verbs express generally accepted opinion and correspond to Russian –
Считают, что; Полагают, что; Ожидают, что; Допускают, что
I. We use two variants.
1. It is considered that cryptography is a science of protecting information by encoding it into an unreadable format.
2. Cryptography is considered to be a science of protecting information by encoding it into an unreadable format.
You can also use these structures with:
is found = найдено, что; is said = говорят, что; is known =
известно, что; is proved = доказано, что
Study the sentences.
1. Cooling supercomputers is considered to be the major problem.
2. All computers are known to differ only in speed and memory capacity.
3. Chess programs are supposed to be able to defeat over 99% of all
human players.
4. Computer vendors are looking for a product or strategy that can
compete with the Wintel standard, and Java is believed to be such a
product.
II. The participle
When two things happen at the same time, you can use Ving for one
of the verbs.
We can also use Ving or V3 after while or when (which are not
translated). These structures are used mainly in written English.
37
Study the sentence.
When carried out by the “good guys”, cryptanalysis is intended to
identify flaws and weaknesses.
Give Russian correspondence:
to cause (to bring about), a way (a method), so (therefore), too + adj.
INFORMATION PROTECTING
Study the passage.
Computer hackers – people who illegally access computer systems –
often violate privacy and can destroy records. Programs called viruses
or worms can replicate and spread from computer to computer, erasing
information or causing computer malfunctions or failure.
Cryptography is considered to be a science of protecting information
by encoding it into an unreadable format. Cryptography is an effective
way of protecting sensitive information stored on media or transmitted
through confidential network communication paths. One of the goals of
cryptography, and the mechanisms that make it up, is to hide information from unauthorized individuals. However, with enough time, resources, and motivation, hackers can break most algorithms and reveal
the encoded information. So a more realistic goal of cryptography is to
make obtaining the information too work – intensive and time consuming to be worthwhile for a hacker. With the birth of the internet, encryption has become an integrated part of the computing world.
Encryption is used in hardware devices and in software to protect data, banking transactions, corporate extranet transmissions, e-mail messages, web transactions, wireless communications, confidential information, faxes, and phone calls. The code breakers and cryptanalysis efforts
and the amazing number-crunching capabilities of the microprocessors hitting the market each year have quickened the evolution of cryptography.
Cryptanalysis is an important part of cryptography. It is the science
of studying and breaking the secrecy of encryption processes. When
carried out by the “good guys”, cryptanalysis is intended to identify
flaws and weaknesses so that developers can go back to the drawing
board and improve the components. It is also performed by motivated
38
hackers to identify the same types of flaws, but with the goal of obtaining the encryption key for unauthorized access to confidential information.
Vocabulary Notes
1. to access computer information – to retrieve information out of a
computer
2. to violate privacy – to disturb
3. to erase information – to destroy
4. a malfunction – an error – a failure
5. to encrypt – to code – to encode
6. a medium (media) – a carrier of information
7. to authorize –to allow
8. to reveal – to disclose
9. to be worthwhile – to be profitable
10. an integrated part – one of the basic parts
11. number-crunching capabilities – fast processing of big
amounts of information
12. to be intended for – to be designed for
13. a flaw – a defect
POST-READING TASK
(to be done in writing)
Formulate some sentences to cover the points:
1. computer hackers
3. cryptography
2. programs called viruses
4. encryption
or worms
5. cryptanalysis
CLASS EXERCISES
Exercise 1 (in groups)
Checking up understanding (in pairs)
1. What is cryptography?
2. Is cryptography considered to be a science?
3. What is one of the goals of cryptography?
4. Is this goal realistic? Why?
5. What is a more realistic goal?
39
6. Where is encryption used? What is it used for?
7. What is cryptanalysis?
8. What is cryptanalysis intended for when carried out by “good”
guys?
9. What goals do hackers have when performing cryptanalysis?
Exercise 2 (do it yourself)
Make up simple sentences in the passive with the below expressions. Follow the passage.
Model: The information is protected by encoding it into an unreadable format.
