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Геоэкологические аспекты бактериоценоза в дельте Волги в условиях антропогенной нагрузки.

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Ⱦɠɩɸɥɩɦɩɞɣɺ
Geoecology
əɞ ɋɩɬɬɣɣ: ɸɥɩɦɩɞɣɺ, ɫɛɢɝɣɭɣɠ. ʌ4, 2009
The South of Russia: ecology, development. ʋ4, 2009
ɍȾɄ 574.5.042 (282.247.418)
ȾɀɉɘɅɉɆɉȾɃɒɀɌɅɃɀ ȻɌɊɀɅɍɖ ȼȻɅɍɀɋɃɉɑɀɈɉɂȻ Ƚ ȿɀɆɗɍɀ ȽɉɆȾɃ
Ƚ ɎɌɆɉȽɃɚɐ ȻɈɍɋɉɊɉȾɀɈɈɉɄ ɈȻȾɋɎɂɅɃ
© 2009.
Ɇɛɫɱɠɝɛ Ɇ.Ƚ., *ɉɜɮɰɩɝɛ ɉ.Ƚ., Ƀɬɭɠɦɹɠɝɛ Ȼ.Ȼ.
Ⱥɫɬɪɚɯɚɧɫɤɢɣ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ
*Ⱥɫɬɪɚɯɚɧɫɤɢɣ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ
Ɇɧɨɝɨɥɟɬɧɢɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɥɢ, ɱɬɨ, ɤɚɤ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɨ, ɜ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɟ ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ ɦɢɤɪɨɛɧɵɣ ɩɟɣɡɚɠ ɝɢɞɪɨɛɢɨɧɬɨɜ
ɩɨɥɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɢɥɢ ɱɚɫɬɢɱɧɨ ɩɨɜɬɨɪɹɟɬ ɬɚɤɨɜɨɣ ɢɯ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ. Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɜɵɲɟɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɟ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ
ɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɨ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɩɟɪɫɢɫɬɟɧɰɢɢ ɜ ɝɢɞɪɨɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ ȼɨɥɝɨ-Ʉɚɫɩɢɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɛɚɫɫɟɣɧɚ ɭɫɥɨɜɧɨɩɚɬɨɝɟɧɧɨɣ ɦɢɤɪɨɮɥɨɪɵ, ɨɛɥɚɞɚɸɳɟɣ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɨɝɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɢ ɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɚɧɬɢɛɢɨɬɢɤɨɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɬɧɨɫɬɶɸ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɨɛ ɷɩɢɞɟɦɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɦ ɪɢɫɤɟ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɫɨɡɞɚɟɬ ɧɚɥɢɱɢɟ ɬɚɤɢɯ ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢɣ.
Long-term sanitary-microbiological monitoring indicated persistence and domination of opportunistic bacteria of the families Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae and Vibriona-ceae in water and among hydrobionts which is indicative of
unsatisfactory sanitary characteristics of the species under study. Most of the isolated microflora showed various degrees
of pathogenicity and multiple resistances to antibiotics. This is suggestive of epidemiological importance of isolated microorganisms.
Ʌɦɹɲɠɝɶɠ ɬɦɩɝɛ: ɝɢɞɪɨɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ, ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢɨɮɥɨɪɚ, ɷɜɬɪɨɮɢɤɚɰɢɹ, ɪ. ȼɨɥɝɚ.
Keywords: hydroccosystem, bacterioflora, eutrophication Volga river
Ƚɢɞɪɨɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ ɪ. ȼɨɥɝɢ ɭɠɟ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɞɟɫɹɬɢɥɟɬɢɣ ɢɫɩɵɬɵɜɚɟɬ ɫɢɥɶɧɨɟ ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧɧɨɟ
ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟ, ɩɪɨɹɜɥɹɸɳɟɟɫɹ ɜ ɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɟɧɢɢ ɢ ɷɜɬɪɨɮɢɤɚɰɢɢ ɫɬɨɤɚ ɪ. ȼɨɥɝɢ, ɧɟɫɦɨɬɪɹ ɧɚ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ
ɫɨɤɪɚɳɟɧɢɟ ɨɛɴɟɦɨɜ ɩɪɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ. Ʉɪɨɦɟ ɬɨɝɨ, ɩɨɞɧɹɬɢɟ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ Ʉɚɫɩɢɣɫɤɨɝɨ
ɦɨɪɹ ɤɪɚɣɧɟ ɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɨ ɩɨɜɥɢɹɥɨ ɧɚ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨ-ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚ. Ɍɚɤ, ɜ
ɡɨɧɟ ɩɨɞɬɨɩɥɟɧɢɹ ɨɤɚɡɚɥɨɫɶ ɱɟɬɵɪɟ ɚɞɦɢɧɢɫɬɪɚɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ Ⱥɫɬɪɚɯɚɧɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɫ ɢɯ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɦɢ ɯɨɡɹɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ-ɛɵɬɨɜɵɦɢ ɨɬɯɨɞɚɦɢ. ȼ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɷɬɢɦ ɭɯɭɞɲɢɥɚɫɶ ɢ ɛɭɞɟɬ ɭɯɭɞɲɚɬɶɫɹ
ɫɚɧɢɬɚɪɧɨ-ɷɩɢɞɟɦɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɨɛɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚ ɜ ɞɟɥɶɬɟ ȼɨɥɝɢ; ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɟɬ ɭɝɪɨɡɚ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ
ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɢ ɢɧɜɚɡɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɣ ɜɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ [13]. Ɇɟɠɞɭ ɬɟɦ, ɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɨ,
ɱɬɨ ɜɨɞɚ ɢ ɩɨɱɜɚ, ɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɟɧɧɵɟ ɩɪɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɨɬɯɨɞɚɦɢ, ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɧɟɦɚɥɨɜɚɠɧɵɦ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɦ
ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ, ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɵ ɜɵɡɵɜɚɬɶ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟ ɩɚɬɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ, ɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ
ɢɥɢ ɨɩɨɫɪɟɞɨɜɚɧɧɨ.
