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Становление Русской православной церкви в Хакасско-Минусинском крае в xviii первой четверти xix в..pdf

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I1CTOPI1R
EEK 63.3(2)513-69
B.B
ACO'laKOea
CTaHOBJIeHHe PyCCKOii: npanocnaanoa
B XaKaccKo-MHHycHHcKoM xpae
B XVIII - nepaon 'IeTBepTH XIX B.
uepxna
Kmoueeue CJl06a: PyCCKa5I npaBOCJHlBHa5Il.\epKOBb, npn­
pe)KHbIX KbIllITbIMOB.B 3THXycnonaax paanonnexeansre
coenaaenae, KOJIOHHH3al.\HlI, xaxacsr, noaoxpemensre,
l.\epKOBHo-npHXO,l\CKHe 06mHHbi.
Key-words: the Russian Orthodox Church, annexation,
colonization, the Khakass, newly-baptized Christians,
church-parish communities.
rpyrnnr KOH6aflOB H lIpHHUeBcrana nepexoznrrs na neBbIH
6eper Eaacea. B TO )Ke BpeMli B03HHKaflH KOHTaKTHbIe
30HbI B MeCTax paccenenas pyCCKHX, B KOTOpbIX men
fionee HHTeHCHBHO npouecc aCCHMHnllUHH xopennoro
naceneana, ocofienno OCeJlnbIX H HOBoKpeIQeHbIx [1,
~HororpaHHali ~ellTenbHOCTb PyCCKOH rrpaBo­
c. 196,226-227].
cnaaaon uepxsa (PTIU;) B npouecce OCBoeHHlI Ypafla,
CH6llpH H )l;aflbHero Bocroxa onpenenxnacs KaK 06IQeH
rronHTHKOH POCCHHCKOH HMrrepHH, TaK H KOHKpeTHblMH
BeJlYIUYIO pons, B MHpHbIX YCJIOBHlIX ycanancs ecre­
CTBeHHblH npapocr aacenenas, HOmaBHbIM HCTOqHHKOM
Bo BTOPOH xetaepra XVIII B. cnyacansre yrparuna
HCTOpH'IeCKHMH ycnoanasru peraoaa, B KOTOpOM eH
crana
rrpaxozranocs epyHKUHoHHpoBaTb. B ~aHHoH crarse MbI
uen,
OCTaHOBHMClI Ha HeKoTopbIX acrreKTax
peBH3Hl1MH YBenHqHnOCb B 4 pasa. Ilocxonsxy yronsa
~ellTenbHOCTH
PTIU; B XaKacCKO-~HHYCHHCKOM xpae B Ha'laflbHbIH rre­
BHYTpHYe3~Hali MHrpaUHlI
xpecrssa H Pa3HOqHH­
KOJIHqeCTBO pyCCKHx Me)KJlY nepsoti H BTOPOH
lICa'lHbIX nlOJleH sarrpemanocs 3aHHMaTb, TO B03HHKaflH
ero OCBoeHHlI pyCCKHMH: cxnaasrsamre CHCTeMbI
uepKOBHo-a~MHHHcTpaTHBHoro ynpaaneaas H HH30BOH
PHO~
KOHTaKTHbIe 30HbI - MeCTa COBMecTHoro rrp0)KHBaHHlI
xaKaCOB H pyCCKHX. Ha -repecrronocaoe pa3MeIQeHHe
pyCCKHX cepseaaoe BnHlIHHe oxasano npacyrcrsae 3Ha­
crpyxrypu nepxoaao-repparopaansaoa opraHH3aUHH,
epOpMHpoBaHHe rrpHXO~CKOro zryxoneacrsa H peanmauas
xarensnoro qHCna xasaccxoro naceneaas - aa Ka)KJloro
HM rronHTHKO-H~eOnOrH'leCKHX epyHKUHH, xpactuaaasa­
pyccxoro npaxozranocs nsa xaxaca. B COOTBeTCTBHH C
UHlI xopeaaoro aacenenaa.
DypHHCKHM JlOrOBOpOM 6bwa C03JlaHa CHCTeMa oxpanu
Hauam.n a a nep ao n OCBoeHHlI Xaxac cxo­
Manycaucxoro xpas OXBaTbIBaeT 1707-1822 rr., T.e.
C MOMeHTa npacoenjnreaaa H ~O rrpoaeaenas perpopasr
IO)KHO-CH6HpCKOH rpammsr: rrOCTaBneHO 30 xapaynoa,
a~HHHcTparnBHo-TeppHTOpHaflbHOrO
ycrpoitcrsa xpas
H onpeneneaaa craryca lICa'iHOrO aacenenas, B resenae
aeynuncxoro, Kpacnoapcxoro H Kysaeuxoro BeJlOMCTB'
0603HaqeHHOrO nepaona rrpoH301IWO oxoaxarensnoe
~OHOKCKHH, Ap6aTcKHH epopnocTbI B sepxoassx peKH
B TOM qHCne 14 - K sanany OT KlIXTbl. CeMb xapaynos
6bWH COCTaBfleHbI H311CaqHbIX POJlOB: MPKYTCKOro, H}f)K­
[2, c. 75-91]. TaKHM 06pa30M, B03HHKflH TallITbIITCKHH,
CTpYKTYpHOe rronxaaeuae uepxsa rocynapcrsy, aanene­
A6aKaH H
HHe ee epYHKUHlIMH rocynapcrseaaon cny)K6bI, onpene­
nancs IOpH~H'leCKHH craryc fienoro nyxoaencrsa, ero
Kaparyscxyio CTaHHu.y. TIPllpOCT pyccxoro HaCeJIeHHlI
nonoxeane B o6IQecTBe H rocynapcrse, COCTaB cocnosaa,
2,4 pasa, qHCneHHOCTb nocrnrana 3350 p.n.; no JlaHHbIM
qeTBepTOH peBH3HH - 7407 p.n, [2, c. 65-75].
