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Построение тренировочного процесса направленного на развитие специальной выносливости лыжников-гонщиков высокой квалификации специализирующихся в спринтерских видах гонок..pdf

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?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ??????????,
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???????? ??????????? ??????? ????????????,
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???????? ???????? (?????????????????? ????????
?????????????? ? ????????????? ??????? ????
? ???????????????? ????????), ????????????
?? ???????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????????
?????? ????????????????? ? ?????????? ???????,
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??? ????????? ????? ?????????????????? ????????
???????? ?? ????????? ? ????????????????
? ???????? ????? ? ???????????????????????
????????-???????? ????? ?????????? ???????????
3:1 ? ?????????????? ???????????? ????????????
????????????? ????????????????? ????????
?????? ?? ???? ?????? ??????????. ?????? ?? ?????
?????????? ?????????? ????????????????? ???????
?????????????????? ???????? ????????
????????? ? ???????? ??????????????? ?????????
?????????????? ?????? ?????? ? IV ????
?????????????, ? ??????? ??????? ????????????????
???????????? ? ?????? ???????. ?????????????
?????? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ?????
????????????? ?? ????????? ?????? ?????????
????? ????????? ?????????? ???? ? ?????
?????????????????? ???????? ???????? ???
???????????? ?????? ????????????????? ????????
??????, ???????????? ?????????? ???????????
? ?????? ???????.
???????? ?????: ?????? ?????, ??????,
??????????????????????? ???????-???????,
????????????? ???????, ??????????? ????????????,
?????????????????? ????????
? ???????????????? ????????.
? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ??????
?????????? ??????????, ?????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ????????, ????????????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????????????? ???????? ?????? ????????????????? (?????????????,
??????????? ? ???????????) ? ??????? (??? ????????????????) ?????????? ??????? [2, 6, 11]. ?????? ? ???
??? ??????????????, ??? ?????????????? ?? ???????????
Abstract
Training process for highly qualified cross-country sprint
skiers is considered in this paper, which utilizes highintensity regulated muscular loads (defined by intensity
and duration of the working phase and competitive loads)
for the development of special endurance.
It was discovered that 3:1 ratio between the total volume
of regulated muscular loads and competitive loads
in the annual training cycle results in a fairly even
distribution of high-intensity muscular work at all stages
of training process. In addition regulated muscular load
compensates for insufficient volume of high-intensity
work in zone IV (competitive activity in the ski sprint)
during snowless period. Distribution of the total volume
of cyclic work by intensity zones at different stages
of the annual training cycle established the role
and place of regulated muscular loads in the context
of muscular work at a high intensity, which determines
success in the ski sprint.
Key words: cross-country skiing, sprint, highly
qualified skiers, sports training, special endurance,
regulated muscular and competitive loads.
???? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ????????????
????????-???????? ?? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ????????????, ? ?????????????
???????? [1, 2, 5, 6, 11, 12] ???????????? ???????, ?????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????
?????????? ?????????, ?? ??? ??? ?? ???????? ????????
?????????? ? ?????????? ????????-???????? ???????
????????????, ? ? ????????? ??? ?????????? ??????????.
8
?????? ? ???????? ?????? ?????? ??????????
???????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????????
???????????? ???????????? ? ?????? ?????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ????? ??? ??????????????? ?????????, ????????????? ?????????????
?????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????????? ????????. ??? ???????? [3, 5, 6, 8, 10, 14, 15], ? ??????????
???????? ????? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ?????????? ????????????????? ???????? ??????, ??????????? ? ???????????????? ?????? ??? ????????????? ??????????
? ????????????? ???????.
? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ??????????????????
?? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ???????? ???????? ? ????????? ?????????????
??????? ????, ??????????? ??????????? ????????
??? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ? ???????? ????? ??????????.
???? ????????? ?????? ? ???????? ????????????
?????????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????????????????????? ????????-???????? ?? ?????? ??????????
?????????????????? ???????? ???????? ? ???????????????? ? ???????????????? ???????? ????????? ?????
??????????.
?????? ????????????