Ȼɚɤɬɟɪɢɨɮɥɨɪɚ – ɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɧɵɣ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬ ɜɨɞɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ, ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ
ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬ ɨɬ ɦɧɨɝɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɚɛɢɨɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢ ɛɢɨɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɜɤɥɸɱɚɸɬ ɲɢɪɨɤɢɣ ɫɩɟɤɬɪ ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɨɜ ɢ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɬ ɨɛɳɢɣ ɮɨɧ ɢɯ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ. Ⱦɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧɧɨɟ
ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ ɧɚ ɜɨɞɨɟɦ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬ ɤ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɸ ɚɞɚɩɬɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ ɦɢɤɪɨɮɥɨɪɵ, ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɢɸ ɟɟ ɜɢɪɭɥɟɧɬɧɨɫɬɢ, ɚɧɬɢɛɢɨɬɢɤɨɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɩɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɚɬɢɩɢɡɦɚ [3, 7]. ɉɨɤɚɡɚɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɜ
ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɚ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɹɬ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɢ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɦɢɤɪɨɮɥɨɪɵ ɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɯ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɨɜ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɨɛɭɫɥɚɜɥɢɜɚɸɬ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɟ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɢɧɞɢɤɚɬɨɪɧɵɯ ɢ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟ ɭɫɥɨɜɧɨ-ɩɚɬɨɝɟɧɧɵɯ ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢɣ. ɉɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɜ ɜɨɞɟ ɢ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɝɢɞɪɨɛɢɨɧɬɚɯ
ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɩɟɪɫɢɫɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɞɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ, ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɹ ɷɬɢ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɧɢɲɢ ɞɥɹ ɩɟɪɟɞɚɱɢ ɡɚɪɚɡɧɨɝɨ ɧɚɱɚɥɚ, ɤɨɬɨɪɨɟ ɨɧɢ ɬɟɪɹɸɬ, ɩɨɩɚɜ ɜ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɦ ɬɟɩɥɨɤɪɨɜɧɵɯ. ɋɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ, ɲɢɪɨɤɨɟ
ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɦɢɤɪɨɮɥɨɪɵ ɜ ɝɢɞɪɨɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ, ɞɨɤɚɡɚɧɧɚɹ ɩɚɬɨɝɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɦɧɨɝɢɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɞɥɹ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ, ɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɨɛ ɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɡɧɚɱɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɦɢɤɪɨɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɝɢɞɪɨɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦ, ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɜ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɯ ɫ ɧɚɪɭɲɟɧɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɟɣ [1, 8, 12].
Ɉɛɳɟɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɦɟɡɨɮɢɥɶɧɵɯ ɚɷɪɨɛɧɵɯ, ɚɧɚɷɪɨɛɧɵɯ ɢ ɮɚɤɭɥɶɬɚɬɢɜɧɨ-ɚɧɚɷɪɨɛɧɵɯ ɦɢɤɪɨɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ (ɄɆȺɎȺɧɆ) – ɨɞɢɧ ɢɡ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɦɨɧɢɬɨɪɢɧɝɚ, ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɦɵɣ ɞɥɹ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɫɚɧɢɬɚɪɧɨ – ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ ɢɡɭɱɚɟɦɵɯ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ, ɜ ɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ, ɝɢɞɪɨɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ [11].
ɉɪɢ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɟ ɦɧɨɝɨɥɟɬɧɟɣ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɢ ɦɢɤɪɨɛɧɨɣ ɨɛɫɟɦɟɧɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɜɨɞɵ ɜ ɦɟɫɬɚɯ ɪɵɛɧɨɝɨ
ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɚ ɛɵɥɨ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɨ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɧɨɟ ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɹ ɧɚ ɩɨɪɹɞɨɤ ɫ 90-ɯ ɩɨ 2003-ɣ
146
Ⱦɠɩɸɥɩɦɩɞɣɺ
Geoecology
əɞ ɋɩɬɬɣɣ: ɸɥɩɦɩɞɣɺ, ɫɛɢɝɣɭɣɠ. ʌ4, 2009
The South of Russia: ecology, development. ʋ4, 2009
ɝɝ., ɩɨ ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɸ ɫ 80-ɦɢ ɝɝ. ɏɏ ɫɬ. Ɍɚɤ ɜ 1988-89 ɝɝ. ɄɆȺɎȺɧɆ ɜɨɞɵ ɤɨɥɟɛɚɥɫɹ ɨɬ (6,0±1,2) ·
103 ɞɨ (6,3±1,0) · 104 ɄɈȿ/ɦɥ, ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɹ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɭɦɚ ɫ ɢɸɥɹ ɩɨ ɚɜɝɭɫɬ, ɜɨ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɦɟɠɟɧɢ. Ʉɪɨɦɟ ɬɨɝɨ
ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɦɢɤɪɨɛɧɚɹ ɨɛɫɟɦɟɧɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɜɨɞɵ ɭ ɛɟɪɟɝɚ ɜ ɪɚɣɨɧɚɯ ɬɨɧɟɜɵɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɨɜ ɧɚ Ƚɥɚɜɧɨɦ
ɛɚɧɤɟ, ɤɚɤ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɨ, ɛɵɥɚ ɧɚ ɩɨɪɹɞɨɤ ɜɵɲɟ (Ɋ < 0,005), ɱɟɦ ɧɚ ɫɟɪɟɞɢɧɟ ɪɟɤɢ (ɨɬ 4,9·103 ɞɨ 3,5·104
ɢ ɨɬ 1,0·102 ɞɨ 6,5·103 ɄɈȿ/ɦɥ, ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ). ɗɬɨ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɨ ɫ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɦ ɩɪɨɝɪɟɜɨɦ ɜɨɞɵ ɢ ɪɚɡɦɵɜɨɦ ɛɟɪɟɝɨɜɵɯ ɡɨɧ, ɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɟɧɢɟɦ ɢɯ ɯɨɡɛɵɬɨɜɵɦɢ ɫɬɨɤɚɦɢ ɫɭɞɨɜ, ɛɚɪɤɚɫɨɜ, ɪɚɛɨɬɚɸɳɢɯ ɧɚ ɬɨɧɟɜɵɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɯ, ɪɵɛɨɩɪɢɟɦɧɢɤɚɯ ɢ ɩɥɚɜɡɚɜɨɞɚɯ. ȼ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɷɬɢɦ, ɰɟɥɟɫɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɨ ɧɚ ɜɫɟɯ ɪɵɛɨɩɟɪɟɪɚɛɚɬɵɜɚɸɳɢɯ ɢ ɪɵɛɨɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɹɬɢɹɯ, ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɯ ɩɨ ɛɟɪɟɝɚɦ ɪ. ȼɨɥɝɢ ɢ ɟɟ ɪɭɤɚɜɨɜ,
ɨɛɟɡɡɚɪɚɠɢɜɚɬɶ ɜɨɞɭ, ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɦɭɸ ɩɪɢ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚɯ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɬɶ ɟɟ ɫɚɧɢɬɚɪɧɨ-ɦɢɤɪɨɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɶ.
