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ВЕСТНИК
МГСУ
4/2010
ȽȿɈȾɂɇȺɆɂɑȿɋɄɂȿ ȼɈɁȾȿɃɋɌȼɂə ɇȺ ȼɕɋɈɄɂȿ
ȻȿɌɈɇɇɕȿ ɉɅɈɌɂɇɕ
GEODYNAMIC INFLUENCES ON HIGH CONCRETE DAMS
Ⱥ.ɇ. Ɇɚɪɱɭɤ, Ⱥ.ȼ. Ɇɚɧɶɤɨ
A.N. Marchuk, A.V. Man’ko
ɆȽɋɍ
ȼ ɫɬɚɬɶɟ ɨɫɜɟɳɟɧɵ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɵ, ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɟ ɫ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɟɦ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɧɨɞɟɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɯ ɛɟɬɨɧɧɵɯ ɩɥɨɬɢɧ ɜɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɢ ɝɟɨɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ
ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ.
In article the questions connected to change conditions of the big concrete dams are
covered is intense - deformed at geodynamic influences.
ɋ ɦɨɦɟɧɬɚ ɜɫɬɭɩɥɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ ɤɚɪɬɵ ɈɋɊ-97 ɜ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɣ ɫɟɣɫɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɤɚɡɚɥɢɫɶ 32 ɤɪɭɩɧɵɯ ɝɢɞɪɨɭɡɥɚ, ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɨ ɢɡ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɜ ɫɜɨɟɦ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɟ
ɢɦɟɸɬ ɛɟɬɨɧɧɵɟ ɩɥɨɬɢɧɵ. ɉɨɜɟɪɨɱɧɵɟ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɵ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɩɪɨɱɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɥɨɬɢɧ, ɩɨ
ɮɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ, ɚ ɧɟ ɧɨɪɦɚɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɩɪɨɱɧɨɫɬɢ ɛɟɬɨɧɚ ɧɚ ɫɞɜɢɝ, ɩɨɤɚɡɚɥɢ ɭɞɨɜɥɟɬɜɨɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɭɸ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ ɧɚɞɟɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɢɣ ɩɨɞ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɦ ɫɟɣɫɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ,
ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɧɨɣ ɧɚ 2-3 ɛɚɥɥɚ [1]. Ɇɧɨɝɨɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɢɡɦɟɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɩɥɨɬɢɧ
ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɸɬ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ ɝɟɨɮɢɡɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɨɥɟɣ ɜɨ ɜɦɟɳɚɸɳɟɣ
ɝɟɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɪɟɞɟ. ɋ ɬɨɱɤɢ ɡɪɟɧɢɹ ɝɟɨɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɫɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɢɟ ɛɨɥɶɲɨɣ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɞɟɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ ɪɚɣɨɧɚ ɫɬɜɨɪɚ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɸɬɫɹ ɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɫɦɟɳɟɧɢɹɦɢ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɩɨɞ ɩɥɨɬɢɧɚɦɢ ɜɞɨɥɶ ɫɬɜɨɪɚ, ɫɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɟɦɪɚɫɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɟɦ ɢ ɞɢɮɮɟɪɟɧɰɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɦɢ ɩɨɞɜɢɠɤɚɦɢ ɛɟɪɟɝɨɜ, ɧɟɪɚɜɧɨɦɟɪɧɨɫɬɶɸ
ɨɫɚɞɤɢ ɜ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɢ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɹ, ɫɞɜɢɝɨɜɵɦɢ ɫɦɟɳɟɧɢɹɦɢ ɜ ɡɨɧɟ ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɚ, ɜ ɡɨɧɟ ɬɟɤɬɨɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɧɚɪɭɲɟɧɢɣ ɩɨɞ ɩɥɨɬɢɧɨɣ ɢ ɜ ɛɟɪɟɝɨɜɵɯ ɩɪɢɦɵɤɚɧɢɹɯ, ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɟɦ ɞɥɢɧɵ
ɩɥɨɬɢɧɵ ɩɨ ɝɪɟɛɧɸ [2].