Illanarcxaa, nepeaaenosaansra rroszntee B
Me~ BTOPOH H rpersea peBH3Hl1MH COCTaBHfl B cpenaeu
ero 61OpoKpaTH3aQHlI H, KaK Cne~CTBHe, nocrenenaua
OTpbIB OT npaxoncxoa 06IQHHbI. )l;JIlI6onee 3epepeKTHBHOH
)l;anbHeHllIee OCBoeHHe xpax rrp0H30IIWO Bpesynsrare
nearern.aocrn PTIU; npnxonsr XaKacCKO-~HHYCHHcKoro
crpoarenscraa MeTannyprH'leCKHX 3aBO~OB (Mp6HHCKHH,
xpas B 1824 r. 6bWH nepenaasr H3 Totionscxoii errapxna
JIyKa3cKHH) - crann B03HHKaTb Ka3eHHbIe nepenna,
B MPKYTCKylO.
Ilpouecc OCBoeHHlI pyCCKHMH repparopaa Xaxaccxo­
CB1I3bIBalOIQHe 3aBO~bI C pYJlHHKaMH H A6aKaHcKHM
ocrporou. TIocJIe KOHcepBaUHH 3aBO~OB pa60qHX rro­
~HHYCHHCKOro xpas HeCKonbKO ormraanca OTo6IQeCH­
MeCTHflHaa naunno CBbIJla'leH Ka3eHHOH CCY~I XJIe6oM.
6HpCKOro rro TeMrraM H epOPMaM. Ilepasre naa necsraneras
XVIII B. saceneaae rora xpas lIWO MeMeHHO H rrpeasry­
Buecre C TeM BJIHlIHHe rrpmrynarensnon KonOHH3aUHH
He CTOHT rrpeysenauaaars, KaK yoenarem.no noxasan
KpaCHOllpCKHH HCTOpHK r.<1>. DbIKOHll, ronsxo 15% scex
IQeCTBeHHO Cny)KHflbIMHJIIO~bMH. B «qepTe)KHOHKHlITe»
C. PeMe30Ba OTMeqeHO, 'ITO B 1701 r. ~HHYCHHCKHH Kpail:
npacnannsrx na
6bW cosepureaao csotionen OTpyCCKHx rrocenenaa. TIo
HaCeJIeHHeM, 'ITO COCTaBHflO scero 8% rrOJlaTHOrO aa­
JlaHHbIM nepsoti peBH3HH B paiioaax IO)KHee Kpacnoapcxa
B 120 nsopax nposorsano 476 nyur My)KCKOro nona, H3
HHX 75% - cnyxansre mona, TIpo~BH)KeHHe pyCCKHX B
ceneaas Xaxaccxo-Maaycaucxoro xpas [3, c. 92].
Heo6xo~HMO OTMeTHTb, 'ITO OHH He 6bWH nomaaeasr
MeCTHbIM snacrsa H OCTaBaflHCb B pacnopasceaaa 6epr­
XaKacHIO IIWO B OCHOBHOM nnorn, pexn EHHceH, HX rro­
xonneraa,
ceneaas BKflHHHnHCb rro rrpanosry 6epery BO snaneaas
6bIBllIHX xaKaCCKHX KHlI)KeCTB, ornenaa OT HHX npasooe­
~HHYCHHCKoro xpas uacrynan nepenou, BbI3BaHHbIH
3aBO~bI
MO)KHO CqHTaTb rrOCTOllHHbIM
Bo BTOPOH nOJIOBHHe XVIII B. B 3aCeJIeHHH XaKaCCKO­
20
CTaHOBneHl1e pyCCKOH npaBOCnaBHOH u.epKBI1 B XaKaCCKO-MI1HyCI1HCKOM xpae..•
crpesorenaev
rrpaBHTeJIhCTBa
yrropano-nrn,
PyCCKoe HaCeJIeHHe rpyrmaposanocs B OCHOBHOM na
rrorpa­
npasoa 6epery EHHceH, xopeanoe - aa ero JIeBOM 6epery
pexe A6aKaH. Hnoponsecxae rrOCeJIeHHH 6hIJIH MaJIO­
HH'lH)'lO CJIy)l(6y, B0306HOBHTh H aKTHBH3HpOBaTh .neH­
TeJIhHOCTh MeT<UIJIyprH'IeCKHX 3aBO.nOB (6hIJI OCHOBaH
H
E3araIIICKHH 3aBO.n). B 3TO)l(e BpeMH Ha'laJIOCh BOJIhHOe
'1HCJIeHHhIMH, B
peraona. 3TO npaseno K B03HHKHOBeHHlO
rrOCeJIeHHH pa3HOrO rnna: OThe3)1(He KapaYJIhI, HJIH <pOP­
60-70 '1eJIOBeK.