Ⱥɧɚɥɢɡɢɪɭɹ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɦɢɤɪɨɮɥɨɪɵ, ɦɵ ɜɵɞɟɥɢɥɢ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɢ, ɢɫɩɵɬɵɜɚɸɳɢɟ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɭɸ ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧɧɭɸ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɭ. ɇɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɟɧɧɨɣ ɛɵɥɚ ɜɟɪɯɨɜɚɹ ɡɨɧɚ
ɞɟɥɶɬɵ, ɱɬɨ ɩɪɢɜɟɥɨ ɤ ɧɚɪɭɲɟɧɢɸ ɰɟɥɨɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ. ɍɱɢɬɵɜɚɹ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɟ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ
ɝɟɬɟɪɨɬɪɨɮɧɨɣ ɦɢɤɪɨɮɥɨɪɵ, ɧɢɡɤɢɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɢɧɞɟɤɫɚ ɬɪɨɮɧɨɫɬɢ ɜ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ ɜɟɝɟɬɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ
ɩɟɪɢɨɞɚ, ɢɫɫɥɟɞɭɟɦɵɟ ɜɨɞɨɬɨɤɢ ɩɨ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɟɧɢɹ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɶ ɜ ɜɢɞɟ ɭɛɵɜɚɸɳɟɣ
ɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ: ɪ. ȼɨɥɝɚ > ɪ. Ⱥɯɬɭɛɚ > ɪ. Ȼɭɡɚɧ > Ƚɚɧɞɭɪɢɧɫɤɢɣ Ȼɚɧɤ > Ƚɥɚɜɧɵɣ Ȼɚɧɤ.
ɉɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɨɬɦɟɬɢɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɜɟɫɟɧɧɢɣ ɩɢɤ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢɨɩɥɚɧɤɬɨɧɚ ɛɵɥ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɹɪɤɨ ɜɵɪɚɠɟɧ ɧɚ ɪ.ɪ. ȼɨɥɝɚ ɢ Ȼɭɡɚɧ, ɚ ɜ ɞɟɥɶɬɟ – ɧɚ Ƚɥɚɜɧɨɦ ɛɚɧɤɟ, ɝɞɟ ɩɪɨɯɨɞɢɬ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɣ
ɫɬɨɤ ɩɚɜɨɞɤɨɜɵɯ ɜɨɞ. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɦɢɤɪɨɮɥɨɪɵ ɜ ɥɟɬɧɟ-ɨɫɟɧɧɢɣ
ɩɟɪɢɨɞɵ ɛɵɥɢ ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɵ ɧɚ ɪ. Ⱥɯɬɭɛɚ ɢ Ƚɚɧɞɭɪɢɧɫɤɨɦ ɛɚɧɤɟ, ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɸɳɢɟɫɹ ɧɢɡɤɨɣ ɩɪɨɬɨɱɧɨɫɬɶɸ, ɜɵɫɨɤɨɣ ɡɚɪɚɫɬɚɟɦɨɫɬɶɸ ɜɨɞɧɨɣ ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɢ ɡɚɢɥɺɧɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɞɧɚ, ɱɬɨ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɨɜɚɥɨ ɢɧɬɟɧɫɢɜɧɨɦɭ ɧɚɤɨɩɥɟɧɢɸ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɜɟɳɟɫɬɜɚ ɢ ɷɜɬɪɨɮɢɤɚɰɢɢ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ ɜɨɞɨɬɨɤɨɜ.
ɋɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ, ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɚɹ ɫɟɡɨɧɧɚɹ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɚ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɧɵɯ ɢ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɟɣ ɦɢɤɪɨɛɧɵɯ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɣ ɞɟɥɶɬɵ ɪ. ȼɨɥɝɢ ɨɬɪɚɠɚɟɬ ɫɥɨɠɢɜɲɢɣɫɹ ɫɬɚɛɢɥɶɧɵɣ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫ ɚɛɢɨɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ, ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɵɣ ɞɥɹ ɞɚɧɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ. ɉɨ ɧɚɲɢɦ ɞɚɧɧɵɦ ɭɯɭɞɲɟɧɢɟ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚ
ɜɨɞ ɜ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟ ɫɟɡɨɧɵ ɝɨɞɚ ɨɛɭɫɥɨɜɥɟɧɨ ɝɢɞɪɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɢ ɝɢɞɪɨɯɢɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɪɟɠɢɦɚɦɢ, ɚ
ɬɚɤɠɟ ɬɪɨɮɢɤɨɣ ɜɨɞɨɺɦɚ.
ɂɡɜɟɫɬɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɞɥɹ ɩɚɬɨɝɟɧɧɵɯ ɢ ɭɫɥɨɜɧɨ-ɩɚɬɨɝɟɧɧɵɯ ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢɣ ɪɚɜɧɨɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɵ ɞɜɟ ɫɪɟɞɵ
ɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ, ɨɞɧɭ ɢɡ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɨɧɢ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬ ɞɥɹ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ (ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ, ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ), ɞɪɭɝɭɸ – ɜ ɫɜɨɛɨɞɧɨɠɢɜɭɳɢɯ ɮɚɡɚɯ ɠɢɡɧɢ, ɜ ɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ, ɜ ɜɨɞɟ [9, 15]. ɋɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɨɬɦɟɬɢɬɶ,
ɱɬɨ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɫɨɫɬɚɜ ɦɢɤɪɨɮɥɨɪɵ ɬɚɤ ɠɟ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɟɦ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɧɚɪɭɲɟɧɢɹ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɜɧɨɜɟɫɢɹ ɦɢɤɪɨɛɚɤɬɟɪɢɨɰɟɧɨɡɚ ɝɢɞɪɨɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ ɩɨɞ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟɦ ɬɟɯɧɨɝɟɧɧɵɯ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ, ɤɨɝɞɚ ɭɫɥɨɜɧɨ-ɩɚɬɨɝɟɧɧɚɹ ɦɢɤɪɨɮɥɨɪɚ ɧɚɱɢɧɚɟɬ ɩɪɟɜɚɥɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɧɚɞ ɢɧɞɢɤɚɬɨɪɧɨɣ. ɉɪɢ
ɷɬɨɦ ɜ ɬɚɤ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɦɵɯ ɝɪɭɩɩɚɯ ɪɢɫɤɚ, ɬ.ɟ. ɭ ɨɫɥɚɛɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɥɸɞɟɣ ɷɬɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɦɨɝɭɬ
ɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɬɚɬɶ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟ «ɨɩɩɨɪɬɭɧɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ» ɦɢɤɪɨɛɵ. Ʉ ɝɪɭɩɩɟ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɯ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɨɬɧɟɫɟɧɵ ɦɧɨɝɢɟ ɷɧɬɟɪɨɛɚɤɬɟɪɢɢ (ɰɢɬɪɨɛɚɤɬɟɪɵ, ɤɥɟɛɫɢɟɥɥɵ, ɩɪɨɬɟɢ, ɷɧɬɟɪɨɛɚɤɬɟɪɵ, ɝɚɮɧɢɢ), ɚɷɪɨɦɨɧɚɞɵ, ɜɢɛɪɢɨɧɵ, ɩɫɟɜɞɨɦɨɧɚɞɵ, ɚɰɢɧɟɬɨɛɚɤɬɟɪɵ ɢ ɞɪ. [1, 4, 5].
Ɋɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɦɧɨɝɨɥɟɬɧɟɝɨ ɦɢɤɪɨɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɨɧɢɬɨɪɢɧɝɚ, ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɦɨɝɨ ɜ ɞɟɥɶɬɟ ȼɨɥɝɢ
ɫ 1983 ɝ., ɩɨɤɚɡɚɥɢ ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɜ ɜɨɞɟ ɢɦɟɧɧɨ ɭɫɥɨɜɧɨ-ɩɚɬɨɝɟɧɧɨɣ ɦɢɤɪɨɮɥɨɪɵ ɧɚɞ ɢɧɞɢɤɚɬɨɪɧɨɣ, ɜ ɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ, ɫɚɥɶɦɨɧɟɥɥɚɦɢ, ɝɪɭɩɩɨɣ ɤɢɲɟɱɧɵɯ ɩɚɥɨɱɟɤ (E. Coli). Ɍɚɤ, ɜ ɦɢɤɪɨɛɢɨɰɟɧɨɡɟ
ɜɨɞɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɞɟɥɶɬɵ ȼɨɥɝɢ ɫ 1983 ɩɨ 2004ɝɝ. ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɨɜɚɥɢ ɷɧɬɟɪɨɛɚɤɬɟɪɢɢ (pp. Citribacter
ɢ Proteus), ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɹ ɜ 80-ɟ ɝɝ. 34,9 ± 3,0%, ɚ ɜ 2003-04 ɝɝ. – 24,6 ± 0,3% ɩɪɨɛ. Ɉɛɪɚɳɚɟɬ ɧɚ ɫɟɛɹ
ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɞɨɜɨɥɶɧɨ ɪɟɞɤɚɹ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɟɦɨɫɬɶ ɜ ɜɨɞɟ ɢɧɞɢɤɚɬɨɪɧɨ-ɡɧɚɱɢɦɵɯ E. coli – 4,6 ± 0,8% ɢ
Salmonella sp. – 3,1 ± 0,4% ɩɪɨɛ, ɱɬɨ ɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɨ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɚɸɳɟɦɫɹ ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧɧɨɦ ɩɪɟɫɫɢɧɝɟ ɧɚ ɜɨɞɧɭɸ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɭ ɞɟɥɶɬɵ ȼɨɥɝɢ, ɝɞɟ ɭɫɥɨɜɧɨ-ɩɚɬɨɝɟɧɧɵɟ ɷɧɬɟɪɨɛɚɤɬɟɪɢɢ ɩɪɟɜɚɥɢɪɨɜɚɥɢ ɧɚɞ ɢɧɞɢɤɚɬɨɪɧɨɣ.
ɋɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɦɢ ɩɨ ɱɚɫɬɨɬɟ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɟɦɨɫɬɢ ɛɵɥɢ ɚɷɪɨɦɨɧɚɞɵ (ɫɟɦ. Vibrionaceae), ɜ ɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ,
A. hydrophila. ȼ 80-ɟ ɝɝ. ɨɧɢ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɥɢ 28,0 ± 4,7%; ɜ 2003-04 ɝɝ. – 20,4% ɩɪɨɛ.
ɂɡ ɝɪɚɦɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɧɟɮɟɪɦɟɧɬɢɪɭɸɳɟɣ ɦɢɤɪɨɮɥɨɪɵ ɜ ɜɨɞɟ ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɨɜɚɥɢ ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢɢ
p.Pseudomonas. Ɍɚɤ, ɜ 80-ɟ ɝɝ. ɩɫɟɜɞɨɦɨɧɚɞɵ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɥɢ 11,9 ± 0,8%, ɜ 2003-04 ɝɝ. – 17,7 ± 0,6%.
