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The Basics of Business Intercultural Communication (Основы деловой межкультурной коммуникации)

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Министерство образования
Государственное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
«Воронежская государственная лесотехническая академия»
Е.А.МАКЛАКОВА, А.А.ИЛУНИНА, Ю.А.ЛИТВИНОВА
THE BASICS OF BUSINESS INTERCULTURAL
COMMUNICATION
(Основы деловой межкультурной коммуникации)
УЧЕБНОЕ ПОСОБИЕ
ВОРОНЕЖ
2011
1
ажд
ББК 81.432. 1
Печатается по решению учебно-методического совета ГОУ ВПО «ВГЛТА»
(протокол № от
).
Рецензенты:
Маклакова Е.А.
The Basics of Business Intercultural Communication (Основы деловой
межкультурной коммуникации) [Текст]: учебное пособие / E.А. Маклакова,
А.А. Илунина, Ю.А. Литвинова; Фед. агенство по образованию, ГОУ ВПО
«ВГЛТА». – Воронеж, 2011. – 168 с.
Настоящее пособие представляет собой современный подход к бизнес-коммуникации как отдельному
курсу в системе высшего экономического образования. Необходимость в появлении такого пособия
диктуется современным состоянием рынка труда: на нем существенно изменилось поведение и работников
и работодателей, возникла острая конкуренция за право получения престижной и высокооплачиваемой
работы. Данное пособие может служить руководством для начинающих специалистов в совершенствовании
умений и навыков практики делового профессионального общения.
Содержание пособия охватывает различные сферы делового общения на английском языке: деловую
переписку в письмах, устройство на работу, презентации и выступления на деловых встречах, телефонные
разговоры и переговоры, а также реальные ситуации, возникающие в процессе делового общения, с
помощью которых формируются навыки, необходимые для достижения успеха в профессиональной
деятельности. Пособие состоит из 8 разделов. Каждый раздел снабжен текстовым и лексическим
материалом, речевыми упражнениями для выработки навыков делового общения и аргументации своих
убеждений. Наряду с учебными текстами, диалогами и упражнениями по формированию навыков делового
общения на английском языке пособие содержит широкий диапазон практических и справочных материалов
в виде выражений, ситуативно-обусловленных фраз и рекомендаций, которые необходимо иметь под рукой
при составлении деловых документов для зарубежной фирмы или международной организации, при
ведении переговоров с иностранными партнерами или обсуждении различного рода проблем, связанных с
деловой коммуникацией. Каждая из глав содержит упражнения, направленные на
повторение
грамматического материала, наиболее необходимого в ситуациях делового общения. Содержит тексты для
дополнительного чтения
По своему назначению пособие является учебно-практическим. Оно адресовано как студентам при
изучении курса делового английского языка, так и всем тем, кто по роду своей деятельности имеет деловые
контакты с зарубежными партнерами.
Табл.: 10 Библиогр.: 12 назв.
ББК 81.432. 1
© Маклакова Е. А., 2011
© Воронежская
государственная
лесотехническая
академия, 2011
2
ажд
Preface (Предисловие)
Данное пособие предназначено для студентов, изучающих деловой
английский язык, так и для тех, кто работает с иностранными партнерами.
Пособие позволят совершенствовать владения деловым английским и
способствует
расширению
систематизации
знаний,
касающихся
международных коммерческих операций.
Пособие состоит из 8 глав и текстов для индивидуального чтения. Данные 8
глав помогают овладеть навыками общения по телефону, написания делового
письма, организации деловой поездки, составлению идеальной презентации,
составлению контрактов и т.д. В начале каждой главы дается текст на
английском языке, который содержит вводную информацию по той или иной
теме. После текстов приводятся выражения, необходимые для овладения
определенных навыков. Каждая глава также содержит тренировочные
упражнения, которые отражают различные ситуации делового общения.
Данные упражнения помогают закрепить и правильно употребить языковой
материал, отраженный в каждой главе.
Грамматический материал приводится после тренировочных упражнений и
снабжен информацией необходимой для данной главы. В нем освещены
основные грамматические явления, встречающиеся в деловой разговорной и
письменной речи. Тренировочные грамматические упражнения позволяют
учащимся самостоятельно ознакомиться с грамматическим материалом и
проверить его понимание.
В конце учебного пособия прилагаются дополнительные тексты, взятые в
сети Internet. Тематика текстов охватывает экономику США, бухгалтерский
учет и аудит и международную экономику. Данные тексты предназначены
для самостоятельной работы студентов и тренируют навыки аннотирования и
реферирования.
К учебному пособию также прилагается CD для прослушивания диалогов.
В пособии обобщен опыт коммерческой работы и преподавания делового
английского языка. Оно отвечает требованиям сегодняшнего дня. Первое
издание пособия было выпущено в 2004 году. Данное, второе, издание
дополнено главами о написании деловых писем, о составлении контрактов,
устройстве на работу, а также грамматическим справочником с
упражнениями и тренировочными языковыми упражнениями.
3
ажд
Оглавление
Глава 1 / Chapter 1
Не боимся говорить по телефону / Fearless Telephone Talk
4
Глава 2 / Chapter 2
Деловая поездка / Business Trip
20
Глава 3 / Chapter 3
Бизнес-ланч / Business Lunch
33
Глава 4 / Chapter 4
Формальные встречи / Formal Meetings
44
Глава 5 / Chapter 5
Как организовать идеальную презентацию / Perfect Presentation
53
Глава 6 / Chapter 6
Пишем деловые письма / Better Business Letters
66
Глава 7 / Chapter 7
Контракты и их исполнение / Contracts and Their Performance
92
Глава 8 / Chapter 8
Устройство на работу / Job Application
103
Дополнительное чтение / Supplementary reading
Библиографический список
127
167
4
ажд
Chapter 1/ Fearless Telephone Talk
Глава 1/ He боимся говорить пo телефону
Standard formulas in language invade many aspects of our lives, including the
telephone, which seems to be one of the most challenging skills for the foreign
speaker to master.
Have you ever been in a situation in which – despite years of English study –
you are terrified at the idea of making a simple phone call to an English-speaking
person? You don't know what to say. Perhaps you even dial a few times and hang
up before getting up the nerve to complete the call.
The reason foreign language speakers dread the telephone is that they are
afraid they will not understand, or that they will not be understood. They also fear
saying something stupid. Nobody wants to appear foolish. Speaking a foreign
language is often an experience in humility because we are forced to be creative in
expressing ourselves when our vocabulary is limited. Making mistakes in public
becomes a way of life.
You need help, and this chapter is for you. Sooner or later you are going to
have to solve this problem, or disconnect your phone and go into hiding. A helpful
bit of practical advice is to creatively express your lack of understanding. Saying
«Yes» when you do not understand will certainly not work. «Yes» in English
means «I agree». It also means that you have understood what you are agreeing to.
You are much better off saying «Oh?» or «Really?», because at least you will
avoid the problem of agreeing to something without understanding.
Fortunately, making phone calls is a learnable skill. Once you have mastered the
formulas used for speaking on the telephone, a call will no longer be a frightening
experience, but rather an enjoyable one. This chapter should help you overcome
your fears. Basic business phone language, very much like small talk, consists of
constantly repeated expressions with little variations. This chapter presents
situations you are most likely to encounter, and how to handle each one.
Calling a Business / Деловой звонок
5
ажд
Формула, которая используется, когда вы делаете деловой звонок, выглядит так:
your name and company + the person you are calling + why you are calling
Если вы что-то пропускаете, есть шанс, что вас об этом спросят, поэтому
легче выдать вышеприведенную информацию сразу. Например, если вы не
называете своего имени, оператор спросит его; то же самое произойдет, если
вы не назовете компанию или причину звонка. Выдавая же всю информацию
сразу, вы избегаете ненужных разговоров и проволочек. Но даже если вы все
назвали, вам могут задать какие-то вопросы, как показано в следующем
низке диалоге между позвонившим и секретарем:
Dialogue
Secretary:
Acme manufacturing, may I help you?
Kunstler:
Yes, please. This is Otto Kunstler from Swiss Trading Associates
calling for Tom Jones.
Secretary:
Would you spell your name, please?
Kunstler:
Yes: it is K-U-N-S-T-L-E-R.
Secretary:
Thank you. Do you know which Department Mr. Jones is in?
Kunstler:
I think he's in Marketing. Could you look it up for me?
Secretary:
No trouble. Hmm, it looks like he's in Advertising.
Kunstler:
Thank you. Could you put me through, please?
Secretary:
One moment please, I'm ringing Oh, sorry, it looks like he's busy.
Would you like to leave a message?
Kunstler:
No, thank you. I'll try again later.
Как видите, на просьбу назвать по буквам свое имя, мистер Канстлер
использует только название букв. Возможно, также пояснить написание
примерами, то есть k как в Kansas, u как в united, d как в David, l как в little
и т.д., выбирая при этом хорошо известные и легко узнаваемые слова. В
телефонных разговорах для понимания написания часто используют
разнообразные примеры: имена людей, названия фруктов, государств,
городов или стран.
6
ажд
Leaving a Message / Как оставить сообщение
Очень часто вы не можете дозвониться кому-то с первой попытки. Человек,
которому вы звоните, может в это время разговаривать по другому телефону,
встречаться с кем-то, обедать или просто отсутствовать на рабочем месте. В
этом случае оставьте свое имя, номер телефона и вопрос, по которому
звоните, секретарю.
Dialogue
Mr.Santini:
Could
I
please
speak
with
Tom
Brown
in
Marketing?
This is Alfredo Santini from the Italian Consulate calling.
Secretary:
I'm afraid he's out to lunch. Would yоu like to call back later?
Mr.Santini:
I would like to leave a message, if you don't mind.
Secretary:
Okay. Go ahead.
Mr.Santini:
Please have him call me regarding his trip to Milan.
Secretary:
Would you like to leave your phone number?
Mr.Santini:
That's okay. He has the number.
Secretary:
Why don't you give it to me anyway?
Mr.Santini:
Okay. It's 212-514-5700 (two-one-two, five-one-four, five-sevenhundred).
Secretary:
Thank you. I'll give him the message. Bye now.
Mr.Santini:
Good-bye.
Выражение Гm afraid обозначает I'm sorry to tell you (something) не имеет
ничего общего со страхом. Это только вежливый способ отклонить чью-то
просьбу.
Точно так же: Would you like to leave your number? – всего лишь вежливый
способ попросить телефон, хотя и необязательно его при этом давать.
Немного сильнее будет: Why don't you give me your number? или May I
please have your number? – что звучит вежливо, но настойчиво.
7
ажд
Holding the line / He вешайте трубки
Иногда альтернативой повторному звонку или сообщению становится просто
ожидание на линии – holding. Человек, которому вы звоните, на рабочем
месте, но он занят. Есть вероятность, что он сможет ответить через какое-то
время. Оператор может попросить вас не вешать трубки.
Dialogue
Receptionist:
ABC Products. Can I help you?
You:
Yes. Marketing Department, Bill Sims, please.
It's a personal call.
Receptionist:
Just a minute. I'll ring him.
You:
Thank you.
Receptionist:
Sorry, that line is busy. Would you mind holding?
You:
Okay. I'll hold for a couple of minutes.
Receptionis
(Two minutes pass) That line is still busy.
You:
Never mind, please cancel the call.
Receptionist:
Would you like to leave a message?
You:
No, that's okay. I'll try again later. Thanks anyway.
Обратите внимание, что в приведенном выше диалоге позвонивший не
называет ни имени, ни места работы, ни причины звонка. Он говорит только,
что звонок личный. Иногда этого оказывается достаточно – в зависимости от
компании.
Однако обычно секретарь выясняет, кто звонит, и решает, стоит ли соединять
или принимать звонок. Делается это для того, чтобы не давать посторонним
коммерсантам возможности продавать свои товары или услуги в рабочее
время. Едва ли вы сможете позвонить высокопоставленному сотруднику,
врачу или адвокату в рабочее время, не объяснив, кто вы и зачем звоните.
Не только не обижайтесь, когда секретарь спрашивает: What is this call
regarding?, но и будьте готовы, что вас обо всем расспросят. Именно
поэтому лучше выдать всю информацию в начале звонка, чем ждать, когда
вам будут задавать вопросы.
8
ажд
Leaving a Message at a Home / Оставляем сообщение на домашнем
телефоне
Оставленные вами сообщения будут различаться в зависимости от того,
звоните вы в офис или домой.
В офисе или на предприятии лучше оставить ограниченное сообщение: свое
имя, номер телефона и название компании (если адресат не знает вас лично).
Звонки же не на предприятие менее формальны. Если вы звоните домой своему
сотруднику, вам ответят неформально.
Dialogue
Wife:
Hello?
Kim:
Hello! Is Peter Smith home? David May calling.
Wife:
Oh, I'm sorry, he's not in. Can I take a message?
Kim:
Is this his wife? I am working with your husband on a project
with his company.
Wife:
Really? Nice to meet you, Mr. May.
Kim:
Would you mind telling him that I called? He can reach me
at the Victory Hotel, Room 20. When is he expected home?
Wife:
I'm not sure when he'll be back. But I'll let him know you called.
Kim:
Thank you very much. I appreciate it. Bye.
Wife:
Bye now.
You may note that the phrase «Nice to meet you» may be used over the phone
without a physical meeting.
It is always nice to end a conversation with a polite «Thank you».
Saying «I appreciate it» is also very polite.
Voice Mail / Автоответчик. Звуковое письмо
Почти у всех сегодня есть автоответчик или устройство для звуковых писем.
Будьте готовы услышать стандартную запись, звучащую примерно так:
9
ажд
We are unable to answer your call
Мы не можем сейчас ответить на ваш
right now. Please leave your name,
звонок. Пожалуйста, оставьте свое
number, and a brief message at the
имя,
sound of the beep, and we will get
сообщение
back to you as soon as we can.
свяжемся с вами, как только сможем.
номер
телефона
после
и
сигнала,
краткое
и
мы
Могут быть небольшие вариации в подобного рода записях, но везде вас
будут спрашивать одно и то оке: имя, номер телефона, причину звонка.
Подходящий ответ на это может быть следующим:
This is Susan (Bartlett) calling for
Это Сьюзен (Барлет) звонит Джону.
John. My number is 123-4567.
Мой номер: 123-4567. Пожалуйста,
Please call me this evening; I need
позвони мне вечером; необходимо
to talk to you about the Taiwan trip.
поговорить о поездке в Тайвань. Буду
I'll be home till 9:30.
дома к 9:30.
Ваше подробное сообщение о себе нужно в том случае, если тот, кому вы
звоните, не является вашим близким другом или знакомым и захочет узнать
причину вашего звонка.
Сообщайте ваш номер каждый раз, когда звоните, так как это будет удобно
вашему собеседнику, и даст возможность ему или ей быстро перезвонить
вам.
Answering the Phone / Отвечаем на телефонный звонок
Ниже приведены примеры ответов на телефонный звонок – в зависимости от
большей или меньшей степени формальности, которую вы хотите выразить.
Как ответить неформально:
Hello?
Алло?
Hello, Mark (Susan) here.
Алло, это Марк (Сьюзен).
Как ответить формально:
Mark Green speaking.
Говорит Марк Грин.
Hello, Green’s residence.
Это квартира Грина.
10
ажд
Другие возможности ответа в рабочей обстановке:
The MB Company, Mark speaking.
Компания МБ, говорит Марк.
Extension 44, this is Noelle.
Добавочный номер 44. Это Ноэль.
Marketing Department, Richard here.
Отдел маркетинга, говорит Ричард.
Когда кто-нибудь спрашивает вас, например, Is it Mark Grin?, вы также
можете сказать: Yes, speaking.
Answering a Wrong Number / Как ответить на звонок по ошибке
Если, неверно набрав номер, позвонивший спрашивает кого-то, а не вас, вы
можете ответить: Sorry, wrong number (не формально), или более вежливо,
как показано в нижеследующих примерах:
I’m sorry, you have the wrong number.
Извините, вы не туда попали.
Please try again.
Наберите, пожалуйста, заново.
I think you've dialed the wrong number.
Думаю, вы неправильно набрали номер.
Если вы хотите удостовериться, правильно ли набран номер, или узнать, куда
человек хочет попасть, вы можете сказать следующее (very polite – очень
вежливо):
What number were you calling?
Куда вы звоните?
Please dial again.
Пожалуйста, наберите еще раз.
May I ask whom you are trying to reach?
Можно спросить, а кому вы звоните?
Starting a Conversation / Как начать разговор
Когда вы начинаете разговор по телефону, всегда лучше представиться,
назвать свою фирму, если это уместно, причину, по которой звоните (даже
если вы уже сообщили эту информацию оператору). Логика вашей преамбулы должна быть примерно такой:
11
ажд
Hello, this is Tomiko Suzuki calling
Здравствуйте, это говорит Томико
from Nobu Sales, Japan.
Сузуки из компании Нобу, Япония.
I would like to speak with
Я бы хотела поговорить с
your Director of Sales
директором отдела сбыта
regarding his visit to Tokyo.
относительно его визита в Токио.
May I ask the Director's exact name?
Могу ли я узнать точное имя директора?
James Clancy? Thank you.
Джеймс Клэнси? Спасибо.
Would you mind connecting me, please?
Можно меня с ним соединить?
Mr. Clancy? Hello.
Мистер Клэнси? Здравствуйте.
My name is Kaoru Suzuki
Мое имя Каору Сузуки
from Nobu Sales, Japan.
из компании Нобу, Япония.
The reason for my call is to speak with you Я звоню, чтоб поговорить с вами
regarding your trip to Japan.
относительно вашей поездки в Японию.
Would you have time to discuss this now? У вас есть время обсудить это сейчас?
When You Need More Information / Когда нужна дополнительная
информация
This is Gianni Bernardo
Это Джанни Бернардо
from Michelangelo Artworks.
из компании Микэланджело Артвекс.
I am calling for information
Я звоню, чтобы получить информацию
about your antique frames.
о ваших старинных рамках.
Who would be the best person
С кем мне лучше поговорить
for me to speak with?
по этому вопросу?
Hello? I would like to make reservations Алло? Я бы хотел заказать столик
for dinner tonight.
сегодня вечером.
I was wondering if you have a nice table Нет ли у вас свободных столиков
with a view?
у окна с красивым видом?
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This is Sara Chan from China Silks
Это Сара Чан из компании «Китайский
calling from Hong Kong.
шелк», звоню из Гонконга.
I would appreciate any information
Я буду признательна за любую
you could give me
информацию, которую вы могли бы
about sales of silk clothing
предоставить мне по вопросу сбыта
in the United States.
шелковой одежды
в Соединенные Штаты.
Making Dates / Как назначить встречу
I was wondering if (He мог бы я...) – очень вежливый способ просьбы. Обычно к
нему прибегают, назначая свидание или прося об услуге.
Listen, I was wondering
Слушай, ты бы не хотела
if you would like to join me
пообедать со мной завтра?
for lunch tomorrow?
You know, I lost my calculator,
Знаешь, я вчера потерял калькулятор.
I was wondering if I could borrow yours? Можно воспользоваться твоим?
В процессе общения вы прибегаете к этой фразе как к лучшему способу
подступиться к деликатной просьбе:
Sally, I was wondering
Сэлли, я хотел спросить,
if you'd like to join me
ты не хотела бы со мной
for dinner tomorrow night?
поужинать завтра вечером?
Making Appointments / Как назначить деловую встречу
This is Ravi Kabul calling for
Это Рэви Кабул. Я звоню Дэвиду
David Jennings. Is he busy?
Дженнингсу. Он занят? Я бы хотел
I'd like to set up a time to see him
согласовать время встречи с ним.
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ажд
Hello, I'm calling
Здравствуйте, я звоню, чтобы
to make an appointment with Donald
договориться о встрече с Дональдом
Carter in Human Resources.
Картером из отдела кадров.
This is Ms. Abeer.
Моя фамилия Абиер.
Would it be possible for me
Возможно ли для меня встретиться
to see him today?
с ним сегодня? Я бы хотела
I'd like to schedule an appointment
запланировать встречу с ним сегодня
with him this afternoon.
во второй половине дня.
Returning a Call / Вас попросили перезвонить
Перезванивать кому-то всегда легче, чем звонить самому. Вы просто говорите,
что вас просили перезвонить, давая возможность другому человеку вести
разговор.
Hello... Mr. Clancy?
Алло... Мистер Клэнси?
This is Kaoru Suzuki,
Это Каору Сузуки;
returning your call.
вы просили перезвонить.
(Wait for his answer)
(Ждет его ответа)
I received a message
Я получила сообщение,
that you called this morning.
что вы звонили утром.
I'm sorry, I was out of the office.
К сожалению, меня не было в офисе.
May I ask what this is regarding?
Можно узнать, по такому вопросу
вы звонили?
Ending a Conversation / Как закончить разговор
Если вы уже говорите по телефону какое-то время, и в разговоре
образовалась пауза, она дает вам отличную возможность завершить беседу.
Наконец вы заканчиваете разговор. Когда вы научитесь делать это, можете
считать, что вы овладели искусством беседы по телефону.
Можно сказать:
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Well, thank you for calling. Good-bye.
Спасибо за звонок. До свидания.
Well, it was nice of you to call.
Как хорошо, что вы позвонили.
Say, it was good hearing from you.
Как приятно было тебя услышать.
Listen, I've got to run.
Слушай, мне надо бежать.
В этих фразах слова well или listen позволяют вашему собеседнику понять,
что вы собираетесь закончить разговор.
Иногда вам хочется объяснить, почему необходимо срочно закончить беседу.
Вот так можно «быстро оборвать разговор» (cutting a conversation short):
Excuse me, but I've got to go.
Извините, но я должен убегать.
Sorry I have to excuse myself:
Жаль, но мне придется извиниться:
something just came up.
только что возникли определенные дела.
Listen, I need to go.
Слушай, мне надо бежать.
I have a meeting in a few minutes.
Через несколько минут у меня встреча.
Hey, I need to take another phone call.
Ой, мне нужно ответить по другому
Sorry, I'll call you back later.
телефону. Я перезвоню позже.
Разговаривая с друзьями, вам обычно не нужно ничего объяснять, потому что
отношения уже установлены.
Неформальные способы закончить разговор:
Sorry, I've got to cut this short.
Извини, мне нужно закончить.
Could I call you later?
Можно я перезвоню тебе позже?
Hey, let me get back to you later.
Слушай, я перезвоню позже.
I'm tied up now.
Я сейчас очень занят.
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Суммируя наиболее важные составляющие делового телефонного звонка,
можно подвести итог: когда вы звоните, давайте всю необходимую информацию, а именно:
1.Your name
2.Your title
3.Your company
4.Whom you are calling
5.The department (if known)
6. The reason for your call
Например:
This is Nicole Delon
Это Николь Делон,
calling for Steve Rose
мне нужен Стив Роуз
in Marketing.
из отдела маркетинга.
I'm an accountant
Я бухгалтер
at A.B. С Accounting Services,
в Эй-Би-Си Эккаунтинг Сервисиз.
and I'm calling
Я звоню, чтобы договориться
to make an appointment with him.
о встрече со Стивом Роузом.
Не забывайте, что, заканчивая разговор, всегда неплохо поблагодарить
собеседника за время, предоставленную информацию. Если кто-нибудь
позвонил вам, можете поблагодарить за звонок. Здесь уместно простое
выражение Thank you far calling.
He забудьте также использовать вежливые выражения типа: please, thank
you, I'm sorry, may I и I was wondering.
Отвечая на вопрос по какому поводу вы звоните, вы можете
сказать:
I am calling to speak to (person's name)
Я хотел бы поговорить с (имя)
about (the reason you are calling about).
о (причина звонка).
I am calling to inquire
Я хотел бы узнать
about (the service or product).
о (услуга или товар).
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Наконец, вы можете использовать I was wondering if и спросить об
интересующей вас информации или человеке:
I was wondering if
He подскажете,
Ms. Delman was in her office.
миссис Делман на месте?
Заметьте, что формально это вопрос, но он задан косвенно и звучит более
вежливо.
Теперь у вас есть путеводитель в мире телефонных разговоров. Если первые
звонки даются с трудом, соберитесь с духом – со временем они станут
проще. Помните, что одни и те же выражения повторяются каждый день.
Просто выучите эти клише. Очень скоро вы не будете бояться звонить по
телефону.
Practice Drills
1. Call Ms. Parker’s office and introduce yourself, then ask for information about
her company, ABC Trading.
2. You are calling your hotel (the Ritz) to ask if there are any messages left for
you.
3. You would like to put an end to a long conversation with a business colleague.
Give one way you could do this.
4. What would you say if you dialed the wrong number?
5. What would you say if someone else dialed your number incorrectly?
6. Tell the secretary you are returning Mr. Stone’s call and would like to speak
with him.
7. Conversational practice:
You: Could I speak Mr. Short?
Secretary: Yes, but he’s on another line. Would you like to hold?
Respond as follows:
a) Leave a message.
b) Leave your phone number.
c) Say you wish to hold the line.
d) Ask how long he’ll be.
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Grammar revision. English tenses (Active Voice)
Табл.1.Времена английского глагола в активном (действительном ) залоге
Simple
Present
Past
Future
Continuous
Perfect
Perfect Сontinuous
Be+ -ing
Have+ 3 форма
Have been +3 форма
глагола
глагола
Ask(s)
*Регулярное
повторяющееся
действие ( usually,
always, often,
sometimes, every day)
*Факт
*Будущее время (по
расписанию,
графику
Am
Is
asking
Are
*Длительное действие
(процесс), протекающий
в данный момент
Now ,at the moment
*Будущее
запланированное
действие
Asked
Took
*Действие в
прошлом
Yesterday
Last week (year)
3 days ago
Was
Will ask
*Действие в
будущем
Tomorrow
Next week
In 3 days
In 2020
asking
Were
*Длительное действие
(процесс),
совершавшееся в
момент или период в
прошлом
At 5 yesterday
From 5 to 6 yesterday
For 3 days last week
All the day long/the whole
day
When he came
Shall
Have
Have
asked
Has
*Действие
закончилось к
определенному
моменту в прошлом
и имеется его
результат
Already, yet, ever,
never,lately, recently,
this week, today, since
Had asked
*Действие
закончилось до
начала другого
действия в прошлом
By 5 o’clock yesterday
Before he came
By the end of the last
year
*При согласовании
времен
Shall
be asking
Shall
have asked
Will
*Длительное действие
(процесс), которое будет
совершаться в
определенный момент
или период в будущем
At 5 tomorrow
From 5 to 6 tomorrow
When he comes
Will
* Действие
закончится к
определенному
моменту в будущем
By 5 o’clock
tomorrow
Ex.1. Complete the sentences
1. I … about six times last night.
a. ring
b. rang
c. have rung
d. is ringing
2. How much … to make a local call in your country?
a. do it cost
b. does it cost
18
Been asking
Has
*Длительное действие,
которое началось в
прошлом и все еще
протекает в данный
момент
For a month/for a long
time,
since 5 o’clock
how long
Had been asking
*Длительное
прошедшее действие,
которое началось до
определенного момента
в прошлом и еще
продолжалось
He had been working for
2 hours, when my brother
came
have been asking
Will
*Длительное будущее
действие, которое
начнется ранее
момента в будущем и
будет все еще
совершаться в данный
момент.