Ɇɟɬɨɞɵ ɬɟɤɬɨɧɨɮɢɡɢɤɢ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɸɬ ɩɨɥɭɱɢɬɶ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɩɨ ɨɪɢɟɧɬɚɰɢɢ
ɨɫɟɣ ɝɥɚɜɧɵɯ ɬɟɤɬɨɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɣ, ɧɨ ɢ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɨɛɨ ɜɫɟɯ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɚɯ ɬɟɧɡɨɪɚ
ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɣ ɢ ɨ ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɚɯ ɩɪɨɱɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɪɨɞ ɜ ɝɨɪɧɵɯ ɦɚɫɫɢɜɚɯ [3]. ɉɨ ɞɚɧɧɵɦ ɨɩɵɬɧɵɯ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɣ ɜ ɩɨɪɨɞɚɯ ɤɪɢɫɬɚɥɥɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɢ ɫɤɥɚɞɱɚɬɨɝɨ ɮɭɧɞɚɦɟɧɬɚ ɝɨɪɢɡɨɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɟɜɵɲɚɸɬ ɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɜ 60% ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ, ɜ ɨɫɚɞɨɱɧɵɯ ɩɨɪɨɞɚɯ - ɜ 1520% ɉɪɢɱɟɦ ɷɬɨ ɩɪɟɜɵɲɟɧɢɟ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɬɶ ɞɨ 5 - 10 ɪɚɡ [4]. ɉɨ ɞɚɧɧɵɦ Ⱥɣɬɦɚɬɨɜɚ
[5] ɜ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɟ ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ ɝɨɪɢɡɨɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɫɜɨɢɦ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹɦ ɩɪɟɜɨɫɯɨɞɹɬ ɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɜ 1,5-3 ɪɚɡɚ. ȼ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɡɨɧɚɯ ɝɨɪɢɡɨɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɢ ɫɭɛɝɨɪɢɡɨɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɹ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɜ 5-6 ɪɚɡ ɜɵɲɟ, ɱɟɦ ɫɪɟɞɧɢɣ ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɧɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɵɯ
ɝɨɪɢɡɨɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɣ ɧɚ ɪɚɜɧɵɯ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɚɯ.
ȼɟɫɶɦɚ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɦ ɜ ɫɦɵɫɥɟ ɬɟɦɩɨɜ ɪɨɫɬɚ ɢ ɜɵɫɨɤɢɯ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɣ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɣ
ɫɠɚɬɢɹ ɜ ɩɨɪɨɞɟ ɫ ɩɪɨɱɧɨɫɬɶɸ 120-130 Ɇɉɚ Ⱥɥɬɚɟ-ɋɚɹɧɫɤɨɣ ɫɟɣɫɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɡɨɧɵ ɜ
ɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɯ ɜɵɪɚɛɨɬɤɢ Ɍɚɲɬɨɝɨɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɭɞɧɢɤɚ ɧɚ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɟ 760ɦ ɨɬ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬ ɩɨ ɢɡɦɟɪɟɧɢɸ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɣ ɜ ɬɸɛɢɧɝɨɜɨɣ ɤɪɟɩɢ ɜɵɪɚɛɨɬɤɢ. ɉɨɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɣ ɚɧɚɥɢɡ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɥ, ɱɬɨ ɞɚɬɱɢɤɢ ɪɟɚɝɢɪɨɜɚɥɢ ɧɚ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɣ ɜ ɨɤɪɟɫɬ-
138
4/2010
ВЕСТНИК
МГСУ