Ɏɥɚɜɨɛɚɤɬɟɪɢɢ ɜ 80-ɟ ɝɝ. ɢɡɨɥɢɪɨɜɚɥɢɫɶ ɧɚ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ 2-3%, ɚ ɜ 2003-04 ɝɝ. – ɭɠɟ ɜ 14,9 ± 0,6% ɩɪɨɛ.
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Ⱦɠɩɸɥɩɦɩɞɣɺ
Geoecology
əɞ ɋɩɬɬɣɣ: ɸɥɩɦɩɞɣɺ, ɫɛɢɝɣɭɣɠ. ʌ4, 2009
The South of Russia: ecology, development. ʋ4, 2009
ɋɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ, ɚɧɚɥɢɡ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɚ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɥ, ɱɬɨ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ ɝɨɞɵ ɧɚɦɟɬɢɥɚɫɶ ɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɹ ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɜɨɞɧɨɣ ɫɪɟɞɟ ɞɟɥɶɬɵ ȼɨɥɝɢ ɝɪɚɦɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɜɵɫɨɤɨɮɟɪɦɟɧɬɚɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɷɧɬɟɪɨɛɚɤɬɟɪɢɣ ɢ
ɚɷɪɨɦɨɧɚɞ, ɧɚ ɮɨɧɟ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɢɹ ɧɟɮɟɪɦɟɧɬɚɬɢɪɭɸɳɢɯ ɩɫɟɜɞɨɦɨɧɚɞ ɢ ɮɥɚɜɨɛɚɤɬɟɪɢɣ. ɉɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɜ
90-ɯ ɝɝ. ɜ ɭɞɟɥɶɧɨɦ ɜɟɫɟ ɜɫɟɣ ɜɵɞɟɥɟɧɧɨɣ ɦɢɤɪɨɮɥɨɪɵ ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧ ɩɪɨɝɪɟɫɫɢɪɭɸɳɢɣ ɪɨɫɬ ɝɪɚɦɩɨɡɢɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɛɚɰɢɥɥ, ɤɨɤɤɨɜ, ɞɪɨɠɠɟɣ ɢ ɩɥɟɫɧɟɜɵɯ ɝɪɢɛɨɜ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɵ ɢɧɢɰɢɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟ ɩɚɬɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɵ ɭ ɥɸɞɟɣ ɢ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɵɯ. ɗɬɨ ɹɜɥɟɧɢɟ, ɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɨ, ɫɜɹɡɚɧɨ ɫ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɢɟɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ Ʉɚɫɩɢɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɨɪɹ ɢ ɤɚɤ ɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɟ, ɩɨɞɬɨɩɥɟɧɢɟɦ ɛɟɪɟɝɨɜɨɣ ɡɨɧɵ ɜ ɞɟɥɶɬɟ ȼɨɥɝɢ.
ɋɟɡɨɧɧɚɹ ɫɭɤɰɟɫɫɢɹ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɚ ɞɥɹ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɚ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɨɜ ɢ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɨɞɧɢɦ ɢɡ ɜɚɠɧɵɯ
ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɟɣ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɢ ɦɢɤɪɨɛɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɟɝɨ ɩɪɢɫɩɨɫɨɛɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɤ
ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɦ ɟɝɨ ɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ, ɝɞɟ ɥɢɦɢɬɢɪɭɸɳɢɦ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɬɟɪɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɪɟɠɢɦ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɚ. ɂɦɟɧɧɨ ɨɧ
ɚɤɬɢɜɢɡɢɪɭɟɬ ɢɥɢ ɩɨɞɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɪɨɫɬ ɦɢɤɪɨɮɥɨɪɵ, ɨɛɭɫɥɚɜɥɢɜɚɹ ɟɟ ɫɟɡɨɧɧɭɸ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɭ, ɫ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɫɦɟɧɹɸɳɢɯ ɞɪɭɝ ɞɪɭɝɚ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɰɢɣ ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢɣ. Ɍɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɚ ɜɨɞɵ ɦɨɠɟɬ
ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɨɜɚɬɶ ɫɬɚɛɢɥɢɡɚɰɢɸ, ɪɨɫɬ ɢ ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɟɟ ɦɢɤɪɨɛɧɨɣ ɨɛɫɟɦɟɧɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ, ɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ,
ɜɫɟɯ ɟɟ ɨɛɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ ɝɢɞɪɨɛɢɨɧɬɨɜ.
Ɍɚɤ, ɞɨɦɢɧɢɪɭɸɳɢɟ ɜ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɢɪɭɟɦɨɦ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɟ ɷɧɬɟɪɨɛɚɤɬɟɪɢɢ ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɥɢ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɭɦɚ ɜ
ɫɜɨɟɦ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɢ ɥɟɬɨɦ ɢ ɪɚɧɧɟɣ ɨɫɟɧɶɸ (35,3 ± 0,8%) ɩɪɨɛ. ɋɢɦɩɬɨɦɚɬɢɱɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɩɢɤ ɤɢɲɟɱɧɵɯ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢɣ ɭ ɥɸɞɟɣ ɜ Ⱥɫɬɪɚɯɚɧɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɩɪɢɯɨɞɢɥɫɹ ɢɦɟɧɧɨ ɧɚ ɷɬɨ ɠɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ [2]. ɋɟɡɨɧɧɚɹ ɰɢɤɥɢɱɧɨɫɬɶ ɚɷɪɨɦɨɧɚɞ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɚ, ɩɪɟɠɞɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ, ɫ ɷɜɬɪɨɮɢɤɨɣ ɜɨɞɨɺɦɚ ɢ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨ-ɤɥɢɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɦ, ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɨɛɭɫɥɚɜɥɢɜɚɥ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɢɯ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ. Ɇɚɤɫɢɦɭɦ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢɣ
ɷɬɨɝɨ ɪɨɞɚ ɜ ɜɨɞɟ ɛɵɥ ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧ ɥɟɬɨɦ, ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɹ 23,5 ± 0,6% ɩɪɨɛ. ɋɪɟɞɢ ɜɵɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɚɷɪɨɦɨɧɚɞ
ɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɥɢ ɲɬɚɦɦɵ A. hydrophila (30,6 ± 0,9%) ɩɪɨɛ ɜ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɟ ɪɨɞɚ. ȼ ɧɚɲɟɦ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɟ ɚɷɪɨɦɨɧɚɞɧɵɟ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢɢ ɥɸɞɟɣ, ɨɛɭɫɥɨɜɥɟɧɧɵɟ A. hydrophilla, ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɥɢɫɶ ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦ ɥɟɬɨɦ [1, 7].
