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Восприятие как процесс познания в творчестве Илки Гедё и Бруно Шульца опыт герменевтического исследования..pdf

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??? 7.049.1:117
??????? ?????. ???. 15. 2015. ???. 1
?. ?. ???????
?????????? ??? ??????? ????????
? ?????????? ???? ???? ? ????? ??????:
???? ????????????????? ????????????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????,
?????????? ?????????, 199034, ?????-?????????, ??????????????? ???., 7-9
? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????
???? ???? (1921?1985). ???????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ?а???????? ???????? ???????????? ?а????????? ???????????? ???? ??????????? ???????? ?????????,
?????????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????????. ?а ???????? ???????? ??????, ?????????
??????? ??? ????????????? ?????????? ?????, ????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ????????
????? ?????? (1892?1942). ?????? ?????? ????????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????????? ??????????????? ???????????? (??????? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ??????? ???? ???????? ???????? ????? ?а?????????? л?????????? ???? ????╗), ??а?а????? ??????????, ?а??????а? ???????? ?? ????????????? ????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ??????. ?а??????
???????????? ????? ???????????? ????? ????????, ??? ????????? ???????, ???????, ??????????
?а?????????????? ???????????? ????? ???? ?а??????. ????????. 15а????. ??. 3.
???????? ?????: ???? ????, ????? ?????, ?????? ?????, ????????????, ????????????? ?????????, ??????????, ???????, ?????, ?????????????? ?????????????.
PERCEPTION AS THE PROCESS OF COGNITION IN WORKS OF
ILKA GED? AND BRUNO SCHULZ: AN EXPERIMENT IN HERMENEUTIC STUDY
A. V. Shcheglova
St. Petersburg State University, 7-9, Universitetskaya nab., St. Petersburg, 199034, Russian Federation
For the first time in Russian language the article analyses the art of Hungarian artist Ilka Ged? (1921?
1985). The study has been conducted by the method of philosophical hermeneutics and is an attempt to
come closer to understanding Ged??s pieces of art by means of revealing the matter that had shaped her
artistic world outlook. The main text taken as a basis for the interpretation is the prose of Polish writer
Bruno Schulz (1892?1942). This approach is justified not only by the figurative similarity between the
works under consideration (that was firstly noticed from another point of view by Istvan Hajdu in his
monograph ?The Art of Ilka Ged??), but also by the common context, namely, the dialogical philosophy
of Martin Buber that influenced on the both artists? world outlooks. The article deals with such issues as
interpretation of matter, time, and reality in the art space of Ged??s and Schulz?s works. Refsа15. Figsа3.
Keywords: Ilka Ged?, Bruno Schulz, Martin Buber, hermeneutics, dialogical philosophy, art, matter, time, artistic outlook.
?????????????? ?а ???????? ?????? ????? ?а ?????? ?? ???????? ??????? ?????????. ???? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ?а ???????? ???????? ????? ??????
(1892?1942) ????, ???????, ??????? ???????????? ?? ??????? ????? [1], ?? ?а?????????? ?????????? ????????? ???? ???? (1921?1985) ?а?????? ?????? ??? ?? ?????
????????????? ??????. ????????? ???? ??????, ?а????????? ?????? ?? ??????????
???????????? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????????????? ????? ??????.
??????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ?а???????? ?????? ?а?????
???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????, ?????? ?а ???????? ??????
л???????????╗ ????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ???, ????? ??????????
?а????????????? ???? ?ал???????? ?а?????????╗ ?????? [2, ?. 31]. ?????? ??????????
????? ?? ???? ???? ?????? ?????????, ??, ??????, ????????? ????????? ????????101
??? ????????, ?а????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?а???????? ??????
???????????? ????? ???????? ??? ?а??????????????? ????????? ?????????? ????
????.
???????? ?????-?????? ????????, л?????????? ?????????, ????????, ?????????
?????, ????? ? ?а?????? ????? ???? ?а????? ?а??? ?? ?????╗, ???????? ?????? ??а??????? ??????????? ???????????? [3, ?. 79], ? ?а????? ?????? ????? ?????, ?а??????,
??????? (?а???????? ????????? XX ????), ????????? ????? ??????. ????? ???????,
??????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ????