When you come I’ll have
been working for 2 hours
ажд
3. I … trying to contact Mr Peterson.
a. am
b. is
c. are
d. have
4. I … the phone to my brother for about an hour and then someone rang me
about the meeting.
a. is trying
b. tried
c. was trying
d. were trying
5. OK, I …you a ring tomorrow.
a. was giving
b. gives
c. give
d. ‘ll give
6. “Yes. Who …, please?”
a. is calling
b. am calling
c. are calling
d. have called
7. He … his wife every day.
a. phoned
b. ‘ll phone
c. phones
d. was phoning
8. He … you twice.
a. has called
b. have called
c. called
d. was calling
9. They …already … their meeting when he called.
a. have begun
b. has begun
c. had began
d. began
10. I ... to contact you the whole day yesterday.
a. is trying
b. was trying
c. try
d. tried
11. “I …you some facts and figures. Ready? – OK . Go ahead”.
a. gave
b. was giving
c. ‘ll give
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d. has given
12. I’m sorry. I … that.
a.
b.
c.
d.
didn’t catch
didn’t caught
hadn’t catch
hasn’t catch
Ex.2. Look at the part of the presentation about famous brands. Open the
brackets. Choose the right tense.
Good morning, everybody! I’d like to look at brands this morning and as a
example I (choose) McDonald’s .
McDonald’s (be) famous all over the world. It (serve) forty million customers
very day. A new McDonald’s (open) in the world every five hours. The restaurants
(look) the same and the menu (be) same.
It all (start) in 1955 when man called Ray Kroc (open) a new restaurant in Illinois.
He (buy) the name from the two brothers called McDonald. To increase the sales
he (start) advertising on TV in 1963 and a clown called Ronald McDonald (appear)
in the first ads. The clown (be) friendly and helpful. In 1967 Kroc (open) his first
restaurant outside the USA in Canada and Puerto Rico. The company (open) more
restaurants in the next 5 years.
Ex.3 Open the brackets. Choose the right tense.
1. Yesterday by 8 o’clock he (finish) all his work, and when I (come) at 9, he
(read).
2. “What (do) now?” –“ I (prepare) the presentation for tomorrow”. “How long
you (prepare) for it?” – “For two hours already”
3. By the end of the month we (translate) ten articles.
4. When I (come back) to the office yesterday my boss (not return).
5. I usually (work) 8 hours a day.
6. I just (see) Mr Nickolson.
7. (at the hotel) “I (leave) in a few minutes. Can I pay my bill?”
8. I (think) he is away.
9. This time tomorrow the manager (make) presentation.
10. We are optimistic that the company (continue) to do well in the next quarter.
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Chapter 2 / Business Trip
Глава 2 / Деловая поездка
When travelling, you need all your language mastery. You must get your
immediate needs met by whatever means possible.
It can be very frustrating to be so vulnerable and unable to control your
environment and events around you. This chapter is about travel language, and it is
designed the vocabulary and expressions you need to make hotel reservations, to get
in and out of airports, to greet people, and to take transportation.
It is survival English for the business trip, and it will help you over the major
obstacles of your business to give you travel.
Hotel Reservations / Бронирование отеля
Если вы хотите позвонить заранее, чтоб забронировать отель, можно в
качестве примера придерживаться следующего диалога. Услышав что-то
вроде: Hello. (Hotel Ritz), can I help you?, вы можете сказать:
Yes, please. This is____(your name).
Да, пожалуйста. Мое имя (ваше имя).
I am calling to make (or confirm)
Я звоню зарезервировать (подтвердить
a reservation at your hotel.
заказ) в вашем отеле.
Is this the reservation desk?
Это отдел бронирования?
После этого вас соединят с the Reservation Desk или ответивший сам вам
поможет. Ниже можно найти полезные в этой ситуации фразы и диалоги:
I would like to make a reservation
Я бы хотел забронировать
for a single room (double room)
одинарный (двойной) номер
for ___ (give date).
на ___(дату).
Can you tell me what
He могли бы вы сказать мне
the standard (or deluxe)
стоимость стандартного
room rates are?
(люкс) номера?
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Do you have any corporate rates
Есть ли у вас корпоративные расценки
or special discounts?
или специальные скидки?
Please book me at the corporate
Пожалуйста, зарезервируйте мне
rate а room for two nights
номер по корпоративным расценкам
(the weekend).
на 2 ночи (на выходные).
I will be arriving at 6 o'clock
Я планирую приехать примерно
in the morning.
в 6 утра.
Could I have a non-smoking room?
Можно номер для некурящих?
Does the room have a private shower
В номере есть душ (ванная)?
(bath)?
Can you tell me if that rate includes
He могли бы вы сказать, в стоимость
hotel taxes and service?
включены налог и обслуживание?
What is the full price of the room?
Какова полная цена номера?
Does that include breakfast?
Завтрак включен?
Нow far are you from the airport
Как далеко вы находитесь
(train station)?
от аэропорта (ж/д вокзала)?
How much would it cost for a taxi
Сколько это будет стоить на такси
(bus)?
(автобусе)?
Could you tell me what kind of
He могли бы вы сказать, как до вас
transportation is available from
добраться от аэропорта (вокзала)?
the airport (train station)?
22
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Dialogue: Making Hotel Reservations
Hotel Operator:
Hello, Traveller's Inn. May I help you?
You:
Yes, please. I'm calling to make a reservation for next week.
Hotel Operator:
One moment, please. I'll ring reservations.
Reservations:
Reservations, may I help you?
You:
Yes, please. What do you have available for next week, from
the 20th to the 25th?
Reservations:
You:
Will this be for yourself?
Yes, I would like to make a reservation for a single room. Do
you have any corporate rates?
Reservations:
Yes, we do. We have a corporate rate and a senior discount
program. Both offer 15 percent discount off our standard rate.
You:
Okay, then book me for five days at your corporate rate.
Reservations:
Okay. That's five days at $I25 per night, beginning the 20th of
this month. Will you be arriving before 6:00 p.m. or would
you like to guarantee your room with a credit card?
You:
I'll be arriving before noon. Does that rate include breakfast?
Reservations:
Yes, it does. We offer a full breakfast every morning from
7:30 to 11:30.
You:
Sounds good.
Reservations:
Will this be a smoking or non-smoking room?
You:
Non-smoking, please. By the way, how far are you from the
airport?
Reservations:
We're five miles from the airport; we are right off the freeway
before you get to town.
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You:
Listen, I was wondering if you could make a dinner
reservation for me in town.
Reservations:
I'd be happy to. What did you have in mind?
You:
Well, I don't know the area, so if you would pick out a
popular restaurant, someplace within walking distance. For
about 8:00 p.m.
Reservations:
You:
Reservations:
You:
Consider it done.
Thank you. I appreciate your help.
You're quite welcome, and thank you for choosing Traveller's
Inn. Good-bye.
Bye now.
Transportation / Транспорт
Is this American Airlines?
Это Американ Эйр-лайнз?
I would like to book a flight from
Я бы хотел забронировать билет на
London to Zurich on
рейс из Лондона в Цюрих на (дату).
(give date).
Can you tell me what flights
Не могли бы вы сказать,
are available?
какие есть рейсы?
I would like a non-stop
Я бы хотел беспосадочный
(direct) flight.
(прямой) перелет.
I would prefer an evening flight.
Я бы предпочел вечерний рейс.
I would like a nonsmoking seat.
Я бы хотел место для некурящих.
I would prefer an aisle
Я бы предпочел место возле
(window) seat.
прохода (возле окна).
I would like a business class ticket.
Я бы хотел билет бизнес-класса.
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How much is the round-trip fare?
Сколько стоит билет туда и обратно
(one-way fare)?
(в одну сторону)?
Are you showing a movie? Which one?
Вы показываете фильмы? Какие?
Would you like my credit card number?
Вам нужен номер моей кредитки?
Will you send me the tickets, or
Вы мне пришлете билеты,
do I have to pick them up
или за ними нужно заехать
at a travel agency?
в агентство?
Можно закончить разговор фразой: Thanks for your help.
Dialogue: Buying Airline Tickets
Airline: Rapid Air, may I help you?
You: Yes, please. I'd like a non-stop flight from New York to Paris leaving
April 15th. Can you tell me what's available?
Airline: Would this be for one person?
You: Yes, myself and I would prefer a morning flight.
Airline: On April 15th we have a flight that leaves from JFK (John F. Kennedy
Airport) at 8:00 in the morning. Will you be flying coach?
You: I'd prefer business class, an aisle seat and non-smoking.
What type of aircraft is that?
Airline: Hmm... let me check. That flight is a Boeing 747.
You: How much is that round-trip?
Airline: That depends on how long you're staying, and the day you fly back.
Do you have your return date yet?
You: I'm afraid not I'd better call back tomorrow when I have all
the information.
Airline: Okay. Thank you for calling and choosing Rapid Air. Goodbye.
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Что касается автобусов или поездов – язык немного проще. Можно
использовать некоторые из тех выражений, что служили при заказе билетов
на самолет, а иногда можно просто купить билет. Приведем примеры
выражений, которые помогут вам в этом:
I would like a private compartment
Я хотел бы отдельное купе
(a sleeper) for one person.
(спальный вагон) для одного человека.
What does a private compartment cost? Сколько стоит отдельное купе?
Does that include any meals?
Цена включает питание?
Is there a restaurant on the train?
В поезде есть ресторан?
How long a trip is it?
Как долго длится путешествие?
Is that an express or a local?
Это экспресс или пригородный поезд?
Renting a Car, Hiring a Taxi / Как арендовать машину
или заказать такси
Во многих частях света машина лучший, а иногда и единственный способ
передвижения. В Европе легче везде ездить на поездах, а в США, за
пределами крупных городов, машина может стать единственной альтернативой. Вот что можно сказать, когда берете напрокат машину.
А Саr / Машина
I am interested in renting a car
Я бы хотел взять напрокат машину
for a few days (a week.)
на несколько дней (на неделю).
Could you tell me what your rates are?
Не могли бы вы назвать ваши расценки?
Do you have any corporate rates
Есть ли у вас корпоративные расценки
or discounts? (or weekend rates)
или скидки (на выходные)?
I would like a compact
Я бы хотел маленькую
(medium size, full size) car.
(среднюю, большую) машину.
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Could you tell me what the rates are
Не скажете, какова рента
for a medium-sized car?
на машину средних размеров?
I would like to reserve a car.
Я хотел бы забронировать машину.
Could I use a map of the area?
Можно использовать карту местности?
Where are you located?
Где вы расположены?
Where do I pick the car up?
Где можно забрать машину?
Would you like my credit card number?
Вам нужен номер моей кредитки?
How much is the insurance?
Какова стоимость страховки?
A Taxi / Такси
I would like a taxi to downtown Chicago Я бы хотел такси до центра Чикаго
(outside of town).
(за пределы города).
What would it cost to go
Сколько будет стоить доехать
to Vancouver?
до Ванкувера?
Could you give me a flat rate?
Вы могли бы мне дать постоянный
тариф?
Dialogue: Renting a Car
Rental Agent:
You:
Hello, ABC Rentals.
Hello. I'm interested in renting a car for the weekend.
Can you tell me what's available in a mid-size car?
Do you have any specials (discounts)?
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Agent:
This weekend we are offering a free upgrade from
a compact to a full-size sedan for a three-day rental.
So you would be paying our compact rates.
That'll run $55 a day with unlimited mileage.
You:
What type of cars do you have available in a sedan,
automatic?
Agent:
We have Pontiacs, Toyotas, and Volvos.
Will you be picking up the car from the airport?
You:
I don't know. Where are you located?
Agent:
We're across from the Highway House, and
we deliver to hotels in town.
You:
Well, in that case, I'll walk over and see
what you have available. Thanks for your help.
Agent:
You're welcome. And thank you for calling.
Meeting Your Host (or Guests) /
Встреча пригласившей (приглашенной) стороны
Когда пригласившая сторона встречает вас в аэропорту или отеле, вам
необходимо будет завязать небольшой разговор, например:
How was your flight? (trip)
Как вам перелет? (путешествие)
Are you rested?
Отдохнули?
Are you tired?
Устали?
It's good to see (meet) you.
Рад вас видеть.
Let me help you with your bags.
Разрешите помочь вам с багажом.
We will pick up your bags
Мы заберем ваш багаж
at the baggage claim.
на доставке багажа.
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I have a car waiting outside.
Машина ждет рядом.
I will take you to your hotel.
Я довезу вас до отеля.
Accommodations / Размещение
Hello. I would like a room
Здравствуйте. Я бы хотел комнату
on a non-smoking floor.
на этаже для некурящих.
I would like to change my room.
Я бы хотел поменять комнату.
It's too small (too hot).
Она слишком маленькая (душная).
It's very noisy next door.
Очень шумно у соседей.
I wonder if you could tell the people
Не могли бы вы им сказать
to turn down the music, please?
сделать потише музыку.
I would like to check out.
Я уезжаю.
Would you prepare my bill please?
Приготовьте, пожалуйста, счет.
Do you accept travellers' checks
Вы принимаете чеки
(credit cards)?
(кредитные карточки)?
Could you change some money for me?
Вы не могли бы поменять для
меня деньги?
Dialogue: At the Hotel
Good morning, Madam. Can I help you?
Clerk:
Maria:
Yes, please. I made a reservation for a single room,
nonsmoking, under the name of Fernandez.
Is that Jane Fernandez?
Clerk:
Maria:
Clerk:
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Hernandez.
Maria:
Yes. Here we are. Five days at the corporate rate.
Clerk:
Nonsmoking room. Here's your key. Do you have any luggage?
Just one small suitcase. I don't need a porter, I can handle it myself.
Maria:
Very good, Madam. If there is anything else you need,
just call the front desk.
Clerk:
Actually, I would like to order a snack in my room. Do you have room
Maria:
service?
Clerk:
Yes. I’ll send someone up right away.
Maria:
Thank you. Has anyone left any messages for me?
Clerk:
No, Madam.
Maria:
I wonder if you could tell me where there's a nice restaurant nearby?
Clerk:
Directly across the street, there are two that are popular.
Thanks a lot.
My pleasure. Enjoy your stay!
I. Hotel
Practice Drills
II. Airlines
operator
No, that's
1. Tell the hotel operator you want to reserve
a single room for next weekend.
2. Ask about rates and discounts.
3. Ask how far the hotel is from the airport.
4. Ask what type of transportation is available
from the airport.
1. Tell the operator you wish to book a flight
from New York to Paris.
2. Ask about ticket prices.
3. Ask what aircraft is used.
4. Ask where to pick up the ticket.
5. Ask about special meals.
Maria
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Grammar revision. Passive Voice
Времена английского глагола в страдательном залоге
В английском языке могут быть 2 залога (Active и Passive). Глаголы в
действительном залоге показывают, что действие совершается лицом или
предметом, обозначающим подлежащее. Глагол в страдательном залоге
показывает, что лицо или предмет, обозначаемый подлежащим, подвергается
действию другого лица или предмета.
Active
Passive
We sighed a contract.
The contract was sighed by us.
Мы подписали контракт.
Нами был подписан контракт.
Страдательный залог образуется при помощи вспомогательного
глагола to be в соответствующей форме и Participle II (III форма)
смыслового глагола.
English tenses (Passive Voice)
Табл.2.Времена английского глагола в пассивном (страдательном) залоге
Present
Past
Future
Simple
Continuous
Perfect
Am
Is
Are
Am
Is
being asked
Are
*Длительное действие
(процесс), протекающий в
данный момент
Now ,at the moment
Have
Was
Had been asked
*Действие закончилось до
начала другого действия в
прошлом
asked
*Регулярное повторяющееся
действие ( usually, always,
often, sometimes, every day)
*Факт
*Будущее время (по
расписанию, графику
Was
asked (eaten)
were
*Действие в прошлом
Yesterday
Last week (year)
3 days ago
being asked
Were
*Длительное действие
(процесс), совершавшееся в
момент или период в прошлом
At 5 yesterday
From 5 to 6 yesterday
For 3 days last week
All the day long/the whole day
When he came
Will be asked
*Действие в будущем
Tomorrow
Next week
In 3 days
In 2020
been asked
Has
*Действие закончилось к
определенному моменту в
прошлом и имеется его
результат
Already, yet, ever, never,lately,
recently, this week, today, since
By 5 o’clock yesterday
Before he came
By the end of the last year
*При согласовании времен
Shall
have been asked
Will
* Действие закончится к
определенному моменту в
будущем
By 5 o’clock tomorrow
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На русский язык глаголы в страдательном залоге переводятся
несколькими способами:
1)
глаголами, оканчивающимися на –ся, -сь:
Many trade centers are being built in Voronezh.
Много торговых центров строятся в Воронеже.
2)
глаголом быть в сочетании с краткой формой причастия:
Nestle was founded in 1905 in Switzerland.
Нестле была основана в 1905 году в Швейцарии.
3)
неопределенно-личными предложениями с глаголами в
действительном залоге в 3-м лице множественного лица:
He was fired last year.
Его уволили в прошлом году.
Ex.1. Make the sentences Passive.
1. The production of mobile phones (increase) since 2000.
2. The phone (invent) by Bell.
3. The product (design) by the R&D department.
4. The model (test) first in 2009.
5. The product (sell) all over the world.
6. The manual (translate) into 3 languages.
7. The production (decrease) dramatically by 2015.
8. Unfortunately smoking (not/allow) here.
9. English (speak) all over the world.
10. Renault cars (make) in France.
11. Diet Coke (make) since 1982.
12. My car (service) regularly.
13. We (please) to accept your invitation.
14. The design of the product (improve) constantly.
15. We assure you that the problem (resolve) promptly to your satisfaction.
16. (at the hotel) “breakfast (include)?”
17. (at the hotel) “you fully (book) next week?”
18. (at the hotel) “I am sorry but every single room (book)”.
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Ex.2. Make the sentences Passive with the same meaning.
1. They open the new trade center in 2015.
2. The secretary will type your contract soon.
3. His boss pays him 200$ a week.
4. We sent you a contract yesterday.
5. The directors are still considering you application.
6. They offered me a new job.
7. They make computers in China.
8. He has already told Mary about the reservations.
9. We speak English here.
10. I put off the meeting.
11. The bill includes service.
12. They cancelled all flights because of fog.
13. They are building a new trade center.
14. They have changed the date of the meeting.
Ex.3. Rewrite the sentences using passive voice
1. People should send their complaints to the head office.
Complaints ….
2. They have to postpone the meeting because of illness.
The meeting …
3. They are going to hold next year’s congress in London.
Next year’s congress …
4. They should leave all the papers on the reception on your name.
All the papers …
5. The storm could have caused the delay of the flight.
The delay of the flight …
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Chapter 3 / Business Lunch
Глава 3 / Бизнес-ланч
A very popular type of meeting is the business lunch. It is a time to relax a
little outside the office and a time to get to know people personally in a less formal
atmosphere, while doing something productive.
If you are called upon to make the reservations for such a meeting, look for a
quiet place without distractions.
The business lunch in the United States is usually a short meeting, though
there are always exceptions. Some time is spent eating and making small talk
before more serious matters are discussed.
As each culture has its own practices, whatever the language of
communication, it is best when visiting a foreign country to wait until your host
brings up business rather than initiate it yourself, unless you yourself are hosting
the meeting. When you hear something like: «Well, let's get down to business»,
then you know the official meeting has begun.
Business lunch discussions, because they are more relaxed, are usually less
formal than in-house meetings. The lunchers may speak at random, jumping into
the discussion when they have something to say, rather than being more structured;
that is not to say that lunch meetings can't also be formal.
Business lunches start with small talk. Making pleasant conversation with
colleagues sets a positive tone for the rest of the meeting. Follow the small-talk
guidelines: talk about weather, sports, the restaurant, or type of food you are
eating, and avoid politics, religion, and anything negative.
Если в бизнес-ланче участвуют новые люди или один человек, беседа
начнется с их представления:
I'd like to introduce you to our guest,
Мне хотелось бы представить вас
Mr. Steiner from Zurich.
нашему гостю, м-ру Стайнеру из
Цюриха.
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He's joining us today to talk about his
Он сегодня присоединяется к нам,
bank's new business ventures in the
чтобы обсудить новые бизнес-
United States and Canada.
проекты в США и Канаде.
Welcome to our company.
Добро пожаловать в нашу компанию.
Did you have a nice trip?
Вы хорошо доехали?
Если вы иностранный гость, будьте готовы отвечать на ряд вопросов каждый
раз, когда приезжаете за границу.
How was your trip here?
Как вы доехали?
How was your flight?
Как вы долетели?
Where are you staying?
Где вы остановились?
How long will you be staying?
Как долго вы у нас пробудете?
Have you seen any (tourist)
Вы уже осматривали
sights yet?
достопримечательности?
What do you think of our city?
Что вы думаете о нашем городе?
What do you think of our weather?
Как вам нравится наша погода?
Tell us about your company.
Расскажите о вашей компании.
As the foreign guest, you might want to prepare a short story or anecdote
about your trip or discuss (briefly) some observation you have made. As in other
types of meetings, your host or hostess may tell a joke or short story to «break the
ice».
If you are not in an English-speaking country, such as in Switzerland meeting
with Saudis or Taiwanese, your business lunch customs will naturally differ from
American-style business lunches. However, just to be safe, prepare some questions
you might ask so you can spend more time listening than speaking. Questions
about the restaurant, the type of food customs, and culture are usually appropriate.
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Making Restaurant Reservations / Бронирование столика
Если вы являетесь устроителем бизнес-ланча, первое, что необходимо сделать,
это заказать столики в ресторане (to make restaurant reservations), пример
звонка с этой целью вы можете прочитать ниже:
Dialogue
Restaurant: Chez Michel. Good afternoon.
You: Hello. I would like to make a reservation for tomorrow,
lunch for six people. Do you have any quiet rooms?
It's a business lunch.
Restaurant: Yes, of course. We can reserve one of our private rooms
for your group. What time, please?
You: 12:30. Is that okay?
Restaurant: Of course. Under what name, please?
You: Jack Frost, for six.
Restaurant: Very good We'll see you then. Good-bye, Mr. Frost
You: Good-bye.
Hosting the Business Lunch / Как проводить бизнес-ланч
You may exchange (business) cards with anyone you have not met before, and
introduce those people who are new to the group with name and title. The handshake is
first, then the business cards.
Don't be surprised if you do not always receive a card; in the United States it is
important in some situations, considered optional in others. People do not always carry
their cards, nor place as much importance on them as in other cultures.
Depending on where your business lunch takes place, you may wait anywhere
from ten minutes to an hour before engaging in business conversation.
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Making the Transition Between Small Talk and Business / Как перейти от
общей беседы к делу
Какие выражения вам понадобятся, чтобы начать деловую встречу? Вопервых, необходим переход от общего разговора к деловому. Общая беседа
может продолжаться с момента подачи налитков до окончания основного
блюда; деловой разговор лучше начать незадолго до подачи кофе я десерта.
Приведем некоторые предшествующие деловому разговору выражения:
Let's get down to business? / shall we
Давайте перейдем к делу.
get down to business?
Now is probably a good time to start
Вероятно, пора начать обсуждение
our discussion.
Let's talk about the project (the deal,
Давайте обсудим проект (сделку,
the proposal).
предложение).
May I have your attention, please?
Вы могли бы уделить мне минутку
внимания?
Sorry to interrupt, but we need to get
Извините, что перебиваю вас, но
started.
нам нужно начинать.
I'd like to call this meeting to order.
Я бы хотел призвать собрание к
порядку.
Closing the Business Lunch / Как завершить бизнес-ланч
After lunch, you will need to close the meeting. After the goal of the meeting
has been met, any business transacted, or decisions made, conversation may
become informal again, or there may be a silence allowing the host or hostess to
easily close the meeting.
Ниже приведены некоторые возможные способы:
Well, we really need to stop here.
Мы действительно должны здесь
остановиться.
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I'd like to thank you all for coming
Хотелось бы поблагодарить вас за
today.
то, что вы пришли сегодня.
Thank you for coming. See you at the
Спасибо, что пришли. Встретимся в
office.
офисе.
Well, this meeting was productive.
Встреча была продуктивной.
Thank you for coming.
Спасибо, что пришли.
I'd like to end the meeting by saying I
look forward to working together аnd
Мне хотелось бы закончить эту
implementing our plan.
встречу, сказав, что я с нетерпением
жду начала совместной работы и
осуществления нашего плана.
The business lunch is only one type of meeting. In many businesses, meetings
represent 50 percent or more of a typical work day, the business lunch, however,
will always remain a favorite way to entertain and to get to know visitors and
potential clients or to work with business associates in a more relaxed atmosphere.
Practice Drills
I. How would you answer these questions?
1.Tell us about your company.
2. Tell us about yourself.
3. Tell us about your city.
4. What is the first thing you do at a business lunch?
5. What can you say to make the transition between small talk and
business discussions?
6.How can you end a business lunch? How do you «close» the meeting?
Give two examples.
7.When s it proper to introduce your guests and exchange cards?
8.Make a reservation for four people at a restaurant for lunch, at 12:00 noon, and
make sure it is for quiet table.
9.Give a few introductory sentences to open a business lunch.
Include a few introductions of guests.
10. If you have to end a meeting even though people are still discussing business,
how could you end it tactfully?
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Interrogative sentences. Question types.
Вопросительные предложения. Типы вопросов
В английском языке, задавая вопрос, недостаточно просто сделать
интонацию вопросительной, как в русском языке,- для этого следует
изменить порядок слов. Сперва следует найти в предложении подлежащее и
сказуемое. Английское утвердительное предложение имеет следующую
схему:
Подлежащее + сказуемое + дополнение + обстоятельство
С точки зрения построения вопроса все глаголы делятся на две
группы:
Табл . 3.
1. Глаголы, образующие вопрос путем простого изменения порядка
слов, – выдвижения глагола на место перед подлежащим.
He is a student. – Is he a student?
Am, is, are, was, were
Have, has, had*( только для Perfect We are working. – Are we
Tense)
working?
Can, could, may, must, will, would, They have finished work. –
Have they finished work?
shall, should
He can swim. – Can he swim?
• Глагол have в значении иметь, вынужден, придется и в
составе устойчивых сочетаний типа have dinner, have a
rest и т. д. oбразует вопрос с помощью вспомогательных
глаголов do, does, did.
Do you have any questions?
Does he have a business?
Did you have any meetings yesterday?
2.Все остальные глаголы для образования вопроса требуют
вспомогательный глагол.
I, we, you, they work - do
We work. – Do we work?
She, he, it
works - does
He works. - Does he work?
Все лица
worked- did
They worked. - Did they work?
Табл. 4. Порядок слов в вопросительном предложении
Вопросительное
слово
Who
What
When
Where
Why
How
Вспомогательный Подлежащее
глагол
Сказуемое в
начальной
форме
Второстепенные
члены
предложения
do
did
does
have
arrive
work?
make
for breaskfast?
to Moscow?
you
they
your father
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it?
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Типы вопросов
1. Общий вопрос требует ответа да или нет.
Is he studying at the Academy? – Yes, he is./ No, he is not.