3aCeJIeHHe
rro 113 .nBOpOB C 600 )l(HTeJIeH. B 3aHMKax rrpO)l(HBaJIO
nsopax.
Xaxaccxo- MHH)'CHHCKOro
xpas nxonana B COCTaB T060JIhCKOH enapxna. Ha 3eM­
JIHX, HCTOpH'IeCKH HaCeJIeHHhIX xaxacasm, 6hIJIO 06pa30­
BaHO nsa saxasa - Kpacnoapcxan (1744 r.) H A'IHHCKHH
(1783 r.). TIepBhIM xpacaoapcxaa 3aKa3'1HKOM C 1744 r.
nepesan, 3aHMKH, XaKaCCKHe yrrycsr.
TIepeCeJIeHUaMH H3 Enaceacxoro yesna B0306HOBHJIaCh
nepeana MHHycHHcKaH [4, c. 132]. Pyccxae nepesna
rrOHBHJIHCh na neaofepeao,e EHHceH B xaKaCCKHX 3eMJIHX
- B 80-x rr. 6paThH COJI.naToBhI H3 ztepeana KaITThlpeBOH
rrOCeJIHJIHCh rro pexe Kansi H 06pa30BaJIH o.nHOHMeHH)'lO
nepesmo, a KpeCThHHHH HJI. EaHKaJIOB npa xaKaCCKHX
ioprax OCHOBaJI nepesmo EeH [5, c. 164].
B COOTBeTCTBHH C npaaarenscrseaaoa nporpasoaon
3aCeJIeHHH 3a6aHKaJIhH na pyoexe XVIII-XIX BB. H3
pOCCHHCKHX ry6epHHH .nBHH)'JIHCh MaCChi nepeceneanes.
rrpH6JIH3HTeJIhHO rro 80 )l(HTeJIeH B 15
rrOCThI, CTaHHUhI,
I..\epKOBHaH opraHH3aUHH
6hIJI HryMeH Xa,nOB, BTOPhiM - C 1745 rro 1750 r. - HBaH
MHororpeIIIHhIH. B <peBpaJIe 1750 r .
3Y
na
npororron co­
Bocxpeceacson uepxsa ropona Kpacaoapcxa,
asrxoneu H3 lO)I(HOpyCCKHX 3eMeJIh, yposceneu qepHH­
rOBCKOH ryfepnaa, CTaJI nepssra MHccHoHepoM aa iore
Ilpaenacettcxoro xpas. 20 <peBpaJIH 1764 r. MHXaHnOB­
CKHH BMeCTe C nporoaepeex T060JIhCKOro TpOHUKOro
cofiopa HHKHTOH ApaMeJIhCKHM 6hIJIH 0<pHUHaJIhHO
yrsepxnenu MHccHoHepaMH B T060JIhCKOH enapxna.
TIocJIe csrepra MHXaHnOBcKoro 3aKa3'1HKOM CTaJI CBH­
IUeHHHK AJIeKceH AJIeKCeeBcKHH no CBoeH KOH'IHHhI B
60pHOH
pa3MeIUeHHe B Pa3JIH'IHhIX MeCTax CH6HpH. TaK, B
rOTOBa K HX
6e3
1803-1804
rr;
HeCKOJIhKO COT KpeCThHH, OTrrpaBJIeHHhIX
C Cesepaoro KaBKa3a B CH6Hph, 6hIJIH rrOCeJIeHhI B MH­
H)'CHHCKOM KOMHccapHaTCTBe,
rne C03.naJIH
60JIhIIIOe ceJIO
1811 r. CJIe.nylOIUHM 3aKa3'1HKOM C 1811 rro 1824 r. 6hIJI
rrepasra H3 rrOTOMCTBeHHhIX CBHIUeHHHKOB
Xaxaccxo- MHH)'CHHCKOro xpas. 21 MapTa 1824 r. YKa30M
KaBKa3CKOe [3, c. 18-19].
TIeTp TOKapeB,
TaKHM 06pa30M, K KOHuy
nepson
'1eTBepTH XIX B.
3aBepIIIHJIOCh <pOpMHpoBaHHe HaCeJIeHHH
Xaxaccxo­
T060JIhCKOH KOHCHCTOpHH 6JIaro'lHHHhIM
):(aJIhHeHIIIee pa3BHTHe HaCeJIeHHH
CHHCKa H MHH)'CHHCKOro yeaaa 6hIJI
KpaH orrpe.neJIHJIOCh rrOJIHTHKOH uapcKoro rrpaBHTenh­
Ileryxos (apxasraanpar <DHJIapeT).