ɧɨɫɬɹɯ Ɍɚɲɬɨɝɨɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɭɞɧɢɤɚ ɜɨ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɡɟɦɥɟɬɪɹɫɟɧɢɣ ɩɪɢ ɷɩɢɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɹɯ ɞɨ 250ɤɦ. Ɋɚɜɧɵɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ ɢɡɦɟɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɩɥɨɬɢɧɵ ɋɚɹɧɨɒɭɲɟɧɫɤɨɣ Ƚɗɋ ɪɟɚɝɢɪɭɸɬ ɧɚ ɜɡɪɵɜɵ ɜ Ɍɚɲɬɚɝɨɥɟ, ɝɞɟ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɚ ɡɚɪɹɞɨɜ ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɟɬ
700 ɬɨɧɧ ɜɡɪɵɜɱɚɬɵɯ ɜɟɳɟɫɬɜ. Ʉɨɧɟɱɧɨ, ɜ ɛɟɪɟɝɨɜɵɯ ɩɪɢɦɵɤɚɧɢɹɯ ɛɟɬɨɧɧɵɯ ɩɥɨɬɢɧ
ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɹ ɫ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɹɦɢ ɜ ɦɚɫɫɢɜɟ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɢɚɥɶɧɨ ɨɬɥɢɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɨɬ ɩɨɞɡɟɦɧɵɯ ɜɵɪɚɛɨɬɨɤ. ɇɚ ɛɨɪɬɚɯ ɭɳɟɥɢɣ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɦɟɫɬɨ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɹ ɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ, ɪɚɜɧɵɯ
ɜɟɫɭ ɤɨɥɨɧɤɢ ɜɵɲɟɥɟɠɚɳɢɯ ɝɨɪɧɵɯ ɩɨɪɨɞ, ɚ ɝɨɪɢɡɨɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɹ ɪɚɜɧɵ ɧɭɥɸ,
ɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ ɨɧɢ ɫɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɢɪɨɜɚɧɵ ɫɜɨɛɨɞɧɨɣ ɞɟɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɟɣ ɛɨɪɬɨɜ ɜ ɫɬɜɨɪɟ ɛɭɞɭɳɟɣ
ɩɥɨɬɢɧɵ.
ɉɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ ɝɥɭɛɨɤɢɯ ɛɟɪɟɝɨɜɵɯ ɜɪɟɡɨɤ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɦɟɧɹɟɬ ɤɚɪɬɢɧɭ, ɬ.ɤ. ɝɨɪɢɡɨɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɞɟɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ ɧɟ ɭɫɩɟɜɚɸɬ ɪɚɡɝɪɭɡɢɬɶɫɹ ɞɨ ɧɭɥɹ ɩɟɪɟɞ ɜɨɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɟɦ ɩɥɨɬɢɧɵ. Ⱥ ɫ ɦɨɦɟɧɬɚ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɧɨɜɟɧɢɹ ɝɢɞɪɨɫɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɱɚɫɬɢɱɧɨɣ
ɩɟɪɟɞɚɱɢ ɟɝɨ ɧɚ ɛɟɪɟɝɚ, ɜɨɞɨɧɚɫɵɳɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɪɨɞ, ɜɨɡɧɢɤɧɨɜɟɧɢɟ ɨɛɯɨɞɧɨɣ ɮɢɥɶɬɪɚɰɢɢ,
ɫɟɡɨɧɧɵɯ ɤɨɥɟɛɚɧɢɣ ɭɪɨɜɧɮ ɜɟɪɯɧɟɝɨ ɛɶɟɮɚ (ɍȼȻ) ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɤɚɪɞɢɧɚɥɶɧɨ ɢɡɦɟɧɹɟɬɫɹ: ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɦɚɫɫɢɜɟ, ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɜ ɤɪɢɫɬɚɥɥɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢ ɦɟɬɚɦɨɪɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɨɪɨɞɚɯ ɜ
ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɭɩɪɭɝɨɝɨ ɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɤɚɤ ɦɢɧɢɦɭɦ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɩɨ Ⱦɢɧɧɢɤɭ (1)
σ=
σ=
z
x
μ
gH
˜ρ
1 μ
(1)
ɝɞɟ ȝ – ɤɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬ ɉɭɚɫɫɨɧɚ,
ȡg – ɫɪɟɞɧɢɣ ɭɞɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɜɟɫ ɤɨɥɨɧɤɢ ɩɨɪɨɞ ɜɵɫɨɬɨɣ ɇ.
