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Холокост как медийный полуфабрикат. Рецензия на работу Роте А. Популярная травма коммерциализация боли в массмедиа. New Brunswick Rutgers University Press 2011. 206 с.pdf

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303
DOI: 10.18522/2500-3224-2016-4-303-308
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???????? ?? ??????: ???? ?. ?????????? ??????:
???????????????? ???? ?а?????????.
New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2011. 206 ?.
?.?. ????????
?????????. ???????? ?? ????? ?. ???? л?????????? ??????: ????????????????
???? ?а?????????╗ (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2011) ????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ?а????????? ???????? ????????? ??? ?а????????,
????????, ???????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ?а???????????? ?????????? ????????. ????????????? ?а?????????? ???? ????????????? ??????????
??????? (????????????, ????- ?а?????????) ??????????????? ?????? л???????????????╗ ????????? ?????? ?а??????????? ????????? л??????╗ ?а???????????
?а????????????? ????????????? ?а????????? ???????????. ????? ??? ??????????????????? ?а?????????????? ????????, ????????? ?а????????????? ???????????? ?????? ?а??. ?? ???? ???????? ???????? ???????? ?а???????? ?????????
?а??????????? ??????????????? ?????? ???? ???????????? ???????, ?????? ?????,
??? ???????????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ???????.
???????? ?????: ?????????? ???????????? ????????, ??????, ????????, ????????????? ?а?????, ???????.
???????? ????? ???????????, ?????? ?????????????? ????, ?????? ????????? ?????????,
???????????? ?а????????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????????? ????????????, а
344006, ?.а??????-??-????, ??. ?. ???????, 105/42, dzum2@yandex.ru.
304
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? T H E N E W PA S T ? ? 4 2 0 1 6
HOLOCAUST AS A MEDIA PREPACK
Review on: Anne Rothe. Popular Trauma Culture:
Selling the Pain of Others in the Mass Media.
New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2011. 206 p.
O.A. Dzhumailo
Abstract. This review of Anne Rothe?s monograph ?Popular Trauma Culture: Selling the
Pain of Others in the Mass Media? (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2011)
defines the particular approach which applied by the author to the Holocaust phenomenon
perceived as discourse, trope, specific cultural practice in American popular culture. A
set of various cultural events (of literary, cinema and TV genres) are configured by Rothe
around narrative about heroic survival of the victim and victim talk rhetoric, and seen both
in historical and media contexts. Among them: social Darwinist and traumatic discourses,
and huge popularity of sensational genres. Taking into account the growing interest of
the humanities to the Holocaust, Rothe?s work is remarkable for its intellectual revision of
American popular culture.
Keywords: American popular culture, trauma, Holocaust, media representation, discourse.
Dzhumailo Olga A. Doctor of Science (Philology), Associate Professor, Institute of Philology, Journalism and
Cross-cultural Communication, Southern Federal University, 105/42, Bolshaya Sadovaya St., Rostov-on-Don,
Russia, 344006, dzum2@yandex.ru.
?. ? . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ???????? ??? ???????? ????????????
305
?????????? ???? ???? л?????????? ??????: ???????????????? ???? ?а?????????╗а?
????????????, ?????????? ?а???? ??????????????? ???? ????????????? ?????.
?а?????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ???????????, ??
?????????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ??????, ?????? ??????? ?????????? ?а?????? ?????????????.
???? ?????????? ?а????????????? ???????? ?????????????????? ?????????: ?????????? ????? (victim talk rhetoric); ?????????? ??????????? ??????, ????? ???????
???? ????????? ???????????? (Jew-as-victim trope); ????????? ??????????? ?????????? (narrative paradigms) ?а????????????????? ??????? (melodramatic plots). ?????
????, ????????? ????????а? л???? ?а???????╗а? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ??? ???? ?????, ??? ?? ?????? ???????? ?а????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????????????? ??????, ?? ?а?????????? ?????????? ?????? л???????????╗ ????????? ?а?????? ?а??????????? ???????????? ?????????????.