????, ?а?? ??????????? ??? ?а???? ??? ????? ?????, ?а????????? ??????????????
????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а??? ???????????? ??????????.
????????? ???????
?? ???? ????? ????, ?? ???? ???????? ?а ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?а ????????? ????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????, ??????? ??????? ?????? ???????, ?????? ???????, ?????????, ????????????, ????? ???????????, ??а?????-??
????????? ?????. <?> ? ??????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ?а?????? ?????????
????? ?а ??????? ?????, ?? ?????? ???????? ????????, ?????????????? ?????? ???????
??????? ?а???????????? ?? ????, ????? ???????? ?а?????????? ?а?????????? ????????.
? ? ??? ????????,а? ????????? ????,а? ??????????? ???? ?????????, ??????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ????????, ?????? ?????, ??????????, ?????? ??????? ????????, ?????? ?????? ?????? ???????.
? ????????, ??? ??а?????????? ???????, ??а??????????? ???? ??? ?????? ?????????
?????????? ?а??????????????? ?????????? ??? ????????, ??????? ?а?????? ??????????????
?????????, ??????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ????????.
? ?????? ??? ???????? ?????,а? ???????? ??,а? ?? ???????? ?а????? ?? ????? ??????? ????????. ?????????? ????-??????? ???? ????? ???? ?????????????, ???????
??????????????? ????????? ?? ??????? ???????, ????????????? ??? ????????? ?????
[4,а?. 54?55].
?????????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ??а ????? ????? ?????? л????????
?????╗ ????????????? ???????????? ????????? ?а?????????? ??????? ???????????? ???? ????, ??????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ??? л????????????? ?????╗. ???????? ?????? ?????? ??????????: ?? ????? ????? (????? ??????, ????????? ????? ?а??????? ?????, ??????? ??????), ?????? ????? (?????? ???????; ?????? ??????????, ?????? ????????, ???; ????????? ??????). ??? ?????????????,
?????????????? ???????, ?а????? ????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???? ????. ??????
?????????? ??? ?? ??????? ???, ????????, ?а????? ????, ??? ?а?????????? ??????
????. ?а????? ??а??????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ??????: л?????? ????????, ???????????, ?????????????, ?а?????? ?а?????-?????????????, ???? ?? ?? ??????????,
?????? ??????????, ??????????? ???????????? ??????????, ???????????????,
???????????? ???????????╗ [5].
?? ?? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ??? ????????? ?????????
?а????????? ????. ????? ?????, ??? ????? ?а?????? л????? ???????????, ??а??????? ?????????╗. ???????????, ?. ?. ?????????????. ????? ?? ???????????? ??????,
????????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ???? ????, ?а??????? ????? ??????????????
?????? ???????? ?????? ?????.
102
????? ?? ???????? ?????????а? ?? ???????? ???????????, ???????? ?а??????????? (???. 1). ?????? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ?а?? ????? ???????. ????????????????
?а??????????? ????????, ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????? ????? ??????????????, ???????? ?? ??, ??? ???????? ???????????? ???
???? ??????? ???????? ?а ????? ?а ??????, ?а ??????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????????
?????????? ?а?????? ??? ?????????????? ???.
л?????????? ????-???????╗ ?????? ?????????? ????? ?а??????? ??????:
???????????? ?а???????? ?а?????? ????? ??????. <?> ?????, ??????? ?а??? (?а?????
??????а? ?. ?.) ?а?????-?????? ???????? ?????? ????????, ????? ????? ????? ?? ?????????? ?????????, ??? ????????, ?????? ?а?????, ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????? ?а?????? [4, c. 54].
??????? ??????? ?а ??????, ???????? ????? ?????-?? ???????, ??????????
???? ?? ?????, ??????????? ?? ????? ???????а? ??? ???? ??? ???????? ????. ??
???? ???? ???????? ????? ?????. ????? ???????, ???????, ??????????? ?, ???????,
???????????? ???? ??????????.