1. to violate privacy
7. to break an algorithm
2. to destroy records
8. to encode information
3. to erase information
9. to obtain information
4. to protect information
10. to improve the components
5. to store data
11. to identify flaws
6. to transmit data
12. to process information
UNIT 2
PUBLIC KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY
PRE-READING TASK
Study some grammar points.
I one(s) is used to refer to a thing) that has been mentioned before.
Study the sentences.
1. The public-key system works on a principle of a safe with two
keys, one public key to lock it, and one private one to open it.
2. A Turing machine is one that can compute the answers to a mathematical problem based on a program.
II that (those) is also used to refer to a thing (things) that has been
mentioned before.
40
Study the sentences.
1. The difficulty of computing the private key from the respective
public key is exactly that of factoring big integers.
2. Today the computer industry is transferring from the model in
which a particular company’s architecture dominates to that in which
computer products conform to open standards.
III. N + to Vo; N + to be V3
An infinitive after a noun characterizes it and expresses an action
which must be done or could be done in the future.
Study the sentences.
1. There are two keys: one public key to lock the safe, and one private one to open it.
2. In fact, the internet itself could be transformed into a software
platform to challenge the Wintel standards.
IV. One is a personal pronoun and can be used as the subject of a
sentence = You. It is a formal subject. One is not translated.
Study the sentences.
1. One can easily derive a public key from a private key but not vice
versa.
2. However, with enough time, resources, and motivation, one can
break most algorithms.
V. We use must and have to (do) to say that it is necessary to do
something. Often it doesn’t matter which you use.
Study the sentences.
1. In these systems users do not have to agree on a secret key before
they send a message.
2. To investigate the matters we have to extend our studies of memory beyond laboratory animals to human beings.
VI. Any branch of exact sciences involves terminology.
a. Terms are expressed as a chain of nouns. The last N in the
chain is the basic one.
E.g. the key distribution problem
a public- key system
a public-key cryptosystem
a system network malfunction
information processing
memory capacity
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b. Terms are expressed as N + V3 + N
E.g. a knowledge-based search
a PC- based desktop videoconferencing system
Give Russian correspondence:
before, so (therefore), vice versa, to exploit (to use), unfortunately
THE KEY DISTRBUTION PROBLEM
Study the passage.
Mathematicians have tried hard to solve the key distribution problem. The 1970s brought a
clever mathematical discovery in the shape of “public key” systems.
In these systems users do not have to agree on a secret key before they
send a message. They work on the principle of a safe with two keys, one
public key to lock it, and one private one to open it. Everyone has a key
to lock the safe but only one person has a key that will open it again, so
anyone can put a message into the safe but only one person can take it
out. In practice the two keys are two large integer numbers. One can
easily derive a public key from a private key but not vice versa. The system exploits the fact that certain mathematical operations are easier to
perform in one direction than the other. Public-key cryptosystems avoid
the key distribution problem but unfortunately their security depends on
unproved mathematical assumptions, such as the difficulty of factoring
large integers. An enemy who knows your public key can in principle
calculate your private key because the two keys are mathematically related; however, the difficulty of computing the private key from public
key is exactly that of factoring big integers.
Vocabulary Notes
1. an integer number – a large number – a dimensionless number
2. to avoid – trying not to do
3. an assumption – a supposition
42
POST-READING TASK
(To be done in writing)
1. Explain the principle of a public key system in one sentence.
2. Explain the mathematics involved.
3. Explain the incompleteness of mathematics the system is based
on.
4. Make your own conclusion about the effectiveness of a publickey system.
UNIT 3
ID TECHNOLOGY
PRE-READING TASK
I. Ving is a verbal noun. It is formed from a verb + ing. While an
infinitive expresses an action, a verbal noun expresses a process. We
often use Ving as the subject of the sentence or in combination with
prepositions.
Study the sentences.
1. Defining what constitutes an attack is difficult.
2. Windows NT is on its way to becoming the leading server OS.
We use without + Ving to say how we do something = Russian – не
делая.
Study the sentences.
The goal of ID is to characterize attack manifestations without identifying false attacks.
II. We use to V to talk about the purpose of doing something (why
someone does something). We also use in order to + V or so as to V
Study the sentences.