Do you work for Nestle? – Yes, I do.
2. Альтернативный вопрос образуется из 2-х частей, соединенных союзом
or, первая часть образуется точно так же, как общий вопрос, после or
дается выбор.
Is he studying at the Academy or in the Institute?
Do you work for Nestle or Johnson& Johnson ?
Альтернативный вопрос = Общий вопрос +or…?
3. Специальный вопрос образуется путем постановки на 1-е место
вопросительного слова, которое показывает к какому члену предложения
относится вопрос.
Специальный вопрос = Вопросительное слово +Общий вопрос?
Вопросительные слова:
Where-где
When- когда
Why-почему
How-как
How many-сколько(исчисл.)
How much-сколько(неисчисл.)
What for - за что
What - что и т. д.
Where is he studying?
What company do you work for?
4. Разделительный вопрос(хвостовой) состоит из 2-х частей, разделенных
запятой. 1-я часть представляет собой повествовательное предложение,
во 2-й части ставится краткий вопрос( подлежащее, выраженное
существительным, заменяется соответствующим по смыслу личным
местоимением ) Если 1-я часть утвердительная, то 2-я отрицательная и
наоборот.
He is studying at the Academy, isn’t he?
You work for Nestle, don’t you?
5. Вопрос к подлежащему является исключением: для его образования не
нужно изменять порядок слов в предложении, следует лишь заменить
подлежащее Who?(Кто?) What? ( Что?)
Who is studying at the Academy?
Who works for Nestle?
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Ex.1. Ask question to the words underlined
1. Janita is from Finland.
2. She was born 150 kilometres north of Helsinki.
3. She studied in Helsinki University from 2001 to 2004.
4. She is an accountant.
5. He works for Nokia.
6. Nokia produces and sells mobile phones all over the world.
7. Janita has been working for Nokia for 5 years already.
8. Her boss told her that she can be promoted soon.
9. Janita hopes that her salary would be increased.
Ex.2. Choose the right variant
1.
What … at now?
a) you are working
b) are you working
2.
“When … this file?” – “Yesterday”.
a) you have read
b) have you read
3.
What … tomorrow?
a) will you do
b) you will do
4.
“ … the documents already?”
a) Have you seen
b) You have seen
5.
…your bill ?
a) Have you paid
b) Have you pay
6.
… at the hotel two hours ago?
a) Did you arrive
b) Did you arrived
7.
… a single room?
a) Could I book
b) Could I booked
8.
(at the hotel) “Excuse me. ….?”
a) Service is included
b) Is service included
9.
(at the restaurant) “Right, madam. … to order?”
a) Are you ready
b) You are ready
10.
… checked in the reception when you arrived at the hotel?
a) Has he already
b) Had he already
c) He has already
d) You had already
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Ex. 3. Ask your friend who has a job if these statements true for him (her) at
work. (=Make sentences interrogative)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
You work at a computer a lot of time.
You use e-mail a lot.
You have to do a lot of paperwork.
You arrange meetings.
You attend quite a lot of meetings.
You show people around your workplace.
You send invoices.
You deal with customer complaints.
You are responsible for promotion.
Your manager is pleased with your work.
Your manager works a lot.
You have been promoted from the time you started my job.
You can finish work early on Fridays.
You have to take the minutes during the meetings.
You got paid holiday last year.
You are satisfied with your salary.
You have been on training courses.
You will be promoted soon.
Ex.4. Write the questions (general, special) to these answers.
1.
Sales rose by 10% last year
2.
The stock market value fell from 240 to 225 in two days.
3.
There was a rise of 5% in the value of the shares.
4.
The shares were 2.5$ last week.
5.
The value of the shares has just gone up 1$ to 3.5$
6.
There has been a steady increase in the profit.
7.
We had to pay over 5000$ in interest.
Ex.5. Define the type of question
1.
What is the inflation rate in your country?
2.
Is the economy of your country in the state of recession?
3.
How much money did you borrow from the bank last year?
4.
Sales dropped by 5% last year, didn’t they?
5.
Did the sales rise by 10 or 15% last year?
Ex.6. Choose the right question tags
1.
2.
They used to work here, …?
a) don’t they
b) didn’t they
c) did they
Let’s see what we have, …?
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3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
a) shall we
b) will you
c) shan’t we
You haven’t got this information, …?
a) don’t you
b) haven’t you
c) have you
This is my pen, …?
a) isn’t this
b) isn’t it
c) is it
The printer is broken, …?
a) isn’t it
b) is it
c) did it
The hotel has got a pool, …?
a) isn’t it
b) has it
c) hasn’t it
It stopped working, …?
a) didn’t it
b) isn’t it
c) hasn’t it
You know Henry, …?
a) didn’t you
b) don’t you
c) aren’t you
You can give me the information, …?
a) can you
b) can’t you
c) don’t you
You can’t speak German, …?
a) can’t you
b) can you
c) are you
d) don’t you
They are on holiday, …?
a) are they
b) aren’t they
c) don’t they
He was not at home, …?
a) was he
b) wasn’t he
c) not was he
You’ve been to Paris, …?
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14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
a) don’t you
b) haven’t you
c) have you
You speak English, …?
a) aren’t you
b) didn’t you
c) don’t you
Mr Drayton won’t come back tomorrow, …?
a) won’t he
b) willn’t he
c) will he
Martin works very hard, …?
a) doesn’t he
b) does he
c) isn’t he
Ms Black will be here soon, …?
a) will he
b) is he
c) isn’t he
d) won’t he
You are ready, …?
a) aren’t you
b) do you
c) don’t you
d) are you
You are staying in the same hotel, …?
a) are you
b) aren’t you
c) do you
d) don’t you
The service is included, …?
a) is it
b) isn’t it
c) does it
d) doesn’t it
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Chapter 4 / Formal Meetings
Глава 4 / Формальные встречи
Whereas many people enjoy a business lunch, combining work and pleasure,
the more formal meetings are 100 percent business. Business people have strong
feelings for or against meetings. Often meetings take up much of the workday, and
sometimes accomplish very little.
However, meetings are essential for international business. They are
necessary in establishing relationships for future business, and in negotiating deals.
You need to meet and get to know the people you will be doing business with,
especially to observe foreign customs and attitudes.
If you are in sales, meetings are often the most productive way to make those
sales, or at least to make some progress. Finally, no matter what kind of business
you transact, meetings allow you to observe the behavior of others.
Since we never really know how a meeting will evolve, how can we prepare
for it? Will there be arguments? Discussion? Negotiations? Disagreement?
Even if we know the subject, can we control the flow of conversation? What
vocabulary can we use in this situation?
There is language that deals with the purpose or function of what you want to
say, such as disagreement, doubt, suggestions, negation, or acknowledgment. We
call this functional language. By learning how to approach these situations
functionally, you will be able to deal with the dynamics of any meeting.
Opening a Meeting / Как начать встречу
Ladies and gentlemen – хороший способ обращения к смешанной группе
людей, хотя и звучит это слишком формально для небольшой встречи.
Если вы обращаетесь только к мужской аудитории, достаточно Gentlemen,
если только к женской – Ladies.
Good afternoon ladies and gentlemen, and a special welcome to our guests
today. We hope you have been enjoying your stay.
Ladies and gentlemen, I would like to introduce you to our guest speaker.
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С небольшой аудиторией вы можете быть немного менее формальны, и
следует обращаться к каждому по имени: Hello, John / Mr. Turtle, good
morning! / Sally, how are you?
Вы можете выделить, назвав по имени, только очень важных людей
(президента) или гостей.
I would like to begin by introducing
Я бы хотел начать с представления
our foreign guests to our staff.
наших иностранных гостей членам
персонала.
Mr. Sikiri is visiting us from
Мистер Сикири – наш гость из Бомбея.
Bombay. Thank you for coming.
Спасибо за ваш приезд.
Betty Walker from the Marketing
Здесь также присутствует Бетти Уолкер
Department is also here. We're glad
из отдела маркетинга. Спасибо, что
you could make it.
смогли прийти.
Mr. Inoue is here from Tokyo. We
Мистер Иноуэ из Токио. Добро
welcome you.
пожаловать.
I see Mr. Muhammad from Cairo is
Я вижу здесь мистера Мухаммада из
here. Good to see you again.
Каира. Рад снова вас видеть.
Now, let's get started.
Теперь давайте начнем.
Если на встрече гости, представьте сначала их, перед тем как объявить
повестку дня или причину проведения встречи. Если встреча малочисленна и
на ней присутствуют новые люди, обычно все обмениваются визитками.
После обращения к аудитории объясняется цель данной встречи:
The reason I have called this
Причиной, по которой я собрал эту
meeting is to review a proposal
встречу, является рассмотрение
we have received from our
предложения, которое мы получили
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international division in Hong
из нашего международного
Kong.
подразделения в Гонконге.
The agenda for this meeting is as
Сегодняшняя повестка дня включает
follows: first, a presentation of the
следующее: во-первых, презентацию
new proposal by Mr. Emmanuel
нового предложения мистером
followed by an analysis by Ms.
Эммануэлем с последующим
Nielson.
анализом, который сделает миссис
Нильсон.
Third (or finally), a discussion
И в-третьих (и наконец), обсуждение
about whether or not to implement
по поводу реализации этого
this proposal.
предложения.
I would like to open this meeting
Я бы хотел открыть эту встречу
by passing out an agenda (list of
ознакомлением с повесткой дня
topics in the order to be followed).
(перечнем вопросов в порядке
следования).
Если встреча небольшая и на нее отведено немного времени, можно
неформально сразу приступать к делу следующим образом:
Let us begin with a presentation of
Разрешите начать с представления
the new proposal.
нового предложения.
После введения встреча может проходить в неформальной, свободной для всех
форме, когда любой её участник высказывает своё мнение или излагает свои
идеи в свободном порядке, по желанию, без заранее согласованного регламента
(иногда это называется brainstorming).
Также встреча может принимать более формальную форму, в ходе которой
председатель вызывает каждого участника в определенное время по очереди,
время сообщения или доклада, как и время, отведенное для дискуссий, строго
регламентировано.
Порядок проведения встречи обычно определяется культурными традициями
стран-участниц и количеством её участников.
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The Language of Meetings / Язык встреч
Ниже следует список фраз, которые могут быть использованы при ответах на
вопросы или для выражения мнения и помогут вам справиться с любой
возникающей в бизнесе ситуацией.
1. Agreement or Disagreement / Согласие или несогласие
Do you agree?
Вы согласны?
I agree with you.
Я согласен с вами.
You are right.
Вы правы.
I like your idea (proposal,
Мне нравится ваша идея (предло-
analysis).
жение, анализ).
That's a good idea (plan, suggestion,
Хорошая идея (план, предложение,
analysis, and so on).
анализ и т. д).
I support your idea (proposal).
Я поддерживаю вашу идею
(предложение).
Do you disagree?
Вы не согласны?
I think we may have a disagreement.
Думаю, что мы можем с чем-то не
согласиться (очень вежливо).
I cannot agree with you.
Я не могу с вами согласиться
(вежливо).
I don't agree with you.
Я не согласен с вами (сильное
возражение).
I disagree with you.
Я совершенно не согласен
(очень сильное возражение).
That's an interesting point (idea,
Это интересная тема (идея,
opinion), but I don't agree.
мнение), но я не согласен.
I don't think that will work.
He думаю, что это даст результат.
I'm against that because...
Я против, потому что... (сильное
несогласие).
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2. Making Suggestions/ Предположение
I would like to suggest...
Я бы хотел предложить...
I think we should...
Я думаю, нам следует...
I have an idea. Why don't we...
У меня идея. А почему бы нам не...
I think we should negotiate before
Я думаю, нам нужно провести
signing the contract.
переговоры, перед тем как
подписывать контракт.
I have an idea. Why don't we invite
У меня идея. А почему бы не
him to see our plant?
пригласить его посетить наш завод?
I would like to suggest that we give
Я бы предложил дать ей 20-про-
her a 20 percent discount.
центную скидку.
3. Expressing Certainty or Doubt / Выражение уверенности или сомнения
Are you certain?
Вы уверены?
I am sure that it will work.
Я уверен, что это сработает.
I am confident that it
Я уверен, что будут успешные
will succeed.
результаты.
Are you doubtful?
Вы сомневаетесь?
I am not certain that it will work.
Я не уверен, что это сработает
(вежливо).
It is unlikely to work.
Не похоже, чтобы это сработало
(сильное сомнение).
I have doubts that it will work.
У меня серьезные сомнения,
сработает ли это (самое сильное).
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I am confident this рlan will work.
Я уверен, что этот план сработает.
I have doutbts that they will make the
У меня серьезные сомнения,
deal with us.
заключат ли они с нами сделку.
This particular deal is unlikely to be
Данная сделка едва ли будет
profitable for us.
прибыльной для нас
I am certain they will comply with the
Я уверен, что они подчинятся
rules.
правилам.
I am not so sure she will buy out her
Я не уверен, что она выкупит долю
partner’s share.
своего партнера.
4. Asking for help / Просьба о помощи
I’m sorry, I did not follow you.
Извините, я не понял.
I did not catch that.
Извините, я не расслышал.
What did you say?
Что вы сказали?
Excuse me, would you mind
Извините, не могли бы вы
repeating that, please?
повторить?
I wonder if you would mind
Я бы хотел попросить вас
repeating that for me.
повторить, если возможно.
Would you mind spelling
Не могли бы вы сказать,
that (word, name) for me?
как пишется это (слово, имя)?
В следующем диалоге несколько человек в ходе неформальной встречи
выражают согласие и несогласие, предположения и сомнения. Проследите за
тем, какие клише используются.
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Dialogue
Bill:
We need to decide whether to take that business trip to Europe or
not. Basically, it is a decision to expand our sales1 into the
European market. I’d like to hear your ideas.
Tom:
I’m in favor of it. It’s a great idea.
It will put us ahead of the competition.
Michelle:
Carlos:
Personally, I’m against it. I don’t think it’s cost-effective2.
It’s an interesting idea, but I’m undecided. I still don’t think we
have fully analyzed all the risks involved3. I vote against it.
Raul:
I agree with Carlos. I would like to suggest
that we look again at our total marketing budget for the year.
Do we have the money to do a good job?
Tom:
Okay, let’s look at our budget again. Personally, I am confident
the benefits will outweigh the cocts4.
Michelle:
Sorry, Tom, I cannot agree with you. I don’t think it will work.
How can we be sure of our future profitability?
All we can do is work up pro forma.
Raul:
Michelle:
Excuse me, Michelle, would you mind repeating that?
Sure. What I’m saying is that I don’t know if we can really
evaluate whether our profits will be greater than our costs5.
Bill:
Okay. Let's stop here. I think we have a serious disagreement at
this point. Let's all take another look at the budget over lunch, and
continue our discussion this afternoon.
В приведенном диалоге термин cost-effective означает, что планируемое
окупит сопряженные затраты. Термин pro forma – бухгалтерский термин,
означающий оценку будущего объема или кассовых поступлений (cashflows).
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1
expand our sales – продвинуть наш товар
it’s cost-effective – прибыльно, с учетом затрат
3
the risks involved – сопутствующие риски
4
the benefits will outweigh the costs – выгоды перевесят затраты
5
greater than our costs – выгоды будут больше затрат
2
Grammar revision. Participle
Причастие
Причастие (Participle) - это неличная форма глагола, в которой
сочетаются признаки прилагательного, наречия и глагола.
В английском языке существуют два вида причастий: причастие
настоящего времени(Participle I) и причастие прошедшего времени(Participle
II), причем причастие I имеет простую и сложную формы, а причастие II –
только простую форму. Простая форма причастия(Indefinite(Simple)
указывает на то, что действие, выраженное им, совершается одновременно с
действием, выраженным глаголом-сказуемым, например:speaking говорящий
(говоря)
Сложная форма причастия(Perfect Participle) указывает на
предшествование действия по отношению к действию, выраженному
сказуемым, и на русский язык переводится деепричастием, например: having
written написав.
Причастия I и II выполняют функции определения и обстоятельства.
Табл. 5 Формы причастия
Participle I
Действительный залог
Active Voice
Indefinite
Простое
Participle II
Страдательный
залог
Passive Voice
Being asked
1)определение:
Asking 1) определение:
спрашивающий
2)обстоятельство: спросив
Спрашиваемый; тот,
кого спросили
2)обстоятельство: будучи
спрошенным
Perfect
Перфектное
Having asked
Having been asked
обстоятельство: когда его
спросили; после того, как
его спросили
обстоятельство:спросив
52
Asked
1)определение
спрошенный,
спрашиваемый
2) обстоятельство
когда его спросили
ажд
Ex.1. Underline Participle I and Participle II in the following
sentences and translate the sentences into Russian.
1. Writing the report he looked through many reference books. Having written
the report he presented it to his boss.
2. Translating the article he looked up into the dictionary. He was really
exhausted. Having translated the article he put the dictionary on the shelf.
3. Having arranged everything Mr Jefferson went home.
4. She is doing research into the economy of developing countries.
5. My brother is writing report about the influence of recent economic crisis on
the economy of developed countries.
6. The presentation was boring; I really got bored.
7. Ms Dixon was really excited about going to the conference.
8. The news was shocking. When we heard the news, we didn’t know what to
do. We were shocked.
9. Most of the goods made in the factory are exported.
10. Having finished her work she went home. She was very tired.
11. Do you know woman talking to Tom?
12. Having spent nearly all the money we couldn’t stay in that hotel.
13. Having booked the tickets beforehand we weren’t nervous about the trip.
14. I enjoyed the journey. Visiting Prague was so exciting.
15. Feeling hungry we went to the restaurant.
16.The business lunch will always remain a favourite way to work with business
associates in a more relaxed atmosphere
17. Whereas many people enjoy a business lunch, combining work and pleasure,
the more formal meetings are 100 percent business
18. Culture shock produces a feeling of disorientation. This disorientation may
be homesickness, imagined illness or even paranoia (unreasonable fear).
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Chapter 5 / Perfect Presentations
Глава 5 / Как организовать идеальную презентацию
A presentation is a report one gives to others. Typically, it is an oral report given
in a meeting or to an audience. It can be a short report, a long analysis, a narrative of
any length, formal, or informal. Whether oral or written, the presentation format
should be clear and organized.
In many countries, a business executive is expected to use sophisticated
language, maybe even an elaborate style, but the American workplace prizes
simplicity, clarity, and brevity. The most powerful language is clear and easy to
remember.
It may be difficult for the non-native speaker of English to use a simple style
and not feel that something is missing. Not true! A perfect presentation does not
have to be complicated, as long as the words are well chosen. Do not try to find the
complex word if a simple one is available.
If you wish to make a perfect presentation, organize your thoughts. At the end
of your report, your listeners should be able to repeat it back to you because what
you said and how you said it were so clear. Some simple English expressions will
help you do this.
Opening a Presentation
Welcoming the audience
Good morning / afternoon, ladies and gentlemen.
Hello / Hi, everyone.
First of all, let me thank you all for coming here today.
I’m happy / delighted that so many of you could make it today.
Saying what your topic is
As you can see on the screen, our topic today is…
Today’s topic is…
What I’d like to present to you today is…
The subject of my presentation is…
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Explaining why your topic is relevant for your audience
My talk is particularly relevant to those of you / us who…
Today’s topic is of particular interest to those of you / us who…
My / The topic is very important for you because…
By the end of this talk you will be familiar with…
Introducing yourself
Let me introduce myself. I’m Dave Elwood from ...
For those of you who don’t know me, my name’s…
As you probably know, I’m a new branch manager.
I’m head of logistics here at Air Spares.
I’m here in my function as the Head of Controlling.
Structuring a Presentation
Most formal – and many informal – presentations have three main parts and
follow this simple formula:
1. Tell the audience what you are going to say! = Introduction
2. Say it!
= Main part
3. Tell them what you said!
= Conclusion
There are several ways you can tell the audience what you are going to say.
would + infinitive
Today I’d like to tell you about our new plans.
This morning I’d like to bring you up to date on our department.
will + infinitive
I’ll begin by explaining the function.
I’ll start off by reviewing our progress.
After that, I’ll move on to my next point.
be going to + infinitive
I’m going to talk to you today about new developments in the P & D Department.
This afternoon I’m going to be reporting on the new division.
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will be + verb -ing
I’ll be talking about our guidelines for Internet use.
During the next hour we’ll be looking at the advantages of this system.
The purpose of the introduction is not only to tell the audience who you are,
what the talk is about, and why it is relevant to them. you also want to tell the
audience (briefly) how the talk is structured. Here are some useful phrases to talk
about the structure:
I’ve divided my presentation into three (main) parts: x, y, and z.
In my presentation I’ll focus on three major issues.
First (of all), I’ll be looking at ..., second ..., and third…
I’ll begin / start off by explaining…
Then / Next / After that, I go on to…
Finally, I’ll offer some solutions.
Organization
The final part of the introduction deals with the organization of the talk: how
long it will last, whether there will be handouts, and how questions will be
handled.
Timing
My presentation will take about 20 minutes.
It should take about 30 minutes to cover these issues.
Handouts
Does everybody have a handout / report? Please take one, and pass them on.
Don’t worry about taking notes. I’ve put all the important statistics on a handout
for you.
I’ll be handing out copies of the PowerPoint slides at the end of my talk.
I’ll e-mail the PowerPoint presentation to you.
Questions
There will be time for questions after my presentation.
If you have any questions, feel free to interrupt me at any time,
Feel free to ask questions at any time during my talk.
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Getting the Audience’s Attention
Experts say that the first few minutes of a presentation are the most important.
If you are able to get the audience’s attention quickly, they will be interested in
what you have to say. Here are a few techniques you can use to start your talk.
Ask a rhetorical question
Is market research important for brand development?
Do we really need quality assurance?
Start with an interesting fact
According to an article I read recently, central banks are now buying euros instead
of dollars.
Did you know that fast food consumption has increased by 6oo% in Europe since
2008?
Tell them a story or anecdote
I remember when I attended a meeting in Paris. …
At a conference in Madrid, I was once asked the following question:..
Give them a problem to think about
Suppose you wanted to set up a new call centre.
How would you go about it?
Imagine you had to reorganize the sales department.
What would your first step be?
Talking about difficult issues
I think we first need to identify the problem.
Of course we’ll have to clarify a few points before we start.
We will have to deal with the problem of increasing prices.
How shall we cope with unfair business practices?
The question is: why don’t we tackle the distribution problems?
If we don’t solve this problem now, we’ll get into serious trouble soon.
We will have to take care of this problem now.
Referring to other points
I’d like to mention some critical points in connection with / concerning payment.
There are a few problems regarding the quality.
With respect / regard to prices, we need more details.
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According to the survey, our customers are unhappy with this product.
Adding ideas
In addition to this, I’d like to say that our IT business is going very well.
Moreover / Furthermore, there are other interesting facts we should take a look
at.
As well as that, we can offer excellent conditions.
Apart from being too expensive, this model is also too big.
To increase sales we need a new strategy plus more people.
Expressions with as
As you all know,…
As I’ve already explained,…
As I mentioned before / earlier,…
As I pointed out in the first section,…
As you can see,…
Saying numbers
Numbers, especially long ones, are often difficult for the audience to
understand. Try to say numbers slowly and clearly, and point at them while
speaking.
2 m. – two million,
235m² – two hundred and thirty-five square metres,
1.6 bln. – one point six billion, €150,000 – one hundred and fifty thousand euros,
⅓, ¾ – one-third, three-quarters.
98% – ninety-eight per cent,
Remember that:
1. We use a comma in English to show thousands and a point to show the decimal
place.
2. We say ‘2 million’ or ‘10 billion’ (not 2 millions / 10 billions)
3. We say ‘2 million dollars’, ‘170 pounds’ (not 2 million dollar /170 pound)
Emphasizing Important Points
Using verbs stress, emphasize, etc.
I’d like to stress the following point.
I’d like to draw your attention to the Latest figures.
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I’d like to emphasize that our market position is excellent.
Using what
What is really important is how much we are prepared to invest.
What we should do is talk about intercultural problems.
Rhetorical questions
So, just how good are the results?
So, where do we go from here?
Why do I say that? Because…
Adverb + adjective construction
It would be completely wrong to change our strategy at this point.
We compared the two offers and found the first one totally unacceptable.
I think this fact is extremely important.
Talking about visuals
The first rule of preparing effective visuals is that they should be clear and
easy for the audience to follow. However, sometimes it is necessary to explain a
more complicated visual and it is always necessary to point out the most important
information.
Explaining a visual
Let’s now look at the next slide which shows…
First, let me quickly explain the graph.
You can see that different colours have been used to indicate…
The key in the bottom left-hand corner shows you…
Highlighting information
I’d like to start by drawing your attention to…
What I’d like to point out here is…
I think you’ll be surprised to see…
I’d like you to focus your attention on…
Let’s look more closely at…
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Talking about trends (Past Simple and Present Perfect)
We use the Past Simple to talk about a movement or trend which happened in
the past and is now finished.
Signal words for the past simple are last month / year, in January, from
1997 - 2001, during the oil crisis, etc.
In April the rate of unemployment rose to 5 million.
Between May and July our export business almost doubled.
In 2003 alone China’s car production increased by 85%.
We use the Present Perfect to talk about a movement or trend which started
in the past but is not yet finished.
Signal words are since (since August), for (for five years), this month /
year or expressions with over (over the past six months).
The number of German investors has declined since 1998. (It is still declining).
The US economy has grown rapidly over the past four months. (It is still growing).
Note the difference between rise and raise.
to rise (without an object)
Petrol prices rose again in May.
The number of tourists has risen to 2.6 million.
to raise sth (with an object)
The oil industry raised prices last year.
The European Central Bank has raised interest rates.
Using your voice effectively
How you say something is often just as important as what you say. You can
use your voice and the way you stress words or make pauses in sentences to make
your presentation more interesting and easier for the audience to follow.
Stressing words
By emphasizing particular words or parts of words you create certain effects.
Notice how you can change the meaning of a sentence by putting the stress on a
different word.
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We all know that this is an extremely difficult market. (It’s more than just
difficult).
We all know that this is an extremely difficult market. (You and I agree on this).
We all know that this is an extremely difficult market. (But they don’t).
Making pauses
You can use pauses to slow your pace down and make your sentences easier
to understand. Group words into phrases according to their meaning and make
pauses between the phrases.
In my opinion we should go into other markets.
In my opinion // we should go // into other markets.
On the other hand, the figures prove that we are on the right track.
On the other hand, // the figures prove // that we are on the right track.
Dealing with questions
Asking for clarification. If you do not understand the question, politely ask
the person to repeat or explain it.
I’m sorry. Could you repeat your question, please?
I’m afraid I didn’t quite catch that.
I’m afraid I don’t quite understand your question.
Avoiding giving an answer. Sometimes you may not want to answer a
question, perhaps because it’s the wrong time for it or the question is irrelevant.
When avoiding giving an answer, make sure that your tone of voice is friendly and
your reply is polite.
If you don’t mind, I’d prefer not to discuss that today.
Perhaps we could deal with this after the presentation/at some other time.
I’m afraid that’s not really what we’re here to discuss today.
Admitting you don’t know the answer. If you don’t know the answer to a
question, be honest and say so. Offer to find out or name a person who can answer
the question.
