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OLAP-технологии обзор решаемых задач и исследований.

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нагнпш
OLAP??????????:
????? ???????? ????? ? ????????????
?. ?????????,
???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ???????????
???????????????? ????????????
??????????????? ?????????? OLAP (OnLine Analytical Processing), ???????????
? ???? ?????????, ???????????? ????? ????????????, ????? ??????%??????????
? ???????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ??????.
??????????? ??????? OLAP
????? OLAP ?????? ? 1993 ?. ??????? ??????
[Cod93]. ???? OLAP%?????? ? ?????????? ??%
????? ????? ??????? ??????. ???? ??????%
??????? 12 ????????? OLAP%??????, ? ???????%
???? ??????????? OLAP%??????? ???????? ????
??????????. ?????????? ??:
?
12 ????????? OLAP6??????
??????????? ????????? ??????. OLAP ?????????
CUBE%??????? (??. ????? ???????? ????? ????
[GBLP95]), ??????? ???????? ???????????? ?????%
????. ????? ????????? OLAP%????? ?? ??????????.
????????????. OLAP%??????? ?????? ???????%
?? ?? ???????? ???????, ?????????????? ??????%
?????? ????????? ??????.
???????????. OLAP%??????? ?????? ???????%
????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????
??????.
?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????. ???%
??????????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????
?????????.
??????/?????? ???????????. ??????? ??????
???????????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ? ????? ??%
??????? ?????????.
????????? ????? ?????????. ??????? ?? ??????
?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????%
??? ??????. ????????? ?????? ???? ??????????%
?? ?? ?????????? ????? ???????.
???????????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????.
??? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????, ??
?????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??????. OLAP%
66
??????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ? ??%
??????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ???????.
????????????????????? ?????????. OLAP%?????%
?? ?????? ???????????? ?????????????????????
????? ??????.
?????????????? ??????????? ????????. ?????%
????? ?????????? ? ????????? ????? ?????????:
??? ????????? ????????? ???????, ? ???????????
???????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ??
????????? ????? ????????.
?????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????6
????? ???????. ??? ?????????????? ??????????%
?? ????????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ????????
? ??????????? ????.
?????? ????????? ???????? ???????. ??????????%
?? ?????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ??????
??????????? ?? ??????, ?????? ??? ?? ?????????
?????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ???????.
?????????? ???????????. ?????????? ????????%
??? ?? ?????????? ????????? ? ??????? ?????????
??????.
? ?????????? ??????? ????? ?????????????%
??? 12 ?????? ????? ? ????? ????? ???? FASMI (Fast
Shared Multidimensional Information). ?? ??? ????%
???????, OLAP%??????? ?????? ????:
? Fast ? ???????, ???????????? ????? ???????%
??? ?????? ?? ??????????? ????????;
? Shared ? ?????????????????????, ??????
???????????? ???????? ???????? ???????
? ?????? ? ??????????? ?????????????
?????? ?????? ?????????????;
? Multidimensional ? ???????????. ??????
?????? ?????????????? ? ???? ???????????
?????;
????????????????? ?1?2008 ?.
нагнпш
? Information ? ?????? ?????? ???? ?????
? ????? ?????? ?????????, ?.?. ????????? ???
??????????? ??????????.
??????????? ?? ???????????? OLAP%???????
????????????? ???? ???? ?????????. ?????? ? ??%
???????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ???
???????, ?????? ????? ????????? ? ???????????
?????? ??????, ??????? ?????????? ???????.
? 1995 ?. ?????? ?????????????? ?? ????? ? ????%
???? ????? [GBLP95], ??????????????? ???????%
???? ???????????????? ?????????? ??? ??????,
?????????? ?????????? ????? SQL ? ????????
CUBE. ?????? ???????? ???????? ?? ????????
OLAP%????? ? SQL. ????????? ????????????
????????????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ?????
????????????? ? ?????????????. ? ??? ?? ??????
????????????? ??????? ??? ????????????? ???????%
????? ?? ?????????? ????? ????????? ??????.
CUBE ???????????? ????? ????????? GROUP BY
?????????? ?? ???? ????????? ??????????? ??%
??????? ? ??????? ???????? ????????? ??????.
????????, ??????????? SQL, ?????????? CUBE
BY (????????? ????? ??, ??? ? ? GROUP BY).
? ???????? SQL?99 ??????? ????? ?????????? ???
?????? ? OLAP%???????.
?????????? ?????????? SQL%1999 ? SQL%2003,
???????????? OLAP%???????????????? ????? SQL:
? Grouping Set ???????;
? Cube By ???????;
? Rollup By ???????;
? Window By ???????;
? Model By ??????? ? Oracle 10g ? ????.