ɋ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɵ ɜɪɟɡɤɢ ɩɨ ɜɵɫɨɬɟ ɢ ɩɨ ɝɨɪɢɡɨɧɬɚɥɢ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɟɬ ɜɫɟɫɬɨɪɨɧɧɟɟ ɥɢɬɨɫɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ Ph ɢ ɤɚɫɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɹ, ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɟ ɫ Ph ɥɢɧɟɣɧɨɣ
ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɶɸ. ɉɪɢ ȝ=0,25 ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɚɫɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɣ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɹ Ph ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ 60%, ɫ ɱɟɦ ɧɟɥɶɡɹ ɧɟ ɫɱɢɬɚɬɶɫɹ ɤɚɤ ɷɬɨ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɦɟɫɬɨ
ɩɪɢ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɟ ɚɪɨɱɧɵɯ ɩɥɨɬɢɧ.
Ɉɩɵɬ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬ, ɱɬɨ ɩɨɱɬɢ ɜ ɤɚɠɞɨɣ ɜɵɫɨɤɨɧɚɩɨɪɧɨɣ ɛɟɬɨɧɧɨɣ
ɩɥɨɬɢɧɟ, ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɨɣ ɜ ɬɟɤɬɨɧɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɧɟɫɬɚɛɢɥɶɧɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɢɬɶ
ɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɹ ɨɩɢɫɚɧɧɵɯ ɬɟɤɬɨɧɨɮɢɡɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɨɜ, ɹɜɥɹɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɩɪɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɟɦ ɝɟɨɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ. Ʉ ɫɨɠɚɥɟɧɢɸ, ɩɪɟɞɜɚɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɢɡɵɫɤɚɧɢɹ ɜ ɫɬɜɨɪɚɯ Ƚɗɋ
ɨɬɧɸɞɶ ɧɟ ɜɫɟɝɞɚ ɢɡɭɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɩɨɥɹ ɬɟɤɬɨɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɣ. ɉɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɟ
ɬɟɤɬɨɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɹ ɧɟ ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɩɪɢ ɮɢɡɢɱɟɫɤɨɦ ɢ ɦɚɬɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɦ ɦɨɞɟɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɢ, ɬ.ɤ. ɪɚɧɟɟ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɨɜɚɜɲɢɦɢ ɧɨɪɦɚɬɢɜɧɵɦɢ ɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬɚɦɢ ɷɬɨ ɧɟ ɛɵɥɨ ɩɪɟɞɭɫɦɨɬɪɟɧɨ. ɂɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɷɬɢɯ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɣ ɜ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɷɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɚɰɢɢ ɩɥɨɬɢɧ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ
ɧɟ ɢɡɭɱɚɸɬɫɹ. ɉɨ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɸ ɤ ɝɪɚɜɢɬɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɦ ɢ ɤɨɧɬɪɮɨɪɫɧɵɦ ɩɥɨɬɢɧɚɦ, ɪɚɫɫɱɢɬɚɧɧɵɦ ɩɨ ɩɥɨɫɤɨɣ ɡɚɞɚɱɟ, ɷɬɨ ɧɟ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ, ɨɞɧɚɤɨ ɞɥɹ ɚɪɨɱɧɵɯ
ɢ ɪɚɫɩɨɪɧɵɯ ɩɥɨɬɢɧ ɜ ɨɛɴɟɦɧɨɦ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɧɨɦ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɢ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɞɟɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ ɜ
