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Методы снижения влияния многолучевости на качество спутниковой навигации для обеспечения точного захода на посадку.

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2015
ɇȺɍɑɇɕɃ ȼȿɋɌɇɂɄ ɆȽɌɍ ȽȺ
ʋ 222
ɍȾɄ 621.396.96
ɆȿɌɈȾɕ ɋɇɂɀȿɇɂə ȼɅɂəɇɂə ɆɇɈȽɈɅɍɑȿȼɈɋɌɂ
ɇȺ ɄȺɑȿɋɌȼɈ ɋɉɍɌɇɂɄɈȼɈɃ ɇȺȼɂȽȺɐɂɂ
ȾɅə ɈȻȿɋɉȿɑȿɇɂə ɌɈɑɇɈȽɈ ɁȺɏɈȾȺ ɇȺ ɉɈɋȺȾɄɍ
Ƚ.ȼ. ɄɊɂɇɂɐɄɂɃ, Ɇ.Ⱦ. ɅȿɈɇɈȼȺ, ȿ.ɇ. ɘɊȺɋɈȼȺ
ȼ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɚɧɨ ɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɨ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɜ, ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɧɚ ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ ɦɧɨɝɨɥɭɱɟɜɨɫɬɢ
ɧɚ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɫɩɭɬɧɢɤɨɜɨɣ ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɢ, ɨɞɧɚɤɨ ɧɢ ɨɞɢɧ ɢɡ ɧɢɯ ɧɟ ɝɚɪɚɧɬɢɪɭɟɬ ɟɟ ɩɨɥɧɨɝɨ ɭɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ. ȼ ɞɚɧɧɨɣ
ɫɬɚɬɶɟ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɧɵɣ ɦɟɬɨɞ ɛɨɪɶɛɵ ɫ ɦɧɨɝɨɥɭɱɟɜɵɦ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɟɦ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɨɜ, ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɳɢɣ
ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɜ ɢ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɸɳɢɣ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɬɶ ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɭɸ ɩɨɫɚɞɤɭ
ɫɚɦɨɥɟɬɨɜ.
Ʉɥɸɱɟɜɵɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ: ɫɩɭɬɧɢɤɨɜɚɹ ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɹ, ɚɜɢɚɰɢɹ, ɧɚɡɟɦɧɚɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɹ, ɦɧɨɝɨɥɭɱɟɜɨɟ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɨɜ, ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟ ɪɚɡɧɟɫɟɧɢɟ ɚɧɬɟɧɧ.
ȼȼȿȾȿɇɂȿ
ȼ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɜɧɟɞɪɟɧɢɟ ɧɚɡɟɦɧɵɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɣ (GBAS) ɫ ɰɟɥɶɸ ɭɥɭɱɲɟɧɢɹ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɫɩɭɬɧɢɤɨɜɵɯ
ɫɢɫɬɟɦ (Ƚɇɋɋ). GBAS ɩɪɟɞɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɚ ɞɥɹ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɜ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɯ ɩɨɫɚɞɤɢ ɫɚɦɨɥɟɬɨɜ ɞɥɹ
ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɢɹ ɬɨɱɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɩɨɥɧɨɬɵ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ ɨ ɩɨɡɢɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɢ (ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɡɚɦɟɧɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ILS).
Ɋɚɛɨɬɚ ɧɚɡɟɦɧɵɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɣ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɚ ɧɚ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɟɦ
ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɟ: ɚɧɬɟɧɧɵ ɨɩɨɪɧɵɯ ɩɪɢɟɦɧɢɤɨɜ ɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɜ ɬɨɱɧɨ ɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɵɯ ɦɟɫɬɚɯ,
ɢ ɩɨ ɢɡɦɟɪɟɧɧɵɦ ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɦ ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɚɦ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɜɵɱɢɫɥɟɧɢɟ ɞɢɮɮɟɪɟɧɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ
ɩɨɩɪɚɜɨɤ ɩɨ ɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɬɚɦ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɩɨ ɪɚɞɢɨɤɚɧɚɥɭ ɩɟɪɟɞɚɸɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɜɨɡɞɭɲɧɨɟ
ɫɭɞɧɨ (ȼɋ).
Ɍɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɤ ɧɚɡɟɦɧɵɦ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɹɦ ɞɥɹ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɣ ɩɨɫɚɞɤɢ ȼɋ ɪɟɝɥɚɦɟɧɬɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɣ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɟɣ ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɫɤɨɣ
ɚɜɢɚɰɢɢ ICAO.
Ɉɞɧɚ ɢɡ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɢɯ ɩɨɝɪɟɲɧɨɫɬɢ ɢɡɦɟɪɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɨɜ
ɜɵɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɬɚɤ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɦɨɣ ɦɧɨɝɨɥɭɱɟɜɨɫɬɶɸ («multipath»). Ɉɧɚ ɨɛɭɫɥɨɜɥɟɧɚ ɢɧɬɟɪɮɟɪɟɧɰɢɟɣ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɨɜ, ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟɦɵɯ ɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɨɬ ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɤɨɫɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ
ɚɩɩɚɪɚɬɨɜ (ɇɄȺ) ɢ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɨɜ ɇɄȺ, ɨɬɪɚɠɟɧɧɵɯ ɨɬ ɩɪɟɞɦɟɬɨɜ, ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɯ ɜɛɥɢɡɢ
ɩɪɢɟɦɧɨɣ ɚɧɬɟɧɧɵ ɚɩɩɚɪɚɬɭɪɵ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɢɬɟɥɹ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɨɬ ɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɟɣ, ɝɨɪɧɵɯ
ɦɚɫɫɢɜɨɜ ɢ ɬ.ɩ.
Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɵɟ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɞɥɹ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɧɨɜɟɧɢɹ ɦɧɨɝɨɥɭɱɟɜɨɝɨ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɚ: ɪɚɡɧɨɫɬɶ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ ɩɪɢɯɨɞɚ ɩɪɹɦɨɝɨ ɢ ɨɬɪɚɠɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɚ ɞɨɥɠɧɚ ɛɵɬɶ ɦɟɧɶɲɟ ɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɚ ɩɫɟɜɞɨɫɥɭɱɚɣɧɨɣ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ (ɞɥɹ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɨɜ Ƚɇɋɋ ɩɪɢ ɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɧɨɣ ɬɨɱɧɨɫɬɢ
ɞɚɧɧɚɹ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɚ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ 2 ɦɢɤɪɨɫɟɤɭɧɞɵ), ɚ ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɞɨ ɨɬɪɚɠɚɸɳɟɝɨ ɩɪɟɞɦɟɬɚ ɧɟ
ɞɨɥɠɧɨ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɩɪɟɜɨɫɯɨɞɢɬɶ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɵ ɨɬɪɚɠɚɸɳɟɝɨ ɬɟɥɚ ɢ ɪɚɞɢɭɫ ɤɪɢɜɢɡɧɵ ɨɬɪɚɠɚɸɳɟɝɨ ɬɟɥɚ ɜ ɬɨɱɤɟ ɨɬɪɚɠɟɧɢɹ. ɋɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ, ɦɧɨɝɨɥɭɱɟɜɨɫɬɶ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɟɬ ɢɡ-ɡɚ ɨɬɪɚɠɟɧɢɹ
ɨɬ ɤɪɭɩɧɨɝɚɛɚɪɢɬɧɵɯ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ.
Ɉɲɢɛɤɢ, ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɟ ɫ ɦɧɨɝɨɥɭɱɟɜɨɫɬɶɸ, ɛɟɡ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɜ
ɛɨɪɶɛɵ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɬɶ ɡɚɦɟɬɧɨɣ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɵ, ɩɪɟɜɵɲɚɹ ɜɫɟ ɨɫɬɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɢɟ ɩɨɝɪɟɲɧɨɫɬɢ [1]. Ⱦɢɮɮɟɪɟɧɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɪɟɠɢɦ ɫɩɭɬɧɢɤɨɜɨɣ ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɢ ɧɟ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɭɫɬɪɚɧɢɬɶ
ɩɨɝɪɟɲɧɨɫɬɶ, ɜɵɡɵɜɚɟɦɭɸ ɩɟɪɟɨɬɪɚɠɟɧɢɹɦɢ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɚ, ɜ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɟ ɨɬ ɩɨɝɪɟɲɧɨɫɬɟɣ, ɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɸɳɢɯ ɩɪɢ ɩɪɨɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɢ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɚ ɫɤɜɨɡɶ ɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɭ.