????????? ??????? ????????? ????? ?а????????а? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ????а? ????????? ??????, ???????????? ????? ???????, л???????????? ???????????╗ ?ал??????????????? ????????????????╗а? ?а?????????. ??????? ???????????? ????? ???????????? л????? ????????????? ?????????????, ??? ???????╗:
??? ??????? ???????,а? ???? ??,а? ?????????а? ????? ???????, ?????????? ????????? ????? ?????. ???????? ???? ???? ??????????, ?а??????? ?а?????? ????????????
[4, c. 44].
??????? ?ал????? ????????? ??????????╗, ?а???????? ?????????????? ??????????, ????????? ???????, ????????? ??? ????, ????? ?? ???? ?а?????????, ???? ????????? ?а????????? л??????? ?????????╗, ???????? л?????? ??????? ?????????╗.
????? ????????, ?а????????? ????????? ??????????? ?ал?????????? ??????????╗,
????? ??????? ?а????? ???? ?? ???? ?????????, ???? ?????? ?????, ????? ????.
???? ??? ???????, ?? ??? ????? ???????? ???? ????? ???????? ????, ????? ?????,
????? ?????, ?ал? ??????? ??????? ????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??? ????????╗
[4, ?. 46]. ??????? ??? ??????? ???? ??????? ????. ???????а? ????????. ?? ????????
???????? л??????? ?????????╗, ????????-???????? ?? л??????????, ???????????
?а ???????╗, ?а ???????, ?????-????, ????????. ?????????????? ??????????, ???????? ?а???? ?????? ???? ???????, ????????? ???? ??????, ???????, ????????????,
?????? ????????? ?????.
??????????? ??????????????? ????????, ????????????????????? ??????? ????? ?а??????? ???????, ??? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ????? ?? ?????????
???????. ?????, ??? ????? ???????????? ?а???????????? ???????, ??а?????? ??????,
?? ???? л???????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ?а??????, ????????? ??????, ?????
????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????????????╗ [4, c. 56]. ????? ?а????? ??? л?????? ?????????????? ?????? ?а ????????????????? ????? ??????, ?????????? ?? ?а ???? ?????????? ????????╗ [??? ??]. ?? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????
103
??????????? ?а????????????? ?????????? ????????, ??а?а??? ???????????? ?а???????? ???????????????? ????????. ?а?????????????? ???? ??? ???????, ???????????
?????, ????????, ?? ?????? ????????? ?????? ????????, ??????? ????? ??????????????? ??????, ??? ?а????? ????, ????? ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ?а??????
????????? ?????. ?? ?а??? ???? ?? ????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ?а????
????? ??????????? ?а??????????, ??????????? ??? ????? ???????? ??????? ?????
????????? ?а?????????.
??????? ?а ?????????а ? ??? ???????? ?а ??????????? ???????? ???????. ??
??????, ???????а? ??? ????????????? ???????? ?????а? ?? ??????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ??????, ?????? ????????. ????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?????
?а????????? ????, ?а??????????????? ?????. ?????????? ????????? ????????
?а ????? ???????? ????????. ?????????? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ??????
?????????? ?а?????????????????? ?????, ?. ?. ?????, ?????????? ?? л??-????????╗,
л??-??????????╗, ???????? ???????? ?а???????????. ????? ?а????????, ????????, ????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ???????, ????????? ????????? ??????? ???????, ????? ???????. ??, ?? ????, ??????? ????? ??????? ?? ??????.
????, ??????? ?а????? ???? ???????? ?а?????? ???????. ?????????? ??????????? ??????????????, ????? ??? ???????? ?а???????????????? ???????? ???????
?????:
?? ? ?????????: ?????? ??????????, ?????? ?????! ??, ????? ?????? ????????
?? ???? ?????? ??????????. ?????? ?????????? ?а??????????, ?????? ??????????????
?а??????????, ??????? ????????, ?а??? ?????? ???????????! [4, c. 40].
? ???:
???-??а ? ???????, ?а ???-??а ? ???????, ??а ????? ??? ?? ??????????? ????????, ???
?????? ?? ??????? ?????? ????, ?????? ????????, ??????? ????? ??????? ????? ????????.
??? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????, ??? ??????? ????????? ????????а? ????? ???? ?????. ????? ?????????? ??????? ?а????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????. ?а??? ????????? ???? ???????? ????????? ????? [6, c. 423].
????? ???????, ??????????? ????????? ????? ?а???????? ??????а? ??? ????????? ????? ????? ??????????. ???????? ?????, ?а ??????? ????????? ???????
?????. ????? ????????????? ???????? ?а??????? ?? ???????? ???? ????, ???????,
???????, ?а?? ?????? ?????. ??? ???? ??? ?????, ??? ?а????? ?????? ??? ??????
????????????, ?????????. ?? ?????????, ??? ?а????????? ?????????????? ???????
?? ??????, л????????, ?????? ?а????? ???????? ???????? ?а??????????╗ [4, ?. 44].
??? ?????, ??????? ?? ?????? ?а?????, ?а??????, ????????, ?????? ?? ????????.
?????? ????????? ??????, ????? ?? ????????????? ?? л????????╗ ??? ????? ???????? ???????????, ???? ???? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???, ??? ????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ?а??????????????? ???????? ???????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ????? ??????, ??? ?а??? ???? ????. ?а?????, ???????????, ?? ????? ????????,
?а??? ?? ???????????? ????. ?а???????????????? ?? ????????????? ??? ?? ????????
???????? (???????) ?????, ??????? ?? ?????? ???????????????
? ????? ??????? ????? л????????? ???? ????╗ (лThe Art of Ilka Ged?╗) ????????
????? ??????????? ?????? ?а???? ?????????? ?а????????? ???? ?????????? ?а??104
???. ????????? ???? ???? ?а???? ???? ?? ?????????? ???? ?????????????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????? ??? ????????????? ????? ???????????? ???????. ?????
?? ????? ????????, ??? л??? ???????а? ???????? ?????? ????????, ??а??????? ??
????? ???????? ????????╗. ??????????? л???????? ??????╗, ?? ?????? ??????,
???? ????? ????????? ?а????????????? ????, л?????????? ????????????? ???????
????????╗1 [2, ?. 31]. ?? ??? ??????, ????????? ?а??????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????
?????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?а ????????? ???????????? ????, ??????? ?а ??????????????? ????????? ?? ??????????. ?????????? ?а ???? ????????? ???????????????
?????? ???????? ?а????????????, ??????? ???????????? ???? ?????? ???????????? ??? ????????????, ?????? л????????????? ?????╗. ????? ?????????, ???????
???????, ?? ?????? ??а л???????? ?а ?????????╗, ????? ???? ????? ???????? ??????
????????? л??????? ?????????╗ (??? ???????????? ????? ????????? ???????????
??? ???????????? ???????? ????), ?????? ???а? ???? ???????, ????????? ??а????? ???????????????? ????????? ??????, ??????? ?а????? ????? ?? ???????????:
л??? ??????, ?????? ?? ?????????, ?? ???????????, ?????? ???? ?????????-???????, ????????-???????????, ?????? ???????????? ?????,а? ??????????, ???????????? ?а?????????╗ [5].
????????? ?а ????????????? ?????? ?а ????? ??? ???????????? ??????????
????, ?а ?? ?????? ?а ????? ??? ??????? ????????? ??????????, ??? ?????????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ????а ? ????? ??? ???? ??????????. ??? ???????
?????????????: ??? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ??-???????, ????????? ??? ?????????. ????? ????, ?а???? ???????? ??? ????? ????? ????????? ?а???????: ?????
??????????? ??????????????? (???????????), ?? ??? ?? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ?????????????. ???? ????? ???????? ?а ???????, ??????а ? ?а ????????
????. ????? ??? ?? ???? ?? ????? л????????? ????╗, ???????, ?? ??????, ????????
????????? ??????
? ??? ?? ???????????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ???? ???? ?а????? ??????а? ????? ???????? ????? ??? ?????????? ????????, ?????? ??а??????? ?????
?????? ??????????? ???????.
?????????? ???????