1. Some users may use ID to identify and correct vulnerabilities.
2. The race is on to find faster technologies that can meet the future
needs of the Internet and communications applications.
III. We use for + N + to V to talk about the purpose of doing something = Russian – для того, чтобы
Study the sentences.
1. For an intrusion to occur, it requires both an act by an attacker and
manifestation of the attack.
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2. Networking infrastructure is facilities, services and equipment that
are needed for an organization to function properly.
IV. N + to V (active); N + to be V3 (passive)
An infinitive (to V) after a noun characterizes it and expresses an action that must be done or could be done in the future.
Study the sentences.
1. Some users may be interested in collecting forensic information to
locate intruders
2. Others may use ID to trigger the actions to protect computing resources.
Give Russian correspondence:
to result in (to lead to, to give rise to), despite (in spite of), the only
(single), a means (a method, a way), any, a number of (a set of, a range
of), typically (usually), no + N, to result from (to be the result of), both
…. and, so as to V (in order to)
INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEMS
FYI
Framework is a particular set of rules or methods that form a structure.
Groundwork is early work which forms the basis for further work.
Study the passage.
Intrusion detection systems (IDSs) are an important component of
defensive measures protecting computer systems and networks from
abuse. ID has been an active field of research for about two decades and
provided a methodological framework that resulted in many researches
and laid the groundwork for commercial products. Despite substantial
research and commercial investment, ID technology is immature, and
its effectiveness is limited.
The Intrusion Perspective
Defining what constitutes an attack is difficult. Attacks may involve
any number of attackers and victims. The attacker’s viewpoint is typically characterized by intent and risk of exposure. From a victim’s
44
perspective, intrusions are characterized by their manifestations, which
may or may not include damage. Some attacks may produce no manifestations, and some manifestations may result from system network malfunctions. For an intrusion to occur, it requires both an act by an attacker and manifestation, observable by the victim, which results from that
act.
The goal of ID is to characterize attack manifestations so as to positively identify all true attacks without identifying false attacks. The motivation for using ID technology may vary. Some users may be interested in collecting forensic information to locate intruders. Others may use
ID to trigger the actions to protect computing resources. Still others
may use ID to identify and correct vulnerabilities.
Vocabulary Notes
1. an intrusion – an attack
2. an abuse – the use in a wrong way or for a bad purpose
3. mature – fully developed – ant. immature
4. to rely upon – to depend on,
5. a victim – the one who has been attacked
6. a manifestation – a sign that something is happening
7. a damage – harm
8. an intent – an intention
9. an exposure – detection
10. forensic – legal
11. to trigger – to provoke
12. a vulnerability – a flaw – a weakness
POST-READING TASK
(to be done in writing)
Formulate sentences to cover the points:
1. The goal of ID.
2. The results of ID research.
3. The motives for using ID.
4. Make your own conclusions about the effectiveness of ID.
45
UNIT 4
NETWORKING SECURITY
PRE-READING TASK
Study some grammar points.
I. We use be (am/is/are/was/were) + to V to say that something is
planned to happen.
Study the sentences.
1. You must also understand the different types of firewalls, where
they are to be placed, and their interactions with other devices,
2. Prices are still too high for wide use, but they are to fall dramatically within a few years.
3. When Turing was 23 years old, he impressed his peers at the University of Cambridge by inventing the mathematical characterization of
a machine that was to become one of the most important contributions
in the history of computing.
II. N + to Vo (active); N + to be V3 (passive)
An infinitive (to V) after a noun characterizes it and expresses an action which must be done or can be done in the future.
Study the sentences.
1. Layers within security are important, so that if the attacker is able
to bypass one layer, another layer stands in the way to protect the internal network
2. Networking and communications are complicated topics to understand.
III. If we want to emphasize a word or a part of the sentence we use
this structure:
It is …… that … = именно, только
Study the sentences.
1. It is the complexity that makes networking the most fun for those
who truly enjoy this field.
2. It is Java that can compete with the Wintel standard.
3. It is a security professional who will understand these issues.
IV. You translate a past participle V3 without any words referring to
it before you translate a N.