Sorry, that’s not my field. But I’m sure Peter Bott from Sales could answer your
question.
I’m afraid I don’t know the answer to your question, but I’ll try to find out for you.
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I’m afraid I’m not in a position to answer that. Perhaps Maria could help.
Conclusion
Indicating the end of your talk
I’m now approaching/nearing the end of my presentation.
Well, this brings me to the end of my presentation.
That covers just about everything I wanted to say about…
OK, I think that’s everything I wanted to say about…
As a final point, I’d like to…
Finally, I’d like to highlight one key issue.
Summarizing points
Before I stop, let me go over the key issues again.
Just to summarize the main points of my talk…
I’d like to run through my main points again…
To conclude / In conclusion, I’d like to…
To sum up (then), we…
Making recommendations
We’d suggest…
We therefore (strongly) recommend that…
In my opinion, we should…
Based on the figures we have, I’m quite certain that…
Inviting questions
Are there any questions?
We just have time for a few questions.
And now I’ll be happy to answer any questions you may have.
Practice Drills
1. What is an easy way to organize any presentation, oral or written?
2. Give an example of how you could open an oral presentation.
3. How might you close a presentation?
4. Give an expression of contrast.
5. Give a short presentation related to your own business, using the guidelines in
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this chapter.
6. Give two connectors used for comparison.
7. What expression could you use to emphasize something?
8. In the narrative «The Power of Language», does the author conclude with a
summary an opinion, or a new idea?
9. In «Culture Shock», describe the organization of ideas.
The Power of Language
There is a debate going on in some colleges and universities today about the
importance of a foreign language requirement. At some of these institutions,
students may choose between a second language and mathematics – or some other
discipline.
Of course, knowledge of a foreign language is helpful but not necessary for
survival. From some students' point of view, learning foreign words or dialogues to
take a trip abroad hardly merits a big investment in time and effort.
It is important, therefore, to define the benefits of learning a foreign language.
In the first place, students should be made aware that learning French enables
one to communicate in parts of Europe, Canada, and Africa. In the U.S. alone, over
30% of the population is Spanish-speaking or of Hispanic origin. Chinese and Arabic
covers over half the people in the world!
Second, learning a foreign language leads to a better understanding of
cultures and mentalities different from one's own. The important thing is the
thinking and questioning process that should lead to a better understanding of
one's own culture as well as those of others.
Third, learning a language opens the door to great literatures and
philosophies, which can have a tremendous impact on one's life. Reading literature
in the language written is truly "living" the author's creation, in a way not possible
through translation – no matter how great the translator.
Finally, we do business in a global economy; the better we communicate
with associates around the world, the greater success we will achieve.
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Culture Shock
According to some specialists, there are three stages of culture shock. In the
first stage, the newcomers like their environment. Then, when the newness wears
off, they begin to hate the city, the country, the people, the apartment, and
everything else in the new culture. In the final stage of culture shock, the
newcomers begin to adjust to1 their surroundings and, as a result, enjoy their life
more.
Some of the reasons for culture shock are obvious. Maybe the weather is
unpleasant. Perhaps the customs are different. Perhaps the public service systems
such as the telephone, post office, or transportation are difficult to figure out, and
you make mistakes. The simplest things seem difficult.
Culture shock produces a feeling of disorientation. This disorientation may
be homesickness, imagined illness or even paranoia (unreasonable fear).
Familiarity and experience are the long-term solutions to the problem of culture
shock.
Grammar revision Gerund
Герундий
Герундий (Gerund) - неличная форма глагола, сочетающая в себе
свойства глагола и существительного, образуется прибавлением -ing к основе
глагола. I like reading. Я люблю читать.
Табл.6
Свойства глагола
Свойства герундия
1.имеет видо-временные формы
2. имеет формы залога
3.может иметь прямое дополнение
1.
может быть в предложении
подлежащим и выполнять другие
функции,
которые
выполняет
существительное
2.
в функции обстоятельства и
определения имеет предлог
3. определяется местоимением или
существительным в притяжательном
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Форма
Simple
(indefinite)
Perfect
Формы герундия
Действительный залог
Active Voice
Writing
Страдательный залог
Passive Voice
Being written
Having written
Having been written
В русском языке нет формы, аналогичной форме герундия. На
русский язык герундий переводится:
инфинитивом I hate working late on Sundays . - Ненавижу
работать по воскресеньям.
отглагольным существительным I like swimming. – Я люблю
плавать.
деепричастием He went out without leaving his address – Он
ушел, не оставив адреса.
придаточным предложением Excuse me for interrupting you. –
Извините, что я вас прерываю.
Ex.1. People are talking about their jobs. Underline the Gerunds
and translate the following sentences into Russian.
1. I enjoy meeting new people.
2. I hate working late at night.
3. I really enjoy working with figures; this kind of work is perfect for me.
4. I don’t mind travelling long distances. It’s tiring but if I don’t visit
customers regularly, our competitors will.
5. I like receiving visitors. I usually only speak to them for a few seconds
on the phone so I like to visit them on person.
Ex.2. Translate the sentences into Russian paying attention to Gerund
1. You may wait anywhere from ten minutes to an hour before engaging in
business conversation.
2. Meetings are necessary in establishing relationships for future business, and
in negotiating deals.
3. By learning how to approach these situations functionally, you will be able
to deal with the dynamics of any meeting.
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4. Excuse me, would you mind repeating that, please?
5. Thank you for letting me know that.
6. I am truly grateful to you for helping me (for your advice).
7. Thank you for inviting me to your company office.
8. Thank you for contributing so much to the arranging of the meeting.
9. I wish to offer my sincere apologies for taking so long to answer your letter.
10. Thank you for advising us that you never received the 14 tons of coal covered
on your purchase order No. 1239 dated S April2000.
11. I wonder if you would mind repeating that for me.
12. Would you mind spelling that (word, name) for me?
13.Don’t worry about taking notes.
14. Learning foreign words or dialogues to take a trip abroad hardly merits a big
investment in time and effort.
15.Learning a foreign language leads to a better understanding of cultures and
mentalities different from one's own.
16. Learning a language opens the door to great literatures and philosophies.
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Chapter 6 / Better Business Letters
Глава 6 / Пишем деловые письма
Business correspondence is very important in any type of human activity.
As with small talk and phone calls letter writing is ruled by formulas. This
chapter provides a ready reference for business letters.
Once you have learned a standard way of organizing and wording a letter,
you will be able to write any letter. What follows is a simplified approach to
writing standard business letters: sales, introduction, follow-up, complaint,
rejection, and prospecting.
Business letters are particularly important in international commerce too.
Often it is the only representation of yourself and your company with a foreign
counterpart. You make an impression by the tone of your letter, and by correct,
tactful, and polite language.
We use standard greetings in letters in conformity with tradition, and it is
essential to follow these. Whatever creativity you wish to express, do so in the
body of the letter. Individualism is not appropriate in standard greetings of a
formal business letter; tradition is accepted and expected.
Composition of Business Letter / Составление делового письма
Maison d’Antiquites
АДРЕС
29, rue Vavin
ОТПРАВИТЕЛЯ
Paris, XIVeme
/ HEADING
France
July 1, 2010
Mr. Jan Van der Reep
ДАТА / DATE
АДРЕСАТ
Estate Specialist Associates
И
Haarlem
ЕГО АДРЕС
The Netherlands
/ INSIDE ADDRESS
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Dear Mr. Van der Reep:
ОБРАЩЕНИЕ / GREETING
СОДЕРЖАНИЕ ПИСЬМА / BODY OF THE LETTER
(INTRODUCTION – ВСТУПЛЕНИЕ)
I’m writing to introduce myself and my company. My name is Jean-Paul Richard
and I with an antiques company in Paris.
(ПРЕДМЕТ ИЗЛОЖЕНИЯ – SUBJECT)
Our company would like to establish ties with you for a mutually beneficial
relationship. We buy and sell antiques. It is our understanding that you, as estate
appraisers and consultants, are involved in the disposition of antique furnishings.
(CONCLUSION – ЗАКЛЮЧЕНИЕ)
I am enclosing my card and our company brochure. It would be a great pleasure to
meet with you personally. I will be calling you next week to see what we can
arrange.
Yours truly,
ЗАВЕРШЕНИЕ / ENDING
Jean-Paul Richard
ПОДПИСЬ / SIGNATURE
Executive Director
Enclosures: brochure, business card.
ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ / ENCLOSURE
Обратите внимание, что вы можете сделать отступ в начале каждого абзаца в
3-5 знаков, а можете не делать красной строки – оба способа являются
грамотными.
Если вы хотите сократить написание даты, помните, что в США даты
пишутся в последовательности месяц – день – год: 3/12/10 означает 12 марта
2010 года.
Greeting / Вступительное обращение
Когда письмо адресовано конкретному лицу, используйте форму Dear
(Дорогой) с фамилией этого лица (укажите должность, если фамилия и пол
неизвестны). Если у вас имеются какие-либо сомнения относительно
правильности на писания имени и фамилии лица, то лучше заблаговременно
выяснить это, чем подвергать себя риску их неправильного употребления.
В некоторых странах к лицу принято обращаться по последнему из
написанных имен (в США последней пишется фамилия). В Японии,
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например, к Тошики Иошикаве надо обращаться как к господину Тошики, а к
Джерри Чану, чье имя (Джерри) западного происхождения, необходимо
обращаться как к господину Чану.
В некоторых странах используются формы обращения Еngineer и Аrchitect
(инженер, архитектор).
Однако в большинстве стран основными формами обращения являются Мr,
Мrs, Мiss, Messrs. (Господин, Госпожа, Мисс, Господа) или ученый титул
Dr. (Доктор).
Форма обращения Мs. (Миз) не является общепринятой нигде, кроме США.
Для компаний и фирм приняты следующие обращения: Ladies and
Gentlemen (Дамы и господа), Ladies / Mesdames (Леди / Мадам – только к
женщинам), Gentlemen (Господа – только к мужчинам).
Helpful Expressions in Business Corresponence / Полезные выражения в
деловой переписке
Requests / Просьбы
Будьте добры, сообщите,
пожалуйста…
Could you please tell me…
I would be glad to know…
Я был бы рад узнать…
We would be obliged if you could
inform us…
Мы будем обязаны Вам, если Вы
сможете известить нас…
Would you please let me know as
soon as possible whether you would
be willing…
Будьте добры, сообщите как можно
скорее, желаете ли Вы…
We would be pleased to hear from
you concerning…
Будем рады, если Вы напишете нам
относительно…
I am writing to ask you whether
you might be interested in buying…
Пишу для того, чтобы спросить,
может ли Вас заинтересовать
покупка…
Is there anything that could be done
about this?
Можно ли предпринять что-либо
по этому поводу?
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Был бы Вам признателен, если бы
Вы прислали мне Ваш новый
каталог (образцы).
I would appreciate if you would send
me your new catalogue (samples).
Reports / Сообщения
We hereby advise…
Настоящим сообщаем…
Please be advised that…
Примите, пожалуйста, к сведению,
что…
Let me inform you that…
Позвольте сообщить,…
This is to certify that…
Настоящим удостоверяется…
Please take note that…
Обратите, пожалуйста, внимание,
что…
I am writing to confirm that…
Пишу, чтобы подтвердить, что…
There are no problems with
regard to…
Нет проблем в отношении…
We are of a different opinion…
Мы придерживаемся другого
мнения…
We wish to draw your attention to the
fact that…
Обращаем Ваше внимание на то,
что…
Please find enclosed…
К письму прилагается…
As you know from previous
correspondence…
Как Вы знаете из предыдущей
переписки…
We have carefully considered your
proposal.
Мы внимательно рассмотрели
Ваше предложение.
We agree to your proposal.
Мы согласны на Ваше предложение.
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Hope / Надежда на что-либо
I hope you won’t mind if …
Надеюсь, Вы не будете возражать,
если…
We very much hope that you will
come to a positive decision on…
Очень надеемся, что Вы придете к
положительному решению
относительно…
We expect you to use every effort
to…
Мы полагаем, что Вы приложите
все усилия для…
I hope to have further news for you
before too long.
Надеюсь, что буду иметь для Вас
новости довольно скоро.
I sincerely hope you will be able to
help me in this matter.
Искренне надеюсь, что Вы сможете
помочь мне в этом деле.
We look forward to hearing your
further proposal soon.
Мы рассчитываем получить вскоре
Ваши дальнейшие предложения.
I look forward to cooperating with
you on this new venture.
Рассчитываю на сотрудничество с
Вами в этом новом предприятии.
Gratitude / Благодарность
I am writing to thank you very much
indeed for…
Пишу, чтобы сердечно
поблагодарить Вас за…
It is very kind of you to…
Очень любезно с Вашей стороны…
May I take this opportunity of
thanking you for…
Позвольте воспользоваться
случаем, чтобы поблагодарить Вас
за…
Thank you for letting me know that…
Благодарю за сообщение о том,
что…
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I wish to express my appreciation for
all your efforts.
Хочу выразить благодарность за
все Ваши усилия.
I am truly grateful to you for helping
me (for your advice).
Я очень благодарен Вам за помощь
(за Ваш совет).
Thank you for inviting me to your
company office.
Благодарю за приглашение
посетить офис Вашей фирмы
I am writing to thank you again for
your wonderful hospitality.
Пишу, чтобы вновь поблагодарить
Вас за Ваше замечательное
гостеприимство.
Thank you for contributing so much
to…
Благодарим за столь большой вклад
в…
Apologies / Извинения
My apologies for…
Приношу свои извинения…
Please accept our apologies for…
Примите, пожалуйста, наши
извинения за…
I wish to offer my sincere apologies
for taking so long to answer your
letter.
Хочу принести свои самые
искренние извинения за то, что
долго не отвечал на Ваше письмо.
I wish to offer my sincere apologies
for задержку, которая про изошла
не по нашей вине.
Хочу принести свои самые
искренние извинения за задержку,
которая произошла не по нашей
вине.
I sincerely regret that…
Я искренне сожалею, что…
I am sorry, but I cannot be of
assistance to you in this matter.
Извините, но я не могу помочь Вам
в этом деле.
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Dissatisfaction / Недовольство
We are not happy about the terms you
suggested.
Мы не удовлетворены
предложенными условиями.
I simply cannot understand why you
did not tell us…
Я просто не могу понять, почему
Вы не предупредили нас…
I am most disturbed that you will not
be able to…
Меня очень беспокоит то, что Вы
не сможете…
This sets up a chain involving several
complications.
Это вызывает цепь определенных
затруднений.
I am very disappointed about this fact.
Я очень огорчен данным
обстоятельством.
This, I am sure you will agree, is not a
good way to conduct business.
Это, уверен, Вы согласитесь, не
лучший способ вести дела.
I am afraid we’ll have to cancel the
agreement.
Боюсь, нам придется расторгнуть
договор.
Answers to Proposals / Ответы на
предложения
We can promise delivery within four
weeks if we receive your order
immediately.
Мы можем обещать поставку в
течение четырех недель, если
получим Ваш заказ незамедлительно.
We are obliged for your letter of 12
May in which you enquire…
Мы признательны за Ваше письмо
от 12 мая, в котором Вы
спрашиваете…
In reply to request for our catalogue,
we enclose a copy herewith, and we
hope it will be helpful to you.
В ответ на просьбу прислать Вам
наш каталог прилагаем к письму
экземпляр каталога и надеемся, что
он будет Вам полезен.
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We were very pleased to receive your
letter in reply to our advertisement.
Мы были очень рады получить от
Вас письмо в ответ на наше
объявление.
Ending / Завершение
Письмо можно закончить при помощи:
Yours truly, Sincerely yours (Искренне Ваш), Very truly yours, Very
sincerely yours (С самым искреннем уважением Ваш) или Cordially
(Сердечно).
Если вы хорошо знакомы с адресатом, можно использовать:
Best regards или Best personal regards (С наилучшими пожеланиями).
Иногда, если вы обращаетесь к человеку, занимающему очень высокое
положение, – судье, полицейскому, профессору, – можете использовать
выражение: Respectfully submitted, а также Respectfully или Respectfully
yours (С уважением Ваш – официально).
В этих выражениях первое слово пишется с большой буквы.
The Simplest Business Deal
A series of business letters leading to the conclusion of a transaction usually
includes the following sorts of letters: enquiries, replies to enquiries, offers,
orders, order confirmations, advice of shipment, complaints and adjustment
letters, and agency letters.
All these types of letters will be discussed in detail below, but to give a
schematic idea of a business transaction, the following simple transaction with
short letters has been selected.
transaction – сделка
order n – заказ
agency letters – письма об агентских
услугах
offer n – предложение
order confirmation – подтверждение
заказа
advice of shipment – сообщение об
отгрузке
enquiry n – запрос
reply to enquiry – ответ на запрос
adjustment letters – письма по
исправлению претензий
complaint – претензия, рекламация
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Full-Block Letter Format / Полноформатное письмо
INTERNATIONAL SUIT DISTRIBUTORS
100 KENNEDY CIRCLE
CAMDEN, NJ 08103
U.S.A.
phone 609-555—0101 / fax 609-555—0102
May 1, 2010
Your reference 00012
Mr. Li Hao Chung, President
Taipei Suit Company Ltd.
2121 Fu Hsing Road, 6th Floor
Taipei 11549, Taiwan
Dear Mr. Li:
Thank you for your kind invitation to visit the Taipei Suit Company June 6 and 7,
2010.
Mr. Roier and I are pleased to accept your invitation to learn more about your
company’s products. Taipei apparel is admired both in the offices of International
Suit Distributors and throughout the United States.
We look forward to meeting you on June 6 and will send you details about our
arrival when our travel arrangements are complete.
Sincerely yours,
(Ms.) Deanne Sidwell
General Manager
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ажд
Prospecting Letter / Рекламное письмо-предложение
Asian Beauty Products
450 Sutter Street Suite 102
San Francisco
March 12, 2010
Chan’s Beauty Spa
125 Maiden Lane
San Francisco
Dear Ms Chan:
My name is Sondra Kim and I am an account representative with Asian Beauty
Products, Inc. in San Francisco.
The reason I am writing to you is that we have an exceptional new line of cosmetic
products that give long-lasting improvement in skin and hair, and that have been
good sellers in many salons.
I am enclosing a brochure and price list for your consideration. I would like to call
on you next week, give you some samples, and see if you have an interest in
learning more about our products. I look forward to talking to you at that time.
Sincerely, Sondra Kim
Enclosures: brochure, price list.
Follow-up Letter / Письмо-напоминание
India Silks
Bombay, India
April 12, 2010
M. Meurice Joubert
Moroccan Trading Company
Marrakesh, Morocco
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ажд
Dear M. Joubert:
I would like to say what a pleasure it was to have met you last Thursday. My
thanks for having given me that opportunity
As you know, we are looking for an exporter for our uniquely designed dresses.
We think your company would best represent us.
Let me add that I hope we will have a profitable business relationship, and I look
forward to working with you in the future.
Yours truly,
Ravi Patel
Account Executive
Complaint Letter / Рекламационное письмо
Tom Brown
189-9 Kent Street
Smithville, Ohio 37703
February 15, 2011
Software Unlimited, Inc.
2233 Connection Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Attn: Customer Service
To Whom It May Concern:
Please cancel my account and give me a full refund on my credit card. I was unable
to use your software on my computer and loading it onto my computer gave me
problems with other existing software.
When requesting a refund, I was told by one of your phone assistants that I could
not cancel my account by fax without losing $50 set-up fee. I was also informed
that I needed to write a letter of explanation to the Customer Service Department in
order to get my money back.
I find this system extremely frustrating. I should be able to receive an approval of
my refund by fax or phone call. I must say I am disappointed with your software
and your company.
Yours truly,
Tom Brown
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Response to a Complaint Letter / Oтвет на рекламационное письмо
Software Unlimited, Inc.
2233 Connection Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
February 25, 2011
Tom Brown
189-9 Kent Street
Smithville, Ohio 37703
Dear Sir:
We have received your letter, and I am writing to you on behalf of our company.
We appreciate your having taken the time to write us about your problem. We are
always trying to improve our product and services.
We have cancelled your account as you requested and are sending you a refund.
We apologize for the lengthy process in recovering the set fee; we are in the
process of changing our policy so that refunds will be made more quickly.
We are sorry for any inconvenience this situation may have caused you. Should
you have any further questions, please call me.
Sincerely,
Noelle Randall
Customer Service
Rejection Letter / Отказное письмо
2500 North Fruitridge Road
Terre Haute, Indiana 47811
October 9, 2009
Ms. Andrews
109 Glimmer Circle
Larchmont, New York 10107
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Dear Ms. Andrews
Thank you for taking the time to submit your bid to do the construction and
installation for our Happy Homes project. We appreciate the time and effort you
spent in preparing this.
Unfortunately we must decline your bid at this time, as we have awarded the job to
another company that has considerable experience in this type of project.
We thank you for your participation and hope we will be able to use your services
at some time in the future.
Sincerely,
Michael Ellsworth, Manager
Happy Homes
Collection Letter / Инкассационное письмо
GLEASON’S DEPARTMENT STORE
2297 Front Street
Phoenix, Arizona 99075
April 24, 2010
Dear Madam:
Two months ago you purchased a physical fitness and training program from our
gym. This program is a twelve-week, four-times-a-week intensive course with one
of our expert trainers. At that time, you promised to pay $500 for this service,
which we allowed you to begin without a deposit.
Five weeks have passed and we are disappointed that we have not received any
money from you. Perhaps it has slipped your attention, and we would like to give
you the opportunity to fulfill your obligation to us.
Please call our Accounting Department immediately and let us when we can expect
payment.
Yours truly,
Ms. Sarah Lambert, Manager
Accounting Department
cc. (carbon copy) Collections Office
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Practice Drills
1. Give some variations of Yours truly.
2. What is the difference between Yours truly and Best regards?
3. What does the expression I look forward to mean?
4. What is the abbreviation for carbon copy?
5. What is the abbreviation of electronic mail?
6. Most business letter salutations begin this way: ___________.
7. When you are sending a letter to a superior, such as a judge, a teacher, or
diplomat, you might sign your letter: ____________submitted.
8. Friends and relatives usually sign off this way: ____________.
9. When you are sending regards, you say: __________regards.
10. What is a common way to end a business letter?
11. Read and translate the following business letters, give brief summaries of them:
BUSINESS LETTER 1
UNITED DENTAL CARE CORP.
208 Eastside Road
Columbus, Ohio 37891
November 9, 2011
Mrs. F. Jones
Marcus Drugstore
15 Ellison Place
Mansfield, Ohio 37048
Re: CLAIM ON TOOTHPASTE QUALITY
Dear Mrs. F. Jones
It is upsetting to learn that you have problems with our toothpaste.
Tony Mailer, our representative, will meet you on Wednesday morning, 15
November to investigate the problem. He will take the samples which will be
forwarded to our Quality Control Department for analysis.
We assure you that the problem will be promptly resolved to your satisfaction.
Please accept our apologies for inconvenience.
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ажд
MICHAEL RAINBOW,
VICE-PRESIDENT
MR
BUSINESS LETTER 2
FLANAGAN’S DEPARTMENT STORE
12207 Sunset Strip
LosAngeles, California 91417
June 7, 2011
Ketchum Collection Agency
1267 Hollywood Boulevard
Los Angeles, California 91401
ATTENTION: MRS. TERRY ROBERTS
Gentlemen:
Subject: Mr. Gary Daniels, Account #69 112 003
We would like to turn over to your services the account of Mr. Gary Daniels, 4441
Natick Avenue, Sherman Oaks, California 91418. The balance on Mr. Daniels’
account, $829.95, is now 120 days past due; and, although we have sent him four
statements and five letters, we have been unable to collect his debt.
Mr. Daniels is employed by West Coast Furniture Showrooms, Inc. He banks at
the Natick Avenue branch of Third National City Bank and has been a customer of
ours for four years. We have enclosed his file for your reference.
We are confident that we can rely on Ketchum as we have in the past. Please let us
know if there is any further information with which we can furnish you.
Sincerely yours,
FLANAGAN’S DEPARTMENT STORE
Martha Fayman
Credit Manager
MF/wg
Enclosure
cc Mr. Norman Hyman
81
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BUSINESS LETTER 3
ROUGUSONS ELECTRONICS
21 Mead Road
Swansea, Glamorgan 3ST 1DR
January 15, 20_
Mr. R. Brown
Homemakers Ltd.
54-59 Riverside
Cardiff CFI IJW
Dear Mr. Brown,
Thank you for inquiry about our new tape-recorder. I am enclosing our brochure,
which general information about the product.
In answer to your specific questions:
I. It costs £ 300 + VAT at 13.5%.
2. We offer a discount of 5% on orders of 5 units or more.
3. We will be able to deliver your order within 10 days of receiving it.
4. Unless you already have an account with us, we will require payment with your
order.
If you have any further questions, please do not hesitate to contact me.
Sincerely Yours,
Robert Roughson
General Manager
RR
Enc: Brochure
BUSINESS LETTER 4
STATE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE
Preston New Road
Denver, Colorado 61043
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July 14, 20_
Mr. C. Bennett
Glaston Potteries Inc.
20-13 Vorley Road
Little-Rock, Arkansas 46678
Subject: Request for Marketing Information
Dear Mr. Bennett,
Thank you for your letter of 2 July. The provision of a list of commercial and
industrial wholesalers and distributors will constitute a chargeable enquiry. The
approximate cost of this service will be $300. The list will be sent to you
approximately six weeks from the date of payment receipt.
If you wish to pursue the inquiry, you should contact the nearest branch of our
information department.
I should be grateful if you could send trade literature on you products and
company.
Faithfully yours,
Tony Dillman
Office Manager
TD
BUSINESS LETTER 5
JASONS COAL MINING LTD.
Head Office, Bruce House
Bruce Street, Aberdeen AB9 1FR
March 25, 2000
Mr. J. Simpson
Claims Department
Kent, Clarke & Co. Ltd.
South Bank House
Borough Road
London SE1 OAA
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Dear Mr. Simpson,
Thank you for advising us that you never received the 14 tons of coal covered on
your purchase order No. 1239 dated S April2000.
The coal was shipped on 16 April2000. A tracer is being initiated and we will
notify you as soon as the information becomes available.
If we are unable to determine the status, we will immediately release a duplicate
shipment.
We are sorry for this situation and assure you of our prompt attention.
Yours sincerely,
Emily Snake
Shipment Department
ES
BUSINESS LETTER 6
MAHONEY AND MILLMAN, INC
1951 Benson Street
Bronx, New York 10465
May 2, 20_
RBM Manufacturing Company, Inc.
4022 Ninth Avenue
New York, New York 10055
Dear Sirs
We intend to purchase a new office copier before the end of the fiscal year. We
would like to consider an RBM copier and wonder if you have a model that would
suit our needs.
Our office is small, and a copier would generally be used by only three secretaries.
We run approximately 3,000 copies a month and prefer a machine that uses regular
paper. We would like a SCX-4200 Model, but rarely need to run off more than 25
copies at any one time.
We would also like to know about your warranty and repair service. Since our
fiscal year ends June 30,20__, we hope to hear from you soon.