????????? ?????? ???????????? ?а??? ??????, ??? ??? ?????????? ?? ?а?????????? ???????? ???????, ?а?? ??????? ??????. ???? ?? ??? ????????, ??? ???????? ?????????? ?а???? ??????? ????? ???????? ?а???????????, ????????? ???
??????????? ?????????. ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? ???????????
???????, ?????? ????????. ??????? ??? ??????????, ???????????? ?????? ?????:
?? ????, ?????? ?? ?а??????? ???????? ?а????????? ???????, ??????? ??? ??? ???????? ????????. ??? ?????? ???? ??? ??????? ?а????????, ?????? ??????? ???????????????
??? ??? ????? ????. <?>
???? ????????, ?????? ?? ?????????? ??????????????? ??? ???, ??????????????,
??????????? ??? ??? ????? ?????????? ?а?????. <?>
????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????, ???????? ????????? ??????? ????, ?????????
??? ????? ???? ?а????? ???????????? ?а???????????????? ?????. ??? ????????, ???? ????1
?????????? ????????? ?????????? ?а???????? ??????.
105
??? ????? ?????? ?а??? ?? ??, ????? ??????????? ?????????, ????????? ??? ?а??? ??????????, ??????? ?? ????????, ???????? ????? ???? ???????? ??????????, ?? ????? ??? ?????
(?????? ???.а? ?. ?.). ?????????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????.
?? ?????????? ???? ???????? ??а??????? ???????????. ????? ??? ??? ?? ????????? ?????? ??????, ???? ?????? ??? ????? ???????? ?????, ??? ???? ???????? ?? ??? ?????????? ?а?????, ?а?????????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ???????????, ???????????? ?а????
????????????? ?????, ??????? ??? ?? ?????. ???????, ????????? ?? ????? ???? ????? ??
??????????. ??? ???????? ?????????????╗ [6, ?. 421?422].
??????????? ?????, ???????, ?? ????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ?а?????? ????????? ??????. ??? ???????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????, ?????, ?????????, ?а???? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????
??????????? ??? ????. ?????? ?а????? ????? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ?а?????????? ???? ????. ???? ?????? ??а?????? ?????????? ??????
?? ????????? ?а ?????????? л????? ?а ??????????╗ (╔let щs Irodalom): л?????????
?????? ?а???????????. ????? ?? ?????, ???????? ?????, ???? ??? ?????, ?а??????
????? ?????? ???????? ?? ???????? (?????? ???.а ? ?. ?.). ??????????, ??????
???????????? ?????? ??????; ??а??? ?? ?? ??? ???????, ??? ??? ???????????? ?????? ??? ??? ?????. ?а?????? ?а????а? ????????? ???????╗ [7]. ??????а? ??а???????
?? ????????? л????? ???????╗ (┌j t№kЎr): л????? ???????? ?????????, ?а??????? ?????????????? ?????????? (?????? ???.а ? ?. ?.) ????????? ?а ?????? ???????????
???????╗ [8].
?????? ??????, ??????????а ? ????? ??? ?? ????????. ?????????????, ????
????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ???? ???? ???? ?? ??????, ??? ?? л???????????╗ ??, ?? ????????? ????? ???????????, ????????? ?????? ???????, ??? ??????, ???????, ?????????, ????????, ??????????, ???????????????. ??? ???? ??????
???????, ??? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????. ????? ??? ???? ?а???????.
?а?? ????? ?? ????? ???? ????? ?? ?????????, ???????? ?? ???? ?????. ??????
????? ????? ????????, ??? ?а??????? ?????? ?????????? ???? ???? ????????? ?а?????? ??????? ??????, ??????? ??????????? ?а????????????? ?а???????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? л??????? ????????╗ (?????? ????? ?????????). ????????? ????????, ???? ????????? ???? ?? ????????? ?а????????? ??????? ?? ?????, ?а??? ??????
????????? ????????? ??????? ????? ???????????? ?????????. ????? ???????, ??????
?????? ????????? ???????? ?а???? ????? ????????, ?????, ??????? ??? ?????????
?а?????? ???? ?????. ?а???? ?????? ???????а? ??? ???????????????? ???????????