MHH)'CHHCKOro
spas,
CTBa, HarrpaBJIeHHOH
aa
MHpoBaHHH HaCeJIeHHH CTaJIH:
B 1764 H C 1784 rro 1796 r. 6hIJIH
MhI BhICIIIHX 3BeHheB UepKOBHOro
neransasre nepeceneaas
'1aCTH POCCHH, BHyTpHCH6Hp­
CKHe MHrpaUHH, IIITpa<pHaH KOJIOHH3aUHH. <DaKTopaMH,
BJIHHlOIUHMH
ueccsr,
aa
COUHaJIhHo-.neMorpa<pH'IeCKHe
npo­
HBHJIHCh: 6ypHoe pa3BHTHe 30JIOTO.n06hIBaIOIUeH
rrpOMhIIIIJIeHHOCTH B 1820-1850-e rr. H yCHJIeHHe pOJIH
MOCKOBCKO-CH6HpCKOro
nepnona yBeJIH'lHBaJICH
rpaxra,
scero
pyccxoro nace­
Ha rrpOTH)I(eHHH
y.neJIhHhIH pOCT
ropona MHH)'­
aasaaaea <DopryHaT
nposeneau pediop­
ynpaanenaa, HX mas­
HhIM pe3YJIhTaTOM 6hIJIO opraaasanaonnoe rrpespameaae
uepxsa B Be.nOMCTBO rocynapcrseanoro ynpasnenaa, a
enacxonos - B '1HHOBHHKOB. Perpopsra OTpa3HJIaCh na
conepxaaaa IIITaTOB npaxoncxax uepxaea, )l(aJIOBaHHH
KJIHpa, nan enapxaansnuva opraaasm yrrpaaneana 6hIJI
yCTaHOBJIeH KOHTpOJIh ryfiepaaropos. ):(0 3TOro BpeMeHH
rpanausr errapxaa He COBrra.naJIH C rpaHHUaMH ry6epHHH
H enapxaa, 'ITO 3aTpy.nHHJIO CBH3h rpaisnaacsnx H .nyXOB­
HhIX BJIaCTeH. JIOrH'IeCKHM 3aBepIIIeHHeM pediopa CTaJIO
yspexneaae MHHHCTepCTBa .nyXOBHhIX nen H aaponaoro
rrpOCBeIUeHHH B aanane XIX B. H nonxaaenae eMY B xa­
'1eCTBe onnoro H3 OT.neJIOB Caaona B 1817 r. BepIIIHHoH
3eMJIe.neJIh'leCKOe H TOproBO­
rrpOMhIIIIJIeHHOe OCBoeHHe CH6HpH. HCTO'lHHKaMH <pop­
xpecrsxn eaponeacsoti
nena saxasa rrpHHHJI
AJIeKCeH MHXaHnOBH'I MHXaHnOBCKHH,
Ho B CBH3H C TeM, 'ITO MeCTHaH a.nMHHHCTpaUHH He 6hIJIa
npnesry, TO ThICH'IH nepeceneanen OKa3aJIHCh
nener H KpOBa. ):(eJIO .nOIIIJIO no CTonHUhI, H rro npaxa­
Cenara '1aCTH noceneanes 6hIJIH BhI.neJIeHhI cpencrsa
cpenaeja rro 12 .nBOpOB C HaCeJIeHHeM B
Pyccxae rrOCeJIeHHH - fionee xpyrnrsre,
JIeHHH rro OTHOIIIeHHlO K HCa'iHOMY.
K KOHuy nepsoa '1eTBepTH XIX B. aa repparopaa
Xaxaccxo-Manycaucxoro xpas B 88 pyCCKHX aace­
JIeHHhIX nyaxrax rrpO)l(HBaJIO 23003 JIHU ofioero nona.
)),HHaMHKa qHCneHHOCTH aaceneuas (qHCnO nym ofioero nona)"
Haceneaae
Ilepsaa serseprs
XVllI B.
1730-e IT.
1760-e rr:
1795 r:
1820-e rr:
Xasacsi
3565
4175
6112
16376
21182
Pyccxae
476
1915
7407
18098
23003
Hroro
4041
6090
13519
34474
44185
·noOC'IUmaHO no: [2; 3; 5; 6, n. 28. n. 1-32;.lI.. 63. n. 26606.; .lI.. 189. n, 373-536; .lI.. 215. n. 98; n. 222. n. 1-90; .lI.. 136. n.
126-144].
21
I1CTOPI1R
npaurnocs aa aasano sexa,
pe<POPM CHIJ10 aaaaaseaae B 1824 r. ofiep-nposypopa
HHe KOTOpbIX
maBOH ,lI.yXOBHOro Be,ll.OMCTBa.
ynanocs B CBH3H C TeM, qTO ,lI.OK)'MeHTbI panee 1748 r. He
COXpaHHnHCb. Oxono 48% npaxoncxoro ,lI.)'xOBeHcTBa co­
TaKHM
06pa30M,
CYlll,HOCTb
3BonIOUHH
rocynapcrseaao-uepxoaaoro yrrpasneaas
CTaBnHnH HeCKonbKO <paMHnbHbIX K)'CTOB - KOHoBanoBbI,
B CH6HpH
nepsoji
sersepra XIX B. nyxoaencrso XaKaccKO-MHHYCHHcKoro
aaxmoaanacs B C03,l1.aHHH CTpOHHOH CHCTeMbI, coseraro­
lIl,eH B ce6e uepxoaasre H rpaacnancxne HHCTHryTbI.