1. ??????? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ? ????????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ????????
????????-???????? ??? ?????????? ?????????????????? ???????? ???????? ? ???????? ????? ??????????.
2. ??????? ??????????? ?????? ? ?????????????
????????????????? ???????? ???????????? (?????????????????? ???????? ? ???????????????? ????????)
? ???????? ????? ??????????.
?????? ? ??????????? ????????????
? ????????????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????
7 ????????-???????? ? ???????? ?? 24 ?? 29 ??? (????
181,1�6 ??, ??? 79,5�7 ??), ??????? ???????????? ??
?? ?? ???, ???????????????????? ? ?????? ???????, ??????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ???? 2013 ?.
? ?. ???? ?? ?????? (??????) ? ??????????? ??????????
? XXII ??????????? ?????? ????? 2014 ?. ? ?. ????
(??????).
? ???????????? ? ???????????? ????? ? ????????
? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????????
? ??????-????????????? ?????? ????????????, ?????
??????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ????????
??????????????? ????? ????????????? ????????????.
??????? ????????????? ?????????????????? ????????
???????? ?????????????? ?? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ???+5, ????????????? ? ???????????? ????????
??? ?????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????????
?????? ?????????????????, ?????? ??????????? ??????
(???) ? ?????????????? ?????? ??? ?????????????
[4, 11, 16]. ???????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????????
? ??????? ????????????? ?Polar? (?????????) ? ?Garmin? (???) ? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????
?????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????.
??????? ???????? ????????, ??? ????????????
???????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????
????????-????????, ????????????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ????????????, ??????? ?????????? ???????
????????? ?????????????????? ???????? ????????
(???) ? ??????????? ?? ?? ????????????? ?????????????? ??????????? (???????????? ??????? ????
? ?????????? ??????????) ?? ??????? ?????????????????
? ?????????? ????????:
? ???-1 ? ?????????-??????? ????????? ??????
12?14 ??? ?? 12?14 ?, ???????????? ?? ????? (????????????) ? ???????????? ??????????????, ????? ??????
????? ???????????? 40 ? ? 1 ???;
? ???-2 ? ????????? ?????? 7?8 ??? ?? 2 ???
? ????????????? ?? ????? (???????????, ????????),
????????????? ?? ?????? ???+5, ????? ?????? ?????
???????????? 3?4 ???;
? ???-3 ? ????????? ?????? 4?5 ??? ?? 4 ??? ? ????????????? ?? ????? (????????????), ?????????????
?? ?????? ???+5, ????? ?????? ????? ????????????
3?4 ???;
? ???-4 ? ????????? ?????? 5?6 ??? ?? 7?8 ???
? ????????????? ?? ????? (????????????), ????????????? ?? ?????? ???+5, ????? ?????? ????? ???????????? 3?4 ???.
??????? ????????, ??? ????? ????????????? ?????????????????? ???????? ???????? (???-2?4) ??
?????? ??????????? ?????? ???? 5 ?????? (???+5) ???
??????????? ? ???????????? ? ???????????? ????????
???????? ???????????? ??????? ? ??????? ?????????
?????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ????????
???????? [13, 14] ? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ?????????????
? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ?????????
?? ???? ???????????? ??????? ???? ??????? ?? ?????????
???????? ????????.
??? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????:
? ???????????? �???????� ???????? ????????
(???-1) ? ????????????? ??????? ???? 12?14 ?, ??????????? ? ???????????? ??????????????, ?????
????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ?? ????????
??????????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ????????
?????????-??????? ???????, ?????????? ????????????
??????????? ????????????;
? ???????????? �??????????????� ???????? ???????? (???-2?4) ? ????????????? ?? 2 ?? 7?8 ???,
??????????? ? ?????????????? ???+5, ????? ?????????
???????????????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????, ????????
???????????? ? ?? ????????? ?? ????????? ? ?????
(??????????, ???????, ?????????-???????).
?????????? ????????????
? ?? ??????????
?????? ????????? ? ?????????? ??????????????
???????? ???????? ??????????, ??? ????? ????? ??????????? ???????? (????) ? ???????? ????? ??????????
