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43
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):
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“… have been bought” !
, “been” !!!
:
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→
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82
83
“by”
… ( ) –
` !!!:
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æ
w
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òò
ò
ð
.
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the time he arrive
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w
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esterday BY
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»,
«
»
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:
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d/ ha
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d/ di
dn’t;
: have-ha
s/n’t; am - i
s - are/ am not - i
sn’t - aren’t
: will have/won’t have; will be/ won’t be; will/ won’t.
84
85
( !!!):
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: ↓ ↓
: ↓
Had / Hadn’tpaint
e
d
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n
Wasn’t / Weren’t
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:
Have / Has
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d
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n
Am not / Isn’t / Aren’t
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ill have”
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92
93
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dudark
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sh” “bush
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X–box
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S–buss
ES–
buz
Z–buzz
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cra
SH–crash
ES–
æ
da
SH–dash
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103
Just “
1 (one) bo
y
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1
2
1
3
1
4
1
boy
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5
1 girl
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“^
“^`
]^
“
MANY^
S`]
70” –
`
`]
LITTLE^`]
FEW”, –
U
106
107
&
10 ↓ ,
(
!!!)
]
s
”!
,
`
` ´ ,
2 “Two beer
s” – 2 2 2 “2 offee
s”,
“2 up
s ofoffee”).
* * *
108
109
“
´
”, “
”, “
” “
”
“
”, “
”, “
”
]
S
” !.
“
”
“
”
]
s
” !
]As-”
]
pen
A”- !.
- ]S”) 10
→ child→hildren
foot→feet´
goose→geese
louse→lice
mouse→mice
man→men
æ
woman→women
w
w
ox→oxen
penny→pencec
c
tooth→teeth
θ
θ
110
111
“children”
“
S
”,
“women”
`
!!!
8 :
“MEN” – “MICE”, “LICE”, “TEETH”,
“FEET” “PENCE”, “OXEN” –
– “GEESE” !
↑
!:
“My teeth ACHE” “Your men PLA
Y”
=?DA`
F=O`
'
←
´
!
↑
–
– !!!:
112
113
“I / you / we / they”
!)
!!!
1`
;K`
9A`M
6DAO`ð
9 Every day
our lever hildren
w
ð
(% )
wash their feet
. æ ð
θθ
θθ
θ
.
and brush their teeth.
w
Meanwhile
æw
men and women
help our
brave geese
,
( &)
hunt lie
living on our
. æ .
nie mie and oxen.
114115
ME–
YOU–
HIM–
HER–
œœ
IT–
US–
THEM–ð
, .
!:
]
^
`
`
U
“US^`
]h
IM^`
,
“HER” – ,
]th
EM^ ]you^]it” `
4:
“I”, “you”, “we”, “they^`!!!
!!!
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“”
, “”
, “9”
, “
Д
“
S”
–
– !!!:
I
read a lot of books.
Y
ou write verses.
W
e
work hard.
Y
ou
make mistakes.
They
like pies.
My friend
S
fix broken cars.
116
117
↓
(
( ):
I se HI
S dog –
– :
→ I see HI
M – We hear THE
IR voices.
W
ð
Ho: → We hear THE
M –
– W
ð
) I like IT
S color –
– : ´ ) → I like IT.
↑
↓
↑
↓
↑
↓
´
→ → → ↑ → → → ↑
!
→
“Hi
S” `]hi
” !
J
JU
“Hi
” – ´,
“Hi
S” – * * *
“TheM^]Their^` ,
“The
M^`
,
“Their” – (-) !.
118
119
“^`, “^`,
´
!
]” – ]” !.
:
, “It^
– ]
it” !!!:
)
)
) It
) }
)
– “HE” – “SHE” ,
“” – U
120
121
( .
.
.
.
.
.
) .
() .
↑
→ → → → → → ↓
´
) .
(-
) æ.
) .
) ŒŒ.
ŒŒ.
) .
/ .
/´).
↑
→ → → → → → ↓
Ð
.
(-
Ð
.
,
, …
]ship” – ]boat” – `
` – “she”.
* * *
:
,
!
“^]^
“^
– “^
122
123
“”, “”, “^]”
.
`
– “
S^ .
:
]
S^]
S^]
S^]
S?”
S:
“
S
“
S^^
(
* * *
“-s” ´
! –
– (
S) ,
` …!:
↑ → → → → → → ↓
5)
Hewrite
S
–
.
(
S)
Sheread
S
–
.
5
Itcrawl
S
–
.
5
?Who know
S?–
?
!
(
“He / She / It / Who?”