???????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ????????
?????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ????, ?? ??? ??????
????? ???????????????? ? ???????? ?????????%
??? ????????? ? ?????????? ????? SQL.
??????6?????????? ?? ??????
OLAP6??????????, ??????? ?????????
???????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ?????%
????? OLAP%??????????:
?????? ??????. ??????, ??? ??????? ??????????
?????????????? ? ?? ??? ??? ???????? ??????
??????????? OLAP%????????. ???????????
?????? ??????, ??????????? ????????????? ?????%
??????? ?????? ?????? ? ??????? ?????? ?? ??%
????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????????????
??? ??????? ??????, ????????????? ???????????,
??????????? ? ?????? ????? ? ??????? ???????
???????? ??????.
????????????????? ?1?2008 ?.
??????? ?????????: Microsoft Excel Pivot Tables,
Microsoft Analysis Services, SAP BW, Oracle Essbase,
Oracle OLAP, Cognos PowerPlay, MicroStrategy, Busi%
ness Objects.
??????????
????????????\??????????????.
??????????? ?????? ????????? ????????????
??????? ?????? ? ????? ????????????? ?? (?????%
???, ????%???? ??????). ??????? ??? ???????????
????????? ?????? CPM (Corporate Performance
Management) ?????????? OLAP%??????. ??????
?????? ? ??????????? ???????? ?????? (back%
solve, breakback, writeback), ??????????? ??????%
???? ????????? ????????? ????????? ????? ???
????????? ??????????????? ????????. ??? ??????%
???? ??? ??????? ╚???%????╩ (what%if), ?.?. ???
???????????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ???
????????????.
??????? ?????????: Microsoft PerformancePint,
Oracle EPB, Oracle OFA, Oracle Hyperion Planning,
SAP SEM, Cognos Enterprise Planning, Geac.
?????????? ????????????. ???????????? ???%
??? ???????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????,
???????? ?? ???????? ???? ????????, ?????????
?????? ? ?????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????
? ????? ? ??????????????? ???????????? ?????%
?????? ??????? (SOX, Basel II) ? ??????? ?????%
??? ?? IPO. OLAP%?????????? ????????? ????????
?????? ????????????????? ??????? ? ????????
???????????? ????? ????????.
??????? ?????????: Oracle FCH, Oracle Hype%
rion FM, Cognos Controller.
??????????? ????,
??????????? ? ????????
?????????? ??????? (???????????) ???????, ??
?????? ??????? ?? ????? ??????? OLAP%???. ???%
?????? ????????? ??????? ????? ?? 2 ??????:
1. ????? ????????? (?????????, ?????????), ???%
????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ? ????????????
??????????? ???????????? OlAP%????. ?? ???? ???%
????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ????? (??%
????????????) ????. ?????? ???? ???????????? ??%
??? ????? ?????? ? ??????, ?????????? ?????????.
2. ????? ??? ? ???????, ???????? ?????? ? ??%
?????????? ?????? ????? ????????????.
?? ????????? ????????? ?????????, ??????????
???????? ?? ????????, ? ????????? ?????????
(????????, ??? ???????, ?????????? ???????????
?????? ?? ???????? ????????, ???????? ??????%
??? ╚?????╩, ?????????? ???????? ???? ╚???%
?????%??????%????╩). ??? ???????????? ????? ??%
??????? ???????????? ?????????, ??? ??? ???????
???????? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ???.
67
нагнпш
? ???? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ? ???%
?????????? (roll%up/drill%down) ?? ????????? ????%
?????. ?????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?????
╚??????????╩ (drill%down) ? ?????? ??????? ??????.
????????, (R1, ALL, ?????) ????? ╚??????????╩
? ?????? (R1, ?????, ?????) ? ????????, ╚?????%
??????╩ (roll%up) ?? (R1, ?????, ?????) ? (R1, ALL,
?????) ?? ????????? ╚????????╩.
?????????. ????????? ???? ? ????? ???????,
?? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ????????????.
?????? ??????????? OLAP%??????? ? ??????????
????????? ?? ???????? (???????? ?????) ? ????
(???????? ????????). ??? ???????? ? [Tho02], ???%
??? ?????????? ????? ?????? ??? ????????, ???
? ??????? ????????. ? ?????? ????????? ??????????
???????? ╚?????????????╩ ????????? ??? ??????
? ??? ?????????, ???????? ????? ???????? ???? ??
???????? ? ╚?????????? ??????╩. ????? ???????,
??????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ? ???%
???? ??????????. ?????? ?????? ??????, ????????
?? ???? ?????????????????, ??????????? ?????? ?
