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Историки о причинах появления урало-кузнецкой проблемы в промышленной политике советского государства весной 1918 г..pdf

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???????? ?а???????????? ????????
?????????? ??????????? ?????? 1918 ?.
I.D. Pankin
Historians Talk about the Reasons of Arising the Ural Kuznetsk
Problem in the Industrial Policy
of the Soviet Government in Spring of 1918
??????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????-?????????? ???????. ???? ??????
????????? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ????????? ????
????. ??????????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??
?????? ?????? ?????? 1918 ?., ??????? ????????? ??????? ???? ????? ? ?????? ? ???? ????.
For the first time the article analyzes the problem of
arising the Ural Kuznetsk project. It gives different points
of view on the reason of this problem?s origin. It analyzes different opinions on its influence on the destiny of the
country in spring of the 1918 and the reasons to allocate
the leading roles of the Ural and Siberia in this problem.
?????-????????? ????????, ???а???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?а????????? ??????? ??????,
????????? ?а?????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?????? 1918а?. ????? ?????? ?????? ??а?????????????????? ????? ?а?????????? ??????????
???? ?????????????? ?????? ?а????? ?а??????? ?????? ????????????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?а??????.
?????? ?а??? ????? ?????????? ?а????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????-????????? ????????а?
???????? ???????? ??????????? ??а????? ?а?а??????
??а?????? ????????????? ????? ?????????? ????????.
???а??а????? ??а?????????? ????? ???????? ?а????????????? ????????????? ???????????? ????? ?а???????? ????????? ?????-????????? ???????? ?а???????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????.
??????? ?а????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????
????????. ??????????? ??а??? ???а??? ???????????? ???????? ??а????, ???а???????? ???????? ??????
???????-???????????????? ???? ??а??????? ??????
?????????? ?а?????????????? ??????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????, ?????????? ??а????????????? ??????????, ????????? ??????
??????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ??а?????? ???????????? ??????? ?а??????
????. ???а???? ???????? ????????? ??а???? ??а???????? ?.??.а??????, ??????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ?а?????? ?????: л?????? ???????? ???????, ???а??????????, ????????????? ?????? ???????
??????????? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????????, ???????? ???????????? ???????, ??-
????, ??????????????, ?????????? ??????????????╗ [1, ?. 36, c. 186].
?.??.а???????? ???????: л?????? 1918а?. ???????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ?а????????? ???????
?????? ????? ????? ??а??????? ?а????? ????????????????? ?????????????╗. ??а??? ??????, ??????????
????? ??? ?а?????? ?????? 1918а?. ????? ??????????
???? ?а??????????? ????????????? ????????? ???????? ????? ?а??????, ???????, ???а???а????????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ??а?????????????? ?????????. ?????
???????????, ???ал????????? ??????? ??а??????????
???? ???? ???????? ?.??.а???????, ?.??.а??????? ?а?????? ????????? ??????????╗ [2, ?. 60?61].
????????? ????????? ????????????? ????????,
???а??????? ?а????????????? ????????????? ?????-????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ?а???????? ?а????? 1918а?. ???????? ??????????????
??????????????. ??а?????? ?.??.а???????, л?????? ???????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ???? ??????????? ???????????????? ??????
?а ?????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?а ??????? ????? ?????????????? ?????????????╗ [3, ?. 16].
?.??.а???????? ???????????, ???а?а????? 1918а?. л?а???????? ???? ?????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????????????╗ [2, ?. 59].
??????? ???????? ???????? ????? ???????.
????????, ???а???????????? ???????? ?а?????????
?????? ????? ????????????? ??а???? ?????????? ???????????????? ??????? ?а?????????. ??? ????? ???????? ??а???? ?.??.а??????, ????????????? ???а??а?????-
???????? ?????: ?????-????????? ????????, ???????????? ????????, ???????????????? ?????????????, ?????н
????????? ??????????????, ??????????????? ???????.
Key words: Ural Kuznetsk problem, industrial politics,
socialist construction, industry nationalization, geopolitical
reason.
50
???????? ? ???????? ????????? ?????-????????? ????????...
?? ??????????? ?а??????. ?? ???????, ???а???а??????
???????????? ??????????? ????? ????????? ?а???????? ?а???? ???????, л?????? ????? ????? ??????
?а?????????╗ [1, ?. 31, ?. 446].