?????????? ?????????????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????
?а?????? ????????????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????,
??? ????? ??????, ???????????????? ?а???????, ?? ??????? ?????????. ??????????
????????, ??? ???????? ?????? ??? ?????????????? ?а???? ???????????? ????????? ???. ?????????? ??????? ?????? ?. ????? Selling the Hollocaust: From Auschwitz to
Schindler: How History is Bought, Packaged, and Sold (2000), ?. ?????? The Holocaust in
American Life (2000), ?. ?????? The Era of Witness (2006) ?а??. ??? ???? ?.а???? ????????? ?? ????????????? ??????? ?а????????? (Holocaust discourse) ?а???????????? ???????? ?а??? ???????????????? ??? ??????? ????????????? ?а????????????? ?????????
??? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????? ??????????????? ???????.
????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ????????: ??? ????????, ??? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?а?????? ?а????????????????
(??., ?а???????, ???????????? ???? л??????? ?????? ?а?????╗ ?.?.а???????????). ??
?а?????? ???? ??? ?? ???? ???? ??????.
???, ????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ???? ?а???, ??? ?а???????????? ????????, ??????????? ??????-?????????????? ?????? (л???????? ??????????╗), ??????? ?а????????? ????? ?????? ?????????: ????????? ????? ??????
???????? ???????????????? ?а???????? ?????????. ???? ??????????? ??????
????????? ?а????? ????? ?????? ??? ????????? ????????????? ?????? ???????????
???????????? ?ал?????????????╗ ???????????. ??????? ?а????? ????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????.
????? ????????????? ????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ???
???????? ????????. ???????? ????????????? ?????????, ?????????????? ????,
????????? ?????????? ?????? ?а?????????????? ??? ?????????????, ?????????
?????? л?????????????╗ ????????????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????. ????????
??? ????????? ???????????????? ???????? ??? ??????, ??????????? ???????, ?????
??????? ???????????? ???????? Night (?????????? ?? ??????? ?а1989а?.), ?????
?????? ???? ?? ???? ?????????, ???????????? ???????? ?????? ?а????????? ?????.
306
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? T H E N E W PA S T ? ? 4 2 0 1 6
??? ??????????? ?????: л????? ????????? ????????, ???????а? ????????, ?????
???????????а? ?????, ?а???? ????????? ???????? ????? ??????????а? ??????????
????????????╗ (?. 34). ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????? ??? ??????????
?????????, ??????, ?? ?????? ????, ?а????????, ?????? ???????????? ???????? ??
???????????? ?????, ???????? ?? ???????????? л??????????╗ ??????а? ??????, ??????????? ?а?????? ????? ????????? ?а????? ??? ?????????. ???????? ????????????
???? ????? ?????? ?а????? ???? ???????? (????????, The Yale Fortunoff Archive ?аShoah
Visual History Foundation).
??????????? ????????? ???????? ?а????????? ??????????, ????? ???????, ??????
????????????? ?а??????????? ???????????? ?????????, ????? ?????????. ??????????
??????????? ???? ?????????????? ??? ??????? ?? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? 1978а???? I will survive ?? ?????????????????? ???? ???????????? ????? ????????, ?????????????, ????????? ???????,
????????????? ???-??? (Phil Donahue Show, Oprah Winfrey Show, Jerry Springer Show
?а??.), ?????????????? ??????? ?а???????? ????? ???????????????? ???????????? (????????, I Survived), ???? ???????-????????? ?а??. ?а??. ?????? ?????????, ???
?????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ????? ???? ?а??????? ?????????? ????? ??????????
л????????╗ (2015), ???????? ??????????? ??????? ???? ???????? ?????????
?а???????????? ??????????? ?а??????????????? ????? ?а???????????????, ???????
????????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????.
????????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ?????????