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Sincerely yours,
William Wilson
Office Manager
WW
BUSINESS LETTER 7
Donald Paton
183-9 Kent Street
Smithville, Ohio 37703
10 June, 20__
Mr. M. Greenbaum
Marketing Manager
Austin Motors Pty.
21 Mead Road
Birmingham B3 3EL
UNITED KINGDOM
Dear Mr. Greenbaum:
I am taking a course in Principles of Advertising at Smithville Community College
in Smithville, Ohio, and am doing my term project on the ways in which British
automobile manufacturers are now competing in the small-car market.
I would therefore greatly appreciate your sending me the following specifications
on the new RX-7:
1. Fuel economy statistics.
2. Technological advances (such as steering system, brake system, and engine
capacity).
3. Available options.
I would also find it very helpful if you told me in which magazine (or other mass
media) you began your advertising campaign.
I am certain my classmates will find this information extremely interesting. I will
be sure to send you a copy of my report as soon as it is complete.
Respectfully yours,
D. Paton
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BUSINESS LETTER 8
CONDO CORPORATION
209 West Street
Kingston, Jamaica, W.I.
October 2, 20_
The Executive Inn
2 Main Street
Evansville, Illinois 60821
Dear Sirs,
Please reserve a double room with bath for Mrs. Linda Lettman for October 27- 29.
Mrs. Lettman, executive of the Condo Corporation, will arrive at the hotel at
approximately 6P.M. on October 27.
While in Evansville, Mrs. Lettman will meet with six members of the local
Chamber of Commerce. She would, therefore, like to reserve the use of a small
conference room for the morning of October 28, from about 9 A.M. until noon.
Please let us know the rates for both Mrs. Lettman’s accommodations and the
conference room, and confirm this reservation.
Truly yours,
M. Stewart, Manager
BUSINESS LETTER 9
THE COMMITTEE TO KEEP MINNESOTA GREEN
24 North Main Street
Blackduck, Minnesota 56630
July3, 20_
Mrs. Christine Solars
Solars and Wright
62 Onigum Road
Walker, Mihnesota 56484
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Dear Mrs. Solars:
We are pleased that you will be participating in the Ecology Colloquium sponsored
by the Committee to Keep Minnesota Green. As we discussed in our recent
conversation, the Colloquium will take place on June 29 in the convention room at
the Blackburn Inn.
The Colloquium will begin with the keynote address at 10:30 A.M. At 11:00, you
will join our other guests of honor in a debate on the topic, «The Cost of
Conservation: Public or Private Responsibilities?»
Along with the other members of the Committee, I am looking forward to our
meeting on the 29th.
Sincerely yours,
David Marston
Chairman
BUSINESS LETTER 10
THE BARCLAY
5500 South 96th Street
Omaha, Nebraska 68127
August 10, 20_
Mr. Albert Dunnell
2233 Connecticut Avenue, N.W.
Washington DC 20008
Dear Mr. Dunnell,
This letter will confirm your reservation for a single room with bath for August 2427. Your room will be available after 2 P.M. on the 24th.
Since you will be arriving in Omaha by plane, you may want to take advantage of
The Barclay’s Shuttle. Our limousine departs from the domestic terminal every
hour on the half hour, and the service is free for guests of the hotel.
Cordially yours,
M. Allison, Manager
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BUSINESS LETTER 11
OLSEN’S UPHOLSTERY LTD.
72 Preston New Road
Blackpool, Lancashire FY4 4UL
7 August 20_
Mr. D. Norton
Tib Street
Maidenhead
Berks SL65D2
Dear Mr. Norton,
Thank you for your order of October 22 for 6 rolls of black nylon webbing. We are
eager to deliver Order 129 to your store as soon as possible.
But first, please let us know whether you’d like the webbing in 1-, 1.3- or 1.5- inch
widths. If you note your preference on the bottom of this letter and mail it back to
us today, we can have your order ready by the beginning of next week.
Olsen’s Upholstery products are among the finest made, and we’re sure you’d like
to receive your purchase without further delay.
Sincerely yours,
K. Winford
Sales Manager
BUSINESS LETTER 12
SILVER IMPORTS, LTD.
609 San Anselmo Avenue
San Anselmo, California 94960
March 4, 20_
Mrs. Bonnie Comm
Bonnie’s Baubles
4091 West Ninth Street
Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27102
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Dear Mrs Corum,
Thank you for your recent order, number 622. We are always especially delighted
to serve an old friend.
Your six pairs of Chinese Knot earrings (item 15b) and one dozen Primrose
pendants (item 8a) have been shipped by United Parcel and should arrive at your
boutique within the week.
Unfortunately, our stock of bracelets (item 9d) has been depleted because of a
delay in shipments from China. Our craftsmen have been at great pains to keep up
with the demand for these bracelets. We have put your one dozen bracelets on back
order and hope to have them on their way to you before the end of the month.
Very truly yours,
Chun Lee
Manager
BUSINESS LETTER 13
BOOKS-BY-MAIL
P.O. Box 799
Dallas, Texas 75220
April 10, 20_
Mrs. Donna Phillips
Crosby, Texas 77532
Dear Mrs. Phillips,
Thank you so much for ordering Indra Masher’s outstanding book «An
Introduction to Indian Cooking». As you know, in the fifteen years since its first
publication, Mr. Masher’s book has become a classic and a standard for great
cooks everywhere.
Sadly, «An Introduction» is no longer in print, and I am returning your check for
$15.95. But to satisfy your interest in Indian cuisine, I would like to suggest an
alternative, Purnamattie Jaffrey’s «Indian Gourmet». Mrs. Jaffrey was a student of
Mr. Masher, and her recently published volume has been widely hailed by both
food and cookbook critics.
If you would like a copy of «Indian Gourmet», which costs only $13.95, please let
me know, and I will immediately send it to you.
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Cordially,
David Ewing
Order Department
BUSINESS LETTER 14
Lindon’s Co
Kernigan, Jakarta 12950
Indonesia
March 25, 2011
Bridges & Co. Ltd.
32 Highgate, West hill,
London SE
England
Dear Messrs Fox and Hill,
With reference to your letter of 5 February, 2011 and further to our telephone
conversation I’m pleased to inform you that our deal has been successfully
completed. In accordance with our preliminary arrangement I’ll report you
periodically about any changes.
I would be grateful if you could send a reply at your earliest opportunity.
Please find enclosed our latest catalogue.
Sincerely yours,
Jack Grey
Grammar revision. Infinitive
Инфинитив
Инфинитив (Infinitive) - это неличная форма глагола, обладающая
свойствами как существительного, так и глагола. Инфинитив имеет 3
временные формы, выражающие одновременность или законченность
действия, а также залог. Признаком инфинитива является to перед глаголом.
В предложении инфинитив выполняет функции подлежащего, дополнения,
обстоятельства цели, составного сказуемого.
To read is interesting. Читать - это интересно.
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I like to read very much. Я очень люблю читать.
Табл.7.
Группа времен
Действительный
залог
Active Voice
Indefinite(Simple)выражает
действие, одновременное
с действием глагола-сказуемого
Continuous выражает длительное
действие,
продолжающееся
одновременно с действием глаголасказуемого
Perfect выражает действие,
предшествующее действию глаголасказуемого
to write
писать
Страдательный
залог
Passive Voice
to be written
быть написанным
to be writing
писать ( в определенный
момент)
to have written
уже написать (до
какого-то определенного
момента)
to have been written
уже быть
написанным(до какогото определенного
момента)
Ex.1. Translate the sentences into Russian paying attention to the
Infinitive. Underline the Infinitives and say what form of the Infinitive is
given.
1. I was surprised to see Ann there.
2. I wasn’t able to understand the timetable.
3. I got up early in order to be ready to leave at eight.
4. The computer needs to be repaired.
5. She was so sorry not to have seen Bill.
6. I seem to have disappointed Mr Dick yesterday.
7. Try not to be late.
8. She may be travelling in Europe now.
9. Your printer will be repaired by Tuesday.
10. You could have been promoted if you hadn’t been so easy-going.
11. It’s important to listen to people.
12.You should have told me you were ill.
13.I’d like to go home early today.
14. I have to work right now.
15. Your advertisement will be posted today.
16. She must be preparing for the tomorrow’s presentation now – I can see the
light in her office.
17. We don’t allow people to smoke here.
18. Sorry – I forgot to post the letters.
19. I regret to have told you that I have failed my examinations.
20. I ‘m happy to have a chance to talk to you.
Complex Object
Винительный падеж с инфинитивом
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глагол
+
дополнение
+
инфинитив
Инфинитивный оборот Complex Object (сложное дополнение,
винительный падеж с инфинитивом) употребляется после глаголов,
выражающих восприятие посредством органов чувств (to see - видеть,
to hear – слышать, to fell – чувствовать и т.д.), желание (to want –
хотеть, to like – нравиться и т. д.), предположение (to expect –
предполагать, to consider - считать , to find – находить, to know –
знать и т. д.) просьбу, приказ (to ask - просить и т.д.)
He asked her to help him. – Он попросил ее помочь ему.
I saw him crossing the street. Я видел, как он переходил улицу.
Ex.1 Translate into Russian paying attention to the Complex
Object.
1. I want Ms Watson to help me. I expect her to come soon.
2. I expect the goods to be delivered in a month.
3. I saw her enter the office at 3 pm.
4. I heard him mention her name during the meeting.
5. I wish the work to be done by Friday.
6. I saw the luggage put into the car.
7. I suppose him to be suitable for the position of the manager.
8. I consider him to be a clever man.
9. I know them to be right.
10. The director found the terms of the delivery to be unsatisfactory.
11. I expect George to be promoted soon.
12. Mrs Black heard the flight announced.
13. I had my luggage weighted.
14. He had his luggage registered half an hour ago.
15. I watched him packing the luggage.
16. I saw him waiting for the taxi.
17. She wants Mrs Stevenson to look through the report before the
presentation.
18. He advised me to try to find a new job.
19. Mr Dickenson made me apologize for my unprofessional behavior.
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Chapter 7 / Contracts and Their Performance
Глава 7 / Контракты и их исполнение
A Contract is a business agreement on work to be done, rates to be paid,
goods to be sold or bought. It is also a document embodying such an agreement.
Contracts are concluded either between companies in one and the same
country, or internationally, i.e. between organizations of different countries.
Every international contract has several standard parts which are obligatory. Most
frequently these necessary parts of the contract include the following:
– legal addresses of the contracting parties;
– the subject matter of the contract, i.e., what this business agreement is about.
Usually this also includes the total amount of money involved and the
denomination of goods bought or sold under the provision of this contract (or the
type of service agreed upon);
– the detailed description of goods: their price, quality and quantity, packing
and marking, etc.,
– the terms of delivery (the most usual ones being F.O.B., F.O.R., C.I.F., C. &
F., F.I.O.S., F.I.O., and others);
– the length of duration of the contract, i.e. over what span of time the
obligations arising out of it are valid;
– the terms and procedure of payment, banking details;
– arbitration;
– claims and their settlement;
– guarantee period (if any);
– other conditions.
All contracts consist of clauses, which are numbered, and sometimes of
subclauses, and even of sub-subclauses as well. In the negotiations or
correspondence one can refer to the specific clause and subclause, e.g.
«according to the clause 7.5. of the contract number…», or «as specified by
clause 5.4.3. of the present contract ...».
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Contract No. 1
Контракт № 1
Moscow
Москва
May 22, 2010
Maй 22, 2010
Russian
Foreign
Trade
Association
«Almazjuvelirexport»,
Moscow, hereinafter referred to as the
Sellers, on the one part, and ABC,
Inc. hereinafter referred to as Buyers,
on the other part, have concluded the
present Contract to the following
effect:
Российское
хозрасчетное
внешнеторговое
Объединение
«Алмазювелирэкспорт»
Москва,
именуемое
в
дальнейшем
Продавец, с одной стороны, и
корпорация ABC, именуемое в
дальнейшем Покупатель, с другой
стороны, заключили контракт о
нижеследующем.
I. Subject Matter of Contract
1. Предмет контракта
The Sellers have sold and the
Buyers have bought c.i.f. airport
Stuttgart,
Germany
as
per
Specifications
Nos.
120874-77
attached to the present Contract. The
above Specifications form an integral
part of the present Contract. The total
value of the goods under the present
Contract makes 105200 US dollars.
Partial shipments are not allowed.
Продавец
продал,
а
Покупатель купил на условиях
СИФ
аэропорт
Штутгарт,
Германия, согласно спецификациям
№ 120874-77, прилагаемым к
настоящему контракту. Указанные
спецификации
являются
неотъемлемой частью настоящего
контракта.
Общая
стоимость
товаров по контракту составляет
105200 американских долларов.
Частичная отгрузка товаров не
разрешается.
II. Price of Goods
II. Цена товара
The price of the goods is fixed in
US dollars.
Цена на товар установлена в
американских долларах.
III. Quality of Goods
III. Качество товара
The quality of the goods sold
under the present Contract shall
conform to the State Standards and
Technical Conditions existing on
Russia for these goods.
Качество товара, проданного
по настоящему контракту, должно
соответствовать государственным
стандартам
и
техническим
условиям, существующим в России
на
эти
товары.
Продавец
гарантирует
высокое
качество
используемых для изготовления
оборудования материалов.
The Sellers guarantee the high quality
of the materials used in the
manufacture of the equipment.
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IV. Packing and Marking
IV. Упаковка и маркировка
The goods will be packed in
wooden cases or millboard boxes and
marked as follows:
Товары упаковываются в
деревянные ящики или ящики из
толстого картона, на которых
маркируется следующее:
1) gross weight;
1) вес брутто; 2) наименование и
адрес Получателя; 3)наименование
и адрес Отправителя.
2) name and address of the Receiver;
3) Sender’s name and address.
V. Delivery and Acceptance of
Goods
V. Сдача и приемка товара
Товар считается сданным
Продавцу
и
принятым
Покупателем:
The goods will be considered as
delivered by the Sellers and accepted
by the Buyers:
1) по весу брутто и количеству
мест – согласно весу и количеству
мест, указанным в авиагрузовой
накладной;
1) as regards the gross weight
and the number of cases – in
accordance with the weight and the
number of cases stated in an airway
bill;
2) по весу нетто и качеству –
согласно спецификации Продавца.
датой поставки считается дата
авиагрузовой накладной. Товар
отправляется
по
адресу:
корпорация ABC, Бетховенштрассе
17, 2104 Штутгарт 10, Германия.
2) as regards the net weight and
the quality – in accordance with the
Sellers’ Specification. The date of an
airway bill is to be considered as the
date of delivery. The goods are to be
shipped to the address: ABC, Inc.,
Beethovenstrasse 17, 2104 Stuttgart
10, Germany.
VI. Insurance
VI. Страхование
Goods shall be insured by the
Sellers with the Ingosstrakh of Russia
on conditions «against all risks»
subject to paragraph 2. clause 1 of the
Transport Insurance Rules.
Товары
должны
быть
застрахованы
Продавцом
в
Ингосстрахе России на условиях «с
ответственностью за все риски» в
соответствии
с
Правилами
транспортного страхования грузов
Ингосстраха России § 2, пункт 1.
Insurance Policy to be issued in
the name of the Buyers for 10 % of
the c.i.f. value of the goods.
Страховой полис выдается на
имя Покупателя на 10 % от
стоимости СИФ товаров.
Insurance from war and strike
risks to be made at the Buyers’
request and for their account.
Страхование от военных и
забастовочных рисков производится по просьбе Покупателя и за его
счет.
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VII. Terms of Payment
VII. Платеж
Payment for the goods will be
made by the Buyers within 15 days
from the date of the present Contract
by way of remitting to the account of
B V/O «Almazjuvelirexport» with the
Russian Bank for Foreign Trade,
Moscow, the full value of the goods to
be shipped against the present
Contract.
Платеж
за
товар
будет
производиться
Покупателем
в
течение 15 дней с даты подписания
настоящего
контракта
путем
перевода на счет В/О «Алмазювелирэкспорт» в Банке для
Внешней Торговли России в
Москве полной стоимости товара,
который должен быть отгружен по
настоящему контракту.
Not later than 10 days after
receipt of payment the Sellers shall
effect shipment of the goods to the
Buyers. All expenses connected with
payment as well as bank commission
will be paid by the Buyers.
Не позднее 10 дней от даты
получения
платежа
Продавец
произведет
отгрузку
товара
Покупателю.
Все
расходы,
связанные
с
платежами,
и
банковская
комиссия
будут
оплачиваться Покупателем.
Should the Buyers fail to observe
the terms of payment stipulated in the
Contract, the Buyers shall have to pay
to the Sellers a fine in the amount of
0.1 per cent of the value of the goods
to be delivered under the present
Contract for each day of delay within
30 days.
В случае если Покупатель не
произведет денежного перевода в
установленный контрактом срок,
Покупатель
обязан
уплатить
Продавцу пеню в размере 0,1%
стоимости товара, подлежащего
поставкё по контракту, за каждый
день просрочки в течение 30 дней.
After the expiry of 30 days no
further fine will be charged, but the
Buyers in addition to the sum of the
fine charged will pay to the Sellers a
penalty amounting to 10 per cent of
the goods’ value to be delivered under
the Contract.
По
истечении
30
дней
начисление пени прекращается и
сверх
начисленной
пени
Покупатель
обязан
уплатить
Продавцу неустойку в размере 10%
от стоимости товара, подлежащего
поставке по настоящему контракту.
In this case the Sellers will be
relieved of their obligations to deliver
the goods under the present Contract
and the Buyers shall have no right to
submit to the Sellers any claim with
regard to non-fulfilment of the
Contract.
В этом случае Продавец
освобождается от обязанности
поставить товар по контракту без
права предъявления ему какихлибо претензий за невыполнение
контракта.
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VIII. Force Majeure
VIII. Форс-мажор
Should
any
circumstances
preventing the complete or partial
fulfilment by either party of the
obligations under this Contract, arise,
namely: fire, acts of elements, wars,
military operations of any character,
blockades, prohibition of import or
export, or any other contingencies
beyond the parties’ control the time
stipulated for the fulfilment of the
obligations shall be extended for
period equal to that during which such
circumstances will remain in force.
При
наступлении
обстоятельств
невозможности
полного
или
частичного
исполнения любой из сторон
обязательств
по
настоящему
контракту, а именно: пожара,
стихийных
бедствий,
войны,
военных
операций
любого
характера, блокады, запрещения
экспорта или импорта или других,
не
зависящих
от
сторон
обстоятельств, срок исполнения
обязательств
отодвигается
соразмерно времени, в течение
которого будут действовать такие
обстоятельства.
If the above circumstances
continue to be in force for more than 3
months, each party shall have the
right to refuse any further fulfilment
of the obligations under this Contract
and in such case neither of the parties
shall have the right to make a demand
upon the other party for compensation
for any possible losses.
Если эти обстоятельства будут
продолжаться более трех месяцев,
то каждая из сторон будет иметь
право отказаться от дальнейшего
исполнения
обязательств
по
контракту и в этом случае ни одна
из сторон не будет иметь права на
возмещение
другой
стороной
возможных убытков.
IX. Arbitration
IХ. Арбитраж
All disputes or differences which
may arise out of the present Contract
and/or in connection herewith are to
be referred for settlement without
recourse to the courts of law, to the
Foreign
Trade
Arbitration
Commission at the Russian Chamber
of Commerce and Industry in
Moscow in accordance with the Rules
of Procedure of the said Commission,
the awards of which are final and
binding upon both parties.
Все споры или разногласия,
могущие возникнуть из настоящего
контракта или в связи с ним,
подлежат,
с
исключением
подсудности
общим
судам,
разрешению
в
арбитражном
порядке
во
Внешнеторговой
арбитражной
комиссии
при
Торгово-промышленной
палате,
Москва,
в
соответствии
с
Правилами о производстве дел в
указанной комиссии. Решение
этого
арбитража
будет
окончательным и обязательным для
обеих сторон.
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X. Other Conditions
Х. Другие условия
All expenses, taxes, customs and
other dues connected with the
conclusion of the present Contract
levied on the territory of the Sellers’
country are borne by the Sellers, and
those levied on the territory of the
Buyers’ country and transit territory
are borne by the Buyers.
Все
расходы,
налоги,
таможенные пошлины и сборы,
связанные с заключением данного
контракта, на территории страны
Продавца
оплачиваются
Продавцом, а на территории страны
Покупателя
и
транзитной
территории – Покупателем.
Neither party of this Contract
shall have the right to assign to any
third party their rights and obligations
under this Contract without the
written consent of the other party.
Ни одна из сторон по настоящему
контракту
не
имеет
права
передавать права и обязательства
по данному контракту какой-либо
третьей стороне без письменного
согласия другой стороны.
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Practice Drills
Read and translate Contract No.2 using the above translation of the Contract No.1.
Contract No. 2
Moscow
April 11, 2010
Objedinenije «Russoimport», Moscow, hereinafter referred to as the «Seller» on
the one part, and Messrs. _________, hereinafter referred to as the «Buyer» on the
other part, have concluded the present contract whereby it is agreed as follows:
1. SUBJECT OF THE CONTRACT
The Seller has sold and the Buyer has bought CIF (FOB, FOR) the
goods
specified in the enclosed appendix, showing specifications, quantities, prices and
delivery times of the goods and constituting an integral part of the present contract.
2. PRICES
The prices are fixed in__________________ and understood CIF (FOB,
FOR)____________ export packing and marking included.
All expenses incurred on the territory of ______________ in connection with the
present contract (duties, taxes, customs, etc.) are to be paid by the Buyer.
3. QUALITY
The quality of the goods sold under the present contract shall be in full
conformity either with the State standards existing in Russia or with the technical
conditions ruling at the manufacturing works.
4. TIME OF DELIVERY
The goods sold under the contract shall be delivered within ________ months
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after the signing of the contract.
The date of the Bill of Lading (or: Railway Bill) shall be considered as the date of
delivery.
5. DELIVERY AND ACCEPTANCE OF GOODS
The goods are considered to be delivered by the Seller and accepted by the
Buyer:
a) in respect of quantity – according to the number of cases and the weight as
shown on the Bill of Lading (or on the Railway Bill);
b) in respect of quality – according to the Manufacturer’s certificate issued by the
manufacturing works or by the Seller.
6. TERMS OF PAYMENT
Payment for the goods to be delivered under the present contract is to be effected
in ____________________________ in accordance with the Trade Agreement
between the Governments of Russia and ________________________ dated the
__________________________ by an irrevocable confirmed Letter of Credit to be
opened by the Buyer with the Bank for Foreign Trade of Russia Moscow, in favour of
the Seller within 10 days of receipt of the Seller’s notification of the readiness of the
goods for shipment The Letter of Credit to be valid _______days
The payment of the credit is to be made against the following documents:
1) Invoice; 2) Bill of Lading (or Railway Bill).
All expenses connected with the opening of the Letter of Credit are to be borne
by the Buyer. Part shipments and transhipment are permitted. Insurance to be made to
the amount of 110 per cent of the value of the goods.
7. PACKING AND MARKING
The goods shall be secured and properly packed to withstand both overseas and
overland transport as well as transhipment.
Each package shall be provided with marking showing the place of destination,
name of Consignee, description of goods, contract number, case number, gross and net
weight.
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8. ARBITRATION
All disputes and differences which may arise out of the present contract and/or in
connection with it are to be referred for settlement to the Foreign Trade Arbitration
Commission at the Russian Chamber of Commerce in Moscow in accordance with the
Rules of Procedure of the said Commission the awards of which are final and binding
upon both parties. Application to State Courts is excluded.
9. OTHER CONDITIONS
Neither party is entitled to transfer their rights and obligations under the present
contract to third persons without a written consent thereto the other party.
Any alterations and additions to the present contract will be valid only if made in
writing and duly signed by both parties.
After the signing of the present contract all preceding negotiations and
correspondence pertaining to it become null and void.
10. LEGAL ADDRESSES OF THE PARTIES
Seller_____________________________________________________________
Buyer_____________________________________________________________
SELLER
BUYER
(Signature)
(Signature)
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Grammar revision. Complex Subject
Именительный падеж с инфинитивом
Complex Subject (сложное подлежащее, «именительный падеж с
инфинитивом») состоит из существительного в общем падеже или местоимения
в именительном падеже, глагола-сказуемого и инфинитива.
Все предложение обычно имеет следующую структуру:
Табл.8
Существительное,
местоимение (в
именительном падеже)
The delegation
Глагол-сказуемое
(обычно в
страдательном залоге)
is expected
She
а) в страдательном залоге:
is said
is supposed
The
is expected
delegation
is reported
is considered
is thought
б) в действительном залоге:
seems
appears
turns out
The
proves
delegation
is likely
is unlikely
is sure
is certain
is expected
to arrive (to be
arriving, to have
arrived)
to arrive(to be
arriving, to have
arrived)
Инфинитив
to come
to arrive soon
Говорят…
Предполагают…
Ожидают…
Сообщают…
Считают…
Думают…
По-видимому…
Оказывается…
Оказывается…
Оказывается…
Вероятно…
Маловероятно…
Безусловно…
Непременно…
Инфинитивный оборот «сложное подлежащее» переводится на русский
язык дополнительными придаточными предложениями.
Обратите внимание на то, что перевод предложения со сложным
подлежащим начинается со сказуемого известно…, считают…,полагают…и
т.д., за которым следует придаточное предложение с союзами что, чтобы,как…
The delegation is known to arrive on Monday. Известно, что делегация
прибывает в понедельник.
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The problem is likely to be discussed at the meeting. Вероятно, что этот
вопрос будет обсуждаться на собрании.
Предложения с инфинитивным оборотом «сложное подлежащее» можно
переводить простым предложением, в котором глаголу-сказуемому английского
предложения соответствует вводное предложение, которое начинается со слова
как, как известно, как считают и т.д.
He is known to live in Moscow. Он, как известно, живет в Москве
.
Ex.1.Underline Complex Subject in the following sentences and translate
the sentences into Russian.
1. He is expected to come soon.
2. The president of the company is away . He is said to be in France.
3. The oil prices are reported to have risen dramatically.
4. The problem is supposed to be discussed at the meeting.
5. He is considered to be a good accountant.
6. Mrs Hudson is said to be an experienced secretary.
7. He is unlikely to come soon.
8. He is likely to be promoted.
9. She is known to be good at making presentations.
10. He seems to be mistaken.
11. Mr Gordon is sure to be back to the office soon.
12. The advertising campaign of the new product is thought to be successful.
13. The hotel is said to be located in the center of the city.
14. The flight turns out to have been delayed.
15. Mr Smith seems to be unsatisfied with the results of our work.
16. Traveller’s checks are considered to be useful when you are travelling.
17. The dollar is supposed to have risen recently.
18. Mr Levitt is said to have called twice.
19. You are likely to have dialed the wrong number.
20. Mrs Sanders is said to have confirmed the reservation at the hotel.
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Chapter 8 / Job Application
Глава 8 / Устройство на работу
Resume / Краткая биография
Резюме (в английском языке сохраняется французское написание и
произношение этого слова) является частью процесса устройства на работу во
всех англоязычных и других странах.
Без резюме и сопроводительного письма (cover letter) вас не пригласят на
собеседование (interview) с работодателем (employer).