“
S”
(
!!!),
` !!! –
!!!
124
125
“My little dog
bark
S” “My dog
S
bark” –
`
]My dog^]”
“
S^
!!!
* * *
:
“My friend
live
S” “My friend
S
live” –
– ↑ “
S” !!!
"
!!!
“
S”
.
-S
,
!
↑
( )
“
S
” !!!
126
127
#
“
IF …” …
“… when …” … …, ,
“… until …” … …,
“… as soon as
…” … …,
“… as long as
…” … … ( …)
´
(“If … pla
y / play
S” “… play
e
D”) !!!:
I’ll leave IF he come
S !
’
!
“-E-” –
`:
]S” “-
E^
“I mi
ss you” → “She miss
E
s me”
“-
E-”
- ..! –
– → -.
↑
→ → → → → →
↓
5
He push
ES – .
5
She bless
ES –
– .
↑
→ → →
→ → →
↓
5
It buzz
ES – .
EII`U
128129
– 5,
`
`..!:
1- .: “S”
`
`→ 2- .: ]S^`
S / S
3- .:]’ S^
´
behind
!&!'
* * *
>ADE@`
5
( “-S”, “-S”, “ ’ S”, “-D” “-ING”) –
`,
,
130131
5- .:
` –
“ING”.
`
3!
a drink !).
3 :
1) “smok
ing” – );
2) “smok
ing” – );
3) (
“smok
ing” – ).
↑
]
1/^`
`
!
* * *
4- .:
]S^]D”
`
`
1) (
“paint
e
d” – );
2) “paint
e
d” – ):
æ.
I paint
e
D
a man.
:
æ.
A paint
e
D man.
.
He repaire
D
mybike.
:
.
My repaire
D
bike.
* * *
132
133
1 2
t
1 2
t
–
– “to”
1 2
t
,
1 2
t
,
“
to
”
* * *
1 2
J,
3
J “
to …” $
“to”.
,
,
)
/ òò
òò
ò
– “to”:
134
135
.
`
`
` → ),
– :
`
`!
]
English” !!!
* * *
:
,
– !
“
to
”
–
`
* * *
“
U^
`!!!
(:
òò
òò
ò
òò
òò
ò
.
I want to run nd to jump (UK).
I want to run and jump (US).
w
òò
òò
ò
æ .
136
137
: ``
:
U
…!
]BE” * * *
( ) !!!
“Be” – !
* * *
.
English
… → …,
! → !.
… → …,
… → ….
English 60% Grammar
!
→English → 138
139
→
`
`
..!!!
-`
!!!
↑ “
BE”:
“I AM …” ,
“… WILL BE …” ,
“WAS / WERE” `
* * *
%
…, … ]1OKMAJDAODAIDAEJ
!
`
`-
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!!!
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`U 140141
.
,
!!!
]have” – æ :
…
…!.
“
Æ
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Æ
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`
]
…”
!.
…, … –
` …!
* * *
&
… → … / I …:
`
`U …!
:
!!!
* * *
`
– :
* * *
``
:
!!!
142
143
“… HAVE …” –
– “GOT”
“Have got …”
`
– ´
: “I
’
ve got / He
’
s got”
..!
:
“
GOT a name?” – U
“… GOT …” !!!
1\LACJU`\UU
0A\ICJU`\UU
,
´
“HAVE / HAS → HAVE GOT / HAS GOT →
→ ’VE GOT / ’S GOT
→ GOT …” … … !!!
144
145
“
HA
VE”
“
^
…
→
: … …
“I have to
…” … (
),
“He haD to
…” …,
“I WILL have to
…” …,
– ..? – I have to go!
I
’
ve got to go! !
’
òò
òò
ò
! }
He has to stay!
He
’
s got to stay! ’
òò
òò
ò
! }
C`
IJ=O`
'
“have …”
(/ “have got …/ ’ve got …”),
,
,
U
… ) !!!
:
“have”
( “have got”, “has”, “has got”, “had”, “had got”,
“will have”)
“… to …”,
/
… … !!! “have to …/ has to …/ had to …/
will have to …/ ’ve got to …/ ’s got to …”
:
I
’
ve got to do it!
146
147
:
↓
]
J
…”,
]
J
…” –
`
`
→
]
(…
òò
òò
ò
)”
( to …).
“
to”
):
!
to
→
↓
→
òò
òò
ò
! –
`
* * *
to
I
’
ll want
them to buy this cat!
’
w
ð
òò
òò
ò
ð æ!
-.
t
…
(
:
1 2
…
òò
òò
ò
“I want her to …”.