??а???? ????????? ????????????? ??????????????,
???а?????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????? ???а????????????????? ?????????????.
?.??.а??????? ???????: л??а?????? ????? ?а???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???????????????? ?????????????
???????????????. ????????????? ???? ????? ????????
???????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ??????, ???????? ??????????? ????????????????? ?????????????? ???? ????????? ??????╗ [4, ?. 23?24]. ??а????
?????? ?а????????? ?????????????. ?.??.а?????????
??????, ???ал???а?????????????? ??????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????? ??а?????а?? ??????????
?а????????????? ???????????????? ?????????╗ [5,
?.?530]. ?.??.а???????? ?????????, ???ал?????????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????? ???а????????????????? ?????????????╗ [4, ?. 37].
??????, ?а??????????? ????????? ????????? ?а???,
???а?а????? 1918а?. ??????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ??? ?а???????? ????????, ??????? ?????????? ???????????. ??а?????? ?.??.а????????????,
?а????? 1918а?. ?????????????? ??????????? ????? 16
(??а34) ??????? ?????? ??????? ????? [6, ?. 8]. ??а?????? ?.??.а?????????, ?а?????? ?????? 1918а?. ?а?щ?????
?????????? ????????? ??????????????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? 13 ?????? ???????? ?а53 ?????? ??????? ??????? ???????????????? ?????????????? ????? [4, ?. 36]. ?.??.а???????? ?а?.??.а?????????
??????????, ???а?????? ?а????? ????? 1918а?. ????? 85?%
?????????????? ?????????????? ????? ???? ????????????????? [5, ?. 531?532; 7, ?. 35].
????? ????????? ????????? ???? ??????? ?а???,
???а?????-????????? ????????, ?а????????????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??????????????? ???????, ???? ?????????? ?а???????????? ????????? ??????
1918а?., ????? ????????? ????? ??????? ???а????????
?????????? ???????????: ?????????? ?????-??????????
??????? ????????, ?а?????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ???????, ?а????????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ?а???? ??????????? ?????.
? ? а ? ? ? ?? ? ? . ??. а ? ??? ? ? ? ? ? , л ? ? ? ? ?? ? ??? ?????????? ???? ?а ?????? ?а ?????????????? ??????? ?????????????? ???? ???????????
???????????????? ?????? ?????????? ?а???????
?????? ?????╗ [7, ?. 35?36]. ?? ??? ????? ??а???????? ????????? ?????????, ??????? ?????????, ???а?а?????? ?????? ?????-????????? ?????? ???? ???а????????? ?????? ????????? ???????? [7, ?. 43].
??????? ???????? ??????????? ?а????????????? ?????????? ?????-????????? ???????? ??????
1918а?. ?????????? ??????????? ?а??????????? ???????????? ??????????. ????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??а???????? ??????? ????????????? ?????
????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????,
?????????? ??а????????????? ??????????, ??а????????????? ?????-?????????? ???????. ?а???????????
????????????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ?????????????? ?.??.а????????, ??????? ???????? ????????
??а??, ???а??????????, ????? ?а??????, л?????????
????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????????, ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????????? ???, ??????? ????????????а?? ?????????????
?????????? ??????, ?????????а?? ??????? ?????????
?????? ????????????╗ [8, ?. 68].
????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????,
???а????????? ?а???? ??????????? ?????????????? ?а????????? ?????? ?????? ?????? 1918а?. ??????????? ??????? ????????????? ???????????, ?а??????? ?????????? ?а??а????? ??????. ?.??.а?????????
?????????, ???а????????? ????????????? ??????? ?????
????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????????????? ??????? ??а????? ?а?а?????? ?а????? 1918а?.
??а?? ??????, л??????? ?????-????????? ????????
??????????????? ?а???????? ??????? ??а?????????????? ?????╗, ????????? л??????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ????????????? ?????? ?????????? ?а????? ?????????? ???? ?а????, ????????????
??а????? ?а?а??????╗ [9, ?. 262].
????? ??????????????, ???а?а??????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????? ?а???????? ???????????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ?????-??????????
???????. ???? ?????????? ???????? ???? ??????????????? ?а????? ?а?????????? ?а1990?? ??. ?а????????????? ????????????? ?а???? ?????????????? ?????????
??????? ?????????.
?.??.а????? ?а?.??.а????????? ?????: л??????