B 1822-1824 rr. 6blna
EBCTIOrHHbI, EBTHXHeBbI, TOKapeBbI. K KOHuY
xpaa ua 96,4% crano nOTOMCTBeHHbIM, HMeno ,lI.OCTaTOq­
pesepa. B nepnon CTaHOBneHHH
ynopsnoseaa a,ll.MHHHcTpaTHBHo­
repparopaansnaa crpyxrypa, Xaxaccxo-MHHYCHHCKHH
xpaa opramrmo BOIIIen B cHcTeMY POCCHHCKOro rocyztap­
cnoaooracs fionee
CTBa,
HbIH BHYTpHcOcnoBHbIH
PIlIJ,
,lI.HHaMHKa qHCneHHOCTH
casmennocnyzorrenea
asrrnanena cneztyrounea 06paJOM:
ynpaaneaas
CTpOHHaH CHCTeMa
BbIHCHHTb He
1% B
nepsori sersepra
B A qHHCKOM - 8. )J;HHaMHKa pOCTa npHXO,ll.OB BblmH,lI.HT
nocnenaen rpern aexa; 0,6% - K 1824
r. Cnenosarensuo, sa CTO ncr ,lI.OnH nyxoseacrna B
crpyxrype 06l1l,eCTBa COKpaTHnaCb nOqTH B ana pasa,
H3MeHeHHH ero qHCneHHOCTH onpenenanocs IIITaTHbIM
cnenyrounoa06paJOM: B rrepsoa qeTBepTH XVIIl B. ofipa­
pacnHcaHHeM[6,,lI.. 104,n. 10-11;,lI.. 136,n. 197-485,
30BanOCb ,lI.Ba - KapaynbHO-OCTpO)l(CKHH H A6aKaHcKHH,
425-506;
ueirrpax OCBoeHHH pyCCKHMH rora Ilpaenaceacxoro xpaa,
39-40;,lI.. 185, n. 1-406.;,lI.. 221, n. 1-3; 8,,lI.. 158, n. 298].
XVIII B.; 0,9% B
UepKOBHbIMH opraHH3aQHHMH.
K 1824 r. B XaKaccKO-MHHYCHCHKOM
naposano
xpae <PYHKUHO­
oxpyre - 10;
18 npHXO,ll.OB: B MHHYCHHCKOM
Bo BTOPOH
seraepra
XVIIl B. B03HHKnO TpH
npaxona:
nepaona
MHHyCHHCKOM
poccancxoro
I1p6HHCKHH H JIyKaJCKHH 6blnH
ynpasnaeasr; BO BTOPOH nonosuae
noes 12 npHXO,ll.OB, O,ll.HH H3 HHX -
XVIIl B.
OCHOBaHO
nepsoa sersepra
sersipe npzxona, H3 KOTOpbIX O,ll.HH-
xpae
qHCnOM HCaqHbIX -
ornasanacs
IlOToMcTBeHHbIH
aa HH3KHH yposem, 06paJO­
nonHT~eCKOH
H no scea crpaae, B ,lI.aHHOM penrose K KOHuy H3yqaeMoro
nepaona ctpopxapoaanocs nonynpaaanernpoaaaaoe
nOTOMCTBeHHoe npHXO,ll.CKOe nyxoaeacrso.
3BonIOUHH couaansaoro craryca nyxoseacrsa 6bIna
THn~HOH MH BceH POCCHHCKOH HMnepHH, OHO CTaHO­
B Y)I(ypCKOM
Bapaarcsosr (55%),
cocnoaaex, oropsanocs
OT BbICIIIHX
cnoes ofimecrsa,
OT
HO B OT­
MHHY­
nHqHe OT ,lI.BOpHHCTBa He CTaHOBHnOCb 3nHToH. O,ll.HOH H3
Ilpaxonu, aaceneaasie
npasna 6bIn sanper aa acrynneaae ,lI.BOpHH B ,lI.)'XOBHoe
cocnoaae, n03TOMY Me)l(,lI.)' ,lI.BOpHHCTBOM H ,lI.yXOBeHCTBOM
pyCCKHMH, C He3HaqHTenbHbIM
Kapaynsuo-Ocrpoxcxaa
He cnosomocs
xposaoro poncrsa, nO,ll.06HO CYlll,eCTBYIO­
Eapone. OTpbIB OT naponnsrx Macc
6bIn ooycnosnea nonHT~eCKOH H nonHueHCKOH ponsro
,lI.yXOBeHCTBa, a OT ,lI.BOpHHCTBa - aanperost rocynapcrsa B
XVIIl B. scrynars B nyxoaaoe cocnosae H pacrymea es­
poneasauaea ssrcmero xnacca. B CH6HpH, H oc06eHHO B
crons OT,lI.aneHHOM panoae, KaK XaKaCCKO-MHHYCHHCKHH
xpaa, 3TH npoueccsr HeCKonbKO aanaansrsana, H KaK y)l(e
(1,8%),
meay
KyparHHCKHH (0,4%), Kyp6aToBcKHH (3,7%). BO-BTOPbIX,
OHH
ofime­
XIX B.
aaponasix Macc H
npemiymecraeuno
nyxoaencrsa B Xaxaccxo­
naneaae asroparera BCne,ll.CTBHe
noaoxpemeusre scasusre,
CHHCKOM (60%), A6aKaHcKoM.
n., n. 36-37,
no TeMnaM H CpOKaM, HO TeH,lI.eHQHH 060­
BHnOCb 6IOpOKpaTHqeCKHM
(91%), ACKH3CKOM (73,3%),
2-3; 7,
EeHcKHH,
ornasnrensnsrx
scero
n.
HeCKonbKO OTCTaBano OT
occoeanocren. Bo-nepsux, BO scex npaxonax qHCnHnHCb
60nbIIIe
544,
aHr<l)l(HpOBaHHOCTH H npOTeKUHoHH3Ma rocynapcrsa, KaK
nacrsy,
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xpas HMena HeCKonbKO
n.