9
?????? ? ???????? ?????? ?????? ??????????
??? ????????-???????? ???????????? ?????? ????????
6954,0 ?? (????. 1). ???????? ????? ?????????? ??????
??????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ? ????????????
????????? [9, 10, 14] ??????? ?????? ????? ?????????
?????????? ?????????????????? ???????? ????????
?? ?????????? ????? ????????? ????? ??????????. ???,
??? ? ?????? ????????????????? ??????? ? ? ??? ? ?????
??????????? ?????? ? III ???? ????????????? ?? ????
???????? 9,5% ? ? ?????????? ???????????? ? 17,4 ? ????
?? 19,6% ? ??????? (???. 1).
????????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ????? ????????????? ? ???????? ????? ??????????
????????-???????? ???????????? ??????
???????????
??????????
?????????? ????. ????
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???????????????? ??????
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????.
???.
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????.
????
???.
21
22
21
21
21
21
22
18
21
22
20
20
?????
229
29
34
28
37
37
37
36
21
34
32
24
24
373
53,8
42,8
44,0
44,5
52,0
74,0
74,8
49,3
70,4
65,3
55,2
59,4
56,8
II ???? (%) 36,5
?????
??????????? III ???? (%) 9,5
????????
IV ???? (%) 0,7
37,7
35,6
35,6
29,9
19,9
18,6
36,7
23,7
24,4
28,8
28,4
29,4
17,4
18,5
19,6
15,9
5,7
4,7
12,1
5,4
7,9
12,4
9,8
12,0
1,9
2,1
2,2
0,4
1,9
1,9
0,5
I ???? (%)
????? (??)
2,1
348,7 606,1
655,3 852,2 674,5 571,5 730,9 415,8 607,7
2,4
3,6
2,4
1,9
513,2
501,3
461,0
6954,0
???. 1. ????????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ????? ????????????? ? ???????? ?????
????????-???????? ???????????? ??????
? ???????????????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ? III ???? ?????????? ? ??????? (12,1%) ? ? ?????
(12,4%), ??? ??????????????? ????????????? ???????
???????????????? ???????????? ? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ??????????????
????????? ?????? ?????????????????.
???????? ?????????? ??????, ?? ???????????
?????? ??? ?????????? ??????????, ?????????? ?????????????????? ???????? ????????, ?????????????
?????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ???????????: 56,8% (I),
29,4% (II), 12,0% (III) ? 1,9% (IV). ??? ?????, ?? ????
????????????????? ???????? ?????? (III ? IV ????)
???????? 13,9%.
??????? ????????, ??? ?? ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????? ???? ????????? 73 ?????????????????? ???????? ????????, ?? ??????? 43
(53,4%) ???????? ?? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ?? 2 ?? 7?8 ??? (???????????? ??????? ???),
??????????? ?? ?????? ???+5, ? 35 (46,6%) ????????
?? ???????? ???????? ????????????? 12?14 ? (???????????? ???????? ???), ??????????? ? ????????????
?????????????? (???. 2). ? ???????? ?????? ???? ???????????, ??? ???? ???????????? ??????? ??? ? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ??????? ???? ????? ?????????
???????????: ???-2 (??????? ???? ? 2 ???) ? 34,2%,
???-3 (??????? ???? ? 4 ???) ? 13,7%, ???-4 (???????
???? ? 7?8 ???) ? 5,5%.
???. 2. ??????????? ?????????????????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ????????????
?????????????? ? ???????? ????? ?????????? ????????-????????
10
?????? ? ???????? ?????? ?????? ??????????
??? ?????, ?????????? ????????? ????????? ???
???????????? ??????????????? ???????????????????
??????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ??????????, ?, ???
????????? ?????, ???????? ? ??????? ?????????????
??????? ???? (???????????? ?? ???????? ??????????
???????) ????? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ? ???????
????????????? ??????? ???? (???????????? ?? ????????
??????? ????????????).
??????????? ????????????? ??? ? ???????????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ????????????????? ?????? ?
???????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????