Ɉɛɪɚɳɚɟɬ ɧɚ ɫɟɛɹ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɹɪɤɚɹ ɫɟɡɨɧɧɚɹ ɰɢɤɥɢɱɧɨɫɬɶ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɧɟɮɟɪɦɟɧɬɢɪɭɸɳɢɯ ɩɫɟɜɞɨɦɨɧɚɞ ɢ ɮɥɚɜɨɛɚɤɬɟɪɢɣ ɫ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɭɦɨɦ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɜɟɫɧɨɣ ɢ ɨɫɟɧɶɸ – ɷɬɨ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɵ ɩɪɨɦɵɫɥɚ ɜ ɞɟɥɶɬɟ
ȼɨɥɝɢ. Ƚɪɚɦɩɨɡɢɬɢɜɧɚɹ ɮɥɨɪɚ – ɛɚɰɢɥɥɵ, ɤɨɤɤɢ, ɚ ɬɚɤ ɠɟ ɞɪɨɠɠɢ ɢ ɝɪɢɛɵ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɩɪɟɜɚɥɢɪɨɜɚɥɢ ɜɟɫɧɨɣ ɡɚ ɫɱɺɬ ɩɚɜɨɞɤɨɜɵɯ ɜɨɞ, ɧɚɫɵɳɟɧɧɵɯ ɜɡɜɟɲɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɜɟɳɟɫɬɜɚɦɢ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɢ ɧɟɨɪɝɚɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɩɨɞɬɨɩɥɟɧɢɹ ɛɟɪɟɝɨɜɨɣ ɡɨɧɵ, ɜɥɟɤɭɳɢɟ ɡɚ ɫɨɛɨɣ ɩɨɩɚɞɚɧɢɟ
ɩɨɱɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɮɥɨɪɵ ɜ ɜɨɞɧɭɸ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɭ. Ⱥɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧɧɵɣ ɩɪɟɫɫɢɧɝ ɧɚ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɭɸ ɫɪɟɞɭ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬ
ɤ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɸ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢɣ, ɚɤɬɢɜɢɡɢɪɭɹ ɢɯ ɚɞɚɩɬɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɵ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɫɨɩɪɨɜɨɠɞɚɸɬɫɹ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚɦɢ ɢɡɦɟɧɱɢɜɨɫɬɢ ɦɢɤɪɨɛɨɜ. ȼ ɩɟɪɜɭɸ ɨɱɟɪɟɞɶ – ɷɬɨ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɵ ɩɚɬɨɝɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɸɬ ɞɜɨɣɧɭɸ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɸ, ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɹ ɜɵɠɢɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɚɪɚɡɢɬɚ, ɤɚɤ ɜ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɦɟ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɜɨ ɜɧɟɲɧɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɟ [3]. ɋɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ, ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɟ ɩɚɬɨɝɟɧɧɵɯ ɫɜɨɣɫɬɜ ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢɣ, ɢɝɪɚɸɳɢɯ ɪɨɥɶ ɚɞɚɩɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ – ɧɟɨɬɴɟɦɥɟɦɚɹ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɦɢɤɪɨɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ.
Ƚɟɦɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ (ɮɟɧɨɦɟɧ Ʉɚɧɚɝɚɜɚ), ɬ.ɟ. ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶ ɦɢɤɪɨɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ ɪɚɡɪɭɲɚɬɶ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɷɪɢɬɪɨɰɢɬɵ – ɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ ɷɩɢɞɟɦɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢɣ ɞɥɹ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ. ȼ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɟ ɨɬ ɩɪɨɬɟɚɡɵ ɢ ɥɟɰɢɬɢɧɚɡɵ, ɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɸɳɢɯ ɭ ɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɲɬɚɦɦɨɜ ɦɢɤɪɨɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ,
ɝɟɦɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɨɛɥɚɞɚɥɢ ɜɵɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɟ ɢɡ ɜɨɞɵ ɜ 20,1 ± 0,7 ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ. ɋɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ,
ɧɟɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨ ɨɬ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵ, ɦɢɤɪɨɮɥɨɪɚ, ɩɟɪɫɢɫɬɢɪɭɸɳɚɹ ɜ ɜɨɞɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ ɞɟɥɶɬɵ ȼɨɥɝɢ, ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɺɧɧɭɸ ɷɩɢɞɟɦɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ ɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɶ ɞɥɹ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ.