ɩɪɢɦɵɤɚɧɢɹɯ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɪɟɲɚɸɳɟɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ. ɉɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɬɟɤɬɨɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɹ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɢɡɦɟɧɹɸɬɫɹ ɩɨɞ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɦ ɜɨɞɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳɚ. ȼɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɹ
ɭɦɟɧɶɲɚɸɬɫɹ ɜɡɜɟɲɢɜɚɧɢɟɦ, ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɵ ɫɨɩɪɨɬɢɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɪɨɞ ɫɞɜɢɝɭ ɫɧɢɠɚɸɬɫɹ ɢɡ-ɡɚ
ɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɹ ɫɢɥ ɬɪɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɫɰɟɩɥɟɧɢɹ, ɜɨɡɧɢɤɧɨɜɟɧɢɹ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɚ Ɋɟɛɢɧɞɟɪɚ, ɜɨɡɛɭɠɞɟɧɧɨɣ ɫɟɣɫɦɢɱɧɨɫɬɢ, ɩɪɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɭɧɚɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɣ. ȼɩɟɪɜɵɟ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɬɟɤɬɨɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɹ ɢɡɭɱɚɥɢɫɶ ɩɪɢ ɜɵɛɨɪɟ ɫɬɜɨɪɚ ɋɚɹɧɨ-ɒɭɲɟɧɫɤɨɣ Ƚɗɋ [6]. ɉɨ
ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹɦ ɜ ɲɬɨɥɶɧɟ ɥɟɜɨɝɨ ɛɟɪɟɝɚ ɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɹ ɢɦɟɥɢ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ
24.5–48Ɇɉɚ, ɝɨɪɢɡɨɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɟ 24–36Ɇɉɚ. ɇɚ ɩɪɚɜɨɦ ɛɟɪɟɝɭ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ 14.8–
32.5Ɇɉɚ ɢ 10.2–21.7Ɇɉɚ. Ɍɚɤɨɟ ɧɟɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɨɟ ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɝɨɪɢɡɨɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɢ ɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɣ ɨɛɴɹɫɧɹɟɬɫɹ, ɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɨ, ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɹɦɢ ɨɪɨɝɟɧɟɡɚ Ⱦɠɟɛɚɲɫɤɨɞɠɨɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɚɧɬɢɤɥɢɧɨɪɢɹ Ɂɚɩɚɞɧɨɝɨ ɋɚɹɧɚ, ɜ ɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɯ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧ ɫɬɜɨɪ
139
ВЕСТНИК
МГСУ
4/2010
ɩɥɨɬɢɧɵ. Ʉɪɭɬɨ ɩɨɞɧɢɦɚɸɳɟɟɫɹ ɹɞɪɨ ɢɧɬɪɭɡɢɜɧɵɯ ɝɪɚɧɢɬɨɜ, ɩɪɨɪɜɚɜɲɢɟ ɬɨɥɳɭ
ɫɥɚɧɰɟɜ, ɢɫɩɵɬɚɜɲɢɯ ɦɟɬɚɦɨɪɮɢɡɦ, ɨɱɟɜɢɞɧɨ, ɫɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɨ ɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɵɟ ɫɭɛɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɹ. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦ ɞɥɹ ɩɥɨɬɢɧɵ ɨɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨɦ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɨɪɢɟɧɬɚɰɢɹ ɝɥɚɜɧɵɯ ɨɫɟɣ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɹ ɬɟɤɬɨɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɣ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ
ɜɞɨɥɶ ɫɬɜɨɪɚ ɩɥɨɬɢɧɵ. ɗɬɨ ɨɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ ɚɩɪɢɨɪɢ ɨɡɧɚɱɚɟɬ, ɱɬɨ ɩɪɢ ɪɚɡɝɪɭɡɤɟ ɝɨɪɢɡɨɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɣ ɢ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯ ɩɨɞɜɢɠɤɚɯ, ɨɧɢ ɛɭɞɭɬ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɫɠɢɦɚɬɶ ɚɪɨɱɧɭɸ ɩɥɨɬɢɧɭ, ɱɬɨ ɜ ɢɬɨɝɟ ɢ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ.