?????? ?а??????, ?????????? ???. Mis lit (???. ?? misery literatureа? ?????????? ?а???н
???????? ??????? ?????????) ?аself-help books ????????? ????????? ??????????????? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ????????, ????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????,
????????? ?а???????? ????????, ????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ???????????????
?а?????????? ?????????? (?. 88). ?а??????????? ??????????? ?????? л?????? ?а??????? ?? ??????????? ???? ???? ?а??????????? ????╗ ?а?????? ?а??????????. ??? ????????????? ????? ???????? ?а?????? ????? ?а??????????? ?????? ?а???????????.
?????? ????????? ??????????? ?а????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????. ????????, ?????????? ???
?ал??????╗ ?????????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ?а??????? Survivor
??????? HBO Curb Your Enthusiasm, ???????, ?????????????? ?? ????? ???????, ??? ???
?????? ??????? ????????????? ?? ?????? ????????? ????, ?? ?а???????? 11а????????.
л??? ????? ????????? ???????, ??? ?????? ???╗,а? ?????????? ???? ?? ?????? ?????? Operation Shylock: A Confession (1993) ?????? ????, ????????, ??????????????? ??
??????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?а2016а????. ?а???? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ????? ????? ???? ??? ?????????????? ?????????? л??? ????????? ?????????╗, л?????????? ?????????╗, л??????? ??? ?????? ?а???
???????????╗, л????????? ????????? ?-?? ????????╗, л???????? ??????????╗.
????? ???????, ???????? ?????????? ????? ?а??????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????, ??? ????????? ???? ????????????? ??? ??? ???? ?а?????? (Trauma
?. ? . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ???????? ??? ???????? ????????????
307
Kitsch) ?а????? 1, ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ?а?????????, ?а???? ?а?????? (Trauma Camp) ?а????? 2, ?а??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????????
???-???, ?а??????? ????????? ????????? ????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ???????, ????????? ???????? ????????? ???.
???????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ?а????????? ???????????? ?а????????? ???????, ?а??????? ???????? ???? ???????? ?а?????? ???????????????? ??????? ?а1990-? ???????? ???????????? ?а????????? (misery memoirs), ?а?????? ???????
???????????? ?а????????? ?????????????? ???????а? ??????? ??? ????????, ???????? ???????????, ??????? ?????. ??????????? ????????????? ?а????? ????????? ??
????????????? ????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????. ????? ????, ?????? ?????????????, ??????? ?????????? ?? ???????????????? ????????? ?а?????????? ??????????,
??????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????. л???? ?а??????╗ ??? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ???????? ?а????, ??? ????? ?а??????????? ???????????????? Million Little Pieces (2003) ??????? ???? ??? ?????? ?а?????????? ?????? ?????,
????? ????? ????? ??? ?? ??????????? ?????????????. ???????? ??????? ?а? ?????????? ????? ??? ?????????? The Painted Bird (1965), ??????? ????????? ??????????? ??
?????? ?????? ??? ?????????????????? ?????????????, ?а?? ?????.
????????? ?ал?????????????? ???????????????╗, ??????? ??????????? ?а???????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ?а1960-? ??., ??????? ?. ???? Portnoy?s
Complaint (1969), ?. ??????? Advertisements of Myself (1959) ?а?. ????????? Making it
(1967), ?а??????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? л???????????????? ?????????╗ (?. 90). ???????? ??????? ????????: ??????? ????? ????????
A Child Called (1995), ??????? ????????????; ???????????? ?????????????? ??????? ????? ?????? ???????? Angela?s Ashes (1996); ?а????? ??????? ??????????? ?а?????????? л????????╗ ?а??????????? ?????????? ?а??????? ?а??????????? ???????
??? ??????, ???????, ????????????? ???????????, ????????: Punished, Hidden, Unloved,
Abandoned, Damaged, Sickened, Shattered, Scarred, The Little Prisoner, The Step-Child, Friday?s
Child, Child C, No Way Home, Tears at Bedtime ?а?. ?. ?а?. ?.
????? ????????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????????? ????? л??? ?????????