A résumé must contain a summary of essential facts about your background:
1. PERSONAL DETAILS
2. CAREER OBJECTIVE
3. EDUCATION
4. WORK EXPERIENCE
5. REFERENCES
Information, which indicates your suitability to the job, should be highlighted. If
you have had previous experience in various phases of employment, it may be to your
advantage to have two-three different résumés, each emphasising a different sphere of
competence.
It is standard practice to begin the résumé with personal data. Essentials such as
name, address, social insurance number, home phone number and business phone
number (recommended only if your present employer is aware of your job search).
Facts, such as your date of birth, marital status, and number of dependants, may also
be included.
Usually this information is placed at the top of the page. (Résumé, unlike CV,
Curriculum Vitae, is limited to one page only.) Be sure to include the full mailing
address with a postal code. You may also add a telephone number. If you are a student
with a different mailing address for winter and summer months, give your both
addresses and the dates when you will be at location.
An option, which may be included in your résumé, is a brief explanation of your
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career objective or goals. This is usually included following personal data. If you
have only one version of your résumé, it may be best to include this section in a
covering letter so that you can tailor it to the specific position for which you are
applying.
The structure of the next portion of your résumé will depend a great deal on
extent of your work history. If you are a recent graduate with limited business
experience, begin with your education first. Highlight achievements and honours, and
note extracurricular activities. Expand on any courses you took which are relevant to
the position you desire, or specialised training you may have participated in. Progress
to your part-time or summer employment, and indicate responsibility and
achievements.
If you possess a strong background in the work world, you should begin with
your work experience first. Information provided here will include job title, name of
employer, address, date of employment, and a brief summary of duties. Emphasise
responsibilities and highlight personal achievements, advancement and recognition.
Your list of positions should be in reverse chronological order, so begin with your
current employer.
Next, your résumé could include a brief section designed to give employers an
insight into your leisure and non-work activities. You might include:
• Clubs or professional associations
• Community volunteer work
• Sports and hobbies
Finally, you could list references. It has become acceptable practice to write
«References: Available upon request», since addresses titles, phone numbers are
subject to change. Choose references carefully and always get permission to use their
names as references.
Here is the example of a résumé:
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(Ms.) Julia Long
220 West Street
New Port, New York 11645
Phone (515) 227 8562
Job Target:
Senior Assistant to Personnel Manager.
Capabilities:
Write and edit professional reports; provide consultation to
employees on benefits; manage training courses.
Work history:
1997 – present
Junior assistant manager, James Associates, NYC: helped
preparing staff meetings; arranged files of the employees; prepared materials for the
training seminars.
1996-1997
Assistant-trainee, James Associates, NYC.
Education:
1993-1997
Boston University, honors B.Sc. (Business Administration).
Перевод образца резюме:
(Мисс) Джулия Лонг
220 Уэст Стрит
Нью-Порт, штат Нью-Иорк 11645
Тел.: (515)227-8562
Искомая должность:
Старший помощник менеджера по кадрам.
Профессиональные навыки:
Составление и редактирование
производственных докладов; консультирование сотрудников по вопросам
получения пособий; руководство курсами подготовки.
Послужной список:
1997 – по настоящее время
Младший помощник менеджера фирмы
«James Associates» в Нью-Йорке: помогала готовить собрания персонала;
составляла файлы личных дел сотрудников; готовила материалы для семинаров
по обучению сотрудников.
1996-1997
Associates» в Нью-Йорке
Помощник-практикант на фирме «James
Образование:
1993-1997
Бакалавр (управление бизнесом)
Бостонский университет, с отличием
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RÉSUMÉ FORMATS / ВИДЫ РЕЗЮМЕ
Chronological Format demonstrates continuous and upward career growth. It
does this by emphasizing employment history beginning with the most recent and
working back. The focus is on time, job continuity, growth and advancement, and
accomplishments.
Targeted Format is used when you are seeking a specific position. The focus is
on your skills, abilities, and qualifications that match the needs of your target.
Functional Format also emphasizes your skills, but does not correlate these
characteristics to any specific employer. The focus is on what you did, not when and
where you did it.
Combination Format offers a quick synopsis of your market value (the
functional style) followed by your employment chronology. This format is very well
received by hiring authorities.
Chronological Format / Хронологическое резюме
Charles Carey
Accounting manager
2223 August Square Road
Barrington, Il 60093
PROFILE:
– More than 8 years in accounting, including responsibility for department
procedures, budget, and computer operations.
– Plan and conduct audits and variance analyses, process payroll and payroll tax
reports and filings.
EMPLOYMENT:
10/2005 – present
Scarpendous Displays, Inc., Chicago, Illinois.
Senior Accounting Manager.
– reduced accounting payroll costs 41 % through automation
– successfully directed conversion from an IBM system to a Novell Network
1/2002 – 9/2005
Lancer Systems, Chicago, Illinois. Accounting Manager.
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– trained 6 employees in accounting department
– analyzed and interpreted forecasts
– successfully negotiated a credit line
5/2000 – 1/2002
Coopers & Lybrand, Chicago, Illinois. Senior Accountant.
– performed detailed financial audits and recommended improvements in system
procedures
6/98 – 5/2000
U.S. Riley Corporation, Chicago, Illinois. Cost Accountant.
– assisted in budget forecasting,
– developed cost data and variance analyses
EDUCATION:
Ridgetown college, Santa Fe, New Mexico
Bachelor of Science: Accounting (1998)
REFERENCES: Furnished Upon Request
Targeted Format / Целевое резюме
BARRY LISTER
Address before May 7, 1999
House G, Erindale Campus
University of Toronto
Mississauga, Ontario
L5C 1C6
(416) 826-3000
Address after May 7, 1999
24 Kilbarry Street
Ottawa, Ontario
KOB IKO
(613) 6322150
Job objective:
Junior of a survey crew, with the ultimate goal of becoming an
Ontario Land Surveyor.
Education:
2011 –
Will complete 2 year of a Bachelor of Science Degree at the
University of Toronto. Major: Survey Science. Grade average: B. Major courses:
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Introduction to Surveying Science, Land Planning, Survey Law
2008 –
Completed one year of Architectural Science at Ryerson
Polytechnical Institute (Grade Average: B)
Work experience:
Summer, 1998 –
Tree planter for Roots Ltd., British Columbia.
Summers, 1996-97 –
Groundsworker for Hillsview Golf Club Ltd.
Other activities:
Captain, Erindale hockey team
Treasurer, Survey Science Club
Personal information:
Birth Date: September 30, 1978
Functional Format / Функциональное резюме
SUSAN HERTZ
16 Osler Street
Vancouver, British Columbia V6R 2T1
Tel: (614) 741-0329
Job Objective:
Public relations trainee.
Profile:
and initiative.
An energetic and skilled communicator, with a record of leadership
Communication Skills:
B.A., Honors, in English, Queen’s University, 2001; B + average.
Entertainment editor for Queen’s Journal, 2001-02.
Debated regularly as a member of Queen’s Debating Society.
Gave public presentations as guide at Huronia Village, Summer 2003.
Described background of historic site to groups of visitors.
Leadership:
Elected to Student Council in my last year at Richmond High School.
Introduced new students to university life at Queen’s University.
Elected Vice-President of English Club at Queen’s, 2002.
Planned and chaired monthly seminars.
Initiative:
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Founded my own home-baked cookie business, Susan’s Cookies,
when still at school. Baked, sold and kept accounts, earning enough to
pay for my first year at Queen’s.
References:
1. Prof. Michael Hughes, Queen’s University, Department of English, King ston,
Ontario, K7L 3N6.
2. Mrs. Mable Williams, Administrator, Huronia Village, Penetanguishene, Ontario,
LOK 1P6
COVER LETTERS / СОПРОВОДИТЕЛЬНЫЕ ПИСЬМА
CL 1
31 Lonbard Drive
Edmonton, Alberta T6H 1C3
March 1, 2011
Mr. R. Jones
Personnel Director
Computer Systems Inc
Dear Mr. Jones:
Since Computer Systems is a fast growing company you are likely in need of young
and energetic people with a good knowledge of computers. In one month I will be
graduating from University of Alberta with a Computer Science degree and would like
to join your company as a programmer.
In addition to my university courses I have had work experience in programming and
operating computers. Last summer I implemented programs for the design of
loudspeakers at Nortek Industries.
At you convenience, I would like to meet you to discuss how my qualifications could
benefit Computer Systems. Next week I will call you to try to arrange an interview (to
set up an appointment).
Yours sincerely,
Helen Graham
Encl.
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CL 2
452 South Rockline Avenue
Seneca, New York 11290
tel. 315-421-1890
January 23, 2000
Ms. Sandra Breuer
Curator of Impressionist Art
Museum of Modern Art
11 West 53 Street
New York, NY 10020
Dear Ms. Breuer,
I recently read in «Art Forum» that the museum is planning a large Van Gogh exhibit
next winter, with the cooperation of Amsterdam’s two major museums.
I have recently graduated from Washington Square College at New York University.
While attending I was fortunate enough to spend one semester abroad I be came very
involved with Amsterdam mainly in the art I spent many afternoons at art museums
there and I now possess an extensive knowledge of their collections.
I feel that my knowledge of Van Gogh’s work, the city of Amsterdam and my general
background in arts could be of value to you in promoting this exhibit to young people.
I would like to meet with you to discuss some ideas on the subject and I will call you
in a week to ten days to set up a meeting.
Yours truly,
Ken Tyson
Encl.
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CL 3
Nelly Nickleby
225 Hartman Drive
Portsmouth, NH 03801
(603) 555-4606
January 22, 2001
Mr. Howard Speller, General Sales Manager
Speller Automobiles, Ltd.
315 Rolling Woods Highway
Dover, NH 03723
Dear Mr. Speller:
I am a recent college graduate with a B.A. Degree in Automotive Marketing &
Management. I have also been part of a family-owned distributorship for nearly all my
life, so cars are my life!
I noticed your advertisement for Automotive Sales and Marketing Assistant in
the June l4th edition of the Dover Star, and have submitted my résumé for your
consideration.
You mentioned in the advertisement that the successful must have:
1) A Bachelor of Arts degree
I do
2) Excellent communication skills
I do
3) Ability to work well with people at all levels
I do
4) Eagerness to learn and “pay my dues”
I am and I will
This is the job that I believe was made for me. I am available immediately and
can offer you competence, dedication, and a good work ethic. If you don’t mind, I will
call you next week to see if a personal interview can be scheduled.
Thank you for your time and consideration, and I look forward to speaking with
you next week.
Sincerely,
Nelly Nickleby
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INTERVIEW / СОБЕСЕДОВАНИЕ
An interview can be described as a planned discussion with a specific purpose.
How does a selection interview differ from a conversation, a chat about a job?
A business manager needs to gather information that provides evidence about
applicant’s ability to do the job, and to fit in with the work team.
But interviewing is a mutual exchange of information. It is an opportunity to give
an applicant as much information about the job as possible so that they can decide
whether or not they want to take it if it is offered.
A company wants people who accept job to be motivated to work for the
business. Treating them with respect is important too.
The interviewer’s questions set out to get the candidates talking about their
experiences and their lives in general. The answers can reveal whether they can do the
job, plus their motivation and adjustment and give some indication of how they cope
in a variety of situations – including those they are likely to be under pressure and
stress.
The questions that are most effective in this regard are «open ended» questions.
What..., why..., when..., how..., where..., and who... words help to keep questions
open. Phrases such as «How did you do the stock-taking?», «Tell me about...» or «Can
you explain...» should give a great deal of useful information.
The interviewees are to reveal their ability, experience, motivation and
adjustment, they, not the interviewer, must do most of the talking. The best ratio is
60:40.
COMMON INTERVIEW QUESTIONS
Here are some common questions you are likely to be asked in an employment
interview. Look through the sample answers to some of them and write your own
version of a good answer to each of the questions:
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1. Tell me about yourself.
Give a brief answer: no more than a minute. Tell something about yourself that relates
to the job.
2. Why do you want to work for us?
We suggest a sincere answer: «My personal goals and the company goals and values
are the same, and I want to be part of it».
3. What would you do for us?
Don’t presume to tell the interviewer exactly what you would do because you don’t
know their «problems». It’s better to know enough about the organisation to relate an
experience of yours which represents successful solving of a past employer’s problem.
4. What are your strong points?
It’s a good idea to relate your good points to the company when possible.
5. What is your biggest weakness? (A look-for-the-reaction type question.)
When you are asked for your biggest weakness, you’ve got to appear mortal! The idea
here would be to give a weakness, which from the interviewer’s point of view isn’t
much of a weakness. «Well I really don’t feel I have a weakness which affects my
working ability. I think at times I have a tendency to be impatient and push people too
hard to get a job done. Patience isn’t my strongest point».
6. Tell me one of your working experiences.
7. What did you like least about your previous job?
8. Why did you leave your last job?
9. How long will it take you to make a contribution to our firm?
10. How long would you stay with us?
11. What are your career goals?
12. How much do you expect to be earning five years from now?
13. Do you have any objections to a psychological evaluation?
14. Do you have any questions for me?
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QUESTIONS TO AN EMPLOYER
1. I understand this is a new position. Could you tell me a little more about what I’ll be
doing on the job?
2. In general what type of person are you looking for?
3. Where will I be working?
4. How many people will I be working with (co-workers, clients, customers, patients)?
5. Who is this company’s major competitor and how do you rate them?
6. When do I need to start work?
7. When do you plan to make your decision?
8. What is the hiring process here? Will there be a second interview?
9. Would it be possible to have a tour of the office? Could I meet the people I will be
working with?
10. Do you offer training so that employees can upgrade their skills?
11. How will my job performance be evaluated?
12. Do you have a career ladder (a step-by-step plan for advancement within the
organization)?
13. Do you promote from within?
14. What do you consider the ideal experience for this job?
15. What kind of characteristics do you most like to find in people in this position?
16. What is the biggest challenge facing this department right now?
17. How is the department organized?
Note: It is best not to ask about salary.
Dialogue
Personnel Manager Jack Litton is speaking to Karen Evans seeking the position of a
Branch Manager.
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INTERVIEWER:
Good morning, Miss ... , could I have you
name?
CANDIDATE:
Miss Evans.
INTERVIEWER
So, Miss Evans, I gather you’d like to join
our company.
CANDIDATE:
Yes, I would.
INTERVIEWER:
I’m happy to hear this. Your CV seems
pretty well. But, perhaps you could tell
me a little bit more about yourself.
CANDIDATE:
Oh yes, right. Well, I finished school at 18
and then worked for two years with
Johnson & Johnson, you might know
them, they’re an engineering firm. After
that I moved on to my present company,
that’s Gabriel Marketing. I’ve been with
them for three years now, first – working
with the Marketing Director and now I’m
with the Sales Director.
INTERVIEWER:
Now, could you explain why do you want
to leave your present employers?
CANDIDATE:
Well, at the moment most of my duties is
rather routine secretarial work and I
would like to move to a job that gives me
more opportunity. Doing a job of a
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Branch Manager I can use my initiative.
Also traveling will let me use my
language skills. I mean French and
German.
INTERVIEWER:
That’s all very interesting, Miss Evans.
I’d like to know, what is it specifically
about our company, I mean AngloEuropean Ltd., that attracted you?
CANDIDATE:
Well, I know the reputation of AngloEuropean and it is very good, it has
branches in many countries. And I feel
that I would have more scope and
opportunity in your company and that the
work will be more challenging for me. I
hope I might be able to travel and use my
languages.
INTERVIEWER:
Very good, that might be very useful.
Thank you very much for coming to see
me and we’ll be in touch with you before
the end of the week.
CANDIDATE:
Good. Well, thank you for seeing me.
INTERVIEWER:
Good-bye.
CANDIDATE:
Good-bye.
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Practice Drills
I. Read through the characteristics below and decide to which of the formats of CVs
(resumes) they belong:
1. Stresses selected skill areas which are marketable or in demand.
2. Interviewers are familiar with it.
3. Puts a steady, long-term employment into best perspective.
4. Positions not related to job goals can be played down.
5. Helps camouflage a spotty employment record.
6. Is the easiest to prepare, structured on work history.
II. Answer the questions about career histories using for, since and ago.
1. How long did he study economics (electronics, etc.)?
2. How long has he been working for ... ?
3. How long has he been running his own company?
4. How long ago did he leave university?
5. How long was he a consultant at ...?
6. How long did he work for the firm of recruitment consultants / trading food, etc?
III. How about you?
1. How long ago did you start your present job?
2. How long have you had your present job?
3. How long have you been working for .. company?
4. How long ago did you start learning English?
5. How long ago did you take your driving test?
6. How long have you been a PC user?
IV. Work in pairs.
Choose three most important questions and role-play the final stage of an interview.
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Grammar revision. Мodal verbs and their equivalents
Модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты
Модальные глаголы – выражают не действие, а способность,
возможность, должествование или необходимость его совершения. Инфинитив
смыслового глагола, следующий за модальными глаголами can, must, may,
should употребляется без частицы to, а с модальным глаголом to be to и
эквивалентами модальных глаголов to be able to, to be allowed to, to have to без
частицы to.
Модальные глаголы не имеют неличных форм - инфинитива, герундия,
причастия; не изменяются по лицам и числам, то есть имеют одну форму для
всех лиц единственного и множественного числа.
В вопросительной форме модальный глагол ставится в предложении перед
подлежащим:
Can you type? Ты можешь печатать?
В отрицательном предложении отрицательная частица ставится после
модального глагола:
You can not type. Ты не можешь печатать.
Модальный глагол can не имеет формы будущего, а глаголы must , might
прошедшего и будущего времени. Вместо них используются эквиваленты to be
able to, to have to, to be allowed to. Вспомним правила их использования,
посмотрев на таблицу.
Modal verbs and their equivalents
Модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты
Табл.9.
Модальные
глаголы
и
их
Значение
Present
Past
Выражает
Can
Could
Future
эквиваленты
Can
физическую или
To be able to
умственную
способность
могу, умею
мог,умел
am able to
was able to
shall be able to
is able to
were able to
will be able to
are able to
мог,умел
могу, умею
Must
Выражает
-
сможет,сумеет
Must
Might *
-
Have to
had to
shall have to
Has to
пришлось
will have to
необходимость
To have to
совершения
действия
должен
придется
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Выражает
May
May
-
разрешение,
просьбу
To be allowed to
Am allowed to
Was allowed to
shall be allowed to
Is allowed to
Were allowed to
will be allowed to
разрешили
разрешат
Are allowed to
можете,
можно,
разрешено
*Might как прошедшее время от may используется в придаточных предложениях,
например:
She asked him if she might borrow a pen and paper. Она спросила его, можно ли одолжить ей
ручку и бумагу.
Complete the sentences. Use can, can’t, could, couldn’t
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
I was at the meeting and I … phone you.
She spoke very quickly. I …understand her.
She got the job because she … speak five languages.
You are speaking very quietly. I … hear you.
I like this hotel. You … see mountains from the window.
Have you seen the contract? I … find it.
He … go to the meeting last week. He was ill.
Even when she was young she … type very fast.
Polite requests
Модальные глаголы can, could, may используются для выражения
просьбы. В основном с этой целью используется глагол can.
Сan I speak to Mr Cobb, please?
Могу я поговорить с м-ром Коббом?
Использование could делает Вашу просьбу более вежливой.
Could you help me with my bag?
Вы не могли бы помочь мне с сумкой?
Более формальным и менее распространенным является использование
глагола may .
May I help you, sir?
Я могу Вам помочь?
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Rewrite the sentences using can, could, may (permission, request)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
I’d like to talk to you for a minute, Mr Black (polite)
Could I talk to you for a minute, Mr Black?
I would like to use your phone (polite)
I would like to stop work early today ( formal)
I would like to speak to Jane if she’s there (polite)
I would like you to help me for a few minutes (polite)
I would like to pay you tomorrow (polite)
Take my laptop if you want to.
I’d be glad if you translate this for me ( friendly)
I’d be glad if you translate this for me (polite)
Tell me when it is time to go ( friendly)
I’d be grateful if you would tell me when it’s time to go (polite)
Start preparing the papers now.
I don’t mind calling you back later if you like me to.
I’d be glad if you would lend me 100$.
I would like to ask you a question (polite)
I would like some tea.
I would like you to pass me the salt (polite)
Would you like me to take your coat?
Would you like a cup of coffee?
I would to have your number in case I need more information (polite)
I want you to repeat your question(polite)
Someone is calling to the hotel to make reservations. Who asks all these questions
- a receptionist or a caller?
Could I reserve a room for next week?
May I have your name?
Can you confirm your reservation in writing?
Can I fax you tomorrow?
Could you tell me your fax number?
Есть ощутимая разница в употреблении can’t и don’t have to . Если
can/can’t обозначает возможность/невозможность, неспособность к чемулибо, то have to / don’t have to то показывает, что ты обязан/ не обязан
что-либо делать. Сравните:
I can’t speak French.
Я не могу говорить по-французски.
You don’t have to attend the meeting.
Тебе не обязательно присутствовать на встречу.
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What are the advantages of working part-time? Make sentences using can and
don’t have and the ideas below.
•
Spend time with your family – You can spend more time with your family
•
Monday to Friday – You don’t have to work Monday to Friday.
•
Continue your studies
•
Have more time to relax
•
Always work 8 hours a day
•
Have two different jobs
•
Develop a hobby
•
Choose one employer for life
•
Work with the same people all the time
What are the advantages and disadvantages of the following jobs – pilot, waiter,
engineer, teacher, accountant, translator? Talk about hours, dress, customers,
language etc.
I can
I’m allowed to
I have to
I can’t
I’m not allowed to
I don’t have to
e.g. Pilot – He can travel a lot and visit interesting places.
He has to be away from his family
Imagine someone is talking about the advantages and disadvantages of his job.
Rewrite the sentences
1.
It is necessary for me to be at the bank for 4 hours on Monday.
I have to …
2.
It is possible for me to stop work early on Fridays.
I can…
3.
It isn’t necessary for me to be there in the afternoon.
I don’t have
…
4.
It isn’t necessary for me to go to the meetings.
I am allowed not to …
5.
It isn’t necessary for me to work on Sundays
I don’t have
…
6.
It is necessary for me to make many phone calls.
I have to …
Использование глагола must помогает показать, что говорящий сам
выражает необходимость для себя совершить какое-либо действие .
Использование have to, had to означает, что человек вынужден
совершить что-либо. Сравните:
I had to go to the meeting. My boss asked me to.
Я вынужден был пойти на встречу. Мой босс меня попросил.
I must go. I don’t want to be late for the meeting.
Я должен идти. Не хочу опоздать на встречу.
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Put in must or had to
1. I … go to the bank yesterday.
2. Come on! We … hurry. We haven’t got much time.
3. I was nearly late for my appointment this morning. I …to get a taxi to get there
in time.
4. He didn’t know how to use the machine. I … show him.
5. We … go to the bank today.
6. I … go. I haven’t got much time.
7. I have a problem. You … help me.
8. I …phone John today.
Обратите внимание, что если don’t have to, needn’t выражает
необязательность, факультативность какого-то действия, то mustn’t
служит для выражения жесткого запрета. Сравните:
You don’t have to go if you don’t want to.
Можешь не идти, если не хочешь.
You needn’t ask Mrs Steal l to translate the contract. I can do it myself.
Вы можете не просить Миссис Стил перевести контракт. Я могу это
сделать сам.
You mustn’t walk on the grass.
По газонам не ходить!
Put in mustn’t or needn’t
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
You … go to the bank. I can give you some money.
I must hurry. I … be late.
I … forget to phone George.
We have a lot of time. We … hurry.
You … buy a newspaper. You can have mine.
The papers are very important. You … lose them.
You … book a room in the hotel. I have already done it.
This is personal information. You … tell anybody.
Если мы хотим дать совет другу или коллеге, для этого обычно
используется модальный глагол should, should’t
You should talk to him.
Тебе надо поговорить с ним.
You shouldn’t be so carefree.
Тебе не следует быть таким неосторожным.
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Your friend is temporary unemployed. He wants you to give him advice. Make
your recommendations.
I think you should… I think you shouldn’t …
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Attend more job interviews
Use a recruitment agency
Spend more time with your friends
Stay in contact with former colleagues
Learn a new skill like English or using a PC
Spend more time with your family
Meet other unemployed people
Spend forty hours a week looking for a job
Your friend runs his own small business. These are his problems. Could you give
him your recommendations ( I think you should…)?
•
•
•
•
The staff wants a salary rise of 100%.
Your company car is 10 years old!
Your best customer wants a 5% discount.
You work 7 days a week.
Модальные глаголы can, may, might могут использоваться для выражения
вероятности.
Если can выражает вероятность примерно 50%, то глаголы may, might
служат для выражения меньшей вероятности.
This can be true.
Это может быть правдой.
Mr Smith may not come tomorrow. He is probably ill.
М-р Смит, возможно, не придет завтра. Он, возможно, болен.
Глагол must выражает практически полную (до 95%) уверенность.
She must have arrived. Let’s phone her.
Она, должно быть, уже пришла.
Мы можем выразить вероятность того, что произошло в прошлом, при
помощи следующих конструкций may have, might have, can have, must have:
I may have left my folder here this morning- have you seen it?
Возможно, я утром оставил здесь папку – ты ее не видел?
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Write the sentences with may or might
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
(perhaps I will go to the bank in the afternoon). - I may go to the bank in
the afternoon
(perhaps I will see Tom tomorrow)
(perhaps Kay will be late)
(perhaps they will not come)
(perhaps I will go to Paris)
Надеемся, что приведенная ниже таблица поможет Вам систематизировать
свои знания о модальных глаголах и выполнить следующий ниже тест
Табл.10
Have to/must
Обязанность (ты обязан чтолибо сделать)/
необходимость ( ты сам
чувствуешь необходимость)
Mustn’t
Не разрешено, не должен
(что-либо запрещено)
Don’t have to, needn’t
Не обязан (ты можешь это
сделать, но это не
обязательно)
Возможность
can
Способность
Просьба
Предложение
Вероятность
may
may, might
Просьба
вероятность
Should (shouldn’t)
Совет, рекомендация
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I have to work 5 days a week
Я должен работать 5 дней в
неделю
I must leave at 5 o’clock to
catch my train
Я должен уйти в 5, чтобы
успеть на поезд
You mustn’t smoke here – it’s
nonsmoking office. – Ты не
должен курить здесь – это
офис для некурящих
I don’t have to work on
Sundays Я не обязан
работать по выходным
I can meet you next week
Мы можем встретиться на
следующей неделе
I can’t type
Я не умею печатать
Can I leave early?
Можно мне уйти пораньше?
Can you help me, please?
Я могу Вам помочь?
He can be right
Возможно, он прав
May I smoke in here?
Здесь можно курить?
He might be right
Возможно, он прав
I think we should accept your
proposal
Я думаю, мы должны
принять Ваше предложение
ажд
Which do you think is better ?