1 2
e
:
“…want
wants
want
will want (. .) to wish / wishes / .
”
wished / will wish, (… me to …,
plan / plans / }
… him to …,
planned / will plan,… us to …, ).
#
148149
used)
← :
believe–
,
expect–
,
know–
,
presume–
,
suspect–
,
think–
θ
:
, to
!
θθ
θθ
θ
òò
òò
ò
æ
!
I think
him to be a good man!
, t
W
ð
òò
òò
ò
ò
.
We e
pect
them to come tomorrow.
↑
.
. !
´
t
…
me to …
t
…
you to …
t
…
him to … .
, t
… I think her to … .
t
…
it to …
t
…
us to …
t
…
them to …
!
↓ :
to) to .
(-.)
#
He thinks US to love him.
* * *
.
“ θ
òò
òò
ò
”`,
´
`
J
→
1 2
→
tj.
“to …” !
150151
:
(- !)
''
“
will” !
“will”
,
“
to
”
..:
U
UI will eat ...
U}
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.
3
:
´
U… …;
:
`
`
`
!:
´
`
.
* * *
“WILL^!) “shall” !!!
'
152
153
(
!!!)
!!!
“will” – ,
!!!):
1 1
,
! –
`
“… WILL BE …”
2!!!
“
W
ill
” – “be” !!!
– !!!
:
U
`
- “… WILL …” !!!.
* * *
“
WILL”.
* * *
, U
,
– “
will”
154
155
òò
òò
ò
òò
òò
ò
“
IF he come
S” – “If”-a
“W
ill
” !!!
* * *
òò
òò
ò
, …,
…, òò
òò
ò
:
“… see
S … / … take
S …” – “will
”
-
!!!
* * *
òò
òò
ò
òò
òò
ò
,
“
UNTIL
he washe
S / … sweep
S” et cetera,
He won’t go to play in the yard
UNTIL he washe
S the cat!
↑,
“will / won’t” !
:
“
IF …” …
“… when …”… …, ,
“… until …”… …,
“… as soon as
…”… …,
“… as long as
…”… … ( …)
“will / shall
”
.
↑
`
(“Pla
y / play
S”) !!!
156157
19 :
MY– YOUR– ///
HIS– HER– œœ
ITS– `
(
)
OUR– ///
THEIR– ð
(-)
– NO– U
ANY– SOME– THIS– ð
(.)
THAT– ðæ
(.)
EVERY– }
SUCH A– SUCH– .
THESE– ð
THOSE– ð
AN / A– æ / THE– ð %
"
99%
( )
19 . →
:
''
`
`
'
.
)
, , –
`
!!!
158159
“^]”
“
^
!
–
`
!!!.
, !
!!!.
* * *
:
1 2 3
- - :
!
;*1/075-5
UU´
'U
!!!
`
`
-
,
!!!
, , , ,
!!!
* * *
“… w
hite hand
” !!!
:
“MY / THIS / THAT / A / THE . white hand” !!!
160
161
19
]”
`
`
“My”, “your”, “no”, “the” “this”
!!!.
` !!!.
* * *
↑
!
!`
!
#
,
2 !!!
)
!!!
`
– !!!.
]JDEIOU^]JDADEIU^]=OU^
162
163
:
]Uno …” `
!
“… no …” `!
U.
` “
NO^`
]`^
NO
]
NO^`
!.
* * *
“I’m NO hild^]`
^`
`
]NO” `
]UNOU^
“” !.
* * *
$
“
NO ..!”.
NB 1.
“NO^
!!!
);
NB 2.
)
“no”,
!!!
* * *
164165
“”: “AN^]THE”
– “”,
`!.
:
”
” “ ” –
– U.
* * *
%
“AN / A”
A
H
“THE”
-/
´
-)
!
(
!!!).
166
167
,
!
–
`
!
* * *
1000%
“an/a” “the”:
//“
a girl/book/hand”,
//
“
the girl/book/hand”.
,
“an / a^]the” !!!
√
:
… / !
`
!!!)
a
book.
√√
√√
√ I’ve read
{
the
book.
` !
168
169
“
AN” , “An
” –
– ´!!!
* * *
“
AN” “apple
S
” ! –
`
!
* * *
“
AN” `
&
“A / AN” ,
´
!
,
!!!
170
171
!
– `
– --
* * *
“Apple
S
” “
THE
apple
S
”
“
pple
s”
:
“
An
apple
s” !
(!!!).
'
“
The”
´
,
“
The^
-/ ,
/ !!!