K KOHuY XVIIl B., HeCMOTpH
BaHHH,
o6'be,ll.HHHn npeHMYlIl,eCTBeHHo HOBOKpelll,eHYIO
MHHYCHHCKOro
398;
xnap 3aHHn senyuiee MecTO cpena MecTHoro ,lI.)'xoBeHCTBa
aoaoxpemenoro scasnoro uaceneana
(ACKH3CKHH H Y)I(ypCKHH). B
n,
snasanacs yzce K KOHuY 20-x rr. XIX B.
ofipasosa­
npn
E3araIIIcKHH -
saaone, OH B 1799 r. 6bIn nHKBH,lI.HpOBaH. Oc06eHHocTbIO
uepxonaoro crpoarenscrsa B nOT nepaon 6bInO oopa­
30BaHHe npHXO,ll.OB
377;
<!>OpMHpoBaHHe npHXO,ll.CKOrO
HOBocenoBcKHH, I1p6HHCKHH, JlyKa3cKHH. K KOHUY
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n.
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KOH nnOTHOCTH H qHCneHHOCTH
pasaepaaa npn
nacenenas,
06'be,ll.HHHnOCb 60nbIIIoe KOnHqeCTBO
B
HH3­
npnxonax
cenenaa paaaoro
rnna.
Oc06eHHo 06IIIHpHbIMH H ManOHaceneHHbIMH
6bInH
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co CMeIIIaHHbIM
xaxaccxo-pyccxav aa­
ceneanea. B-TpeTbHX, npHXO,ll.CKHe 06l1l,HHbI B Xaxaccxo­
MHHYCHHCKOM xpae ,lI.0 KOHua XVIII B. COXpaHHnH HeKO­
B 3ananHOH
OTMeqanOCb, ,lI.eMOKpaTHqeCKHe Tpa,ll.HUHH B npHXO,ll.CKHX
ropue 3neMeHTbI caaoynpaaneaaa, onpenenana paJMepbI
06l1l,HHaX
npaxona, ero a,lI.MHHHcTpaTHBHoe yCTpOHCTBO. qeTBepTOH
oc06eHHocTbIO fisrn MHorococnoBHbIH COCTaB npaxozcan,
nepsoa sersepra XVIII B. cran B03paCTaTb 06­
pasoaarensnsra yposeas nyxoaeacrsa KaK cnencrnae
qTO 06'beKTHBHo cnoc06cTBoBano 3THocoUHanbHoH,
yCHneHHH Tpe60BaHHH K KBanH<pHKaUHH CBHlIl,eHHHKOB co
xynsrypaoti,
CTOpOHbI BnaCTeH. B yqe6Hble
X03HHCTBeHHOH HHTerpaUHH
xopenuoro
H
npamnoro naceneaaa.
B<l)I(HYIO
pons B ,lI.eHTenbHOCTH uepxan nrpan n~HbIH
XaKacCKO-MHHYCHHcKOro
XO,ll.HnO H3 ceMeH CBHlIl,eHHO- H
,lI.OnH
nocnenaax
xpas
185
,lI.0 KOHua XVIIl B.
aaseneaas
npHHHManHcb
npeaayuiecrseaao ,lI.eTH zryxouencrna, qTO 3aTpy,ll.­
aano npnrox B pansr nyxoaeacrsa nHU H3 nonarusrx
cnoea. K KOHuy H3yqaeMOrO nepnona 6bIn 0<pHUHanbHo
orpanasea H BbIXO,ll. H3 nyxcsaoro cocnosas. TaKHM
COCTaB npHXO,ll.CKOrO ,lI.)'XOBeHCTBa. 113 192 KnHpHKOB B
npaxonax
coxpansnacs
K
npoac­
uepxoaaocnyxarenea,
06paJOM, CYlll,HOCTb 3BonIOUHH
nyxoaencraa aa npo­
Ha npOTH)I(eHHH BeKa na,ll.ana. IlpoHc­
TH)I(eHHH XVIIl - nepBoH qeTBepTH XIX B. COCTOMa B
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npeBpalll,eHHH ero B 3aMKHYTOe nonynpHBHnerHpOBaHHOe
22
CTaHOBlIeHl1e pyCCKOI1 npaBOClIaBHOI1 u.epKBI1 B XaKaCCKO-MI1HYCI1HCKOM xpae ...
cocnosae
Ilpn
nepenaxe MeCT CBRmeHHHKaMH oxassr­
CTBeHHaR nonnepacsa IJ,epKOBHbIX opraHH3aIJ,HR B MeCTaX
H B OTpbIBe OT npmW.L\CKOH 06mHHb!.
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pacnpocrpaaemor xpacraaacrsa, ,D;nR nepnoro srana
xapaxrepao orcyrcraae qeTKO paspafioraausrx MeTO.L\OB
qTO cnoc06CTBOBaJIO pa.3BHTHIO B .L\YXOBeHCTBe qepT OT­
xpHcTHaHH3aIJ,HH, HMenH MeCTO H HaCHnbCTBeHHble, H
«npespatuemno Tpa.L\HIl,HOHaJIH3Ma
B ocaoaononararouran npauuan ero )I(H3HH» [9, c. 14].