46
Study the sentences.
1. To secure a network architecture, you must understand the various
networking platforms involved.
2. Over 55% of printers sold are ink-jet models.
Give Russian correspondence:
challenging (difficult), an approach (a method, a technique), although (though), an outcome (a result)
FYI
1. Maintaining networking security is regular checking networking
infrastructure and reducing vulnerabilities.
2. Networking infrastructure is facilities, services and equipment
that are needed for an organization to function properly.
Terminology
1. to configure computing software – выбрать конфигурацию
программных средств
2. interoperability – совместное функционирование сетей
3. to troubleshoot – находить неисправности
4. an environment – оборудование
5. an application – приложение, программа
6. a buffer – буфер (дополнительное устройство памяти для
промежуточного хранения данных)
7. an overflow – переполнение
8. an architecture – структура
9. a platform – платформа (программно –аппаратная среда, в которой выполняется прикладная система)
10. a firewall – межсетевой экран
11. a router – маршрутизатор (программа, занимающаяся прокладыванием маршрутов в локальной вычислительной сети)
12. a bridge – мост (устройство, соединяющее несколько локальных сетей)
13. a protocol – протокол (процедура регистрации и коммутации
сообщений)
14. a layer – уровень
47
MAINTAINING NETWORKING SECURITY
IS MORE FUN THAN WORK
Study the passage. Translate the paragraph marked with asterisks in writing.
*Telecommunications and networking use various mechanisms,
devices, software, and protocols that are interrelated and integrated.
Networking is one of the more complex topics in the computer field,
mainly because so many technologies and concepts are involved. A
network administrator or engineer must know how to configure networking software, protocols and services, and devices; deal with interoperability issues; install, configure and interface with telecommunications software and devices; and troubleshoot effectively. A security professional must understand these issues and be able to analyze them a few
levels deeper to understand where vulnerabilities can arise within networks. This can be a challenging task.*
To secure an application that contains a buffer overflow, for example, you must understand what a buffer overflow is, what the outcome of
the exploit is, how to identify a buffer overflow properly, and possibly
how to write program code to remove this weakness from the program.
To secure a network architecture, you must understand the various networking platforms involved, network devices, and how data flow
through a network. You must understand how various protocols work,
their purposes, their interaction with other protocols, how they may provide vulnerabilities, and how to choose and implement the appropriate
types of protocols in a given environment.
You must also understand the different types of firewalls, routers,
switches, and bridges, when one is more appropriate than the other,
where they are to be placed, and their interactions with other devices,
and the degree of security each device provides. The many different
types of devices, protocols and security mechanisms within the environment provide different functionality, but they also provide a layered
approach to security.
Layers within security are important, so that if the attacker is able
to bypass one layer, another layer stands in the way to protect the internal network. Many networks have routers, firewalls, intrusion detection
systems, antivirus software, and more. Each specializes in a certain
48
piece of security, but they all should work in concert to provide a
layered approach to security.
Although networking and communications are complicated topics
to understand, it is the complexity that makes it the most fun for those
who truly enjoy these fields.
Vocabulary Notes
1. properly – appropriately – correctly
2. to remove – to take away – to eliminate
3. an exploit – a use
4. to implement – to effect – to carry out – to realize
5. appropriate – correct
POST-READING TASK
(to be done in writing)
I. Give answers to the questions.
1. What must a network engineer know?
2. What must a security professional know?
3. Is it a challenging task?
4. In what case is maintaining security more fun than work?
5. What makes the most fun?
6. How can a network engineer secure an application that contains a
buffer-overflow?
7. What must a security professional know to secure a network architecture?
8. Why are layers important for maintaining security?
9. How is it possible to provide a layered approach to security?
II. You are a network engineer. You maintain networking security. Write about it.
CLASS EXERCISES
Exercise 1 (in groups)
Experts in networking security speak about their field; students
majoring in this field ask the experts the questions suggested in
post-reading I.
49
Exercise 2 (do it yourself)
You are looking for a job as a network engineer. Write your
resume.