?????????? (? ?????????, ????????????? ????????
??????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????
????? ??????) ?, ????????? ????????, ????? ???%
???????? ?? ??????????. ????????????, ?????
? ?????????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????
??????? ???????, ??????????????? ??????? ╚????%
?????╩ ???? ????? ?????????? ??????????.
???????? ???? ?????????? ????????????? ?????%
?????, ? ??? ????????? ???????? ??? ?? ?????? ????%
?? ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????.
???????? ? ?????????????. ????????????? ???%
??? ? ???? ?? ????????? ??????? ???????????
?????. ???????? ???????? ????????? ????? ??????
? ????????????? ???????????? ????????????.
????? ???????????????? ?????? ???????? ?
╚????????????????╩. ??????????????, ??? ???????
???????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ? ???%
?????????? (rollup/drilldown). ??? ???????, ? ????%
??? ??????????????? ??????? ??????? ????????
╚????????? ???????? ? ALL╩, ?????? ?????????
?????? ??????????? ????? ???? ????????????.
??? ???????? ????? ??????? ?? 2 ????. ???????
????????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ????? ?? ??%
????. ???? ?????????? ????????? ?? ???? ?????? ?
???????? ????????? (leveled), ? ?????? ?????? ?
?????????????????? (ragged).
??????? ????? ????????:
? ?????????: ??????????????; ????? ? ????? ?
??????;
? ??????????????????: ??????????????? ???%
??????, ????????? ??????????? ?????????.
68
?????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ? ???%
?????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ???%
???? ?????? ????????. ????????, ???????????
????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ??? ??????? ??
??????????????? ?????????. ??????????? ?????%
?????? ??????? (??????????) ???????????? ???%
??? ?????????, ?????? ??? ????? ????????????
???????? ????? ??????.
???????????? ???????, ???? ? ???????. ??%
?????????? ????? OLAP%?????? ? ??????? ????%
??? ?????????????. ????????? ???? OLAP ? ?????%
??? ?????????????? ?????? ???????, ?????? ??
???????, ???????? ?? ????????????, ?????? ????
??????????????? ??????? ????????????. ?? ???%
???? ????????? ???????? ???????? ???????????
(? ?? ????) ??????? ?????????.
? [GC97] ????????? ????????? ?????????????
???????????? ??????? ? ????? ?????? ?????????
?????????????????:
? ?????????????? ??????? ????????? ?????%
???? ??????? ?????? ? ????????? ?????????
?????, ??????? ????? ???????? ??????????;
? ?????????????? ??????? ???????? ???????%
???? ??????????? ?? ?????????????? ????%
??? (????????, Average() ????? ???????????
??? ?????, ??????????? ?? count);
? ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ????%
????? ?? ????????? ?????? ??? ????????????
?????%???? ???????.
???????? ? ??????????? ??????
OLAP6?????
?????????????? ?????????????. ??????? ????%
????? OLAP%?????? ????????? ???????????
?????????? ???????? ?? ???????. ???? ?? ??? ??%
??????? ???? ????????????? ? ??????????????
?????, ? ?? ?????????? ?? ╚?? ????╩ (??????????
????????? ??????????????? ?? ????? ?????????
???????).
????????? ??????????? ????????????? ????
? ???? ?.?. ??????? ? ?????, ? ??????? ???? ??????%
???? ????????????? (view) ??? ?????? ?? ??????.
??? ??????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ?????????,
?? ??????? ???? ??????????? ?????? ? ??????????%
???; ?? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????
?????????. ??? ??????????? ???? (???????, ??????%
??, ????? ????) ????????? ????? ????????? ??????%
??? ??????? (???. 1):
????? ???????, ? ???????????? ????????? ????
??????????????? ????? ?????????????, ???????%
??? ?????????????? ??????. ???????? ???????%
?????? ?????????? ????????? (???? cuboids). ????%
?? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ????????,
????????????????? ?1?2008 ?.
нагнпш
пХЯ. 1. ????????? ???? ? ???? ?????? ????????????? ??? ??
???????
?????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????2
?? ????????.
????? ????????????????? ????????? ????? ??%
???? ?????????? ??????? ?????????????????? ??%
?????. ?? ????? ???????? ????? ?????????????,
??? ????????????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ?????%
??? ?? ????? ????????????? ????? 1?2 ????????? (??
?????? ?????????), ??? ???????? ????? ??????? ??%
??? ?? ??????. ? ????????, ???????? ????????, ? ??%
????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ????? ?????%
???? ??? ????????? ?? ??????????? ?????? (????????
????). ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????????%
?? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?????????, ??????? ???%
??? ?????????????? ????? ????????? ?????????