ɋ ɬɨɱɤɢ ɡɪɟɧɢɹ ɝɟɨɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɢ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫ ɷɜɨɥɸɰɢɹ ɨɫɚɞɨɤ ɩɥɨɬɢɧ, ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɩɟɪɜɨɝɨ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɚ ɷɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɚɰɢɢ ɧɚɱɢɧɚɟɬ ɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɬɶɫɹ. Ɉɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ
ɹɪɤɨ ɷɬɨɬ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫ ɩɪɨɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɢ ɢɡɦɟɪɟɧɢɢ ɨɫɚɞɨɤ Ɇɢɚɬɥɢɧɫɤɨɣ ɩɥɨɬɢɧɵ ɜ ɝɚɥɟɪɟɟ
ɧɚ ɨɬɦ. 113.5ɦ, ɝɞɟ ɡɚ 9 ɥɟɬ ɨɫɚɞɤɚ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɢɥɚɫɶ ɧɚ 5.5 ɦɦ, ɚ ɫ 2006 ɝɨɞɚ ɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɥɚ
ɡɧɚɤɨɩɟɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɣ ɝɪɚɮɢɤ (ɫɠɚɬɢɟ ɜ «ɝɚɪɦɨɲɤɭ»). Ɍɚɤɭɸ ɷɜɨɥɸɰɢɸ ɨɫɚɞɤɢ ɬɪɭɞɧɨ
ɨɛɴɹɫɧɢɬɶ ɱɟɦ-ɥɢɛɨ ɢɧɵɦ, ɤɪɨɦɟ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ, ɦɟɠɞɭ ɛɟɪɟɝɚɦɢ. ɇɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɭɛɟɞɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦ
ɞɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨɦ ɷɬɨɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɰɢɢ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɧɢɹ ɫɞɜɢɝɨɦɟɪɨɜ ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɩɥɨɬɢɧɵ ɋɚɹɧɨ-ɒɭɲɟɧɫɤɨɣ Ƚɗɋ ɢ ɪɨɫɬ ɫɠɢɦɚɸɳɢɯ ɚɪɨɱɧɵɯ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɣ ɜ ɩɪɢɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɧɨɣ
ɱɚɫɬɢ ɩɥɨɬɢɧɵ. ɉɪɨɞɨɥɶɧɨɟ ɫɠɚɬɢɟ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɨ ɜ ɩɥɨɬɢɧɚɯ Ɍɨɤɬɨɝɭɥɶɫɤɨɣ, Ʉɭɪɩɫɚɣɫɤɨɣ, Ɂɟɣɫɤɨɣ Ƚɗɋ. ȼ ɨɛɴɟɦɧɨɦ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɧɨɦ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɢ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɞɚɠɟ ɩɥɨɬɢɧɚ
Ȼɪɚɬɫɤɨɣ Ƚɗɋ ɧɚ Ⱥɧɝɚɪɟ, ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɧɚɹ ɧɚ ɞɢɚɛɚɡɚɯ ɋɢɛɢɪɫɤɨɣ ɩɥɚɬɮɨɪɦɵ. ɉɥɨɬɢɧɚ,
ɪɚɫɫɱɢɬɚɧɧɚɹ ɩɨ ɩɥɨɫɤɨɣ ɡɚɞɚɱɟ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɵɟ ɫɦɟɳɟɧɢɹ ɫɟɤɰɢɣ ɜɞɨɥɶ ɫɬɜɨɪɚ,
ɜɵɩɨɪ ɛɢɬɭɦɧɵɯ ɲɩɨɧɨɤ ɜ ɦɟɠɫɟɤɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɲɜɚɯ, ɡɚɤɪɵɬɢɟ ɷɬɢɯ ɲɜɨɜ ɢ ɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɵɯ
ɬɪɟɳɢɧ.
Ɇɧɨɝɨɥɟɬɧɢɦɢ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹɦɢ [2, 3, 4, 5] ɞɨɤɚɡɚɧɚ «ɬɟɨɪɟɦɚ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ»
ɝɟɨɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɧɚ ɜɵɫɨɤɨɧɚɩɨɪɧɵɟ ɛɟɬɨɧɧɵɟ ɩɥɨɬɢɧɵ ɜ ɬɟɤɬɨɧɢɱɟɫɤɢ
ɧɟɫɬɚɛɢɥɶɧɵɯ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɯ. ȼɨɡɧɢɤɚɟɬ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɜɨɩɪɨɫ ɨɛ ɨɰɟɧɤɟ ɢ ɭɱɟɬɟ ɬɚɤɨɝɨ
ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ ɜ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚɯ ɢ ɩɪɢ ɷɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɚɰɢɢ ɭɧɢɤɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɝɢɞɪɨɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɫɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɢɣ.
ɇɚ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ ɡɧɚɧɢɣ ɩɨ ɷɬɢɦ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɚɦ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɜɵɫɤɚɡɚɬɶ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɩɪɟɞɜɚɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɫɨɨɛɪɚɠɟɧɢɹ.
ɉɪɟɠɞɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ - ɷɬɨ ɫɛɨɪ, ɨɛɨɛɳɟɧɢɟ ɢ ɚɧɚɥɢɡ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ ɧɚɬɭɪɧɵɯ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɣ ɧɚ
ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯ ɩɥɨɬɢɧɚɯ ɜ ɨɪɨɝɟɧɧɵɯ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɹɯ ɫ ɰɟɥɶɸ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɬɟɤɬɨɧɨɮɢɡɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ (ɝɟɨɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ) ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɵ ɜ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɧɨ-ɞɟɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɦ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɢ ɩɥɨɬɢɧɵ. ɇɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɩɪɨɜɟɫɬɢ ɫɟɪɢɸ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɵ ɬɟɤɬɨɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɣ ɜ ɦɚɫɫɢɜɚɯ ɩɨɪɨɞ ɛɟɪɟɝɨɜɵɯ ɩɪɢɦɵɤɚɧɢɣ ɩɥɨɬɢɧ ɢ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɚ ɢɯ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɣ ɜɨ
ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ. Ʉɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɢ ɬɟɤɬɨɧɨɮɢɡɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɫɢɥ, ɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯ ɧɚ
ɫɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɢɟ ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɫɪɚɜɧɢɬɶ ɫ ɧɨɪɦɚɬɢɜɧɵɦɢ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɧɵɦɢ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɚɦɢ. ȿɫɥɢ ɷɬɢ ɫɢɥɵ
ɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɪɹɞɤɚ, ɢɯ ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɬɶ ɜ ɦɚɬɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɦɨɞɟɥɹɯ ɢ ɩɨɜɟɪɨɱɧɵɯ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɚɯ ɩɥɨɬɢɧ, ɜɜɨɞɢɬɶ ɜ ɩɟɪɟɱɟɧɶ ɧɨɪɦɚɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɨɤ ɢ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ.
Ⱦɥɹ ɜɧɨɜɶ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɭɟɦɵɯ ɫɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɢɣ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɜɤɥɸɱɢɬɶ ɜ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɭ ɢɡɵɫɤɚɧɢɣ ɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɢɡɦɟɪɟɧɢɹ ɬɟɤɬɨɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɣ ɢ ɝɟɨɬɟɤɬɨɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɣ ɜ ɛɥɢɠɚɣɲɢɯ ɪɚɡɥɨɦɚɯ.
Ʌɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɚ
1. Ɇɚɪɱɭɤ Ⱥ.ɇ. Ȼɨɥɶɲɢɟ ɩɥɨɬɢɧɵ ɤɚɤ ɫɟɧɫɨɪɵ ɨɩɚɫɧɵɯ ɝɟɨɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɜ / Ⱥ.ɇ. Ɇɚɪɱɭɤ, ɇ.Ⱥ. Ɇɚɪɱɭɤ // Ɍɟɡɢɫɵ ɞɨɤɥɚɞɨɜ ȼɫɟɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɣ ɤɨɧɮɟɪɟɧɰɢɢ ɂɎɁ ɊȺɇ «Ɍɟɤɬɨɧɨɮɢɡɢɤɚ ɢ
ɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɵ ɧɚɭɤ ɨ ɡɟɦɥɟ — 2008 — Ɍ.1 — ɋ.270
2. Ɇɚɪɱɭɤ Ⱥ.ɇ. ɉɥɨɬɢɧɵ ɢ ɝɟɨɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɚ. / Ɇɚɪɱɭɤ Ⱥ.ɇ, ɇ.Ⱥ. Ɇɚɪɱɭɤ — Ɇ.: ɂɎɁ ɊȺɇ, 2006.
3. Ɋɟɛɟɰɤɢɣ ɘ.Ʌ. Ɍɟɤɬɨɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɩɪɨɱɧɨɫɬɶ ɝɨɪɧɵɯ ɦɚɫɫɢɜɨɜ. — Ɇ., ɇɚɭɤɚ, 2007.
