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Оценка жизнеспособности популяций особо охраняемого вида Cepaea vindobonensis (Mollusca Gastropoda Pulmonata) в условиях юга лесостепи Среднерусской возвышенности.

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CEPAEA VINDOBONENSIS
(MOLLUSCA, GASTROPODA, PULMONATA
Cepaea
vindobonensis Fer
-
. . Snegin
VITALITY ESTIMATION OF THE CEPAEA VINDOBONENSIS (MOLLUSCA, GASTROPODA, PULMONATA)
ESPECIALLY PROTECTED SPECIES POPULATIONS IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE CENTRAL RUSSIAN
UPLAND FOREST-STEPPE SOUTH
Gene pool condition of five populations of the Cepaea vindobonensis Fer (Austrian snail)especially protected
species is studied in the Central Russian Upland south conditions and their comparison with the populations from
the other regions is conducted on the basis of the morphological and genetic variability analysis that can be revealed
by means of the protein gel - electrophoresis technique. Authentic decrease of the phenotypical diversity, heterozygosity level decrease and inbreeding coefficient increase caused by both the natural historical factors, and the factors of an anthropogenic origin is emphasized in a number of the researched groups. The genetic and automatic
processes in the populations are considered and the natural selection vectors are determined. Calculation of the
researched group effective number is conducted.
Key words: Austrian snail, species, terrestrial mollusk, population gene pools, forest-steppe landscape, Central Russian Upland.
.
Cepaea vindobonensis Fer.
-
C. vindobonensis
.
C. vindobonensis
141
V=
2
S=3,145x
[4, 5]
-
,
-
*.
-HCl
H 7.4), -
TR
EST1
EST2
EST8
1
C. vindobonensis.
GenAlEx [6].
.
V/S).
5, 7, 8),
*
pallescens .
142
11
11
C. vindobonensis
C. vindobonensis
C. vindobonensis
1
40
N
V,
3
S,
2
V/S
2
43
3
206
5,4 05
17,8
2
3
11
10,8 2
5,
1
18,9 0,6 20,0 6
20,6 5 21
11,6 2 12,3
10,6 3 11
,3
4107,8
4773,8
3936,1
298,7
230,4
180,6
97,5 4,5 106 3,6
2,5
0,917
0,918
0,8
0,015
0,027
0,009
41,8 2,1 44,9 1,7 41,6 1,4
N
M
4
40
1
20,4 8
11,3 4
10,5 5
10,6
3885,6
58,5
94 6,8
0,90
0,061
41,0 2,7
5
101
17
20,1
11,1
10,2
6
58
3
3
2
3610,5
150,2
89,1 2,0
0,876
0,008
41,2 1,2
h
-
143
19,0
20,9
11,7
10,6
3
2
4
2
4177,7
147,9
97,8 4,6
0,910
0,011
43,1 1,3
7
8
9
24
58
42
5,2 0,1 5,1 0,04
18,1 0,4
20 0,5
21,7 0,4
21,6 5
11,4 0,3
11,7
10,7 0,3
11,4 4
10,7 0,5
4293,29
4846,0
4885,8
238,4
282,7
96,2 4,3 108,1
105,1 4,6
0,836
0,813
0,956
0,017
0,012
0,017
44, ,9 44,9 1,3 46,2 1,2
C. vindobonensis
(MS)
F
5)
22,5
55,5
12,2
5,4
31,4
4,9
4,6*
6,2
9,0*
0,9
13,9*
1,6
3,3*
8,4
3,7*
F
/
V
S
V/S
0,047
10503699
2475,5
170,5
0,007
1249881
6,6*
8,4*
4, 425; *
268,1
9,2*
74,4
2,3*
P
C. vindobonensis
h
0,700
0,915
>2<345
0,125
0,085
0,175
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
2,59 0,40 0,48 0,08
1,56 0,35 0,69 0,07
0, 714
0,097
0,189
0,0
0,0
0,0
2,53 0,17 0,49 0,03
0,400
0,723
0,345
0,500
0,534
0,240
0,0
0,178
0,396
0,333
0, 034
0,024
0,600
0,099
0,259
0,083
0,0
0,0
h
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,086
0,024
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,083
0,345
0,500