????, ?? ??? ?????????? ????????? ???? ???? ???????????????? ????????????, ?????????? л????? ???? ???????? ??????????╗ ??????? л?????????? ????????╗. ??????
?????????? ?????????? ???? ?????? ????? ????????, ??? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ????????????, ?а??????????? ?????-?? ?????????? ?????????. ????, ???????? ?а???????
??? ????, ????? ?????? ?????????. ???? ??? ???? ??а??????????? ?а????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ???? ????? ??????? ???????? ????????
??????? ?а???????? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ???? ?а????? ??????
??????? ??????? ?а?????? ?????????????? ?а1980а?.: л???????, ????????, ?????????
????? ??? ????? ???????. ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ??????,
??????? ??????? ????????: ????? ????????? ????. ?? ??????????? ????а? ??????
??? ???????????а? ???????????, ???????????? ???????????? ??????, ????а? ????????, ???????????? ?????╗ [9]. ????????, л??????-???????????╗ (1971)а(???. 2).
106
???. 1. ?????? ????????????? ??????. ???? ????. 1969а ?.
?????, ?????. 38 ╫ 21а??
???. 2. ???????????-??????. ???? ????.
1971а?. ?????, ?????. 48 ╫ 33а??
???. 3. ???????????. ???? ????. 1947а ?.
???????, ??????. 36 ╫ 22а??
107
?а?????? ????? ??????????? ?а??????: л?????????? ??????? ????? ??????? ????????? ??? ?а???? ??????????╗ [4, ?. 276].
????????????? ??????????? ????? ????????????? 1947а?., ????????? ????? ????
?? ????? ????????????. ????????? ?????????? ???? ??????? ?????? ????? ????, ???
??? ?? ???? ????????? ?? ?????? (??? ?? л??????╗ ??????????? ????? ???????), ?а???????, ?а?????. ?а????? ?????? ???? л????????╗ ??а?????, ???????? ????? ????????????? ????? ?а?????? ??????, ??? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????
(???.а3). ???? ?а??????? ??????????? ???????????? ?а?????, ???????????? ?????
??????. ?????? ???? ??? ???? ????а? ??? ????? ??????? ???????????????. ??? ???????? ???????????????? ???????? ?а?? ??????? ??????? ?а???????? ?? ???????
?????? ?? ???????????????, ?????? ????. ?а??? ?????, ?а???? ????? ??????, ??? ??????? ????????? ?а?????????, ???????, ?а???? ???????, ??????? ???????, ???????????? ?????. ??? ????, ???, ?????? ??????????, ????????? ?????????? ???? ????????
????? ?? ?????? (??? ????????, ??? ????? ?а ???????, ????? ???????? ????? ????? ???????????, ???????? ??, ?????? ????????????? ????????????), ?а?????, ???????
?а????????? ?а???????????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ?? ????????. ???, ??? ???? ???
????????? ?а?????? ??????, ?????????????? ?????? ??? л?????????????? ????????╗, ?????? ??????? ????????, ?а?? ????, ??? ??, ??? ?а???? ??????, ???????? ?????.
??????????????.
?? ????????????? ????????? ?а????????? ??????????????
???? ?? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????, ??????????? ????????, ????????? ??? ??? ?????????, ?а???????? ????? ???? ????? ?????
?????? ?а????????? ???? ????. ?????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??????, ??? ????????
?. ????????, ???????? ????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ????????, ????????????? ????? ????????? ???? ?а???? [10]. ?????? ?а????? ?а???? ????? ????? ??????????
?а????????? ??????? ?????? [11].
?? ?? ????? ?????, ????? ?? ????????????? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ?????
????? ?????, ?? ?????? ????????, ???? ????? ??????????? ????????, ?????? ????
????????? ?а?????????????? ??????? ???? ?а????? ??????? ???? ????????? ?а?????????? ??????.
??? ????? ?а???? ?????? ????? ??? ?????????? ?? ?а????, ??? ??-????????
?а??????????
?????? ?????, ????? ????????? ??????????? ????, ??? ??????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????????? ?а ??? ???, ?а ??????????, ????? ?а ????????, ?????? ?а ??