?????? ?????? ? ????? ?? ??????? ?????.
???????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????????
???????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ????????.
? ?????????? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ???????????%
??? ?????????, ??? ?? ????????? ?????? ???? ??
?????? ???????????? ????????? ? ????????????
??????????? (drill%down) ? ???????? ??????.
???????? ????????? ?????? ???? ???????????%
????, ????????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ????%
?????? ??????????? ??????, ????? ??????????
? ????? ?????? ???????????? ??????.
?????? ?????? ????? ????? ?? ???????????? ??%
?????? ??? ??????????, ??? ??? ?????? ? ??? ?????%
??????? ????. ???????? ???????? ????????? ??%
???, ??? ??? ?????? ?????????? ????????????
? ??????????? ???????????? ????. ????????,
?????? ???????? ?????? ??? ???? ????????? ????%
??? ? ????? ????????. ???????? ??????? ?????
???????? ? ???? ?????? ????? ? ?????? ????????%
???? ??? (????? ???????, ?????????? ?????????).
? ????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ???? ?????? ??
????????? ????, ??????? ???????????? ???????.
????????????????? ?1?2008 ?.
????????, ??? ????? ???????????? ???? ???????
?? ????? ????? 500 ??????. ????? ?????? ???????%
?? ?????? ????????????? ??????, ????????? ?????
?????????? ? ???????. ???????? ???????? ????%
??????? ???? ?????????? ??????%??????????
(????. iceberg cubes), ??? ??????? ????? ?? ??????
╚?????? ??? ?????╩. ??????? ?????? ? ??????????
?????%????????? ??????????? ? ?????????: ???????
????????? ???? ???, ????? ????????? ???????
? ???????? ????????????????? ??????. ?? ???
??????? ?????????????. ????? ????????? ???%
???????, ?? ???????? ?????? ???. ?????????????
??????????? ?? ???????? ???? ????? ????????? ?
?????????, ????????? ????????????? ?????????
??????????. ????????, ? ????????? ???? ????%
?????? ????? 2 ??????, ???????????? ?? ?????%
???? ?????? ?????????. ???? ???? ? ???? ???????
?????? ???????? ???????, ???????? ????????? ??%
????????? ??? ????? ????? (?? ???? 99 ??????%
????), ? ?? ???? ? ???? ???????? ????? ??? ?? ???.
????????? ????? ????????? ?????? ?????????
????????????? (????????) ??? ??????????????.
?? ??? ?????????? ???????? [HRU96], ??? ???????
????????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ???????????%
??? ????????????? ? ???????? ?????????. ?? ????
???????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??????????????
?????????????, ?????????????? ??????? ?? ????%
?????. ?? ???????????? ????????? [HRU96] ? ???%
??? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ?????%
???, ?????????????? ??????, ?????????? ???? ? ??.
??????????? ????????????? ?????? ????????,
??????? ????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????.
????????, ??? ????? ???????? ?????? ??????????%
??? ??? ?????????????? NP%????? [KM99], ???????
?????????? ????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????%
??? ?????? ?????????????? (materialize%all) ????,
????????? ?? ?????????? ?? ????? ???????? ????%
??????? ? ?? ??????? ?? ?????? ????????? ??????%
????. ?????????? ????????, ??? ??????????? ???%
????????? OLAP%?????? ???????? ?? ???????????
??????, ???????? ? ??????????? ????????, ?????%
?? ???????????? ????? ? ??????????? ?????????
?????? ????????????????? ????????????? ????
?????????? ????, ??? ???????????? ?????????%
??? ????????? ?????? ??????????????.
??????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ???????????%
??? (materialize%all) ? ??? ╚????? ??????╩, ??? ????%
??? ????? ?????? ? ????? ?????????? ???? ??????
???????????????. ????????, ???????????? ??? ???
???????? ?????? ?????????, ? ???????????? 100 ???
??????? ?????????, ???????? ? ????????? ? ??????%
??. ???? ???? ?? ??????? ????????????? 1 (??????
???? ?? ???????? ????? ???????? ??????), ??? ???
69
нагнпш
????? ????? ????? 1,1^14 ???????? ?????. ????? ??%
?????, ?????????? ??????? ???? ? ???????? ??????
?????????? OLAP%??????????.
??? ???? ?????? ??????????? ? ??????????
?????????? ????????? ????????? ??????%
???/????????????? (roll%up/drill%down). ???????%
??? ??? ??????????, ?????? ????????? ?????????
??????? ???????????, ?? ?????????????? ???? ????%
????? ? ?????????? ???? ??????????, ???? ????%
?? ???????????, ??? ???????????? ???????????