Ɇɟɬɨɞɵ ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ ɦɧɨɝɨɥɭɱɟɜɨɫɬɢ…
99
ɉɈɋɌȺɇɈȼɄȺ ɁȺȾȺɑɂ ɂ ɆȿɌɈȾɕ Ɋȿɒȿɇɂə
ɉɨɝɪɟɲɧɨɫɬɢ, ɨɛɭɫɥɨɜɥɟɧɧɵɟ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟɦ ɦɧɨɝɨɥɭɱɟɜɨɫɬɢ, ɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɸɬ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɧɚ ɧɚɡɟɦɧɨɣ ɞɢɮɮɟɪɟɧɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɩɨɞɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ, ɧɨ ɢ ɜ ɛɨɪɬɨɜɨɣ ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɚɩɩɚɪɚɬɭɪɟ. ɗɬɢ ɩɨɝɪɟɲɧɨɫɬɢ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɫɧɢɡɢɬɶ ɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦ ɜɵɛɨɪɚ ɦɟɫɬɚ ɪɚɡɦɟɳɟɧɢɹ ɚɧɬɟɧɧɵ ɧɚ ɤɨɪɩɭɫɟ ɫɚɦɨɥɟɬɚ.
Ʉɨɪɩɭɫ ɭɱɚɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɜ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɞɢɚɝɪɚɦɦɵ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɚɧɬɟɧɧɵ, ɪɚɡɦɟɳɟɧɧɨɣ ɧɚ ɟɝɨ
ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ.
ɋɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɦɟɬɨɞɵ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɹ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ ɦɧɨɝɨɥɭɱɟɜɨɫɬɢ, ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɧɵɟ ɧɚ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɟ ɮɨɪɦɵ ɜɡɚɢɦɧɨ ɤɨɪɪɟɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ (ȼɄɎ). ɉɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɚɧɨɦɚɥɢɣ ɜ ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɦ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɟ
ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬ ɤ ɢɫɤɚɠɟɧɢɸ ɮɨɪɦɵ ɩɢɤɚ ȼɄɎ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɨɝɨ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɚ ɢ ɨɩɨɪɧɨɝɨ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɚ ɜ ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɦ ɩɪɢɟɦɧɢɤɟ [2].
Ⱦɥɹ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɥɢɱɢɹ ɨɬɪɚɠɟɧɧɵɯ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɨɜ ɩɪɢ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɟ ȼɄɎ ɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɬɪɢ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɚ [3]:
‫ܧ‬௜ െ ‫ܮ‬௜
ǡ
ʹήܲ
‫ܧ‬௜ ൅ ‫ܮ‬௜
ܶ‫ܥ‬௜ ൌ
ǡ
ʹήܲ
‫ܮ‬௜
ǡ
ܴ‫ܥ‬௜ ൌ
ʹήܲ
ܵ‫ܥ‬௜ ൌ
(1)
(2)
(3)
ɝɞɟ ୧ – ɫɢɦɦɟɬɪɢɹ ɩɢɤɚ ȼɄɎ; ୧ – ɨɬɤɥɨɧɟɧɢɟ ɮɨɪɦɵ ȼɄɎ ɨɬ ɬɪɟɭɝɨɥɶɧɨɣ; ୧ – ɨɬɤɥɨɧɟɧɢɟ ɨɬɫɱɟɬɨɜ ȼɄɎ ɨɬ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɧɵɯ; i – ɫɦɟɳɟɧɢɟ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɫɟɪɟɞɢɧɵ ȺɄɎ; P – ɫɟɪɟɞɢɧɚ
ɩɢɤɚ ȺɄɎ; ୧ – ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɤɨɪɪɟɥɹɰɢɢ, ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɟ ɫɦɟɳɟɧɢɸ i ɞɨ ɤɨɪɪɟɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɢɤɚ;
୧ – ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɤɨɪɪɟɥɹɰɢɢ, ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɟ ɫɦɟɳɟɧɢɸ i ɩɨɫɥɟ ɤɨɪɪɟɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɢɤɚ.