1. You know I … take holidays
a) must
b) should
2. Visitors are reminded that they … keep their bags with them
a) must
b) should
3. I’m sorry, but I … go.
a) must
b) should
4. I suppose you … try to find a new job.
a) must
b) should
5.You .. drive more carefully.
a) must
b) should
6.I really … go on a diet. I’ll start today
a) must
b) should
7.I’m tired. I … go home early
a) must
b) have to
8. I think we … pay in advance
a) must
b) have to
9.Do you really … wear a tie for work?
a) must
b) have to
10 A soldier … obey the orders.
a) must
b) has to
11.You … switch off your mobile phone on the plane.
a) must
b) should
12. That … be her daughter – they are nearly the same age.
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a) can’t
b) mustn’t
13. I think you …try and relax more.
a) should
b) must
14. You absolutely … go and see Liz.
a) should
b) must
15. When I was young I … use a computer.
a) couldn’t
b) mustn’t
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SUPPLEMENTARY READING
Text 1
A MIXED ECONOMY: THE ROLE OF THE MARKET
The American free enterprise system emphasizes private ownership. Private
businesses produce most goods and services, and almost two-thirds of the nation's total
economic output goes to individuals for personal use (the remaining one-third is
bought by government and business). The consumer role is so great, in fact, that the
nation is sometimes characterized as having a "consumer economy."
This emphasis on private ownership arises, in part, from American beliefs about
personal freedom. From the time the nation was created, Americans have feared
excessive government power, and they have sought to limit government's authority
over individuals -- including its role in the economic realm. In addition, Americans
generally believe that an economy characterized by private ownership is likely to
operate more efficiently than one with substantial government ownership.
Why? When economic forces are unfettered, Americans believe, supply and
demand determine the prices of goods and services. Prices, in turn, tell businesses
what to produce; if people want more of a particular good than the economy is
producing, the price of the good rises. That catches the attention of new or other
companies that, sensing an opportunity to earn profits, start producing more of that
good. On the other hand, if people want less of the good, prices fall and less
competitive producers either go out of business or start producing different goods.
Such a system is called a market economy. A socialist economy, in contrast, is
characterized by more government ownership and central planning. Most Americans
are convinced that socialist economies are inherently less efficient because
government, which relies on tax revenues, is far less likely than private businesses to
heed price signals or to feel the discipline imposed by market forces.
There are limits to free enterprise, however. Americans have always believed that
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some services are better performed by public rather than private enterprise. For
instance, in the United States, government is primarily responsible for the
administration of justice, education (although there are many private schools and
training centers), the road system, social statistical reporting, and national defense. In
addition, government often is asked to intervene in the economy to correct situations
in which the price system does not work. It regulates "natural monopolies," for
example, and it uses antitrust laws to control or break up other business combinations
that become so powerful that they can surmount market forces. Government also
addresses issues beyond the reach of market forces. It provides welfare and
unemployment benefits to people who cannot support themselves, either because they
encounter problems in their personal lives or lose their jobs as a result of economic
upheaval; it pays much of the cost of medical care for the aged and those who live in
poverty; it regulates private industry to limit air and water pollution; it provides lowcost loans to people who suffer losses as a result of natural disasters; and it has played
the leading role in the exploration of space, which is too expensive for any private
enterprise to handle.
In this mixed economy, individuals can help guide the economy not only through
the choices they make as consumers but through the votes they cast for officials who
shape economic policy. In recent years, consumers have voiced concerns about
product safety, environmental threats posed by certain industrial practices, and
potential health risks citizens may face; government has responded by creating
agencies to protect consumer interests and promote the general public welfare.
The U.S. economy has changed in other ways as well. The population and the
labor force have shifted dramatically away from farms to cities, from fields to
factories, and, above all, to service industries. In today's economy, the providers of
personal and public services far outnumber producers of agricultural and
manufactured goods.
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Text 2
REGULATION AND CONTROL IN THE US ECONOMY
The U.S. federal government regulates private enterprise in numerous ways.
Regulation falls into two general categories. Economic regulation seeks, either directly
or indirectly, to control prices. Traditionally, the government has sought to prevent
monopolies such as electric utilities from raising prices beyond the level that would
ensure them reasonable profits.
At times, the government has extended economic control to other kinds of
industries as well. In the years following the Great Depression, it devised a complex
system to stabilize prices for agricultural goods, which tend to fluctuate wildly in
response to rapidly changing
supply
and demand. A number of other industries --
trucking and, later, airlines -- successfully sought regulation themselves to limit what
they considered harmful price-cutting.
Another form of economic regulation, antitrust law, seeks to strengthen market
forces so that direct regulation is unnecessary. The government -- and, sometimes,
private parties -- have used antitrust law to prohibit practices or mergers that would
unduly limit competition.
Government also exercises control over private companies to achieve social
goals, such as protecting the public's health and safety or maintaining a clean and
healthy environment. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration bans harmful drugs, for
example; the Occupational Safety and Health Administration protects workers from
hazards they may encounter in their jobs; and the Environmental Protection Agency
seeks to control water and air pollution.
American attitudes about regulation changed substantially during the final three
decades of the 20th century. Beginning in the 1970s, policy-makers grew increasingly
concerned that economic regulation protected inefficient companies at the expense of
consumers in industries such as airlines and trucking. At the same time, technological
changes spawned new competitors in some industries, such as telecommunications,
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that once were considered natural monopolies. Both developments led to a succession
of laws easing regulation.
While leaders of both political parties generally favored economic deregulation
during the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s, there was less agreement concerning regulations
designed to achieve social goals. Social regulation had assumed growing importance
in the years following the Depression and World War II, and again in the 1960s and
1970s.
But during the presidency of Ronald Reagan in the 1980s, the government
relaxed rules to protect workers, consumers, and the environment, arguing that
regulation interfered with free enterprise, increased the costs of doing business, and
thus contributed to inflation. Still, many Americans continued to voice concerns about
specific events or trends, prompting the government to issue new regulations in some
areas, including environmental protection.
Some citizens, meanwhile, have turned to the courts when they feel their elected
officials are not addressing certain issues quickly or strongly enough. For instance, in
the 1990s, individuals, and eventually government itself, sued tobacco companies over
the health risks of cigarette smoking. A large financial settlement provided states with
long-term payments to cover medical costs to treat smoking-related illnesses.
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Text 3
DIRECT SERVICES AND DIRECT ASSISTANCE IN THE US ECONOMY
Direct Services. Each level of government provides many direct services. The
federal government, for example, is responsible for national defense, backs research
that often leads to the development of new products, conducts space exploration, and
runs numerous programs designed to help workers develop workplace skills and find
jobs. Government spending has a significant effect on local and regional economies -and even on the overall pace of economic activity.
State governments, meanwhile, are responsible for the construction and
maintenance of most highways. State, county, or city governments play the leading
role in financing and operating public schools. Local governments are primarily
responsible for police and fire protection. Government spending in each of these areas
can also affect local and regional economies, although federal decisions generally
have the greatest economic impact.
Overall, federal, state, and local spending accounted for almost 18 percent of
gross domestic product in 1997.
Direct Assistance. Government also provides many kinds of help to businesses
and individuals. It offers low-interest loans and technical assistance to small
businesses, and it provides loans to help students attend college. Governmentsponsored enterprises buy home mortgages from lenders and turn them into securities
that can be bought and sold by investors, thereby encouraging home lending.
Government also actively promotes exports and seeks to prevent foreign countries
from maintaining trade barriers that restrict imports.
Government supports individuals who cannot adequately care for themselves.
Social Security, which is financed by a tax on employers and employees, accounts for
the largest portion of Americans' retirement income. The Medicare program pays for
many of the medical costs of the elderly. The Medicaid program finances medical care
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for low-income families. In many states, government maintains institutions for the
mentally ill or people with severe disabilities. The federal government provides Food
Stamps to help poor families obtain food, and the federal and state governments
jointly provide welfare grants to support low-income parents with children.
Many of these programs, including Social Security, trace their roots to the "New
Deal" programs of Franklin D. Roosevelt, who served as the U.S. president from 1933
to 1945. Key to Roosevelt's reforms was a belief that
poverty
usually resulted from
social and economic causes rather than from failed personal morals. This view
repudiated a common notion whose roots lay in New England Puritanism that success
was a sign of God's favor and failure a sign of God's displeasure. This was an
important transformation in American social and economic thought. Even today,
however, echoes of the older notions are still heard in debates around certain issues,
especially welfare.
Many other assistance programs for individuals and families, including Medicare
and Medicaid, were begun in the 1960s during President Lyndon Johnson's (19631969) "War on Poverty." Although some of these programs encountered financial
difficulties in the 1990s and various reforms were proposed, they continued to have
strong support from both of the United States' major political parties.
Critics argued, however, that providing welfare to unemployed but healthy
individuals actually created dependency rather than solving problems. Welfare reform
legislation enacted in 1996 under President Bill Clinton (1993-2001) requires people
to work as a condition of receiving benefits and imposes limits on how long
individuals may receive payments.
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Text 4
POVERTY AND INEQUALITY IN THE USA
Americans are proud of their economic system, believing it provides
opportunities for all citizens to have good lives. Their faith is clouded, however, by the
fact that poverty persists in many parts of the country. Government anti-poverty
efforts have made some progress but have not eradicated the problem. Similarly,
periods of strong economic growth, which bring more jobs and higher wages, have
helped reduce poverty but have not eliminated it entirely.
The federal government defines a minimum amount of income necessary for
basic maintenance of a family of four. This amount may fluctuate depending on the
cost of living and the location of the family. In 1998, a family of four with an annual
income below $16,530 was classified as living in poverty.
The percentage of people living below the poverty level dropped from 22.4
percent in 1959 to 11.4 percent in 1978. But since then, it has fluctuated in a fairly
narrow range. In 1998, it stood at 12.7 percent.
What is more, the overall figures mask much more severe pockets of poverty. In
1998, more than one-quarter of all African-Americans (26.1 percent) lived in poverty;
though distressingly high, that figure did represent an improvement from 1979, when
31 percent of blacks were officially classified as poor, and it was the lowest poverty
rate for this group since 1959.
Families headed by single mothers are particularly susceptible to poverty. Partly
as a result of this phenomenon, almost one in five children (18.9 percent) was poor in
1997. The poverty rate was 36.7 percent among African-American children and 34.4
percent among Hispanic children.
Some analysts have suggested that the official poverty figures overstate the real
extent of poverty because they measure only cash income and exclude certain
government assistance programs such as Food Stamps, health care, and public
housing. Others point out, however, that these programs rarely cover all of a family's
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food or health care needs and that there is a shortage of public housing.
Some argue that even families whose incomes are above the official poverty level
sometimes go hungry, skimping on food to pay for such things as housing, medical
care, and clothing. Still others point out that people at the poverty level sometimes
receive cash income from casual work and in the "underground" sector of the
economy, which is never recorded in official statistics.
In any event, it is clear that the American economic system does not apportion its
rewards equally. In 1997, the wealthiest one-fifth of American families accounted for
47.2 percent of the nation's income, according to the Economic Policy Institute, a
Washington-based research organization. In contrast, the poorest one-fifth earned just
4.2 percent of the nation's income, and the poorest 40 percent accounted for only 14
percent of income.
Despite the generally prosperous American economy as a whole, concerns about
inequality continued during the 1980s and 1990s. Increasing global competition
threatened workers in many traditional manufacturing industries, and their wages
stagnated. At the same time, the federal government edged away from tax policies that
sought to favor lower-income families at the expense of wealthier ones, and it also cut
spending on a number of domestic social programs intended to help the disadvantaged.
Meanwhile, wealthier families reaped most of the gains from the booming stock
market.
In the late 1990s, there were some signs these patterns were reversing, as wage
gains accelerated -- especially among poorer workers. But at the end of the decade, it
was still too early to determine whether this trend would continue.
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Text 5
THE GROWTH OF GOVERNMENT IN THE USA
The U.S. government grew substantially beginning with President Franklin
Roosevelt's administration. In an attempt to end the unemployment and misery of the
Great Depression, Roosevelt's New Deal created many new federal programs and
expanded many existing ones. The rise of the United States as the world's major
military power during and after World War II also fueled government growth.
The growth of urban and suburban areas in the postwar period made expanded
public services more feasible. Greater educational expectations led to significant
government investment in schools and colleges. An enormous national push for
scientific and technological advances spawned new agencies and substantial public
investment in fields ranging from space exploration to health care in the 1960s. And
the growing dependence of many Americans on medical and retirement programs that
had not existed at the dawn of the 20th century swelled federal spending further.
While many Americans think that the federal government in Washington has
ballooned out of hand, employment figures indicate that this has not been the case.
There has been significant growth in government employment, but most of this has
been at the state and local levels. From 1960 to 1990, the number of state and local
government employees increased from 6.4 million to 15.2 million, while the number
of civilian federal employees rose only slightly, from 2.4 million to 3 million.
Cutbacks at the federal level saw the federal labor force drop to 2.7 million by
1998, but employment by state and local governments more than offset that decline,
reaching almost 16 million in 1998. (The number of Americans in the military
declined from almost 3.6 million in 1968, when the United States was embroiled in the
war in Vietnam, to 1.4 million in 1998.)
The rising costs of taxes to pay for expanded government services, as well as the
general American distaste for "big government" and increasingly powerful public
employee unions, led many policy-makers in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s to question
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whether government is the most efficient provider of needed services. A new word -"privatization" -- was coined and quickly gained acceptance worldwide to describe the
practice of turning certain government functions over to the private sector.
In the United States, privatization has occurred primarily at the municipal and
regional levels. Major U.S. cities such as New York, Los Angeles, Philadelphia,
Dallas, and Phoenix began to employ private companies or nonprofit organizations to
perform a wide variety of activities previously performed by the municipalities
themselves, ranging from streetlight repair to solid-waste disposal and from data
processing to management of prisons.
Some federal agencies, meanwhile, sought to operate more like private
enterprises; the United States Postal Service, for instance, largely supports itself from
its own revenues rather than relying on general tax dollars.
Privatization of public services remains controversial, however. While advocates
insist that it reduces costs and increases productivity, others argue the opposite, noting
that private contractors need to make a profit and asserting that they are not
necessarily being more productive. Public sector unions, not surprisingly, adamantly
oppose most privatization proposals. They contend that private contractors in some
cases have submitted very low bids in order to win contracts, but later raised prices
substantially. Advocates counter that privatization can be effective if it introduces
competition. Sometimes the spur of threatened privatization may even encourage local
government workers to become more efficient.
As debates over regulation, government spending, and welfare reform all
demonstrate, the proper role of government in the nation's economy remains a hot
topic for debate more than 200 years after the United States became an independent
nation.
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Text 6
BASIC INGREDIENTS OF THE US ECONOMY
The first ingredient of a nation's economic system is its natural resources. The
United States is rich in mineral resources and fertile farm soil, and it is blessed with a
moderate climate. It also has extensive coastlines on both the Atlantic and Pacific
Oceans, as well as on the Gulf of Mexico. Rivers flow from far within the continent,
and the Great Lakes -- five large, inland lakes along the U.S. border with Canada -provide additional shipping access. These extensive waterways have helped shape the
country's economic growth over the years and helped bind America's 50 individual
states together in a single economic unit.
The second ingredient is labor, which converts natural resources into goods. The
number of available workers and, more importantly, their productivity help determine
the health of an economy. Throughout its history, the United States has experienced
steady growth in the labor force, and that, in turn, has helped fuel almost constant
economic expansion.
Although the United States has experienced some periods of high unemployment
and other times when labor was in short supply, immigrants tended to come when jobs
were plentiful. Often willing to work for somewhat lower wages than acculturated
workers, they generally prospered, earning far more than they would have in their
native lands..
The quality of available labor - how hard people are willing to work and how
skilled they are - is at least as important to a country's economic success as the number
of workers. In the early days of the United States, frontier life required hard work, and
what is known as the Protestant work ethic reinforced that trait. A strong emphasis on
education, including technical and vocational training, also contributed to America's
economic success, as did a willingness to experiment and to change.
Labor mobility has likewise been important to the capacity of the American
economy to adapt to changing conditions. When immigrants flooded labor markets on
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the East Coast, many workers moved inland, often to farmland waiting to be tilled.
Similarly, economic opportunities in industrial, northern cities attracted black
Americans from southern farms in the first half of the 20th century.
Labor-force quality continues to be an important issue. Today, Americans
consider "human capital" a key to success in numerous modern, high-technology
industries. As a result, government leaders and business officials increasingly stress
the importance of education and training to develop workers with the kind of nimble
minds and adaptable skills needed in new industries such as computers and
telecommunications.
But natural resources and labor account for only part of an economic system.
These resources must be organized and directed as efficiently as possible. In the
American economy, managers, responding to signals from markets, perform this
function. The traditional managerial structure in America is based on a top-down chain
of command; authority flows from the chief executive in the boardroom, who makes
sure that the entire business runs smoothly and efficiently, through various lower
levels of management responsible for coordinating different parts of the enterprise,
down to the foreman on the shop floor. Numerous tasks are divided among different
divisions and workers. In early 20th-century America, this specialization, or division
of labor, was said to reflect "scientific management" based on systematic analysis.
Many enterprises continue to operate with this traditional structure, but others
have taken changing views on management. Facing heightened global competition,
American businesses are seeking more flexible organization structures, especially in
high-technology industries that employ skilled workers and must develop, modify, and
even customize products rapidly.
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Text 7
TAX PLANNING
We all like it when our professional career is going great and we are earning
more money. However, with more money, we have to pay more
income tax
and this is a
thing which many people are quite tensed about. Tax planning is not at all difficult if
you are aware of all the rules and regulations of the tax authorities. There are many tax
experts who can help you with estate tax planning and paying other taxes. Tax
planning basically involves two things: firstly paying the right amount of tax at the
right time and secondly, seeking tax deductions wherever possible and reduce your tax
liabilities. In the next paragraph, we shall see, how effective
tax
planning can help in
reducing your taxable income.
Reducing Taxable Income with Tax Planning
In tax planning, to reduce your tax liabilities, what you can do is reduce your
adjusted gross income. At this point of time, things will become more clear if you
understand the definition of adjusted gross income properly. Adjusted gross income is
nothing but your total income from all the sources after deducting the adjustments to
the income, if applicable.
So, what you need to do is simply increase your adjustments as much as you can.
For this, you should be aware of what kind of adjustments are available these days.
Payment of alimony, payment of loan interest, in case of, student loans and traditional
IRA contribution. Taxes can also be reduced if you can save for your personal
retirement with the help of the popular 401(k) plans.
In tax planning, another way of reducing your taxable income is to raise your tax
deductions as much as possible. There are certain expenses which can be included in
the tax deduction and help you lower your annual income. These are mainly the
interest payment you make on home mortgage, personal investments made in funds,
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gifts in the form of money given by you to a charitable foundation, money spent for
availing health care facilities from hospitals, payment of taxes on estates and
properties, and your state tax payment. Till date, it has been found that interest on
mortgage is the best way of reducing your total income substantially.
Finally, making use of the available tax credits is also one of best tax planning
measures which you can adopt. So, the tax credits related to expenses on college
education, child adoption or savings made for retirement planning can help in reducing
our taxable income. In the next section, let us discuss how to complete your tax
formalities successfully.
Method for Tax Payments
Tax planning needs to be done by individuals as well as corporate business
houses. There are authorized auditors who can assist you in filing your taxes. The
procedure is simple and requires you to visit your certified accountant with your
income details at the end of the financial year. After discussing with you different
aspects related to tax planning, he will start the computation of the tax to be paid by
you.
At this time, you can get the benefit of tax deductions as per the rules laid down
by the tax department. Once the accounting and auditing job is complete, you need to
file the tax yourself in the concerned office before the last date given to you. As a
consistent tax payer, you can get the benefit of securing easy loans by producing your
tax payment proofs before the bank authorities.
By following the above mentioned tips on tax planning, you will be able to save a
lot of money and complete your formalities properly. So, use this knowledge
practically and work smartly. Good luck!
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Text 8
IMPORTANCE OF FINANCE
Finance is a very wide term and it can be said to be the study of the science of
managing funds. Usually finance includes the areas of public finance, personal finance
and business finance. It includes things related to lending, spending and saving money.
An important aspect of finance is that individuals and corporations deposit money in a
financial institution, especially banks, who in turn lend out money and charge an
interest for their services. Here we take a look at the importance of finance and its
management, whether it's for an individual or a corporation.
Importance of Corporate Finance
Corporate finance deals with financial decisions which an organization makes,
whether it's investments, analysis of credit, selling of assets or products or acquiring
assets. Maximizing corporate value and at the same time manage risks associated with
investing in a particular product or project is the main aim of corporate finance.
Moreover, corporate finance also studies the short-term and long-term implications of
a decision and looks in to matters related with dividends to shareholders debt or
equity. Matters related to taxes which a corporation has to pay are also taken into
consideration when dealing with corporate finance.
Importance of Finance in Business
Finance for a business can't be undervalued and can be said that it's the lifeline of
a business and is required for its well being. It can be said to be a lubricant which
keeps the business running. Whether you have a small, medium or large business, you
will always need finance, right from the beginning to promoting and establishing your
product, acquiring assets, employ people, encouraging them to work for the
development of your product and create a brand name. In addition to that, a current
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business may need finance for expansion or making changes to its products as per the
market requirements.
Importance of Personal Finance
Personal finance budgeting is an important part of your long term plans to gain
financial stability, especially after retirement. You need to have a clear idea of what
you want in future such as the amount of money you want after retirement, the
location of a place to live in, etc. You need to have a plan and goal of translating these
ideas into reality. You also need to consider the things you have purchased in the past
and the kind of things which you will purchase later on. This is an important step as
this reflects that your will come up with a retirement planning for the future. You must
be capable of identifying the good as well as bad choices you make.
While thinking of a long term plan, budgeting savings becomes an important part
of personal finance. Savings would help you to make investments in the future so that
you have a secure life. But then, having said that, you also need to take care to keep
your expenses to the minimum, which is one of the most important personal finance
tips which you should use.
Some of the most common expenses which you can reduce are electricity and
water bills. Use these as sparingly as possible, especially when you leave a room,
make sure that you switch of the lights. You may also like to know about personal
finance planning for the layman, so that you know financial planning.
So these were the importance of finance management, whether for an individual
or corporation. Finance is such a thing which it can't be substituted by anything, so
make sure you use your finances in the proper order, so that you can secure your
future.
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Text 9
ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLES
What is accounting? This was the first question in my first accounting book, from
my first ever accounting class. The official definition in the book provided by the
American Accounting Association said, the process of identifying, measuring, and
communicating economic information to permit informed judgments and decisions by
users of the information. The main elements and activities of accounting means,
firstly, any process of data which identifies, classifies and summarizes the financial
events that occur within any organization. And secondly, a reporting system which
transmits applicable financial data for concerned people that allow them to evaluate
performance, make essential decisions and check the economic resources in the
organization.
Basic Accounting Principles
The 4 basic accounting principles mentioned below make up the GAAP in the
U.S. Almost all businesses record and report their financial earnings and/or losses for
the accounting period under the accounting rules. Issued by the Financial Accounting
Standards Board, these rules usually are in alignment with other government entities.
Although, accountants are not asked to follow these rules specifically, these rules
have to be followed as closely as possible. They help businesses set criteria which
need to be met to assure correct accounting activity, comprehensibility and
equivalence of the data. We will break the basic accounting concepts and principles in
order to understand them properly.
The Cost Principle
Businesses need to register and report all their assets depending on the actual cost
received to the businesses, while gaining those assets rather than the free-market rate
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of the assets themselves. Cost principle is a reliable method to record and report data.
Also, it decreases the chance for elements like predetermined market values to step in
with the accounting. Although cost principle is looked as irrelevant, since it refers to
the actual value of assets.
The Accrual Principle
Businesses need to register and report revenue when it's earned or made and
realized or recognized, and definitely not once the cash for the revenue is received.
The accrual principle basically shows the work finished by the company/business and
not the work that needs to be done for the future.
The Matching Principle
Businesses get to analyze current expenses and revenues. The matching principle
shows the market, how well companies/businesses are doing financially and effective
they really are. Similar to accrual principle, the expenses in matching principle can
only get recorded and reported when revenue is actually earned.
The Disclosure Principle
Businesses have to disclose their records, so that judgment over their financial
status can be made accordingly. But revealing the accounting and financial data of the
companies/businesses should not make them decrease unjustified expenses or make
incorrect notions.
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Text 10
ACCOUNTANT JOB DESCRIPTION
Every company has financial transactions that needs to be maintained everyday.
Especially, a big organization have to maintain its daily profits and expenditures so
that it becomes easier to calculate the overall profit and loss. That is why an
accountant is always a must for every company.
Accountant Duties
General and primary accountant responsibilities include, preparing general entries,
maintaining balance sheets, ledgers and petty cash accounts on everyday basis. Given
below are some of the additional accountant duties that are included in account job
descriptions of many companies.
•
Maintaining daily accounts.
•
Preparing profit and loss statements annually or whenever required.
•
Maintaining the document of daily transactions on the computer as well as in
hard copy format.
•
Preparing financial accounting reports and sending them to concerned
authorities.
•
Paying attention to taxation issues and preparing taxation reports.
•
Dealing with accounting and financial irregularities.
•
Analyzing financial information and preparing financial transaction reports.
•
Finishing the given tasks within financial deadlines.
•
Establishing sound accounting procedures.
•
Coordinating implementation of financial rules and regulations.
•
Reviewing the budgets of the company allotted to different tasks.
•
Explaining staff members, clients, business partners, investors, and associated
about the billing invoices and financial and accounting policies of the company.
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•
Assigning tasks to junior accountants and supervising all the data
documentation and complete accounting procedures.
These were some of the accountant duties. Part from this, some accountant job
descriptions also include, preparing audit reports or helping the CA with audit reports,
developing budgets, financial program planning, an salary recommendations etc.
Qualification Required for Accountancy
The accountant job descriptions of some companies may ask for accounting degree or
diploma or commerce background. But some companies give priority to experienced
personnel. But if you have both then your chances of getting hired by a good company
are maximum. There are different types of accounting careers such as, public
accounting, management accounting, government accounting, and auditor accounting
etc. Each of the type requires different set of skills. So you must have the relevant
qualifications. Apart from this, accounting is also industry specific, such as banking,
investment, marketing, etc. so you must have the industry specific qualification, skills,
and experience. But some of the common accounting job skills included in all the
accountant job descriptions are given below
•
An eye for details
•
Accuracy and perfection
•
Planning and prioritizing, and organizing skills
•
Knowledge of economics and accounting process
•
Networking and communication skills
•
Knowledge of relevant financial policies, laws, rules and regulations
•
Knowledge of relevant accounting software
•
Problem solving skills
•
Ability to handle pressures
•
Neat and tidy work practices.
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Text 11
TYPES OF ACCOUNTING CAREERS
Any educated individual with an analytical understanding of finances can aspire to
be an accountant. Interpersonal skills, ability to communicate and market
awareness play a key role in understanding the complex and changing financial
environment. Following are the different types of accounting careers:
Financial Accounting
The work of the financial accountant is to make analytical observations that would
influence the investment and credit decisions.
Public Accounting
This type of accounting is the most varied type and includes bookkeeping, account
management and financial analysis for individuals, private businesses, public firms,
government or NGOs, which are based either nationally or internationally. A
public accounting business can have one or more accountants and both certified
and non-certified accountants can provide public accounting services to their
clients. A public accountant can also be involved in external auditing or forensic
accounting. Public accounting involves analyzing historical financial data to check
for any discrepancies such as money laundering, embezzlement, frauds and any
other illegal financial transaction and draw it to the attention of the law
enforcement authorities.