????????? ??????????, ??????? ??????? ?а ?????????. ??? ?????????????????
??????? ?? ??? ???? ?????????????? ?а??????? ???? ????? ?а??????? ????????? ?????? ?????. ??? ????????? ???? ??? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ?а?????? ??????:
???, ??? ??????? ??, ?? ???????? ??????? ????? ??? ????????. ??? ???, ??? ???? ?????, ???? ?а?????? ?????; ?????? ??? ???????? ?а??????? ???; ??? ?????????? ???? ?а????
????, ??? ???????? ?а???????. ?? ????? ????????? ??, ??? ???????? ?????. ?? ???????????.
???, ??? ??????? ??, ?? ???????? ??????? ?????, ?? ?? ???????? ?????. ?? ?? ??-?????
?а????????? [11, ?. 17].
108
?????????? ??????? ?????????, ??????? ?????? ??? ?????????????. ??? ?а????? ?????? ????????? ??? ????????? ??????, ???????, ??? ??? ?????, ????? ???????
????? ?????. ?? ????? ???????, ??????? ?????, ?? ???? ??????? ???????:
?????? ????????? ??????????? ???????, ?а ??????? ??????? ??????? ???????????
??? ??????????? ??????????. ????? ?? ????? ?? ???? ????????? ?????, ?а??? ?????????????
?????? ?????? ???? ????????????? ???. ????????? ??? ??????????, ?а??? ?? ?????????:
????? ??? ?? ???????? ???????? ??????????, ??????? ????? ???? ?? ?????????, ??а???? ??
?????? ?а????????? ?а???????? ????????, ???? ?? ?????????? ?а????????????? ??? ?а??????????? ??? ????? ?а?????. ??? ?а??????? ?????????? ????????, ??? ?а??????? ???? [11,
?. 33?34].
????????? ?? ???????? ???? ?а ?????????. ?????? ??????? ??????????????? ?а??? ????? ????????? ??? ?????? ??? ??????????? ?а????????? ?????????
??а?????????? ?а?????????? ???????. ??? ???? ???, ?????????? ??, л?? ????????
???? ?????????? ?а?????, ?? ???? ???????? ???? ??????? ???????????? ????????╗
[11,а?. 34]. ????? ???????, ??????? ???? ??????????, ?а????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ?а??????????є??.
?????????????? ????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ??????? ????? ????????? ?а?????. ???, ?а??????? ???????, ???????????? ?а????? ?????????
?а?????????, ????????? ?????? ??? л???????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?а???????????? ?????╗ [10]. ????? ?????? ??
????? ???????, ???????????? ?????????? ??а???????: ?? ????????, ???????? ????????? ??????, ???????????? ???? ?а????? ????????. ?????? ???? ?? ???? ????????????? ?????, ??????????????? ?????? ???? ????????? ???. ?? ??? ?????? ?????
???? ???, ??? ????? ???? ????? ??????? ??? ?а????.
???? ?????????? ?????? ?а???????? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ????????????, ??
?а?????? ???? ???? ??? ?????????? ????????, ??? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ???????
??????? ?а???????? ????????? [2, ?. 22]. ?а1946а?. ???? ???? ????????? ?????? ????????????????? ?????, ????????????????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???? (Lajos
Szabє) ?а????? 1920-? ?????. ???????? ?????? ???????? ??а?????????? ???????????
?? ??????, ?а????? ???????, л??????? ?а???????? ?????????????? ?а?????????╗, ???????????????? ????????? ?а????????; ?а??????а? ?????????? ?? ???????? ????????
??????, ??????? ????? ?????????????? ??? ??????? ?????????????? [12, ?. 22].
?а ???? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ???????????.
??? ?? ??????????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ???????, ??? ????????? ???? ???? ?? ????? ????????????. ????? ?????????
?????? ???????????; ??????????? (л????? ???????, ???????, ???????????╗, ?????
???????, ??????? ??????)а? ?????? ????????????? (??? ???? ?? ???????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ???????), ?ал???????????????? ????????? ???????╗, ?? ???????, ???????????? ?а?? ??????????????????? [13, ?. 257].