????? ? 3 ? ??? ?? 13 ????? ? ??????? (???. 3), ??? ?????????????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????????????
???????? (??. ????. 1 ? ???. 1).
? ???????????????? ??????? ????? ??????????
?????????????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ?????????
5 ? ????? ? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ? ???????????????
????????? ????? ??????????????.
??? ??????? ?????? ?????? ???????????? (??????????? ????????????? ????????????????? ????????
??????) ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ????????, ?????? ?????????????????? ????????
???????? (???) ? ???????????????? ???????? (??)
? ???????? ????? ?????????? ??????????????????????? ????????-???????? (????. 2).
???. 3. ????????????? ?????? ?????????????????? ???????? ???????? ? ???????? ?????
?????????? ????????-????????
??????? 2
??????????? ???? ? ????????????????? ???????? ???????????? (??? ? ??)
? ????????-???????? ? ???????? ????? ??????????
????
?????.
???????? ???????? (??)
????
???
??????????? ?? ???? (%)
??
????+??
???
??
????+??
I
3942,9
731,4
239,4
970,8
18,5
6,1
24,6
II
2044,5
285,3
110,7
396
14,0
5,4
19,4
III
834,5
164,3
46,3
210,6
19,7
5,5
25,2
IV
132,1
73,2
17,9
91,1
55,4
13,5
69,0
?????
6954,0
1254,2
414,3
1668,5
18,0
6,0
24,0
?????????, ??? ? ???????? ????? ??????????
? ????????-???????? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ????? ??? ?????? 1254,2 ??, ??? ????????? 18,0%
?? ????. ????? ???????????????? ???????? ??????
414,3 ??, ???????? 6,0% ?? ????. ? ????? ????????? ????? ????????????????? ???????? ??????
(???+??) ? ???????? ????? ?????? 1668,5 ??, ????????
24,0% ?? ????.
????????????? ???????????? ?????? ??? ? ??
?? ????? ?????????????, ?????????????? ? ????. 2, ??????????????? ? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ? IV ????, ???????, ??? ????????,
?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ?????? ???????
[7, 15]. ???, ??? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????
?????? ? IV ???? ??? ?????????? ??????????????????
???????? ???????? ?????? 73,2 ?? (55,4% ?? ????),
??? ?????????? ???????????????? ???????? ? ????
17,9 ?? (13,5% ?? ????). ? ????? ????????? ?????
??? ? ?? ?????? 91,1 ??, ???????? 69,0% ?? ????
? IV ????. ?????????? ?????? ???????????????, ???
?????? ?????????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????
? ?????? ????????????????? ???????? ????????????
? ???????? ????? ?????????? ??????????????????????? ????????-????????, ??????????????????
? ???????????? ????? ????? (??. ????. 2).
??????????
??????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????????
????? ????? ??????????? ???????? ? ???????? ?????
?????????? ????????-????????, ??????????????????
? ???????????? ????? ?????, ? ??? ????????????? ?? ????? ?????????????. ????????? ????? ?????? 6954,0 ??,
? ??? ????????????? ?? ????? ????? ????????? ???????????: 56,8% (I), 29,4% (II), 12,0% (III) ? 1,9% (IV),
????????? ? ????? 13,9% ? ????????????????? ?????
(III ? IV).
11
?????? ? ???????? ?????? ?????? ??????????
?????????? ?????????????? ???????? ?? ??????
?????????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????
???????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ????????????? ????????????????? ????????
?????? (??? ? ??) ?? ????????? ?????? ?????????
????? (???????? ? ???????????????? ???????).
? ???????? ????? ?????????? ????????-????????,
?????????????????? ? ???????????? ??????, ????????????? ??????????? ?? ????? 70 ??????????????????
???????? ???????? (??? ??????? ?? ????? ????????),
??????? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????
? ?????????????? ???????????: ? ????????????????
??????? ? 50 ??????????, ? ???????????????? ??????? ? 20.
????????????? ??? ? ???????? ????? ? ???????????