ɇɚ ɪɢɫ. 1 ɩɨɤɚɡɚɧɵ ɬɢɩɨɜɵɟ ɬɨɱɤɢ ɢɡɦɟɪɟɧɢɣ ɧɚ ɜɟɪɲɢɧɟ ɤɨɪɪɟɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɢɤɚ ɩɪɢɟɦɧɢɤɚ [4].
Ɋɢɫ. 1. Ʉɨɪɪɟɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɵɣ ɩɢɤ ɢ ɢɡɦɟɪɟɧɧɵɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɤɨɪɪɟɥɹɬɨɪɚ [4]
ȼ [5] ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɦɟɬɨɞ ɛɨɪɶɛɵ ɫ ɨɬɪɚɠɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɚɦɢ, ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɧɵɣ ɧɚ ɩɨɜɬɨɪɹɟɦɨɫɬɢ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɣ ɩɨɝɪɟɲɧɨɫɬɢ, ɜɵɡɜɚɧɧɨɣ ɦɧɨɝɨɥɭɱɟɜɨɫɬɶɸ, ɞɥɹ ɩɨɜɬɨɪɹɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɬɪɚɟɤɬɨɪɢɣ
ɩɨɥɟɬɚ ɇɄȺ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɚ. ɉɨ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɚɦ ɦɧɨɝɨɫɭɬɨɱɧɵɯ ɢɡɦɟɪɟɧɢɣ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɫɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɩɨɝɪɟɲɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɯɨɞɚ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɨɜ. ȼ ɞɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɟɦ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɭɸ
ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶ ɜ ɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ ɞɥɹ ɤɨɪɪɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɤɢ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɨɜ ɫ ɭɱɟɬɨɦ
ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɯɨɞɚ ɇɄȺ.
Ⱦɚɧɧɵɣ ɦɟɬɨɞ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɟɧ ɞɥɹ ɫɬɚɰɢɨɧɚɪɧɨɝɨ ɧɚɡɟɦɧɨɝɨ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɹ,
ɧɨ ɜ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɦɨɛɢɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɚ ɢɫɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɹ, ɩɪɢ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɛɵɫɬɪɨɝɨ
ɪɚɡɜɟɪɬɵɜɚɧɢɹ, ɦɧɨɝɨɫɭɬɨɱɧɵɟ ɢɡɦɟɪɟɧɢɹ ɨɬɪɚɠɟɧɧɵɯ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɨɜ ɧɟ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɦɢ.
100
Ƚ.ȼ. Ʉɪɢɧɢɰɤɢɣ, Ɇ.Ⱦ. Ʌɟɨɧɨɜɚ, ȿ.ɇ. ɘɪɚɫɨɜɚ
Ɍɚɤɠɟ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɦɟɬɨɞ ɩɨɥɹɪɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɫɟɥɟɤɰɢɢ, ɨɧ ɞɚɟɬ ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɨ ɞɥɹ ɪɚɡɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɥɟɡɧɨɝɨ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɚ ɢ ɟɝɨ ɨɞɧɨɤɪɚɬɧɨɝɨ ɨɬɪɚɠɟɧɢɹ. ɇɨ ɜ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɧɚɥɢɱɢɹ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɢɯ ɨɬɪɚɠɚɸɳɢɯ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ ɞɚɧɧɵɣ ɦɟɬɨɞ ɦɚɥɨɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɟɧ.
ɉɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɦɧɨɝɨɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɧɵɯ ɚɧɬɟɧɧ ɜ ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɚɩɩɚɪɚɬɭɪɟ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɢɬɟɥɹ [6] ɦɨɠɟɬ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɢɬɶ ɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɵ, ɜɵɡɜɚɧɧɵɟ ɦɧɨɝɨɥɭɱɟɜɨɫɬɶɸ, ɩɪɢ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɢ ɪɚɞɢɨɜɨɥɧ. ɉɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɨɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɣ ɩɪɢɟɦ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɨɜ ɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɩɟɪɟɞɚɬɱɢɤɚ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɢɦɢ ɩɪɢɟɦɧɢɤɚɦɢ ɧɚ ɪɚɡɧɟɫɟɧɧɵɟ ɜ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟ ɚɧɬɟɧɧɵ (ɫɦ. ɪɢɫ. 2).