Ɉɫɨɛɭɸ ɩɪɢɜɥɟɤɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɤɚɤ ɦɚɪɤɟɪ ɩɚɬɨɝɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɢɦɟɟɬ ȾɇɄɚɡɧɚɹ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɚɷɪɨɦɨɧɚɞ, ɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ ɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɠɞɟɧɚ ɟɺ ɛɥɢɡɤɚɹ ɤɨɪɪɟɥɹɰɢɹ ɫɨ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɜɵɡɵɜɚɬɶ ɩɚɬɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ
ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɵ ɭ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ [14]. ɉɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɵɟ ɧɚɦɢ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɥɢ, ɱɬɨ ȾɇɄɚɡɚ ɭ ɲɬɚɦɦɨɜ, ɜɵɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɢɡ ɜɨɞɵ, ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɚ ɜ 70,3 ± 0,6% ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ. ɋɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ, ɦɢɝɪɚɰɢɹ ɚɷɪɨɦɨɧɚɞ ɩɨ ɫɯɟɦɟ
ɜɨɞɚ – ɪɵɛɚ – ɜɨɞɚ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɩɨ ɩɢɳɟɜɵɦ ɡɜɟɧɶɹɦ ɢɥɢ ɜ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ ɛɢɨɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢ
ɚɛɢɨɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɢɯ ɜɨɞɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ. ɉɨ-ɜɢɞɢɦɨɦɭ, ɛɥɚɝɨɞɚɪɹ ɢɦɟɧɧɨ ȾɇɄɚɡɟ ɚɷɪɨɦɨɧɚɞɵ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɵ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨ ɚɞɚɩɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɤ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɦɭ ɪɵɛ, ɜɫɬɭɩɚɹ ɫ ɧɢɦɢ ɜ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟ
ɫɢɦɛɢɨɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ.
ɂɡɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɚɧɬɢɛɢɨɬɢɤɨɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɦɢɤɪɨɮɥɨɪɵ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɡɚɜɟɪɲɟɧɢɟɦ ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɢ, ɜɟɬɟɪɢɧɚɪɢɢ, ɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɵ. Ⱥɧɬɢɛɢɨɬɢɤɨɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɬɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɬɚɟɬɫɹ ɦɢɤɪɨɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɦɚɦɢ ɜ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɡɚɳɢɬɧɨɝɨ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɚ ɨɬ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɣ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ, ɨɛɭɫɥɨɜɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɬɟɯɧɨɝɟɧɧɵɦ ɩɪɟɫɫɨɦ [10]. ɇɚɲɢ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɥɢ, ɱɬɨ
ɦɢɤɪɨɮɥɨɪɚ, ɨɛɫɟɦɟɧɹɸɳɚɹ ɜɨɞɭ, ɨɛɥɚɞɚɥɚ ɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɚɧɬɢɛɢɨɬɢɤɨɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɬɧɨɫɬɶɸ. ȼɵɞɟ-
148
Ⱦɠɩɸɥɩɦɩɞɣɺ
Geoecology
əɞ ɋɩɬɬɣɣ: ɸɥɩɦɩɞɣɺ, ɫɛɢɝɣɭɣɠ. ʌ4, 2009
The South of Russia: ecology, development. ʋ4, 2009
ɥɟɧɧɵɟ ɦɢɤɪɨɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɦɵ ɩɪɨɹɜɥɹɥɢ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɭɸ ɱɭɜɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɤ ɥɟɜɨɦɢɰɟɬɢɧɭ 2,7 ± 0,2;
ɡɚɬɟɦ – ɤ ɬɟɬɪɚɰɢɤɥɢɧɭ –9,7 ± 0,4; ɫɬɪɟɩɬɨɦɢɰɢɧɭ -15,6 + 0,6; ɮɭɪɚɞɨɧɢɧɭ – 16,5 ± 0,4 ɢ ɚɦɩɢɰɢɥɢɧɭ – 79,5 ± 0,6% ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ. Ɇɢɧɢɦɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɱɭɜɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɭ ɜɫɟɯ ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢɣ ɛɵɥɚ ɡɚɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɚ ɤ ɛɟɧɡɢɥɩɟɧɢɰɢɥɥɢɧɭ – 96,0 ± 0,6%. ɋɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ, ɧɚɥɢɱɢɟ ɦɚɪɤɟɪɨɜ ɩɚɬɨɝɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɚɧɬɢɛɢɨɬɢɤɨɪɟɡɢɫɬɟɧɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɭ ɜɵɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɦɢɤɪɨɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ ɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɨɛ ɢɯ ɜɵɫɨɤɢɯ ɚɞɚɩɬɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɹɯ, ɱɬɨ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɢɦ ɞɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɩɟɪɫɢɫɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɜ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɚɯ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ
ɫɪɟɞɵ, ɬ.ɟ. ɜ ɜɨɞɟ ɢ ɝɢɞɪɨɛɢɨɧɬɚɯ.
ȼɣɜɦɣɩɞɫɛɯɣɲɠɬɥɣɤ ɬɪɣɬɩɥ
1. Ȼɨɣɤɨ Ⱥ.ȼ., ɉɨɝɨɪɟɥɨɜɚ ɇ.ɉ. ȼɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɬɟɯɧɨɝɟɧɧɵɯ ɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɟɧɢɣ ɧɚ ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚ ɜɨɞɨɟɦɨɜ // ɀɭɪɧ. ɦɢɤɪɨɛɢɨɥ., ɷɩɢɞɟɦɢɨɥ. ɢ ɢɦɦɭɧɨɥɨɝɢɢ. – 1998. ʋ6 – ɋ. 23-25. 2. Ȼɭɪɤɢɧ ȼ.ɋ., Ɇɚɪɢɧɢɧ ɂ.ɘ.,
Ɂɥɨɛɢɧɚ Ʌ.ȼ. ɇɨɜɵɣ ɜɡɝɥɹɞ ɧɚ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɭ ɤɢɲɟɱɧɵɯ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢɣ ɜ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɢɟɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ ɦɨɪɹ // Ɍɟɡ. ɞɨɤɥ.