?? ???????????? ??????? ???? ????? ?????????? ??????-
??? ???????????: 46,6% ? 12?14-????????? ????????
????????, 34,2% ? 2-???????? ??????, 13,7% ? 4-????????
?????? ? 5,5% ? 7?8-???????? ??????, ? ?????????????????? ?? ?????????? ????? ??????????????? ????????
???????? ?????????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ???????
?? ?????? ??????????.
????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ????????
? ???????????????? ???????? (????????????????? ???????? ????????????) ????? ????????? 1668,5 ?? ? ?????????? 24,0% ?? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ????????,
???? ????????? ??????????? ? ????? ?????????????:
24,6% (I), 19,4% (II), 25,2% (III) ? 69,0% (IV), ??????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ? ???????????? ?????
?????? ?????.
??????????
1. ??????? ?.?. ?????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????????????
????????-???????? ? ?????? ???????? ????????,
???????????? ?????????? ?????????: ???????. ???. ...
????. ???. ???? / ?.?. ???????; ?????. ? ?????????,
1998. ? 25 ?.
2. ?????? ?.?. ???????? ??????????? ????????????
????????????????? ????????-???????? ?? ??????
?????????? ???????? ????????, ??????????? ????????? ??????? ? ???????? ????? ??????????: ???. ...
????. ???. ???? / ?.?. ??????; ??????. ? ?., 1998. ?
187 ?.
3. ?????? ?.?. ?????? ? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ??????: ?????????? / ?.?. ?????? // ???????
????. ??. ?.?. ????????????. ? ?.: [?.?.], 1995. ? 196 ?.
4. ????????? ?.?. ???????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ???????????,
?????????????????? ? ??????????? ????? ?????? /
?.?. ????????? // ??????? ?????????? ???????? ??????. ? 1997. ? ? 2 (15). ? ?. 14?15.
5. ????????? ?.?. ??????? ?????????? ????????
???????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????? ? ?????? ?? ????????? ? ????? /
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ???????? // ??????? ??????????
?????. ? 2004. ? ? 2. ? ?. 17?21.
6. ????????? ?.?. ??????? ??????????? ??????????
???????? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????
????????-???????? / ?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ????????,
?.?. ??????, ?.?. ???????? // ??????? ??????????
?????. ? 2007. ? ? 4. ? ?. 13?18.
7. ?????????? ?.?. ???????? ????????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????
???????????? ? ?????? ??????? / ?.?. ??????????,
?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ????????? // ?????? ???????
???????????? ??. ?.?. ????????. ? 2014. ? ? 8 (114). ?
?. 83?88.
8. ??????????? ?.?. ????????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????????
(?? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ??????): ???. ...
?-?? ???. ???? ? ????? ????. ????. / ?.?. ???????????;
???????. ? ?., 1993. ? 79 ?.
9. ????????? ?.?. ?????? ?????: ??????? / ?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ???????. ? ?.: ??????; ?????, 2004. ?
?. 199?219.
10. ????? ?????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ????? / ?.?. ????????. ? ?.: ????????? ?????, 2010. ? 310 ?.
11. ???????? ?.?. ???????? ???????? ???????????
???????????? ???? ??????-?????? ?? ????? ??????????? ?????????????????: ???????. ???. ... ????. ???. ???? /
?.?. ????????; ?????. ? ?????????, 2000. ? 27 ?.
12. ???????? ?.?. ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ? ????????????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????, ???????????
????????? ???????: ???????. ???. ... ????. ???. ???? /
?.?. ????????; ?????. ? ?????????, 2004. ? 26 ?.
13. ????? ?. ???, ?????? ? ?????????? ?? ????????????: ???. ? ????. / ?. ?????. ? ????????: �?????�,
2006. ? 160 ?.
14. Cross country skiing: handbook of sports medicine
and science / ed. by H. Rusko. ? Blackwell Science Ltd.,
Osney Mead, Oxford, UK, 2003. ? P. 208.
15. Sandbakk O. The physiology of world-class sprint skiers / O. Sandbakk, H.-C. Holmberg, S. Leirdal, G. Ettema //
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports. ?
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12
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