Ɋɢɫ. 2. ɉɪɢɟɦ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɚ ɧɚ ɪɚɡɧɟɫɟɧɧɵɟ ɜ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟ ɚɧɬɟɧɧɵ
Ɍɚɤɠɟ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ ɭɥɭɱɲɢɬɶ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɝɪɟɲɧɨɫɬɢ, ɜɵɡɜɚɧɧɨɣ ɦɧɨɝɨɥɭɱɟɜɵɦ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɟɦ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɨɜ, ɩɭɬɟɦ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɚɧɬɟɧɧɵɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ, ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɸɳɢɯ
ɛɨɥɶɲɭɸ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɭɸ ɢɡɛɢɪɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ. Ɇɨɠɧɨ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɨɫɥɚɛɢɬɶ ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɩɨɦɟɯɢ
ɧɚ ɜɯɨɞɟ ɩɪɢɟɦɧɢɤɚ, ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɹ ɜ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɢ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɚ ɫɨ ɫɩɭɬɧɢɤɚ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɭɦ ɞɢɚɝɪɚɦɦɵ
ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɢɟɦɧɨɣ ɚɧɬɟɧɧɵ, ɚ ɜ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɢ ɨɬɪɚɠɟɧɧɵɯ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɨɜ – ɧɭɥɢ ɜ ɞɢɚɝɪɚɦɦɟ
ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ.
ɊȿɁɍɅɖɌȺɌɕ ɉɊɈȼȿȾȿɇɂə ȼɕɑɂɋɅɂɌȿɅɖɇɈȽɈ ɗɄɋɉȿɊɂɆȿɇɌȺ
ɉɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɦɟɬɨɞɵ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɷɜɪɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ, ɰɟɥɟɫɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɨ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɶ ɢɯ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɤ ɡɚɞɚɱɚɦ ɧɚɡɟɦɧɵɯ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɣ. Ⱦɥɹ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɜ
MATLAB ɛɵɥɚ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɚɧɚ ɦɚɬɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɦɨɞɟɥɶ, ɞɟɦɨɧɫɬɪɢɪɭɸɳɚɹ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɤɨɪɪɟɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɜ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ ɧɚɥɢɱɢɹ, ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɢ ɨɫɥɚɛɥɟɧɢɹ ɨɬɪɚɠɟɧɧɵɯ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɨɜ ɜ
ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɨɫɵ ɱɚɫɬɨɬ ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟɦɨɝɨ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɚ.
ɉɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɚ ɦɨɞɟɥɢɪɭɟɬ ɪɚɛɨɬɭ ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɚɩɩɚɪɚɬɭɪɵ, ɨɫɧɚɳɟɧɧɨɣ ɞɜɭɦɹ ɚɧɬɟɧɧɚɦɢ, ɪɚɡɧɟɫɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɧɚ ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ, ɪɚɜɧɨɟ ɩɨɥɨɜɢɧɟ ɞɥɢɧɵ ɜɨɥɧɵ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɚ ɇɄȺ. ɇɚ ɩɚɪɭ ɚɧɬɟɧɧ
ɩɪɢɯɨɞɢɬ ɫɭɦɦɚ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɚ ɇɄȺ ɢ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɨɜ, ɨɬɪɚɠɟɧɧɵɯ ɨɬ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ.