?????????? ???????? ??????????.
??????? ????????
ROLAP (Relational OLAP) ? ??????, ??????%
???? ? ???? ??? ????????? ?????????, ????????
? ??????????? ????????. ??? ??????? ??????????%
?? ????????????? ? SQL%????????? ??????? ??
?????? ???????.
????? ??????? ???????: ??? ?????? ????????
?????? ????? ???? ? ????? ???????.
?????? ??????? ???????: ?????????? ???????%
??? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??? ???? ? ?????????
????????? ?????????????? ???????? ??? ??????%
???? ????????? ??????.
MOLAP (Multidimensional OLAP) ? ??? ??????
???????? ? ??????????? ???? ??????.
??? ??????? ???????????? ????????????? ? ?????%
?? ??????????? ??????? (MDX, Express 4GL ? ??).
????? ??????? ???????: ??? ?????? ????????
? ??????????? ??????????, ??? ??????????? ????%
???? ???????? ????????? ????????.
?????? ??????? ???????: ?????? ???? ╚??????%
??╩ ?? ??????? ???????, ?????????? ???????????
??????????? ??? ???????????? ????? ? ?? ?????%
???? ? ?????? ????????? ??????? ????????.
HOLAP (Hybrid OLAP) ? ??????? ?????? ???%
????? ? ??????????? ???????, ?????????????? ?
? ??????????? ?????????.
?????? ????? ???????? ????????? ???????????
??????????, ?? ???? ?? ???????????, ?? ?? ?????%
??? ?? ??????????? MOLAP. ????? ????, ? ??? ??%
????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ??????
? ?????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ? ???????????
???? ???????? ??? ????????.
??????
OLAP%?????????? ? ?????????? ? ???????????%
??? ???? ????????????, ?? ???????????? ??????????
????? ??????? ??????????.
???????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?????%
???????, ?? ??? ?? ?????????? ?????? ?????????%
???????? ??????????, ?????????? ???????? ??????,
????? ???????? ? ???????????? ?????. ????????
?????? ????????????? ?????? ???????? ?????%
????? ??????? ???????, ??????? ????? ??????? ??%
??????? ?? OLAP%?????????, ? ????? ? ??? ???????%
?? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ???? ???????? ?
????????? OLAP%?????. ?????????? ????????? ??%
???????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ????????? ??%
??? ?????????? ????????????? ??????????, ??%
??????, ??? ??????? ?????? ???????????????????
(GPS) ? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ??%
?????????? spatioOLAP%??????????. ?????? ??%
????????????, ????????? ?????????? ????????
????? ?????????????? ?????? ? ?????????????
???????????? OLAP, ???????????? ????? ??????
????? ??????, ??????????????? ???? ??????? ??????
?????????. ?
??????????
[AS94] Rakesh Agrawal and Ramakrishnan Srikant. Fast algorithms for mining association rules. In Jorge B. Bocca, Matthias Jarke, and Carlo
Zaniolo, editors, Proc. 20th Int. Conf. Very Large Data Bases, VLDB, pages 487?499. Morgan Kaufmann, 12?15 1994.
[BR99] Kevin Beyer and Raghu Ramakrishnan. Bottomup computation of sparse and iceberg cubes. In SIGMOD, 1999.
[Cod93] E.F. Codd. Providing OLAP for enduser analysys: An IT mandate. 1993.
[GBLP95] Jim Gray, Adam Bosworth, Andrew Layman, and Hamid Pirahesh. Data cube: A relational aggregation operator generalizing group
by, crosstab, and subtotals. Microsoft Lab, 1995.
[GC97] Sanjay Goil and Alok Choudhary. High performance olap and data mining on parallel computers. Center of Parallel and Distributed
Computing Technical Report TR9705, 1997.
[HRU96] Venky Harinarayan, Anand Rajaraman, and Jeffrey Ulman. Implementing data cubes efficiently. SIGMOD, 1996.
[KM99] H.J. Karloff and M. Mihail. On the complexity of viewselection problem. In PODS, 1999.
[SG99] Gerd Stumme and Bernhard Ganter. Formal Concept Analysis Mathematical Foundations. Springer, 1999.
[SR04] Yannis Sismanis and Nick Roussopoulos. The polynomial complexity of fully materialized coalesced cubes. In VLDB, 2004.
[SS01] Sunita Sarawagi and Gayatri Sathe. Intelligent rollups in multidimensional olap data. In VLDB, 2001.
[Tho02] Erik Thomsen. OLAP Solutions: Building Multidimensional Information Systems Second Edition. Wiley Computer Publishing
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2002.
70
????????????????? ?1?2008 ?.
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