(←) “
THE
” –
`
* * *
172
173
,
, (-) ,
, , , (-) –
`
… !!!
]^]
”,
“^]
” “
”,
“
^`]
”, a “
^`]
”,
“
^`]
” !!!`!.
* * *
!
U
,
!!!:
I←→MY–
YOU←→YOUR–
HE←→HIS–, *
SHE←→HER–
œœ
IT←→ITS**–* *,
*
WE←→OUR–
THEY←→THEIR–ð
(-*).
!;
** 174175
“DO / DOE
S”, “DI
D” “WILL” !!!
. .
* * *
:
,
!!!
4 (“do / doe
s / di
d / will”),
!
* * *
, –
`
!!!
* * *
176
177
NB.
!!!
,
!!! –
– !!!
“Do / does / did will …” ` !!!
?
“DO”, “DOES”, “DID” “WILL” !.
– “
”
“
”
“
S”
,
– “
9”
`
`
* * *
178179
“”
]^
!
]U
will
…
!
” –
`!!!.
:
!!!
* * *
NB. !!!:
I DI
D come! * -» (“do … / do
es … / di
d …”)
«» «»:
!
I
diD
adoreyou!
.
´,
3 …
,
“… do …”, “… doe
s
…” “… di
d …”
!:
]I DO love!”, –
“He DOE
S
lLA^ “We DI
D love” –
`!!!
U
U
180181
3 ».
Give me! – ! !
DO give me! – ! ..!
Give me, now! – , !
» ,
!
» !
(
!).
«» «»,
“
DO …!” !!!).
,
»,
`“…, now!” `
“now” ..!
:
1. , «»
( !):
ð, !
T
ake this, darling!
↑ ]please”
(
«`
!):
Please
, take this, darling! Darling, take this
,
please!
:
!!! ð
!!! – Eat this !!!;
2. «» ( «“
Do …!!!”):
!!! ð
!!! – Do go there !!!;
3. , «
(
« “…, now !” –
`
.
“Now^ ðæ
, !!! Give me that money
, NOW !!!
182183
`
` ]fly”),
]fly”:
]I ame”)
→
↑
→ → → → ↑
→ → → → → → ↓
/ ]I DI
D ome!” –
↓ → → → → ↓
→ → → → ↑
`!!!
* * *
↓ ← ← ← ← ← ← ← ← ↑
œœ!
↑
I bet you DI
D
know her! !
M`
]AM^`
]U@E
@U^
!!!
“… di
d …”
(
)
!!!)
!!!
:
/-a!!! “I DI
D fly !!!”
↑
→ → → → → → ↑
184
185
“Do …/ Does …/ Did …” “Will …”
? –
`
!!!
..?
`
``
...?´
`
!!!
``
… ?
´
!!!
“
Do … ?/ Doe
s … ?”-
“
Di
d … ?”-
`]
W
ill ... ?^
* * *
!
"
(“Do / Doe
s / Di
d / Will …?”),
. . .
´
!
4 … ?
3 .
186
187
!!! –
– !.
“
… ?”, “
… ?”,
!!!
`!!!.
*
!!!
! !!!
´
&&
!:
1MDE
,1MDE
0M,I know him ?
188189
. :
?
)
↓
↓↓↓
WhereDI
D I put MY gloves?
↓ ↓→→→→↑?
/ ?
When WILL YOU read YOUR book?
?
Why DOE
SN’T HE wash HIS car?
?
How DOE
S SHE fix HER stockings?
/
/ )
?
Why DOE
S IT lick ITS paws?
?
What DO WE know about OUR parents?
?
Where DI
D THEY keep THEIR belongings?
)?
)?
Who?
Whom? Who?
Whose?
Where?
Where from?
What?
What for?
In what way?
Which (of)?
What kind of ... ?
What color ... ?
When?
Why?
How?
How come ... ?
How long?
How many?
How much?
How often?
... ever ... ?
`?
`? ?
`?
–W
?
–W
?
–W
?
–W
?
`M
M
?
–W
()?
–W
... ?
–W
?
–W
?
–W
?
`
?
`
... ?
`
... ?
`
?
`
?
`
?
... ... ?
“In what manner?” – w
æ?».
}
21 190
191
,
:
“Yes, I do !” – !
: “
HAVE
you …?” “Yes, I have !”, – !
,
“
COULD you do it?”, – .
“Yes, I could !”, – :
“No, I couldn’t !”, – !
.
…
↑ / “be”:
“
IS he there?”–“Yes, he is !” / “No, he isn’t”.
“
AM I a doctor?”–“Yes, I am !” / “No, I am not”.