?????? ????????????????? ??????, ?????????????? ??????? ????? ???????????? ?????? ???????????????? ???????????, ?????????????? ?????????
?????, ???????????? ??? ???? ???????? ???????
????????, ?????????????? ????????????? ??????
???, ?????????????? ???????????????? ?????????
???????????╗ [10, ?. 191]. ?.??.а????????? ????????:
л???????????? ????????? ????? ?а?????? ??????
??????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ?а?????
1918а?., ????? ?????????? ?????????? ????, ??а???????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ????
??????????? ??, ??? ????????????? ??????? ???????????????? ????????????╗ [11, ?. 149]. ??а??????
?.??.а????????, ??? ???? ??????? л????????? ????
?????????? ??????????????? ???????? ?а???????
1918а?., ????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????
?????????? ???? ??а???????? л???????? ???????
?????????╗╗ [12, ?. 208]. ?.??.а?????? ??????????: л?а???????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????
?????? ????????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????, ????????? ?????? 1918а?., ??????????? ????????? ??????????????? ???????????
???????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ??????
51
???????
?а?????? ???а????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????????? ?????????╗ [13, ?. 61].
?????????? ???? ????? ?????? ????????,
???а???а??????????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ?а??????? ?????????????? ???????? ?.??.а?????? ?а??????? ??а??? ?????? ???????? ?а??????а? ?.??.а????????. ?.??.а??????
?????: л?а????? ?????????????? ???????? ????
?а????????? ?????? ???а???? ??????????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????? 1918а?.,
????? ?.??.а?????? ?а?.??.а???????? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ????? ????? ????????? ????????а? ??????????? ??????????? ??а?????? ?а??????????????? ???????? ?????????а? ?а???????╗ [14, ?. 25].
????????? ?а???????????? ?????????? ??????????, ???, ?????????????, ?.??.а????? ?а?.??.а???????
?а???? ??????????? ????? ??????? ??????? ????????
?????, ????????? ?????????? ??? ?а?????? ????????????? ?а???????????? ????? ?а???????????? ??? ???????
???а??????????? ??????? ????????? ?а?????? ????.
??????? ?????? 1918а?. ??????????? ????? ?а??????????? ?а???????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? л????? ????????? ?а?????????? ??????????????╗ ?а???????? ??а?????????? ???????????, л????а??
??а?????╗, л(??а????? ??а????? ??????) ??а?????╗,
л??? ??? ???????????? ???? ???????? ???а???????
?????????? ????????? ??а??????╗, ????????? ???????????? л?? ????????? ?????? ???????? (?????????????? ????????????) ??????????? ?????? ?а???
??а??????╗ [1, ?. 36, ?. 290?291]. ?а????????? ?????
?????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ?.??.а????????
?а?? ??? (?) ??а5 ??????? 1919а?., ?а??????? ?? ????????? ???? л???????? ?а?????????? ?????????????? ???? ??а?????╗. ?а????????? ??????????: л????
????????? ????, ??????? ???? ?а??? ?????? ???????? ???? ???а???????? ????????? ???????????: ????????????? ?????????????? ??а????? ?а?????? ?????╗
[15, ?. 182?183].
???????? ?????? ?.??.а???????? ???а????????????? ????? ???? ????????? ??а?.??.а?????? ?а??? ?????, ??????? ???? ???????? ?????? ????????. ???????
????????? ???а???????? ????????? ?.??.а??????, ??
??????? ????????? ???????????? ?а???????? ?а??????? ?а???????. ??????? ?????????, ???а???????? ?????????? ?????-?????????? ??????? ????????
?а????????? ?а?????? ???? ????????? ?????? ??а?????? ????, ???а???а??????? ???????? ????? ????? ????? ??а??????. ???????? ?????? ?а???, ???а?????????
?????? ??????????? ?а???? ??????, ?а??????? 1918а?.
?????, ??а?????? ????????, ????????????? ???? ??????????? ?а????????? ??????? ?????? ?????-?????????
??????????. ??а????????????? ????????, ????? ???????: л???????? ?????? ??а??????, ??а????, ???????
?а?????????? ????????? ???. ????????? ??????? ????? ?????. ???????? ?????-????????? ??????????,
???????? ??а????????? ?????????????? ?а??а??????-
??? ?????, ??а????????? ??????????? ?а??а?? ????? ?????????? ?а????????? ???????, ??????? ??????? ?????? ?а?????. ????? ?????????. ?а?????? ????? ?????