Hacenenae peraona no BepoHCnOBe.L\aHHIO nenanocs
aa npasocnaaasrx, craposepoa H lIIaMaHHCTOB. .D:eRTenb­
HOCTb PIlQ na repparopaa XaKacCKo-MHHyCHHcKoro
noomparensnsre Mepb!. B
HaCne.L\CTBeHHOR
BaJIHCb .L\aJIeKO He
CTaJIOCTH, KOCHOCTH,
3TO BpeMR HaqHHaeTCR MHCCHO­
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BTOpOR
xeraepra
XVIII B. OTMeqaeTCR
cnan B norraraxe
xpHcTHaHH3aIJ,HH.
BTOPOR
aran
HaqaJICR B KOHIJ,e 60-x rr. XVIII B. H
nasana
xapaxrepasyercs
nonaraxe
xpaa 6bIna nanpaanena aa peurenae Cne.L\YlOmHX sanas:
xoarpons penHrH03HOR )I(H3HH npaxoscan, nOnHIl,eHCKHR
yser nacenemor, asraaneaae H 60pb6a C pacxonsnaxa­
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MH;
xpemenae RCaqHbIX. IlOCne.L\HRR pemana sanasy
HHTerpaIJ,HH xopeaaoro aacenenas B nornrrasecxyto,
opraHH3aIJ,HH MeTO.L\OM y6e)l(.L\eHHR. KaK OTMeqaJIOCb B
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B KOTOpblX
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aa­
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paccrosaae OT XpaMa.L\O nacenemrsrxnyHKTOB,
06eCneqeHHOCTb
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aasanacs
cnocofion KOHTponR penHrH03HOH )I(H3HH
aaasraaesrsre
KOTOpblX nOKa.3aJI, qTO
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Kon~eCTBO
COCTaanMO 11-13% npaxoscaa. B
aa
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npHIDITbI
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HCnOBe.L\H He 6bInO 82
senosexa
cyaa OT
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sa
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[6,
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npyroti - ycnoaoonounrx nOpR.L\OK xpeuie­
r. acasnsre .L\On)l(HbI 6bInH nonaaars
HHR. Ilo YKa.3Y 1686
npocsoy 0 xpeuienaa B BoeBO.L\cKYlO npaxaanyio H36y, rne
npaxona 6bIn
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5 py6. 5
xon.,
T.e.
npaxoxan He 6bInH aa HCnOBe.L\H [4, c. 32]. C1>aKTopaMH,
ua ssmonaeaae penHrH03HOH 06pR.L\HOCTH,
asrcrynana oc06eHHocTH ycrpojicrsa IJ,epKOBHbIX npa­
rpafeac,
BnHRBIIIHMH
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10 OKTR6pR 1796 r.
C KpecTbRH-CTapO)l(HnbIJ,eB MHHyCHHCKOro
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c. 133].
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pesort HnH 60nblIIHMH paccToRHHRMH. Hecaorps
xpaua He
60nee 20 sepcr; B npHXO.L\aX XaKacCKO-MHHyCHHcKoro
xpaa OHO nocrarano 80-150 sepcr. B KOHIJ,e XVIII B. na
18098 sen. pyccxoro aacenenas H 4616 sen. xpetneasrx
xcasnsrx 6bInO acero 13 IJ,epKBeH. TaKHM 06pa.30M, B
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sen., qTO npessnnano HOpMbI, YCTaHOBneHHble CHHO.L\OM,
nOqTH B .L\Ba paaa, TeM fionee, KaK yzce OTMeqaJIOCb, uren
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IJ,epKBH
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aa
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B
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pesynsrare .L\eRTenbHOCTH CBRmeHHHKOB,
no He CTOnbKO B
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CKonbKO
non
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B caMOH POCCHH H3MeHHnaCb 06meCTBeHHO­
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B COOTBeTCTBHH C H3MeHeHHeM ee <POPM H MeTO.L\OB.
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B OTHOlIIeHHH
1 .L\O0,6%.
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5, N!!2863,
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ofiuiecrsa C
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nepssre
xpemeaae a60pHreHOB CH6HpH 6bInH npen­
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IJ,epKBH B 1788 r.
TO, qTO .L\eRTenbHOCTb PIlQ B CH6HpH
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B KOHIJ,e 20-x rr. XIX B. HaMeTHnCR B03BpaT K <popMe
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aa senosesecxae yMbI paaapascaer, a .L\03Bone­
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XIX B., OH
nepeXO.L\OM OT MHCCHOHepCKOR .L\eRTenbHOCTH K
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penHrH03HaR nOnHTHKa:
23
paspeureaa .L\eRTenbHOCTb nexpa­
I1CTOPI1R
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KOMnpOMHCCa co
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H MeTO,ll.OB MHCCHOHepCKOH ,lI.eJlTeJIhHOCTH.
B
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r.
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sexa ,lI.OJIJI xaKaCOB, npHHJlBIlIUX xpacraancrso B03pOCJIa
B
To6oJIhCKOH enapxaa 6hIJIH Ha3HaqeHhI npOnOBe,ll.HHKH
necyuiecrseaao.