“
WERE they here?”–“Yes, they were !” /
“No, they weren’t”.
“
WILL you be ...?”–“Yes, we will !” / “No, we won’t”.
“
WAS
it cold?”–“Yes, it was !” / “No, it wasn’t”.
192
193
.
UU
!
U
… – !
..!
, !!!`
… U !!!
“Don’t^
]doe
sn’t^
,
“Di
dn’t”
!
“
Won’t”
!
“I don’t know”.
S) `
S
“… don
’
t
U^→ “… doe
Sn’tU^
!!
4 (“Don’t /Doe
sn’t /Di
dn’t /Won’t … “),
. . .
.
4 … … ?
3 .
194
195
:
´
!
:
“DON’T^]DOE
SN’T^`
!!!
“DI
DN’T” – !!!
– “
WON’T^U
`
U …)
!!!
* * *
]Udi
D
n’tU^
,
,
“… don’t/doesn’t/didn’tU^`
“… won
’
t …”
!!!
* * *
196
197
:
]Don’t …^
* * *
“DI
DN’T you know?” “
WON’T you swim?”
– U
?, `
`]DON’T …?” !!!
* * *
“Don’t …
/ Doesn’t …
/ Didn’t …
/ Won’t …
”
!!!
198
199
”DON’T^]NO^` “DON’T^`]NO^
“NO^`U
* * *
“NO”
,
“DON’T”
– !
– “NO^
`
“DON’T^]”!.
↑]doe
sn’t/ di
dn’t/ won’t”!).
* * *
]
^
!"
!
“DON’T^]NO” !
200
201
“
no”,
“
no
” !
/“no”
“
ANY”
“don’t” – “don’t / doesn’t / didn’t / won’t”
`
“
ANY” – * * *
“There’s NO honey ANYwhere!”,
: “I do
N
’
T have ANY dog!” –
`
,
“
ANY …” !!!
* * *
]);^`
`
#%
!#
,
, )
– “ANY”.
]don’t”
-`]no” !
]didn’t” – ]U any …” “do
n
’
t …” – !
..!.
”
No
” “
any” – !!!
“DON’T^]ANY^``
` !!!.
↑]doe
sn’t/ di
dn’t/ won’t”!).
202
203
“ANY” – “ANY” “ANY” ,
: , “ANY” (
) -
“ANY” “Can you give me ANY money?”, –
`U
,
“ANY” !
!
* ( “an / a” “the”),
]any^`
“ANY” – 3 1)
“Any” , :
I can read ANY book * * *
2)
“Any” () -:
Do you have ANY money? (
)
-
?
* * *
3)
“Any” :
They do
n’
t buy ANY flowers 204
205
!, !,
`
`,
!!!
,
!!! –
– !!!
* * *
]Please^`
`
!!!
* * *
!$
,
–
– !:
DO this! / !
READ that book! !
PAY for me! 206
207
“Please” – :
“please”`
– !!!:
Please
,
give me ten dollars! Give me ten dollars
,
please!
!%
]please^
,
) –
– U
*
“please” ) !
208
209
,
]
DO … !” ,
“
DON
’
T … !” ]DO^]DON’T^
!!!
* * *
! “
DO
give me, now!”.
! “
DO
pay me!” –
English U
]
DON
’
T
do it!” – ↓
← ← ← ↑ ← ← ← ↑
Do
n
’
t make any mistakes! * * *
NB. !!!
!&
→
↓
↓
…! – “DO …!”
…! – “DON’T …!”,
!
210211
4
»,
1
“
Don
’
t …!” 2. “Don’t”
→“DO not …!” !
»*,
3. “
Don
’
t you …!!!” »:
4. “Don’t you ever …!!! ”!
«
`↑ !
:
1. «»:
!
DON
’
T
do it!
2. «»:
! !
Do
N
O
T do it
!
3. :
! Don
’
t
YOU do it!
4. «»:
! Don
’
t you EVER do it
!
↑»
: “…, asshole!” – æU.
212213
1) …, U`
“
him^
;
2) ,
3) “
to
”:
Hehear
s
her
cough.
œ
œ
.
↑
]J^
`
#
↑ 8 ,
make
let
see
hear
feel
notice
observe
watch
– – – – – – – œœ
– w
«»,
↑
}
!'
↓
214215
&
.
``
, , !
!
``
(
)
!.
* * *
&:
…, …; …, … … me …
…, …; …, … … you …
…, …; …, … … you …
…, …; …, … … him …
.