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,214
1,98
2,52
2,98
3,46
3,22
3,88
0,39
,25
0,32
0,47
0,31
0,32
0,60
0,50
0,40
0,31
0,36
0,22
0,08
0,05
0,06
0,09
0,06
0,06
C. vindobonensis
Est2
Est3
Est8
1
2
3
N=46 N=108 N=225
0,141 0,028 0,080
0,859 0,972 0,920
0,891 0,949 0,971
0,109 0,051 0,029
0,141 0,005 0,100
0,152 0,102 0,069
0,707 0,894 0,831
1
2
1
2
1
2
3
4
N=123
0,325
0,675
1,000
0,000
0,000
0,012
0,988
5
N=190
0,132
0,868
0,913
0,087
0,089
0,200
0,711
Fit
144
6
N=79
0,310
0,690
0,684
0,316
0,013
0,108
0,880
7
N=14
0,071
0,929
0,929
0,071
0,000
0,000
1,000
8
N=39
0,064
0,936
0,974
0,026
0,103
0,154
0,744
9
Fis
Fit
Fst
N=40
0,200
0,038 0,116 0,081
0,800
0,875
0,000 0,096 0,096
0,125
0,763
0,238 0,230 0,493 0,342
0,000
11
11
-
5
C. vindobonensis
1
100
1,468
0,520
1,97
0,261
0,298
0,088
42,3
0,919
P%
I
He
F
Ne
Ne/N
2
100
1,134
0,229
1,51
0,105
0,114
0,114
96,9
0,898
3
100
1,217
0,326
1,70
0,136
0,166
0,108
203,1
0,903
4
66,7
1,269
0,232
1,39
0,111
0,154
0,428
86,1
0,700
5
100
1,431
0,488
1,92
0,261
0,278
0,021
186,1
0,979
6
100
1,594
0,550
1,92
0,342
0,358
0,067
74,0
0,937
7
66,7
1,102
0,172
1,34
0,095
0,088
0,282
10,9
0,780
8
100
1,297
0,366
1,76
0,154
0,194
0,074
36,3
0,931
9
100
1,439
0,475
1,77
0,275
0,300
0,047
38,2
0,955
P
I
H
He
F
Fst (
Ne
4
EST8
UPGMA
*.
Fst Fit
C. vindobonensis
EST8-1
-
*
145
D
UPGMA)
,
Ne
N
F
;
Ne/N
Ne
Ne
C. vindobonensis.
1.
2.
-
2002.
129.
Helicoidea
3.
1978.
4.
-
Cepaea vindobonensis
//
-
-
91.
146
11
11
5.
Cepaea vindobonensis (Pulmonata, Helicidae
2007.
48.
Peakall R., Smouse P.E. GenAlEx V5: Genetic Analysis in Excel. Population genetic software for teaching and
reseach. Australion National University, Canberra, Australia. 2001. http://www.anu.edu.au./BoZo/GenAlEx/.
. .
Brephulopsis
bidens (Gasnropoda, Pulmonata, Buliminidae) //
.
. 2006. . 40 (5). . 445 451.
Gastropoda, Pulmonata)
. 2007.
249.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Nei M. Estimation of average heterozygosity and genetic distance from a smoll numba of individuals // Genetics. 1978. V. 89. P. 583 590.
398 c.
Crow J.F., Morton N.E. Measurement of gene frequency drift in small population // Evolution. 1955. V. 9.
P. 202 214.
Crow J. F., Kimura M. An introdution to population genetics theory. N.Y.: Harpers and Row, 1970. 591 p.
8.832(571.51)
TURDUS
Turdus
(Turdus viscivorus L.).
A.V. Gerasimchuk, A.M. Stepanov
TURDUS GENUS THRUSH NUTRITION IN THE NESTING PERIOD ON THE CHULYMO-YENISEI HOLLOW
TERRITORY
The article is devoted to the Turdus genus thrush nutrition in the reproductive period. The data on feed composition of five species: black-throated thrush (Turdus atrogularis), song thrush (Turdus philomelos Brehm), fieldfare
(Turdus pilaris L.), redwing (Turdus iliacus L.) and mistle thrush (Turdus viscivorus L.)are given. The dependence of
the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the bird diet on the timing and location of their nests is revealed.
The peculiarities and regime of feeding the nestlings of different species are studied in detail.
Key words: thrush, nesting period, biotope, nutrition, Chulymo-Yenisei hollow.
Turdus
-
147
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