- MHccHoHephI, nOJIHOMOqHJI KOTOphIX 6hIJIH BnepBhle
)KHBaJIO 23451 JlCaqHhIX, H3 HUX
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1851 r. B MHnyCHHCKOM oxpyre npo­
xpeurenux 6hIJIO OKOJIO
7 ThIC. qeJI., 'ITO COCTaBJIJlJIO npHMepHo 29,8%.
<l>yHKUHH MeCTHOH uepsoanoa CTPYKTYphI PyCCKOH
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onpenennna cpaBHHTeJIhHO
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lIJyHKuHoHHpoBaHHJI 3TOH KJlepHKaJIhHOR CTpyKTYphI.
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H H,lI.eOJIOrHqeCKOe pa3JIHqHe.
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,lI.OJIH HOBOKpemeHhIX.
B
KOHue XVIII - aasane XIX B.
xpeureao 6hIJIO 28% XaKaCOB [6,,lI.. 75, 85].
B
1822 r. 6hIJIa
B
rtpononxena
H3yqaeMoro nepaona HaCeJIeHHe KpaJI ynanocs
HX ,lI.OJI)KHO 6hIJIO 6hITh He MeHee 26.
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nes­
TeJIhHOCTh HH30BOH CTPYKTYphI PyCCKOH npaBOCJIaBHOH
uepxsa
B
Xaxaccxo-Mauycancxosr xpae aaxrnoaanacs
B
HCnOJIHeHHH npaBOCJIaBHhIX 06pJl,ll.OB y pyccxoro HaCeJIe­
HHJI,npeHMYmecTBeHH03eMJIe,ll.eJIhueB,peryJIHpOBaHHH
nOJIHTHKa seporepna­
ceMeHHO-6paqHhIX H MOPaJIhHO-3TuqecKux OTHOIlIeHHR.
§286 YCTaBa 06 aaoponuax roBOpHJIOCh, 'ITO
Pacnpocrpanenue xpacraancrsa cpenn xaKaCOB yCKOpH­
«anopomrsr, He HcnOBeAYIOmHe xpHCTHaHCKOH sepsr,
JIO H, B aexoropoti CTeneHH, H3MeHHJIO nponecc KOHCOJIH­
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HaM H 06hlqaJlM»; sanperuanoci, nonseprars HX KaKHM­
npOH30IlIJla na HHOH, cHHKpeTHqHOH, OCHOBe.
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sepy, OKa)KYTCJI no HeBe)KeCTBY B yrrytuenaa UepKOBHhIX
nepaa 03HaqaJIO ax rocy,ll.apCTBeHHO-a,ll.MHHHcTPaTHBHoe
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nonsaaeaae H BKJlIOqeHHe B Op6H1)' aneononrsecsoro
uexpemeusnaa; «otipsnsr,
H KYJIh1)'PHOro B03,l1.eHCTBHJI, n03ToMY peJIHrH03HaJI no­
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JIHrHH» - Jl3hlqeCKHe H xpHCTHaHCKHe.
B
TO )Ke BpeMJI
JIHTHKa B 06meUHBHJIH3aUHOHHoM nnaae 6hIJIa npasaaaa
aKTHBH3HpOBaJIaCh MHCCHOHepCKaJl ,lI.eJlTeJIhHOCTh npH
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O,ll.HOBpeMeHHOM yCHJIeHHH 60Ph6hI C paCKOJIOM.
B
1823
ro cOUHYMa KaK ueJIOCTHoro opranasva
EH6J1HOrpa4m'leCKHH CDHCOK
1. YiCTOpHJI Xaxacaa C.l\peBHeHUII1X spenea no 1917 rona
I OTB. pen. JI.P. KhI3JIaCoB. - M., 1993.
2. EhIKOHlI, f.<1>. 3aCeJIeHife pyCCKHMH Ilpaenaceacxoro
xpas B XVlll B. I f.<1>. EhIKOHli. - HOBOCH6HpCK, 1981.
3. Kapuoa, B.f. XaKaCHJI Bnepaonpa3JIOlKeHHll ljIeO.l\aJIH3Ma.
XVlll- nepsas-reraepts XIX B. I B.r. Kapuos, - A6aKaH, 1970.
4. BaTHH, B.A. MHHyCHHCKHH KpaH BXVlll B. I B.A. BaTHH
113TIO.l\ no HCTOpHH CH6HpH. - MHlryCHHCK, 1913.
5. Byraaaes, B.51. 3THH'IeCKali HCTOpHli xaKaCOB I B.5I. Ey­
raaaes II XaKaChI : MaTepHaJIhI K cepaa «Haponu COBeTCKOro
COI03a». - Bsrn. III. - M., 1990.
6. fOCY.l\apCTBeHHhIH apXHB Kpacnospcxoro xpas (fAKK). ­
<1>. 592.- On. 1.
7. T060JIhCKHH ljIHJIHaJI rocyaapcraeaaoro apxasa TIOMeH­
CKOH 06JIaCTH. - <1>. 156. - 00. 1. 1772 r.
8. MHHyCHHCKHH roP0.l\CKOH rocynapcraennsrti apxas. ­
<1>. 17. - 00. 1.
9. MHpOHOB, E.H. PyCCKHH ropon B 174G-1860-e roztsr:
.l\eMOrpaljlH'IeCKOe, COI.\HaJIhHOe H3KOHOMH'IeCKOe pa3BHTHe
I E.H. MHpOHOB. - JI., 1990.
10. TIOJIHOe C06paHHe 3aKOHOB POCCHHCKOH HMoepHH-1. ­
CTI6.,1830.
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