…, …; …, … … her …
…, …; …, … … it …
…, …; …, … … us …
…, …; …, … … you …
…, …; …, … … them …
&
,
↓ ,
–
`
3-!:
“
MAKE” “
LET …” - ()!
“
SEE” “
HEAR”, “
FEEL” “
NOTICE” ↑ e
“
OBSER
VE” “
W
A
TCH” !!!
↑
!!!
. !!!
!“T
o
” ! ` … !
216217
"
(“
lean onU^
…),
(“
fall in love with …” …)!
* * *
:
!, –
– !
.
NB-.
← 8
]to
” –
`
!!!
…, … …, …
→
↓
↑
→ → → → → → → →
↓
↓
→
↓
↓
→ I see him swim.
M
:
→
→ We hear them quarrel.
9
ð
M
218
219
,
-
!!!
* * *
…, …
– “join …”, ]enter …”
`
..!!!
* * *
– “
speak English”
(
“in
”.!!!).
`
…
,
(
...
– ..!
– !
´`
* * *
220221
,
,
(
),
´
!
`
`
“pull” , ,
“Pull over” !!!
–
`
,
– - – :
!
-`
:
“
W
ait FOR boys” – -
–
]wait” – C
:
: “
W
ait FOR ” !;
222
223
.
`
–
`
* * *
` !!!
`!
!
!!!
´
U
U
U
U
U
/
U
U I/he SHOULD …
U
( U
U
…
/…
U
U
/U
/U
/U
//
/U I/he/she COULD …
/- () … ( /() …
/() …
/() …
224
225
– !
´
!!!
(
“S
”, “D
”, “ING
”),
“T
o
” !!!
!!!:
“I don
’
t
can
” !!!
* * *
“I will must
!” – * * *
– !
– too !
]Uto
…” !!!
"
1) –
( “-s
/ -
d
/ -
ing
”)
;
2) ( ) –
– –
“to
”;
3) " (“do/ does/ did/ will
”)
;
4) ,
,
.
* * *
226227
“WOULD” UU
“
W
ould”-a
!!!).
“SHOULD” “Should” – “Should” – ` !
– , – “NEEDN’T” …,
“NEEDN’T” …
“Needn’t” – !!!
, , `
– “ ’d rather …” “ ’d better …”
!
13 –
`
:
“CAN” …, “COULD” …,
“MIGHT” , … (?),
“MAY”, “MAY N
OT”
“OUGHT” “MUST” –
– U:
“OUGHT” `!, “MUST”`!
`
“WILL” “SHALL” `
(“Will”`
`
“SHALL” – !),
!
'
228
229
13 –
`
..!
*
4
U:
“OUGHT to”, “MIGHT” “SHALL” “NEEDN’T”
– 4 !
*
* ]King’s English”
)
]Queen’s English”
).
“ ’
d “ ( “ ’
“) –
– :
“
…
’d rather …” “
…
’d better …”
K
1
\
@
H=JDAHC
* * *
“would”
-a `
“would”
“no´t”
,
U
“Wouldn’t”
`
):
“… wouldn’t …” …,
U
U
5DA
MK@
\
JM=ID@EIDAI
* * *
M=ID`M
@EIDAI`
230
231
`
`
` English
Word for word
( ):
→ I want
→ I have no tim
→ I’m cold
→ I feel pain
→ I’m afraid
U→ U I need …
U→ U I need …
U→ U I don’t need
U→ U I don’t need
U→ U I like …
→ I can’t see!
→ I can’t hear!
U→ U I may …
U→ U I may not …
U→ U I should …
U→ U I should not
U → U I should ...
U → U
U I should not …
,
!!!
… …:
,
`
“
…” `!
!:
“
I may …”, “
I should …”, “
I needn’t …” –
– !!!
* * *
232
233
“Do / does / did
” –
!!!
!!!
,
`
!!!:
!!!
`
!!!
`
!
!
“
T
o
…” – !!! , “
S
” – !!!
– !!!.
* * *
.
`
,
(“Do – don’
t / Does – doesn’
t / Did – didn’
t / W
ill – won’
t
”).
:
“I don
’
t
must
” “Do
you an
…?” !!!
:
“I must not” “an you …?”.
( ]not”,
]n’t”
:
“I must
n
’
t”, “You a
n
’
t” ..
:
“Can you …?”, “Should she …?” .).
234
235
“MUST”
→ “
HAVE
to …” ,
“CAN” – → “
BE ABLE to …”, a “MAY”
“
BE ALLOWED” U
“will”
“… be allowed” “… be able”,
: “
have to …” `
…
U`
“be / have” → “
WAS
/WERE / HAD” !!!
!