Government Accounting
This form of public accounting is specific to government agencies and ensures all
revenues and expenditure are in accordance to law. The conventional accounting
methods of double entry system in ledgers and journals are used here. Government
accounting is differentiated from other types of accounting in respect of providing
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service that is not profit based but service based. Government accountants are
employed by the federal government.
National Income Accounting
This type of accounting is predominantly for the government and is responsible for
providing the general public the data with reference to the gross national product
about all market-related information, such as the value of the country's goods and
services provided and its purchasing power.
Management Accounting
Accountants who specialize in this type of accounting are also known as private,
industrial or corporate accountants. Management accountants provide their services
to business houses for recording and studying the company's financial data. Their
portfolio in the private firms includes cost and asset management, budgeting and
performance evaluation.
Fiduciary Accounting
Accounting performed for a trust is called as fiduciary accounting and is done by
the administrator, executor or the trustee, who also controls all property subjected
to the trust.
Tax Accounting
An accountant who helps either an individual or a firm in filing a income tax return
or planning taxes is known as a tax consultant. The tax accountant must be aware
of the rules and regulations pertaining to tax policies.
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Text 12
BOOKKEEPING: METHODS AND JOB DESCRIPTION
Bookkeeping is a task that relates to creating and maintaining a detailed record of
all transactions which finances include. This procedure is to be carried out by all
companies, whether a small firm or a large organization. The transactions recorded
in bookkeeping usually comprise sales, purchases, due payments, earnings, etc.
Some people might think bookkeeping to be the same as accounting. However,
both are slightly different in the method of operation. Bookkeeping is a primary
task and pertains to taking direct information and details from the transactions
conducted. On the other hand, accounting is concerned with referring to
bookkeeping records and then preparing reports accordingly. Read on to
understand more about the basic concepts of bookkeeping.
Methods of Bookkeeping
Typically, there are two fundamental methods used in the process of bookkeeping:
single-entry bookkeeping system and double-entry bookkeeping system.
Single-entry Bookkeeping System
Single-entry bookkeeping system is a method of bookkeeping wherein simple and
uncomplicated transactions are maintained in the books. This method is largely
used by companies on a small scale. Financial records associated with cash,
accounts receivable, accounts payable, and taxes are generally created in a singleentry bookkeeping system. Other details such as inventory, assets and property,
aggregate revenue, and expenditure are not recorded in financial books.
Double-entry Bookkeeping System
In a double-entry bookkeeping system, after every transaction, changes are made in
a minimum of two accounts. In this system, both debit and credit accounts are
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maintained; which helps the company to find out any errors in calculations. If the
debit amount does not match the credit amount, a transaction has been missed. This
necessarily does not mean there cannot be errors in the books even if the debit and
credit amount matches. Standard books in a double-entry bookkeeping system
include
daybooks,
journals,
ledgers,
and
petty
cash
book.
About Bookkeeping Jobs
The bookkeeper job description includes most of the single and double-entry tasks.
A bookkeeper has to collect all the information and use it for preparing statistical
reports for financial management of the company. This professional can even be
asked to oversee the functioning of accounting and payroll practices. For those
thinking how to become a bookkeeper, you need to have a educational background
in math, banking, and finance. You can either opt for a diploma or an associate's
degree in any field related to bookkeeping. After obtaining relevant education
qualification, you can look forward to work as a bookkeeper. To become a certified
bookkeeper, you will need to show a work experience of two years in the field.
Remember that the salary range for a job as a bookkeeper depends a lot on the
certification. Other bookkeeping skills required are logical thinking, good
communication,
and
a
liking
to
work
with
figures
and
numbers.
Note that bookkeeper duties may vary from company to company and the practices
adopted. Bookkeeping is definitely very significant for a business to realize its
income over expenditure.
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Text 13
HOW TO BECOME A BOOKKEEPER
There are many professions that are not very well-known, yet are attracting a good
demand in the job market. A career opportunity as a bookkeeper is one such job.
There is a common misconception among people about careers as certified
bookkeepers. It is generally believed that bookkeeping is a recently developed
profession. However, this profession has been around for approximately 500 years,
and was first practiced by a person named Luca Pacioli. Every company, be it big
or small, is required to implement bookkeeping as a standard practice. As a result,
the demand for certified bookkeepers is soaring significantly. In the following
article, you will get to know about the bookkeeper job description and how to
become a bookkeeper.
In the bookkeeper job description, a majority of the responsibilities include
assessing the financial details of an organization and suggesting proper financial
management for the future. A standard task is to gather company data for the
purpose of developing statistical reports involving sales, profits and losses,
expenditures, and other financial aspects. A full time bookkeeper can be asked to
manage the accounting department and oversee the employee payroll process.
Typically, the roles and responsibilities of a bookkeeper are not much different
from those of accountants. Let us now get to know how to become a bookkeeper.
How to Become a Bookkeeper?
Since the bookkeeper duties consist of handling financial matters of an
organization, you need to be good at handling and keeping a record of money. If
you are wondering how to become a bookkeeper; you need to be good in subjects
like economics and math in high school. In secondary school, you should prefer to
do
majors
in
subjects
such
as
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accounting,
banking,
finance,
etc.
ажд
The knowledge gained from these subjects will serve as a base for becoming a
bookkeeper in the future. It is also a good idea to become proficient in handling
applications and software which are related to financial data management. There
are many ways in which you can gain basic knowledge in the bookkeeping field.
You can enroll for a vocational course in financial management and accounting, or
go
in
for
a
full
time
course
in
bookkeeping
at
the
university.
You can also do a diploma or an associates degree in subjects such as business
management, accounting, banking and finance, or similar ones. It is always better
to do a reputed course that would make you eligible for job as a bookkeeper. After
you have the right educational qualifications in your hand, you need to search for a
job as a bookkeeper. Remember that for being certified, you need to have at least
few
years
of
work
experience
as
a
bookkeeper.
In order to be eligible to sit for the certified bookkeeper exam, you need two years
of experience. The certification is administered by the National Institute of
Certified Bookkeepers, one of which is the American Institute of Professional
Bookkeepers. With passing the exam, you will be required to sign a code of
conduct for being certified. If you are thinking about how to become a freelance
bookkeeper, it is better that you back your career with education and the necessary
certifications. By taking some advanced bookkeeping courses, you can certainly
add
some
credit
to
your
educational
qualifications.
Keep in mind that being certified is not at all a mandatory requirement, but is
beneficial for obtaining a higher salary range for job as a bookkeeper. If you are
working as a freelance bookkeeper, the bookkeeper salary range would largely
depend on the clients you deal with. I hope by now you might have understood the
standard procedure regarding how to become a bookkeeper.
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Text 14
INTERNATIONAL TRADE
International economics is concerned with the effects upon economic activity of
international differences in productive resources and consumer preferences and the
institutions that affect them. It seeks to explain the patterns and consequences of
transactions and interactions between the inhabitants of different countries, including
trade, investment and migration.
Scope and methodology of international trade The economic theory of international trade differs from the remainder of economic
theory mainly because of the comparatively limited international mobility of the
capital and labour. In that respect, it would appear to differ in degree rather than in
principle from the trade between remote regions in one country. Thus the methodology
of international trade economics differs little from that of the remainder of economics.
However, the direction of academic research on the subject has been influenced by the
fact that governments have often sought to impose restrictions upon international
trade, and the motive for the development of trade theory has often been a wish to
determine the consequences of such restrictions.
The branch of trade theory which is conventionally categorized as "classical" consists
mainly of the application of deductive logic, originating with Ricardo’s Theory of
Comparative Advantage and developing into a range of theorems that depend on their
practical value upon the realism of their postulates. "Modern" trade theory, on the
other hand, depends mainly upon empirical analysis.
Classical theory The law of comparative advantage provides a logical explanation of international
trade as the rational consequence of the comparative advantages that arise from inter154
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regional differences - regardless of how those differences arise. Since its exposition by
John Stuart Mill the techniques of neo-classical economics have been applied to it to
model the patterns of trade that would result from various postulated sources of
comparative advantage. However, extremely restrictive (and often unrealistic)
assumptions have had to be adopted in order to make the problem amenable to
theoretical analysis.
The best-known of the resulting models, the Heckscher-Ohlin theorem (H-O) depends
upon the assumptions of no international differences of technology, productivity, or
consumer preferences; no obstacles to pure competition or free trade and no scale
economies. On those assumptions, it derives a model of the trade patterns that would
arise solely from international differences in the relative abundance of labour and
capital (referred to as factor endowments). The resulting theorem states that, on those
assumptions, a country with a relative abundance of capital would export capitalintensive products and import labour-intensive products. The theorem proved to be of
very limited predictive value, as was demonstrated by what came to be known as the
"Leontief Paradox" (the discovery that, despite its capital-rich factor endowment,
America was exporting labour-intensive products and importing capital-intensive
products). Nevertheless the theoretical techniques (and many of the assumptions) used
in deriving the H-O model were subsequently used to derive further theorems.
The Stolper-Samuelson theorem, which is often described as a corollary of the H-O
theorem, was an early example. In its most general form it states that if the price of a
good rises (falls) then the price of the factor used intensively in that industry will also
rise (fall) while the price of the other factor will fall (rise). In the international trade
context for which it was devised it means that trade lowers the real wage of the scarce
factor of production, and protection from trade raises it.
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Text 15
THE EFFECTS OF TRADE: GAINS AND TERMS
There is a strong presumption that any exchange that is freely undertaken will benefit
both parties, but that does not exclude the possibility that it may be harmful to others.
However (on assumptions that included constant returns and competitive conditions)
Paul Samuelson has proved that it will always be possible for the gainers from
international trade to compensate the losers. Moreover, in that proof, Samuelson did
not take account of the gains to others resulting from wider consumer choice, from the
international specialisation of productive activities - and consequent economies of
scale, and from the transmission of the benefits of technological innovation. An
OECD study has suggested that there are further dynamic gains resulting from better
resource allocation, deepening specialisation, increasing returns to R&D, and
technology spillover. The authors found the evidence concerning growth rates to be
mixed, but that there is strong evidence that a 1 per cent increase in openness to trade
increases the level of GDP per capita by between 0.9 per cent and 2.0 per cent. They
suggested that much of the gain arises from the growth of the most productive firms at
the expense of the less productive. Those findings and others have contributed to a
broad consensus among economists that trade confers very substantial net benefits,
and that government restrictions upon trade are generally damaging.
Factor price equalisation
Nevertheless there have been widespread misgivings about the effects of international
trade upon wage earners in developed countries. Samuelson‘s factor price equalisation
theorem indicates that, if productivity were the same in both countries, the effect of
trade would be to bring about equality in wage rates. As noted above, that theorem is
sometimes taken to mean that trade between an industrialised country and a
developing country would lower the wages of the unskilled in the industrialised
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country. However, it is unreasonable to assume that productivity would be the same in
a low-wage developing country as in a high-wage developed country.
It has been argued that, although there may sometimes be short-term pressures on
wage rates in the developed countries, competition between employers in developing
countries can be expected eventually to bring wages into line with their employees'
marginal products. Any remaining international wage differences would then be the
result of productivity differences, so that there would be no difference between unit
labour costs in developing and developed countries, and no downward pressure on
wages in the developed countries.
Terms of trade
There has also been concern that international trade could operate against the interests
of developing countries. Influential studies published in 1950 by the Argentine
economist Raul Prebisch and the British economist Hans Singer suggested that there is
a tendency for the prices of agricultural products to fall relative to the prices of
manufactured goods; turning the terms of trade against the developing countries and
producing an unintended transfer of wealth from them to the developed countries.
Their findings have been confirmed by a number of subsequent studies, although it has
been suggested that the effect may be due to quality bias in the index numbers used or
to the possession of market power by manufacturers. The Prebisch/Singer findings
remain controversial, but they were used at the time - and have been used
subsequently - to suggest that the developing countries should erect barriers against
manufactured imports in order to nurture their own “infant industries” and so reduce
their need to export agricultural products. The arguments for and against such a policy
are similar to those concerning the protection of infant industries in general.
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Text 16
THE EFFECTS OF TRADE: INFANT INDUSTRIES AND TRADE POLICIES
The term "infant industry" is used to denote a new industry which has prospects of
becoming profitable in the long-term, but which would be unable to survive in the face
of competition from imported goods. That is a situation that can occur because time is
needed either to achieve potential economies of scale, or to acquire potential learning
curve economies. Successful identification of such a situation followed by the
temporary imposition of a barrier against imports can, in principle, produce substantial
benefits to the country that applies it – a policy known as “import substitution
industrialization”. Whether such policies succeed depends upon governments’ skills in
picking winners, and there might reasonably be expected to be both successes and
failures. It has been claimed that South Korea’s automobile industry owes its existence
to initial protection against imports, but a study of infant industry protection in Turkey
reveals the absence of any association between productivity gains and degree of
protection, such as might be expected of a successful import substitution policy.
Another study provides descriptive evidence suggesting that attempts at import
substitution industrialisation since the 1970s have usually failed, but the empirical
evidence on the question has been contradictory and inconclusive. It has been argued
that the case against import substitution industrialisation is not that it is bound to fail,
but that subsidies and tax incentives do the job better. It has also been pointed out that,
in any case, trade restrictions could not be expected to correct the domestic market
imperfections that often hamper the development of infant industries.
Trade policies Economists’ findings about the benefits of trade have often been rejected by
government policy-makers, who have frequently sought to protect domestic industries
against foreign competition by erecting barriers, such as tariffs and quotas, against
imports. Average tariff levels of around 15 per cent in the late 19th century rose to
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about 30 percent in the 1930s, following the passage in the United States of the
Smoot-Hawley Act. Mainly as the result of international agreements under the
auspices of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and subsequently the
World Trade Organisation (WTO), average tariff levels were progressively reduced to
about 7 per cent during the second half of the 20th century, and some other trade
restrictions were also removed. The restrictions that remain are nevertheless of major
economic importance.
The largest of the remaining trade-distorting policies are those concerning agriculture.
In the OECD countries government payments account for 30 per cent of farmers’
receipts and tariffs of over 100 per cent are common. OECD economists estimate that
cutting all agricultural tariffs and subsidies by 50% would set off a chain reaction in
realignments of production and consumption patterns that would add an extra $26
billion to annual world income.
Quotas prompt foreign suppliers to raise their prices toward the domestic level of the
importing country. That relieves some of the competitive pressure on domestic
suppliers, and both they and the foreign suppliers gain at the expense of a loss to
consumers, and to the domestic economy, in addition to which there is a deadweight
loss to the world economy. When quotas were banned under the rules of the General
Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), the United States, Britain and the European
Union made use of equivalent arrangements known as voluntary restraint agreements
(VRAs) or voluntary export restraints (VERs) which were negotiated with the
governments of exporting countries (mainly Japan) - until they too were banned.
Tariffs have been considered to be less harmful than quotas, although it can be shown
that their welfare effects differ only when there are significant upward or downward
trends in imports. Governments also impose a wide range of non-tariff barriers that are
similar in effect to quotas, some of which are subject to WTO agreements.
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Text 17
EXCHANGE RATES AND CAPITAL MOBILITY
A major change in the organisation of international finance occurred in the latter years
of the twentieth century, and economists are still debating its implications. At the end
of the second world war the national signatories to the Bretton Woods Agreement had
agreed to maintain their currencies each at a fixed exchange rate with the United
States dollar, and the United States government had undertaken to buy gold on
demand at a fixed rate of $35 per ounce. In support of those commitments, most
signatory nations had maintained strict control over their nationals’ use of foreign
exchange and upon their dealings in international financial assets.
But in 1971 the United States government announced that it was suspending the
convertibility of the dollar, and there followed a progressive transition to the current
regime of floating exchange rates in which most governments no longer attempt to
control their exchange rates or to impose controls upon access to foreign currencies or
upon access to international financial markets. The behaviour of the international
financial system was transformed. Exchange rates became very volatile and there was
an extended series of damaging financial crises. One study estimated that by the end of
the twentieth century there had been 112 banking crises in 93 countries, another that
there had been 26 banking crises, 86 currency crises and 27 mixed banking and
currency crises - many times more than in the previous post-war years.
The outcome was not what had been expected. In making an influential case for
flexible exchange rates in the 1950s, Milton Friedman had claimed that if there were
any resulting instability, it would mainly be the consequence of macroeconomic
instability, but an empirical analysis in 1999 found no apparent connection.
Economists began to wonder whether the expected advantages of freeing financial
markets from government intervention were in fact being realised.
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Neoclassical theory had led them to expect capital to flow from the capital-rich
developed economies to the capital-poor developing countries - because the returns to
capital there would be higher. Flows of financial capital would tend to increase the
level of investment in the developing countries by reducing their costs of capital, and
the direct investment of physical capital would tend to promote specialisation and the
transfer of skills and technology. However, theoretical considerations alone cannot
determine the balance between those benefits and the costs of volatility, and the
question has had to be tackled by empirical analysis.
A 2006 International Monetary Fund working paper offers a summary of the empirical
evidence. The authors found little evidence either of the benefits of the liberalisation
of capital movements, or of claims that it is responsible for the spate of financial
crises. They suggest that net benefits can be achieved by countries that are able to
meet threshold conditions of financial competence but that for others, the benefits are
likely to be delayed, and vulnerability to interruptions of capital flows is likely to be
increased.
Although the majority of developed countries now have "floating" exchange rates,
some of them – together with many developing countries – maintain exchange rates
that are nominally "fixed", usually with the US dollar or the euro. The adoption of a
fixed rate requires intervention in the foreign exchange market by the country’s central
bank, and is usually accompanied by a degree of control over its citizens’ access to
international markets.
A controversial case in point is the policy of the Chinese government who had, until
2005, maintained the renminbi at a fixed rate to the dollar, but have since "pegged" it
to a basket of currencies. It is frequently alleged that in doing so they are deliberately
holding its value lower than if it were allowed to float (but there is evidence to the
contrary).
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Text 18
WHAT IS FOREIGN EXCHANGE INTERVENTION?
Definition and the Legal Status of Intervention
Foreign exchange intervention is defined generally as foreign exchange transactions
conducted by the monetary authorities with the aim of influencing exchange rates. It is
the process by which the monetary authorities attempt to influence market conditions
and/or the value of the home currency on the foreign exchange market. Intervention
usually aims to promote stability by countering disorderly markets, or in response to
special circumstances.
In Japan, the Minister of Finance is legally authorized to conduct intervention as a
means to achieve foreign exchange rate stability. In the United States, the Government
and Federal Reserve Board (FRB); in Euro Area, the European Central Bank (ECB);
in the United Kingdom, the Bank of England (BOE) operates it.
General Ideas of Foreign Exchange Market
Foreign Exchange Market
To invest in other countries or to buy foreign products, firms and individuals may first
need to acquire the currency of the country with which they intend to deal with. In
addition, exporters may demand to be paid for their goods and services either in their
own currency or in U.S. dollars, which are accepted worldwide. The Foreign
Exchange Market, or "Forex" market, in which international currencies trades take
place, is called foreign exchange market.
Exchange Rate
Each country has a currency in which the prices of goods and services are quoted - the
dollar in the United States, the euro in Germany, the pound sterling in Britain, the yen
in Japan, etc. Exchange rates play a central role in international trade because they
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allow us to compare the prices of goods and services produced in different countries.
A foreign exchange rate is the relative value between two currencies. In particular, it is
the quantity of one currency required to buy or sell one unit of the other currency. The
exchange rate can be quoted in 2 ways: as the price of the foreign currency in terms of
home currency (direct terms) or as the price of home currency in terms of foreign
currency (indirect terms).
Three Exchange Rate Regimes
In theory, there are three exchange rate regimes, namely flexible, intermediate and
fixed. Under a flexible currency regime, the external value of a currency is determined
more or less by the force of market supply and demand. Because floating exchange
rate permitting enough flexibility to adjust fundamental disequilibria under
international supervision, it can prevent competitive depreciation. On the other hand,
under a fixed exchange rate arrangement, the monetary authority pegs the domestic
currency to one or a basket of foreign currencies. Exchange rates between currencies
that are set at predetermined levels and do not move in response to changes in supply
and demand. The authority has to intervene in the foreign exchange market whenever
the prevailing rate deviates from the specific one. Intermmediate exchange rate
arrangement has a medium flexibility lying between flexible and fixed.
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Text 19
TYPES OF FOREIGN EXCHANGE INTERVENTION
Entrustment Intervention
Entrustment Intervention" means intervention that is conducted in overseas markets
with funds of local monetary authorities. It is different from the intervention that is
conducted in overseas markets with funds of respective foreign monetary authorities.
Reverse-Entrustment Intervention
Similarly, when foreign monetary authorities need to intervene in a country's foreign
exchange market, say Tokyo market, the central bank of Japan can conduct
interventions on their behalf upon request. This is called "Reverse-Entrustment
Intervention".
Concerted or Coordinated Intervention
There are cases where two or more monetary authorities implement intervention
jointly by using their own funds at the same time or in succession. This is called
"Concerted or Coordinated Intervention."
Sterilization and Non-sterilization
Studies of foreign exchange intervention generally distinguish between intervention
that does or does not change the monetary base. The former type is called nonsterilized intervention while the latter is referred to as sterilized intervention. Central
banks sometimes carry out equal foreign and domestic assets transaction in opposite
directions to nullify the impact of their foreign exchange operations on the domestic
money supply. When a monetary authority buys (sells) foreign exchange, its own
monetary base increases (decreases) by the amount of the purchase (sale). In order to
prevent the money stock from increasing (decreasing), the monetary authorities can
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sterilize the effect of the exchange market intervention by selling (buying) short-term
domestic assets to (from) the banking system leaving the monetary base of the country
unchanged. Since sterilized intervention does not affect the money supply, it does not
affect prices or interest rate and so does not influence the exchange rate. Rather,
sterilized intervention might affect the foreign exchange market through two routes:
the portfolio-balance channel and the signaling channel.
According to the portfolio-balance channel, it is assumed that risk-averse wealth
holders diversify their portfolio across assets denominated in different currencies. Let's
use the United States and Japan as an example. The portfolio balance channel theory
holds that sterilized purchases of yen raise the dollar price of yen because investors
must be compensated with a higher expected return to hold the relatively more
numerous U.S. bonds. To produce a higher expected return, the yen price of the U.S.
bonds must fall immediately. That is, the dollar price of yen must rise.
In contrast, the signaling channel assumes that intervention affects exchange rates by
providing the market with new relevant information, under an implicit assumption that
the authorities have superior information to other market participants. The authorities
are willing to reveal this information through their actions in the foreign exchange
market. Because private agents may change their exchange rate expectation after
intervention, the exchange rate then will be expected to change immediately after the
effect occurs.
Indirect Intervention
Recall that while official intervention is generally defined as foreign exchange
transactions of monetary authorities designed to influence exchange rates, it can also
refer to other (indirect) policies for that purpose. There are innumerable methods of
indirectly influencing the exchange. These methods involve capital controls (taxes or
restrictions on international transactions in assets like stocks or bonds) or exchange
controls (the restriction of trade in currencies).
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Text 20
EFFECTIVENESS OF CENTRAL BANK INTERVENTION
Most of the interventions were aiming at stabilizing the disorderly exchange rate
market; unfortunately, many studies revealed that intervention could not smooth the
exchange rate movement.
Intervention may Decrease Volatility
Central bank intervention may reduce exchange rate volatility if it resolves uncertainty
by market participants about future monetary policy. For example, if the market is
uncertain about the stance of monetary policy, then intervention to halt a drop in the
dollar may signal that the Federal Reserve is committed to a tight monetary policy.
The resolution of uncertainty about future monetary policy may then lead to less
exchange rate volatility.
Central bank intervention may also reduce exchange rate volatility by reducing the
likelihood of a speculative bandwagon. Suppose the dollar exchange rate falls from
120$ to 115$. As speculators see the dollar falling, they may jump on the bandwagon
thinking the dollar may fall further to 110$. Under this scenario, speculators who sell
$1
million
at
115$
could
make
a
profit
if
the
dollar
falls
to
110$ and they reacquired dollars at the lower value. However, if the central bank
intervenes at 115$ and pushes the dollar back to 120$, then speculators could suffer a
loss. Speculators may therefore become reluctant to push the dollar down too rapidly
if they believe the central bank will intervene to prevent the dollar from falling. By
reducing selling pressure when the dollar starts to fall, central bank intervention could
reduce speculative bandwagons and thereby reduce volatility.
Intervention may Increase Volatility
Central bank intervention could actually increase exchange rate volatility if
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intervention increases private sector uncertainty about central bank policies. Suppose
the central bank surprises traders by intervening to increase the value of the dollar but
announces neither the intervention's magnitude nor its motivation. In making their
trades, foreign exchange traders have to guess the meaning of the intervention and
attempt to infer the implications of the action for future policy. Because their trades
are based on incomplete information, traders will need to revise their currency
positions once more information about intervention policy becomes available. These
changes in currency positions imply changes in the exchange rate and hence greater
exchange rate volatility. Market uncertainty about the likelihood of future central bank
intervention could also lead to greater exchange rate volatility. Because central banks
do not announce their plans for intervention, foreign exchange traders must base their
currency positions on their best guesses of whether and when central banks will
intervene. These currency positions and hence exchange rates will change over time as
traders reassess the likelihood of central bank intervention. Uncertainty over central
bank intervention policy can contribute to exchange rate volatility. Central bank
intervention can also increase exchange rate volatility by increasing the likelihood of
speculative bandwagons. For instance, intervention might increase volatility if market
participants think the central bank is unable or unwilling to prevent speculative forces
from pushing the exchange rate in a particular direction. Suppose the dollar exchange
rate falls from 120$ to 115$ and that speculators expect the dollar to fall further to
110$. As before, a speculator selling the dollar at 115$ might expect to realize a profit
if the dollar falls to 110$. The expected profit opportunity encourages other
speculators to jump on the bandwagon, thereby actually pushing down the dollar.
Since the traders are uncertain about the intervention policy. The uncertainty about
intervention policy may encourage speculation and cause price changes and exchange
rate volatility to be higher than in the absence of such intervention.
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Библиографический список
Oсновная литература
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3. Flower G. Build Your Business Vocabulary / G. Flower. – England : Language
Teaching Publications, 2006. – 96p.
4. Grussendorf, M. English for Presentations: Express series/ M. Grussendorf
Oxford: OUP, 2008. – 80p.
5. Longman Dictionary of English and Culture, – England : Person Education
Limited, 2000. – 1568 p.
6. Murphy R. English Grammar in Use for intermediate students/ R. Murphy. –
Cambridge:CUP, 2009. – 328p.
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Электронные ресурсы
http://www.forestnet.com
http://www.oup.com/elt/students/?view=student&cc=ru
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy
Видеоматериалы в сети Интернет :
http://www.real-english.com/
http://infoenglish.info/publ/bideouroki
168
ажд
Учебное издание
The Basics of Business Intercultural Communication
(Основы деловой межкультурной коммуникации)
Учебное пособие
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