Ɇɟɠɞ. ɤɨɧɮ. «Ʉɚɫɩɢɣ – ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɢ ɛɭɞɭɳɟɟ». – Ⱥɫɬɪɚɯɚɧɶ, 1995. – ɋ. 238-239. 3. Ȼɭɯɚɪɢɧ Ɉ.ȼ. ɉɟɪɫɢɫɬɟɧɰɢɹ ɩɚɬɨɝɟɧɧɵɯ ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢɣ. – Ɇ.: Ɇɟɞɢɰɢɧɚ, 1999. – 366 ɫ. 4. ȼɢɧɨɝɪɚɞɨɜɚ Ʌ.Ⱥ., ɉɚɪɯɨɦɱɭɤ Ɍ.Ʉ. Ʉɨɦɩɥɟɫɧɵɟ
ɫɚɧɢɬɚɪɧɨ-ɦɢɤɪɨɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɤɪɢɬɟɪɢɢ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɚɸɳɟɣ ɚɧɬɪɨɩɨɝɟɧɧɨɣ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ // Ƚɢɝɢɟɧɚ ɢ ɫɚɧɢɬɚɪɢɹ. – 1991, ʋ1. – ɋ. 24-26. 5. Ƚɨɥɭɛɟɜɚ ɂ.ȼ., Ʉɢɥɟɫɫɨ ȼ.Ⱥ., Ʉɢɫɢɥɟɜɚ
Ȼ.ɋ. ɗɧɬɟɪɨɛɚɤɬɟɪɢɢ. – Ɇ.: Ɇɟɞɢɰɢɧɚ, 1985. – 321. 6. ɀɢɥɤɢɧ Ⱥ.Ⱥ., Ʉɭɪɶɹɧɨɜɚ ɇ.ɇ. ɗɤɨɥɨɝɢɹ ɢ ɡɞɨɪɨɜɶɟ
ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ Ⱥɫɬɪɚɯɚɧɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ // Ɇ.: ɂɡɞ-ɜɨ «ɋɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɟ ɬɟɬɪɚɞɢ», 2005. – ɋ. 532-538. 7. ɀɭɪɚɜɥɟɜɚ
Ʌ.Ⱥ. Ɋɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɚɷɪɨɦɨɧɚɞ ɜ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɟ ɞɟɥɶɬɵ ȼɨɥɝɢ ɢ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɷɩɢɞɟɦɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ
ɡɚɛɨɥɟɜɚɧɢɣ, ɜɵɡɵɜɚɟɦɵɯ ɢɦɢ // Ⱥɜɬɨɪɟɮ. ɞɢɫ. … ɤɚɧɞ. ɦɟɞ. ɧɚɭɤ. – Ɇ., 1998. – 14 ɫ. 8. Ʌɚɪɰɟɜɚ Ʌ.ȼ. Ƚɢɝɢɟɧɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɩɨ ɦɢɤɪɨɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɹɦ ɪɵɛɵ ɢ ɪɵɛɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɨɜ ȼɨɥɝɨ-Ʉɚɫɩɢɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚ
// Ⱥɜɬɨɪɟɮ. ɞɢɫ. … ɞɨɤɬ. ɛɢɨɥ. ɧɚɭɤ. – Ɇ., 1998. – 44 ɫ. 9. Ʌɢɬɜɢɧ ȼ.ɘ. ɉɪɢɪɨɞɧɨ-ɨɱɚɝɨɜɵɟ ɢɧɮɟɤɰɢɢ: ɤɥɸɱɟɜɵɟ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɵ ɢ ɧɨɜɵɟ ɩɨɡɢɰɢɢ // ɀɭɪɧ. ɦɢɤɪɨɛɢɨɥ., ɷɩɢɞɟɦɢɨɥ. ɢ ɢɦɦɭɧɨɥɨɝɢɢ. – 1999. ʋ5. – ɋ. 26-33. 10.
Ɇɨɣɫɟɟɧɤɨ ɇ.ɇ. ɍɫɥɨɜɧɨ-ɩɚɬɨɝɟɧɧɵɟ ɛɚɤɬɟɪɢɢ ɜ ɦɨɪɫɤɨɣ ɜɨɞɟ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɡɨɧ // ɀɭɪɧ. ɦɢɤɪɨɛɢɨɥ., ɷɩɢɞɟɦɢɨɥ. ɢ ɢɦɦɭɧɨɥɨɝɢɢ. – 1994. ʋ1. – ɋ. 8-11. 11. Ɇɨɧɢɫɨɜ Ⱥ.Ⱥ., Ɍɭɬɟɥɶɹɧ ȼ.Ⱥ., ɏɨɬɢɥɟɱɟɧɤɨ ɋ.Ⱥ., Ɍɟɪɟɲɤɨɜɚ
Ʌ.ɉ. ɉɪɨɛɥɟɦɚ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɢɳɟɜɵɯ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɨɜ ɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ // ȼɨɩɪɨɫɵ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɹ. – 1994. ʋ3. – ɋ. 33-39. 12.
Ɉɛɭɯɨɜɚ Ɉ.ȼ. Ȼɚɤɬɟɪɢɨɰɟɧɨɡ ɜɨɞɵ ɢ ɫɭɞɚɤɚ (Stizostedion lucioperca) ɜ ɞɟɥɶɬɟ ȼɨɥɝɢ // Ⱥɜɬɨɪɟɮ. ɞɢɫ. … ɤɚɧɞ.
ɛɢɨɥ. ɧɚɭɤ. – Ɇ., 2004. – 23 ɫ. 13. ɉɨɥɭɧɢɧ ɂ.ɉ., Ɇɭɯɚɬɨɜ Ɍ.Ⱦ., ɘɲɤɨɜ ȼ.Ⱥ. ɉɪɨɛɥɟɦɚ ɩɨɞɴɟɦɚ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ Ʉɚɫɩɢɹ ɢ ɨɯɪɚɧɚ ɡɞɨɪɨɜɶɹ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ Ⱥɫɬɪɚɯɚɧɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ // Ɍɟɡ. ɞɨɤɥ. Ɇɟɠɞ. ɤɨɧɮ. «Ʉɚɫɩɢɣ – ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɢ ɛɭɞɭɳɟɟ». – Ⱥɫɬɪɚɯɚɧɶ, 1995. – ɋ. 76-80. 14. Cercenado E / Aeromonas // Euferm infecc. Y microbial clin. – 1989. –
74. ʋ2. – Ɋ. 61-63. 15. Ganthier M.J., Munro P.M., Flatan G.N., Clement R.L., Breittmayer V.A. Nouvelles, perspectives sur l,adaption des enterobacteries dans le milien marin // Mar. Lafe. – 1993. – 3. ʋ1-2. – Ɋ. 1-18.
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