???а?????? ??а??????, ??а????. ??а???????? ??????,
??а????? ?????????. ????????????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ??????? ???, ?а?? ??а???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ?а????????
?а?????? ?а?????????╗ [15, ?. 78].
?????а?.??.а?????? ?а???, ???а????????? ?????????? ???? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ?????????? ?ал???????? ????????╗, ??? ??? ??????????? л??????????? ???????? ???? (??а?????), ???????
?а???????? ?????? (???????? ?????), ??а???????
?а??а???-??????? (?????), ?а?????? (????), ??????????? ??????????? ????, ?????? ???, ????? ???а?????????? ?????????????? (?????????) ?а?.??.╗ [1,
?. 36, ?. 188], ?.??.а??????? ??????????????? ?а???????????? ?а????????? ?? ??????????: л?а??? ??????
??????? ?????-????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ????? ?а???????????? ??????. ?? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????: л?а??
??????, ???а?а????????? ???????? ?а??? ???????? ?????? ????? ?а?????????? ?а????????? ???????? ?а????????? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ????╗. ????????,
??а?????? ???? ???? ??????????????, ??? ?????????
??????? ?а????? ????????? ????? ???????? ?????
?а????????????????? ??????????? ?а????????????? ?????, ??????? ????? ???а??????? ??а?????????????, ???????, ???а????? ??а??а?????, ??а??а??????╗
[15, ?. 78?79]. ????????? ????????? ??? ????? ??????
??а?????? ?????????? ??????, ?, ???????? ???????
???????? ??????????? ????? ????????? ??а???????,
??????? ?? ?а?????? ?????????? ?????-??????????
????, ??????? ?????????? ?а??????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????.
??????? ???????? ????????????? ?а???, ?????
???????????? ?????? ???? ?????-????????? ??????????. ??а??? ??????, ????????? ?????-?????????
?????????? ?????? л??????????? ?????????? ????,
????? ???????? ???? ?а?????? ?а?????????, ???а????? ???а??а???????? ?а???а???а????????? ????????
??? ?а??а????? ???? ?????╗. ?????? ????????????
???????? ??а?????? ???? ?????? ????????, ??????????? ????, ??а?а????????? ?? ?????: л??а?????????????? ?????????? ????, ???а????????, ??а?????,
?а??????, ???а??а?????. ??а????? ??????? ???а??,
???а????????????????? ?????-????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????╗ [16, ?. 79].
????????? ?а???? ????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?а??????????? ?????????????? ?????????. ???, ?.??.а??????? ????????, ???ал??а?????
????????????? ??????? ??????????? ???? ??????????????? ????????. ??? ???? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????╗ [12, ?. 208]. ?????? ??????
??????, ????????? ??а????, ???а?а?????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????52
???????? ? ???????? ????????? ?????-????????? ????????...
??? ?????????, ????????????? ?????? ??а??? ????? ?????? ?а????????. л????????? ??????????????
???????????????? ???, ??????? ????????? ????????? ??????????????? ?????? ?а??а?????╗, ??а??????
?.??.а???????, л???????? ???????? ???? л????????
????????? ???????? ?????╗, ??????????? ?а1918а?.
?а ???????????? ?а ????? ??? ?????????? ??????
??????????????╗ [13, ?. 61].
??а?????? ??????, ?????? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ?????-????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????, ?????? ??????????? ?????????
?а??????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????????, ???????????? ?а????? ???а? ?????? ????
1918а?. ????? ???? ????????????? ?????? ???????? ???а?????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????????. ??-??????, ?????????? ????????? ?????,
????? ???????? ???? ?????а? ??а??????? ?????? ???
???????????? ??????? ????????, ????????? ?а??????? ?????????????? ???????. ??-??????, ??а?????????????? ???????? ?????? ????? ?????? ??а??????
?????, ???а?а??? ?????????? ?а?????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?.??.а?????. ?.??.а???????? ???????,
???а23 ??? 1918а?. ????? ????????????? ??а?????????
?????????? ????, л??????????? ?????????????
????????, ????????? ?а??????????? ?а???????????
??????. ??а??? ???? ???????? ?а????? ?????? ???.
???????????? ???? ?.??.а???????? ??а?????????????? ?а??????????? ????????? ??????╗ [7, ?. 41].