Exercise 3 (in groups)
You are applying for a job as a network administrator. You are
being interviewed.
One of the students is giving his resume; the others are asking
him questions.
STUDY SOME MORE GRAMMAR POINTS
I. S + is likely + to Vo = probably and expresses the probability of
the action in the present or in the future.
S + is unlikely + to V = hardly
Study the sentences.
1. The two emerging printer types are likely to be popular.
2. Network computers are unlikely to become PC killers.
3. PC- based desktop videoconferencing systems are likely to grow
fast.
II. S + is sure + to V = certainly
S + is certain + to V = certainly
Study the sentences.
1. Such devices are currently expensive but prices are sure to decline
as production increases.
2. Network computers are certain to be attractive to corporations for
Internet applications and for replacing old terminals.
III. Emphatic sentences
To make a sentence emphatic we change the word order.
To understand, reconstruct the usual word order S + V + what,
where, when.
Study the sentence.
Also expected are devices that can print checks, access bank and financial information; that can run educational programs from a variety of
sources and machines that can simplify such kitchen tasks as menu
planning, shopping, and cooking.
50
TEST
I. Translate the sentences.
1 In the future home servers are expected to control household
equipment.
2. PCs, workstations, and single-user supercomputers will gain additional capabilities by working in networks with server computers.
3. While interpreted languages usually handle data at one-fifth to
one-tenth the speed of assembly languages, today’s microprocessors are
fast enough to reduce the problem.
4. In the next few years, many types of digital assistants will appear,
with prices ranging from $ 100 to $ 1000.
5. Computer product categories are likely to change in the next few
years.
6. Clever computer terminals are believed to debut quite soon. The
most intriguing is the next generation CD ROM. ROMs are now built
into nearly all desktop PCs.
7. In many cases Intranet (corporative networks using Internet technology) are preferred to more expensive and complex client/server systems.
8. Windows NT are likely to turn out to be the clear leader.
9. The most intriguing part of the Intranet is the prospect that it will
give old-established computers a new lease on life, .since they store
most of the corporate data to be distributed over Intranets.
10. The net work computers are likely to have much lower support
costs than PCs because they can be managed remotely and centrally.
11. Another start-up, PointCast Inc. has developed a screen saver application that delivers information from Web sites, including that of the
cable news network CNN, to PCs.
12. To understand the important issues of the foundation of the universe, it turns out that one has to express the laws of physics in terms of
computation and information flow because any physical process can be
regarded as information processing.
13. Most of the existing classical secure methods are becoming insecure because quantum computational algorithms are found to be suitable
to classical cracking codes.
14. Quantum computers may one day be thousands to millions of
times faster than current computers.
51
15. Finding a particular number in a long list of numbers becomes
harder as the list of numbers grows larger.
16. To process information electronically, data are stored in a computer in the form of digits or bits, each having two possible presentations.
17. For a computer to understand the meanings of the symbols, it
would have to be equipped with a sensory apparatus so that it could actually see the objects represented by the signals.
18. To learn to think a computer should be given a chance to find
things out for himself.
II. Give Russian correspondence:
in order to, actually, so, as, both ….. and, closely, to consider, respectively, particular, thus, a number of , rather, in particular, before,
although, a way, an approach, to result in, despite of, the only a means,
typically, to result from, vice versa, too + Adj., and the like, conventional, as well as, performance, is due to, to tend to make, at least (as a minimum), a procedure, current, to take advantage of), at one time, instead
of , specific, to make use of, that is, in terms of, vs.
III. Answer the questions.
1. What is a chip?
2. What is a transistor?
3. What is an algorithm?
4. What are the potentialities of a computer virus?
5. What is virtual reality?
6. What issues does computer ethics consider?
7. How can one protect computers from hackers?
8. In what way is it possible to increase the number of transistors on
a chip?
9. In what way is it possible to make computer components smaller,
cheaper and more versatile?
10. What will the improvement of computer components result in?
11. What are the advantages of quantum computers over current
ones?
12. What are the advantages of broadband communication systems?
13. What are the advantages and disadvantages of a computer over
human being?
14. What are your research interests?
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