ȼ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɝɨ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɚ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɩɫɟɜɞɨɫɥɭɱɚɣɧɵɣ ɤɨɞ (ɦ-ɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ)
ɫɩɭɬɧɢɤɨɜ ȽɅɈɇȺɋɋ PRS. Ɏɨɪɦɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɨɬɪɚɠɟɧɧɵɣ ɫɢɝɧɚɥ PRSr ɩɭɬɟɦ ɨɫɥɚɛɥɟɧɢɹ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɝɨ
ɫɢɝɧɚɥɚ ɧɚ g ɞɟɰɢɛɟɥ, ɞɨɛɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɡɚɞɟɪɠɤɢ d ɢ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɮɚɡɵ ɧɚ ɪ:
௚
ܴܲܵ௥ ሺ݊ሻ ൌ ͳͲଶ଴ ή ܴܲܵሺ݊ǡ ݀ሻ ή ݁ ି௝ή௣ή௡ Ǥ
(4)
Ʉ ɫɭɦɦɟ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɨɜ ܷܵ‫ ܯ‬ൌ ܴܲܵ ൅ ܴܲܵ௥௘௙ ɞɨɛɚɜɥɟɧ ɛɟɥɵɣ ɲɭɦ, ɢɦɢɬɢɪɭɸɳɢɣ ɲɭɦɵ
ɪɚɞɢɨɩɪɢɟɦɧɨɝɨ ɬɪɚɤɬɚ. Ɉɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɥɨɫɵ ɱɚɫɬɨɬ ɩɪɢɟɦɧɨɝɨ ɬɪɚɤɬɚ ɦɨɞɟɥɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ
ɰɢɮɪɨɜɵɦ ɮɢɥɶɬɪɨɦ. Ɋɚɫɫɱɢɬɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɷɬɚɥɨɧɧɚɹ ɤɨɪɪɟɥɹɰɢɹ (ɚɜɬɨɤɨɪɪɟɥɹɰɢɹ ‫ܴܱܥ‬௉ோௌ ɦ-ɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɞɚɥɶɧɨɦɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɞɚ ɫɩɭɬɧɢɤɨɜ ȽɅɈɇȺɋɋ PRS) ɢ ɜɡɚɢɦɧɚɹ ɤɨɪɪɟɥɹɰɢɹ
‫ܴܱܥ‬௉ோௌǡௌ௎ெ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɨɜ PRS ɢ ܷܵ‫ܯ‬:
Ɇɟɬɨɞɵ ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ ɦɧɨɝɨɥɭɱɟɜɨɫɬɢ…
101
ே
ͳ
‫ܴܱܥ‬௉ோௌ ሺ݇ሻ ൌ ή ෍ ܴܲܵ௡ ή ܴܲܵ௡ି௞ Ǣ
ܰ
(5)
௡ୀଵ
ே
‫ܴܱܥ‬௉ோௌǡௌ௎ெ ሺ݇ሻ ൌ
ͳ
ή ෍ ܴܲܵ௡ ή ܷܵ‫ܯ‬௡ି௞ Ǥ
ܰ
(6)
௡ୀଵ
ɇɚ ɪɢɫ. 3 ɩɨɤɚɡɚɧɨ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɟ ɮɨɪɦɵ ɤɨɪɪɟɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɦ-ɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ
ɞɚɥɶɧɨɦɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɞɚ ɫɩɭɬɧɢɤɨɜ ȽɅɈɇȺɋɋ ɜ ɩɪɢɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɢ ɨɬɪɚɠɟɧɢɣ ɨɬ ɦɟɫɬɧɵɯ ɩɪɟɞɦɟɬɨɜ
(ɫɩɥɨɲɧɚɹ ɥɢɧɢɹ), ɨɬ ɚɜɬɨɤɨɪɪɟɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ (ɩɭɧɤɬɢɪɧɚɹ ɥɢɧɢɹ) ɩɪɢ ɩɪɢɟɦɟ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɚ ɧɚ
ɨɞɧɭ ɚɧɬɟɧɧɭ. ȼɢɞɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɜ ɞɚɧɧɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɩɨ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɸ ɮɨɪɦɵ ɤɨɪɪɟɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ
ɦɨɠɧɨ ɫɭɞɢɬɶ ɨ ɧɚɥɢɱɢɢ ɦɧɨɝɨɥɭɱɟɜɨɫɬɢ, ɧɨ ɪɚɡɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɚ ɫɨ ɫɩɭɬɧɢɤɚ ɢ ɨɬɪɚɠɟɧɧɨɝɨ
ɫɢɝɧɚɥɚ ɧɟ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɦ.