4. Ʉɨɡɵɪɟɜ Ⱥ.Ⱥ. Ⱦɢɮɮɟɪɟɧɰɢɚɰɢɹ ɬɟɤɬɨɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɣ ɜ ɜɟɪɯɧɟɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɡɟɦɧɨɣ ɤɨɪɵ ɫ
ɭɱɟɬɨɦ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɢ ɬɟɯɧɨɝɟɧɧɵɯ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ. / Ʉɨɡɵɪɟɜ Ⱥ.Ⱥ., ɋɚɜɱɟɧɤɨ ɋ.ɇ. // Ɍɟɡɢɫɵ
140
4/2010
ВЕСТНИК
МГСУ
ɞɨɤɥɚɞɨɜ ȼɫɟɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɣ ɤɨɧɮɟɪɟɧɰɢɢ ɂɎɁ ɊȺɇ «Ɍɟɤɬɨɧɨɮɢɡɢɤɚ ɢ ɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɵ ɧɚɭɤ ɨ
ɡɟɦɥɟ — 2008 — Ɍ.1 — ɋ. 50 - 52.
5. Ʉɭɥɚɤɨɜ Ƚ.ɂ. ɗɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɝɟɨɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɣ ɜ ɦɚɫɫɢɜɟ ɝɨɪɧɵɯ ɩɨɪɨɞ Ⱥɥɬɚɟ-ɋɚɹɧɫɤɨɣ ɫɟɣɫɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɡɨɧɚ. / Ʉɭɥɚɤɨɜ Ƚ.ɂ., ɍɫɬɸɝɨɜ Ɇ.Ȼ. // Ɍɟɡɢɫɵ ɞɨɤɥɚɞɨɜ
ȼɫɟɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɣ ɤɨɧɮɟɪɟɧɰɢɢ ɂɎɁ ɊȺɇ «Ɍɟɤɬɨɧɨɮɢɡɢɤɚ ɢ ɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɵ ɧɚɭɤ ɨ ɡɟɦɥɟ —
2008 — Ɍ.1 — ɋ. 59 — 60.
6. Ʉɭɬɟɩɨɜ ȼ.Ɇ. Ɉɩɵɬ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ ɜ ɦɚɫɫɢɜɟ ɦɟɬɚɦɨɪɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɨɪɨɞ
ɫɬɜɨɪɚ ɋɚɹɧɨ-ɒɭɲɟɧɫɤɨɣ Ƚɗɋ. // Ƚɢɞɪɨɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ, 1965, ʋ2.
Literature
1. Marchuk A.N. Big of a dam as sensor controls of dangerous geodynamic processes / A.N.Marchuk,
N.A.Marchuk//Theses of reports of All-Russia conference IFZ the Russian Academy of Sciences «Tektonofizika and pressing questions of sciences about the earth — 2008 — v.1 — p.270
2. Marchuk A.N. Dam and geodynamics. / Marchuk Ⱥ.ɇ, N.A.Marchuk — Ɇ: IFZ the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2006.
3. Rebetsky JU.L. Tectonic pressure and durability of hills. — Ɇ, the Science, 2007.
4. Kozyrev A.A. Differentiation of tectonic pressure in the top part of earth crust taking into account
influence of natural and technogenic factors. / Kozyrev A.A., Savchenko S.N.//Theses of reports of AllRussia conference IFZ the Russian Academy of Sciences «Tektonofizika and pressing questions of
sciences about the earth — 2008 — v.1 — pp. 50 - 52.
5. Kulakov G.I. Eksperimentalnoe issledovanie's fists of geodynamic pressure in a file of mountains ths
of breeds Altai-Sayansk seismic a zone. / fists ɂ, Ustyugs of M. B.//Theses of reports of All-Russia
conference IFZ the Russian Academy of Sciences «Tektonofizika and pressing questions of sciences
about the earth — 2008 — v.1 — pp. 59 — 60.
6. Kutepov V.M. Opyt of tension definition in a file of metamorphic breeds of an alignment SajanoShushenskoj of HPS.//Hydraulic engineering building, 1965, ʋ2.
Ʉɥɸɱɟɜɵɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ: ɝɟɨɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɚ, ɬɟɤɬɨɧɨɮɢɡɢɤɚ, ɚɪɨɱɧɵɟ ɩɥɨɬɢɧɵ, ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɹ, ɞɟɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ, ɛɟɬɨɧɧɵɟ ɩɥɨɬɢɧɵ.
Key words: geodynamics, tectonics-physics, arch dams, pressure, deformations, concrete dams.
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