?????????╗: ?????????? ??????????? (??????, ??????? ???????????) ??????????? ?????
??????, ?????? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ?а????????; ????? ???????????? ??????????????? ?????? ??????; ?а???????????? ?????????а? ?????? ?????? ??????
??????, ?????????? ???????? ?а???? ???????? ?????. ?а???? ????????? ?????????????,
??? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ????? ??????????????? ??? ????? ????????
?????. ?а????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????? Schindler?s
List, Life is Beautiful, The Boy in the Striped Pijamas, ?? ????? The Painted Bird ?аThe Reader.
?????????? ???? ??? ??? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?а????????? ???
?а????????, ????????, ???????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ?а?. ?.
????????? ???, ????????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ????, ?????? ????????? ??
????????? ???????? ????????? ??? ?а???????, ??? ?а? ??????. ????????? ????????????? ???? ????????? ??????? ?а????? ????????? ?????????????? ????????,
308
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? T H E N E W PA S T ? ? 4 2 0 1 6
?а???????, ?а?????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ????? The Zone of Interest
(2014), ????????????? ?????? ?а???????? ????????????????? ?????? [Oates, 2014]?
???????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ?????????
????? ?????? Son of Saul (2016), ?????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????????
?а???????? ??????? [Orr, 2016]? ????????? ????????? ?????? ???????????????
??????????? ?????? ??????? л?????????╗ ?а????????, ?????????? ?????, ?????????????, ??????????, ???????????? ?а????-?????????? (2016) [???????, 2016]?
???, ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ???????? ?? ???? ?????????. ??????? ??????? ??? ??
?? ????????: ????? ????????? ??????????, ??????????? ????????????? ?????????
?а?????????????? ??????????, ?????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? Holocaust fiction / Holocaust novel. ????? ?????? ??????? ?а?????????а? ????
???????? ?. ???????? Final Solution. The Fate of the Jews 1933?1949 (2016) [Cesarani,
2016], ????????? ??????? ??????? ?а????????????? ??????? ?а?. ?. ?а?. ?. ?а????
????????? ????? ?. ???? ??? ?? ??????? ??? ???????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ?а???????????? ?????????? ????????.
а
? ???????? ? а ??????????
??????? ?. ??????????. ?????????.а????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????????
?а??????????? // Meduza. 03.09.2016. URL: https://meduza.io/feature/2016/09/03/
artdokfest-austerlits (???? ?????????: 15.10.2016).
Cesarani D. Final Solution. The Fate of the Jews 1933?1949. London: Macmillan, 2016.
Oates J.C. The Death Factory. Martin Amis?s The Zone of Interest // The New Yorker.
29.09.2014. URL: http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2014/09/29/death-factory (????
?????????: 15.10.2016).
Orr Ch. Son of Saul and the Intimate Mechanisms of Genocide // The Atlantic. 17.01.2016.
URL: http://www.theatlantic.com/entertainment/archive/2016/01/son-of-saulreview/424503 (???? ?????????: 15.10.2016).
а
R eferences
Manskiy V. Artdokfest. Austerlitz. The new film by Sergei Loznitsa about tourists in the
camps [Artdokfest. Austerlits. Novyy fil?m Sergeya Loznitsy pro turistov v kontslageryakh],
in: Meduza. 03.09.2016. URL: https://meduza.io/feature/2016/09/03/artdokfest-austerlits
(available at: 15.10.2016) (in Russian).
Cesarani D. Final Solution. The Fate of the Jews 1933?1949. London: Macmillan, 2016.
Oates J.C. The Death Factory. Martin Amis?s The Zone of Interest, in: The New Yorker.
29.09.2014. URL: http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2014/09/29/death-factory
(available at: 15.10.2016).
Orr Ch. Son of Saul and the Intimate Mechanisms of Genocide, in: The Atlantic.
17.01.2016. URL: http://www.theatlantic.com/entertainment/archive/2016/01/son-ofsaul-review/424503 (available at: 15.10.2016),
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