Ɋɢɫ. 3. ɂɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɮɨɪɦɵ ɤɨɪɪɟɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ
ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɦɧɨɝɨɥɭɱɟɜɨɫɬɢ
Ɋɢɫ. 4. Ɋɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬ ɦɨɞɟɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ
ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ-ɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ
ɩɪɹɦɵɯ ɢ ɨɬɪɚɠɟɧɧɵɯ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɨɜ
ȼɡɚɢɦɧɚɹ ɤɨɪɪɟɥɹɰɢɹ ɦ-ɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɫɭɦɦɵ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɨɜ ɫ ɞɜɭɯ ɚɧɬɟɧɧ ɪɚɫɫɱɢɬɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ:
ே
ͳ
‫ܴܱܥ‬௉ோௌǡሺௌభ ାௌమή௘ ೕകሻ ሺ݇ሻ ൌ ή ෍ ܴܲܵ௡ ή ൫ܵଵ ൅ ܵଶ ή ݁ ௝ఝ ൯௡ି௞ ǡ
ܰ
(7)
௡ୀଵ
ɝɞɟ S1 ɢ S2 — ɫɢɝɧɚɥɵ, ɩɪɢɧɹɬɵɟ ɧɚ ɩɟɪɜɭɸ ɢ ɜɬɨɪɭɸ ɚɧɬɟɧɧɭ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ, ߮ - ɪɚɡɧɨɫɬɶ ɮɚɡ.
ɉɭɬɟɦ ɜɵɛɨɪɚ ߮ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɦɢɧɢɦɭɦ ɜ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɢ ɨɬɪɚɠɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɚ, ɩɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ
ɟɝɨ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɭɦɚ ɤɨɪɪɟɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹ ɦɢɧɢɦɚɥɶɧɵɦ.
(ɪɢɫ. 4). Ʉɪɢɬɟɪɢɟɦ ɜɵɛɨɪɚ߮ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɫɥɭɠɢɬɶ ɲɢɪɢɧɚ ɩɢɤɚ ɤɨɪɪɟɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ.
ȼɕȼɈȾɕ
ɉɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɣ ɜɵɱɢɫɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬ ɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɭɱɟɬɚ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ
ɩɪɢɯɨɞɚ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɨɜ ɜ ɫɨɜɨɤɭɩɧɨɫɬɢ ɫ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɨɦ ɮɨɪɦɵ ɤɨɪɪɟɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɞɥɹ ɭɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ
ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ ɨɬɪɚɠɟɧɧɵɯ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɨɜ.
ɅɂɌȿɊȺɌɍɊȺ
1. ɉɟɪɨɜ Ⱥ.ɂ., ɏɚɪɢɫɨɜ ȼ.ɇ. ȽɅɈɇȺɋɋ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɵ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ. —
Ɇ.: ɂɡɞɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ «Ɋɚɞɢɨɬɟɯɧɢɤɚ», 2010.
102
Ƚ.ȼ. Ʉɪɢɧɢɰɤɢɣ, Ɇ.Ⱦ. Ʌɟɨɧɨɜɚ, ȿ.ɇ. ɘɪɚɫɨɜɚ
2. Bhuiyan M.Z., Zhang J., Lohan E.S., Wang W., Sand S. Analysis of multipath mitigation
techniques with land mobile satellite channel model // Radioengineering, 2012, Vol. 21, ʋ 4.
3. Ɍɸɛɚɥɢɧ ȼ.ȼ., ɐɜɟɬɤɨɜ Ⱥ.Ɉ., ɒɭɜɚɥɨɜ Ⱥ.ȼ. Ⱥɥɝɨɪɢɬɦɵ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɢɹ ɚɧɨɦɚɥɢɣ
ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɨɜ // Ɋɚɞɢɨɫɜɹɡɶ ɢ ɪɚɞɢɨɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɹ. 2013. ʋ 3.
4. ɂɄȺɈ. Ɇɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɵ ɢ ɪɟɤɨɦɟɧɞɭɟɦɚɹ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɚ. ɉɪɢɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ 10 ɤ ɤɨɧɜɟɧɰɢɢ ɨ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɣ ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɫɤɨɣ ɚɜɢɚɰɢɢ. Ⱥɜɢɚɰɢɨɧɧɚɹ ɪɚɞɢɨɫɜɹɡɶ. Ɍɨɦ I Ɋɚɞɢɨɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚ // ɂɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɲɟɫɬɨɟ, 2006.
5. Ƚɪɟɛɟɧɧɢɤɨɜ Ⱥ.ȼ., ɋɢɡɚɫɨɜ ɋ.ȼ., əɱɢɧ Ⱥ.ȼ. ȼɚɪɢɚɧɬɵ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɭɝɥɨɦɟɪɧɨɣ ɚɩɩɚɪɚɬɭɪɵ Ƚɇɋɋ ɞɥɹ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɝɪɟɲɧɨɫɬɢ ɦɧɨɝɨɥɭɱɟɜɨɫɬɢ // Ɋɚɞɢɨɫɜɹɡɶ ɢ ɪɚɞɢɨɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɹ.