* * *
“NEED
N
’
T” !
`
“
DON
’
T NEED to …” !!!
doesn’t …
… didn’t …
… won’t …
———–
↑
!!!
"
,
→.
`
!!!
“I will
can
” !!!
..!).
:
“I will
be” “He will
have” –
`
]*A^]D=LA^`
236
237
“must”
-a !
“… MUST … !^ – “must”
-a – “have” :
“… have
to sleep!” :
“must”
-a “HAVE” –
“
ave”→ “I haD toU^
…,
“… WILL
have to …” !
! “BE .”
. “
to” !):
“I
’
m
to go!”, “He
’
s
to swim” –
` ]be toU^
"
U]
SHOULD”,
!).
#“
OUGHT to …” `
* * *
" 5
… … (- ).
3
,
2`
( ):
Must …
Have to …
{
Be to … …
Should … }
{
Ought to …
↑
238
#
.
"!
:
/ “” ,
“will
”,
“
WOULD” !!!
,
]willome^
]will^
→
“would …”
`
`
, !
Yesterday he sai
D that he WOULD
come!
ðæ W
!
241
1
!:
* * *
11
“I”
`
´
:
“
I” !
242
243
.
)
`
`
–
– ;
* * *
)
!
´
…
U´
!`
* * *
)
, ,
-,
!!!;
* * *
111
.
)
1) 2) 3) ! …
!:
1 2
“I see you!” !!!
´
)
…, … ,
;
)
!!!
244245
“WITH” “BY” –
: – !
!
`
“
BY” – “
WITH” – ()
“The book is written only BY HIM !” ! !
“
I was deceived WITH that bloody
PLOY” …
( …)
MEJD`M
ð?
>O`
MHEJJA`
O`
@A?AELA`
FO`
18
“OF”
, “TO”
, “BY”
“WITH”
,
.
4 :
“with”, “to”, “of”, “by” – H ´!
!).
“
OF” – o “
OF”) !
“
T
O”
`
`
(“TO him”
, “me”
–
– $ 246247
:
I have to go! – æ
òò
òò
ò
! * * *
3) “will” – w:
-
- “… will be (-)
”,
{
-
“… will do (etc.)”:
I will be a good father.
I will run – ;
* * *
4) “would” – w:
- “
would become …”,
{
“would do …
(etc.)
”:
I would become a doctor.
w
.
I would buy houses.
w
.
* * *
8
4
1)“make” – :
c …,
MAKE {
…:
Make a bed– .
ake a fire– .
ake money– :
I
will makeyouunderstandthis!
w
æð!
* * *
2) “have” – æ:
…,
HAVE {
to …:
I have a lot of friends .
æ
.
248
249
81
]IF …”
…,
“… WERE …”
`M
œœ
“was
”):
? –
`U:
“IF” …,
“… WERE …” “… was
…” !!!
…
IF
I/he/she/it
WERE
there, …
///
W
œ
œ
ð
, …
4 ↑
”Make” ,
“Make” !!!
* * *
“Have” !,
“Have” . : ´ !!!:
* * *
- “
W
ill be -”,
“Will .” !
↑ ´
,
“
W
ill be” English ` !
* * *
“…
would
come”!
- “… would become
…”!
… w
…
250251
8111
“… AND …”:
AND
AND U
↑“
AND” !
U … !!!
* * *
811
“IF …”
…,
“
will / shall
” !!!
,
]
If …” …,
“W
ill
” !!!:
, … “
IF he paint
S me” – ..!
, … “
IF he paint
E
D me” – ! …
!
252
253
, , , … –
`
↑ “
S” !!!
#
!!!
1:
´
:
“hundred”`
,
“thousand”`
θ
,
“million”`
“billion”`
:
$ 500.000 Five hundre
D thousan
D dollar
S.
,
↑
:
6DKI=@
5BCKAIJ
I
254
255
!
,
`
* * *
´
`
* * *
:
() , () ,
() () “… hundred”, “… thousand”,
“… million” “… billion”
“a …” !
`
`
: :
256
257
–
– “
be^
→ ,
→ ,
→ …
`
“be^
.
“Am / is / are / was / were / will be”-
B
U`
!:
be anxious æ
-) be afraid (of)
( …)
be sared (
of)
( …)
:1
,
,
`
258259
be jealous be angry æ
be sorry for … …
be sorry about … …
be in a hurry U be razy about … …
be in a hurry be hungry be thirsty θ
œœ
.. be asleep U be in for … …
be tired * * *
be in U
be bak æ
be out be exhausted be over be aware (of …) w
(…)
be on -) be in love with …
w
ð …
be silent be able to …
U
be about be nervous œœ
be late .. be well away w
w
be absent æ
be away w
be after be present be hungry be upset 260
261
“MINE
”`
“
MY
” – “MY” “MI
NE”, “HER” “HER
S”
* * *
YOUR
Read MY
book
, HIS
U`
`
:
“I’ve read YOUR
S, so now take MI
NE!