26 ??? ?.??.а????? ???????? ??а?????? ?а????????
[1,??. 36, ?. 377?386].
??????????? ????????? ?а ????????????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ????????.
?.??.а??????? ?а??????? л????? ?????????????
????????? ?????? ?а????????????? ????????╗ ???????? ??????????? ??а????????????? ????????????
?????????? ????. ?? ??????? ?а???, ???а?????? ????????????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ????? ??????. ?а???????? ?????? ??а???????????? ?????????
?а???????? ?а?????? ?а????????? ????? ?а?а???????
????????? ????? ?а???????????? ?????? ?????????????? ??а??????, ?а???????? ?????? ???????-???????????????? ???? ??а????? ?а?а???????? ??????╗
[17, ?. 50?52].
?а??????????? ??а?????? ?.??.а???????? ?????
??????????? ??а????????? ???????? ??????? ?????-????????? ????????. ?? ??????, ???а??????????
?????? ???? ?????? ????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ?????? ?????????????? ????, ?????? ???? ???
??а????? ???????, ???а?? ?? ????? ????? ??? ????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????. ??????
?а???????? ????? ?а??????, ??????? ??????????:
л??? ??? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??????????╗ [17, ?. 39].
??а ?????? ????????? ????????????? ?????
? . ?? . а ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?? ? ? а ? . ?? . а ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
?а ??????а ?.??.а ???????? ?а ?.??.а ????? (?????
?????????). ??а?????? ?.??.а????????????, ??????
??а?????-???????? ???а????????? ??????????????????? ?????? л??????????? ??а??? ?????: ?????????, ?????
?????? ?а???, ?а????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????????, ?????????, ?????????? ??????, ????? ???? ????? ???? ?а?????? ?????? ?????????, ????? ???? ?????????????? ???????? ??????????????????╗. ??а???
??????, л???? ???????? ???????? ?????, ??????? ?????
??????. ??? ?????????? ??а????? ????? ??????? ?????
???????????? ????. ????????????? ??а????? ????? ???????????? ????????, ??? ?????????? ????????? ???а???????? ??????? ?????????╗ [17, ?. 325].
????? ???????? ?????? ?.??.а?????????, ??????????? ?а1918а?. ????????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ?а??????. ?????? ?????????
л??????????? ?????????????? ?а????????? ?????? ??╗ [17, ?. 50?52] ?а?????????????? ???а????????
?.??.а????????, ??? ?????? ????? ???????? ?????????. ??а????????????? ?.??.а?????????, ?????????????? ??????? ???????, ?.??.а????? л?а??????,
??????????????? ?а????????????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????. ????? ?????? ????? ??????
?? ???????? ???????? ????????, ???????? ??? ??????????????, ????????? ????????. ?? ???? ????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ???????? ???а??а????????????
????? ????╗ [18].
????? ???????, ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ??а?????? ???? ????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ?а?????????????? ???????? ???а?????? ??????????
?????-????????? ????????.
??а????а?? ??????? ?а??????? ??????. ?а??? ?????????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????? ?а?????? ?????????
???? ?а????а? ??а???? ?а?а??????. ?а???????? ???????? ????????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ??, ???а?а????? ?а?????????? ??????? ????? ??а????????? ?????
???????? ???????? ???????????????? ???? ??а?????.
?а????????? ?????? ??????????????: л???????? ????????? ???????? ??а???????? ???????????????? ???
?????? (???????????? ?????????, ????, ?????????????? ?а??????) ?а????? ?????????? ????????????
??????????? ?, ?а?????????, ??????? ??????? ???????????????? ???? ??а?????, ????? ??????????????-???????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????
????? ?а???????? ??????╗ [17, ?. 252].
??????????? ?????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ???? ????????? ????????, ???а?????? ?????
???????? ??????, ?????????? ??а?????????? ?????????????? ???????? ?а?????? ???????? ????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????
1918а?. ?????? ??????? ??а??? ????? ???????????????
???????, ????????? ?а??????? ??????? ?а?????????? ?????????? ?????-?????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ????????????? ?????? ?а??????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????.
53
???????
????????????????? ??????
1.а ?????а ?.??.а ?????? ???????? ?????????.а ? 5??
???.а? ?., 1970.а? ?. 36.
2.а????????а?.??.а?????? ??????????? ????? ?а??????
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