2013. ʋ 3.
6. Ying Chieh (Jay) Chuang, Inder J. Gupta Two stage beamformer for GNSS receiver antenna arrays // The Ohio State University, 2014.
MULTIPATH MITIGATION TECHNIQUES
IN SATELLITE NAVIGATION FOR PRECISE LANDING
Krinitsky G.V., Leonova M.D., Yurasova E.N.
There are a lot of methods of multipath mitigation, however none of them guarantee its full elimination. The complex method of multipath mitigation in the context of precise aircraft landing is presented in this article.
Key words: satellite navigation, aircraft, ground-based augmentation system , multipath mitigation.
REFERENCES
1. Perov A.I., Harisov V.N. GLONASS printsipy postroeniya i funktsionirovaniya. — M.: Izdatel'stvo «Radiotekhnika», 2010
2. Bhuiyan M.Z., Zhang J., Lohan E.S., Wang W., Sand S. Analysis of multipath mitigation
techniques with land mobile satellite channel model // Radioengineering. 2012. Vol. 21. ʋ 4.
3. Tyubalin V.V., TSvetkov A.O., SHuvalov A.V. Algoritmy obnaruzheniya anomaliy navigatsionnyh signalov // Radiosvyaz' i radionavigatsiya, 2013, ʋ 3.
4. IKAO. Mezhdunarodnye standarty i rekomenduemaya praktika. Prilozhenie 10 k konventsii
o mezhdunarodnoy grazhdanskoy aviatsii. Aviatsionnaya radiosvyaz'. Tom I Radionavigatsionnye
sredstva // Izdanie shestoe, 2006
5. Grebennikov A.V., Sizasov S.V., YAchin A.V. Varianty primeneniya uglomernoy apparatury GNSS dlya umen'sheniya pogreshnosti mnogoluchevosti // Radiosvyaz' i radionavigatsiya.
2013. ʋ 3.
6. Ying Chieh (Jay) Chuang, Inder J. Gupta Two stage beamformer for GNSS receiver antenna arrays// The Ohio State University. 2014.
ɋȼȿȾȿɇɂə ɈȻ ȺȼɌɈɊȺɏ
Ʉɪɢɧɢɰɤɢɣ Ƚɟɨɪɝɢɣ ȼɢɤɬɨɪɨɜɢɱ, 1984 ɝ.ɪ., ɨɤɨɧɱɢɥ Ɇɗɂ (Ɍɍ) (2006), ɫɨɢɫɤɚɬɟɥɶ
ɆȽɌɍ ȽȺ, ɨɛɥɚɫɬɶ ɧɚɭɱɧɵɯ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜ: ɪɚɞɢɨɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɹ, ɪɚɞɢɨɬɟɯɧɢɤɚ, ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɹ ɢ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ
ɜɨɡɞɭɲɧɵɦ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟɦ.
Ʌɟɨɧɨɜɚ Ɇɚɪɢɹ Ⱦɦɢɬɪɢɟɜɧɚ, ɨɤɨɧɱɢɥɚ Ɍɍ ɂɥɶɦɟɧɚɭ (2007) ɢ Ɇɗɂ (Ɍɍ) (2009),
ɨɛɥɚɫɬɶ ɧɚɭɱɧɵɯ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜ: ɫɩɭɬɧɢɤɨɜɚɹ ɪɚɞɢɨɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɹ ɢ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɜɨɡɞɭɲɧɵɦ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟɦ,
ɬɨɱɧɚɹ ɢɡɦɟɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ ɬɟɯɧɢɤɚ, ɛɢɨɦɟɞɢɰɢɧɚ.
ɘɪɚɫɨɜɚ ȿɤɚɬɟɪɢɧɚ ɇɢɤɨɥɚɟɜɧɚ, ɨɤɨɧɱɢɥɚ Ɇɗɂ (Ɍɍ) (2009), ɨɛɥɚɫɬɶ ɧɚɭɱɧɵɯ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜ: ɪɚɞɢɨɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɹ, ɪɚɞɢɨɬɟɯɧɢɤɚ, ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɹ ɢ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɜɨɡɞɭɲɧɵɦ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟɦ.
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