Read! – ”.
* * *
“My”, “your”,
“His”, “her”, “our” “their”!
“i
ne”, “your
s”, “her
s”, “their
s”
!
* * *
:11
(I.)
( ),
`
– (II.) !!!:
I. II.
:
MY– MI
NE– , YOUR– YOUR
S– HIS– HIS– HER– œœHER
S– œœ
, ITS– ITS– OUR– OUR
S– THEIR– ð
THEIR
S– ð
This is MY tie ! – This tie is MINE !
– ! – – !
262263
:18
“There is … there.”
( …, …,
… )
“There …”
“… there.” “… here.”
THERE IS
,
THERE IS
.
`
* * *
1 2
…,
, , , ´
,
Ð
’
… 2 1
:111
,
)
“
to …” !!!
]you”,
a “
to
you”
`
òò
òò
ò
!!!).
“I will give
him …” – !
:
“I will give this book to
him” !
↑
(“give^ (“you”)
… … –
` ..!
264
265
“
IT
’
S ’
ing!”, “
IT
’
S ’
ing!”, “
IT
’
S
’
ing!”,
“
IT
’
S stupid!”, – – “
IT
’
S ” .
* * *
“
It
’
s
rain
ing!”
“
It
’
s
hail
ing!”
“
It
’
s
snow
ing
, ^`
* * *
:8
, , “It’s ”
(
]ing^
*
– `
“
BE”
(“
It is / was / will be …”
`
` ""
266
267
← ,
, ´,
]BE”:
“AM / IS / ARE” !!!
“WAS” “WERE” !!!
]
WILL BE^
!!!`
«, …»
«, ...».
, , , , -,
/ …» …
English: !», –
!
English
!
!):
: “THEY say …”,
: “THEY write …” !!!:
/ , () `
Ð
/ (ðæ) æ!
THEY say
/ write (that) he is mad!
268
269
.
Grammar – (U
U
“True” → “
UN
true”, “cloud” → “cloud
Y
” –
`
“Brain” “brain
LESS”, “bright” “bright
L
Y” –
` !!!
.
,
!),
´
`
– .
1. “UN
” – -…
]
UNhappy” – æ ;
2. “
.LESS” – -…/ -…
“heartless” – );
3. “
.Y” – -
]wind
Y” – w
);
4. “
LY” – -
]tender
L
Y” – );
5. “.FUL” – -, -.
270
271
.
1.
Popular→
unpopular – .
→
“UN-” - - :
Tie→ untie – .
→ 2.
Thought→thought
less – θ
.
→
3.
Cloud→cloud
y – .
→
;
4.
Eager→eagerly – .
→
;
5.
Thought→thought
ful – θ
oo
.
, →
1. - –
`
“
UN
-”,
2. - - –
` “-
LESS” !
3. . -→ `
`
“
Y”
!!!
4. U`
`
.
“-
L
Y”
!!!
5. ???
???
– ??? –
– . “-
FUL” !!!
272273
(II) I:→ II: .:
→I was born `
→Stronger than me.
→ !
Let him do it
→ ...I have ...
→ …I’ve got …
→ ...He has ...
→ …He’s got
– No, I DIDN’T DO that ...
→
I was punishe
d `
→
He was offende
d `
1 2 3
→ \ =
My mother’s flat.
→ (-).
I want to be rewarde
d.
M
→ I will be an artist `
U→ () …
I will be able (to) …
–
«.»
– 19 !,
`
3 !:
MY
YOUR
HIS
HER
ITS
OUR1. . THEIR
NO
ANY }
SOME
THE
AN / A
THIS
THAT2. . . .
EVERY }
SUCH A
SUCH
THESE3. . . .
THOSE }
274275
`
`
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θ
…→ () (-) …
I have bough
t … `
→ .
I should go.
.
I’d like to eat an apple;
2) .
I should eat an apple.
→ I was tol
d … `
→ I want (to) ...
→ / ...
I like (to) ... `
————————————————————————————————
7 «
-:
=first–
œœ
=second–
=third–
θ
œœ
=fifth–
θ
=eighth–
θ
=ninth–
θ
=twelfth–w
θ
* * *
276277
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