?? ???? ?? ????? ??????? ???????? ?а????????? ????????? ????, ??? ??? ????????
????????? ???? л????????????╗ ?а????? л? ????????? ?????? ???????╗ ?????????
???? ???? ??????????? (?? ?а ?????????????) ??????? ????? ??????? ?а ?????????. ????????? ?????????? ??????, ?????? ?????, ????????? ?а ?????? ?? ??109
?????????? ?????????? ??? ??, ?????????????? ??????? ??????? ??????. ???
л??????????, ??? ?? ?????? ??? ??? ????╗, ?а???????? ???????????? [11, ?. 34].
????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ???? ????,
?а?????? ????????? ??????????????. ??? ?????? ?????????? ??????, ??? ????? ????????????
???????????а? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ????. ??? ???? ????????????? ???? ?????
?а?????? ????????? ?а??????????. ???, ???? ??????????, ????????? ?? ????????????, ?????? ?????? ?? ???????? ??? ??????, ????? ???????? ????????? ?????????
???? ?а???????? ?????, ?а??? л?????????, ??????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????╗ [14, ?. 94]. ???? ????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????, ????????? ???? ?????,
????? ??? ??????? ?????????, ??? ??????? ?а??? ???? ???????? ??? ????????, ?? ??????????? ????? ????????? ??? ???????? ?????????????. ?а????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ?????????. ???? ??????????а? ??????
????? ?????????????????. ???? ???????, ??????? ????????а? ?????? ??????? ????????? ???????. ??? ????? ?????????? ????? ????? ?????????, ????? ???????????
?? ?????? ?????????. ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???.
?????? ??????????? ????? ???? ?? ???????????????, ?а????????????? ?а????.
?а????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ?? ???????? ?? ?????????, ?? ????????? ??????
????. ?????? ?? ?????? ???????: ?? ????? ???????, ??????? ?????, ??? ??? ?????
??????????. ??????? ???????????-????????????а? ??? ?????????? ??????, ???????
???????? ???????????? ?. л?????????????????╗ ????? ??? ????? ????????? ??????????, ?????? ??? ?? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ????????? (??? ??? ??????????????), ?а?????? ?????. ???? ?а?????? ????????? ???? ?????? ????????? ??????????????? ???????? ????? ?а????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ????????????? ???????, ?? ?а ?????? ????????????
???????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ???? ???????????? ????????? ?????????????,
??? ???????? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ????????? ???????????????? ??????????. ??????
??????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????????, ?а?????а? ??? ???? ?????????
??????????? ??????? ????????? ?а?????.
?????? ????????? ???? ???? ?а ????????????а ? ??? ?? ??????? ???????????.
??? ?????? ???????? ?а ???? ? ?а ???? ??????, ??????? ?????????? ???????-?????? ????? ??????. ?????? ????? ????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????: л???????????? 1940-? ????? ?а???????? ????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ??????, ???????а ? ??? ?????????????а ? ????? ?а ??????????? ?????????╗
[2, ?. 20].
???????????? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ?а ????. ??? ??????????? ????? ??????? ????????????? ?????: ??, ??? ? ???????????? ?????, ?а??,
??? ???????? ???????. ?????? ???????????, ??? ??????????????, ??? ?????????????
?????, ?????????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ????? ????? ?а?????. ?????????? ?а??????? ?а?????, ?а?????????? ????????? ???? ?????????? ??? ????????? ?????????. ?????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ??????????? л????????????-?????╗.
??? ???????? ????? ????? ??????, ?? ?? ??? ????????, ??? ??? ????????, ?????? ?????, ?? ???????????????? ????????? ????. ????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?а???? ??????? ????? ?????, ?. ?. ??? ????????????. ?????, ????????????,
?????а? ??? л?????╗ ?а????????? ???????. ???????????? ??????, ??????, ??????
110
?????? ?а???, ??? ????????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ????, ???? ??????? ?????? ???????? ????. ???????????? ?????? ?????? л???????? ?????╗:
? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ????, ???????? ????, ???? ?а???????? ????? ?? ????????
????? ?? ??????, ?????????????? ?????? ????. ???????????? ??????, ??????? ?? ???????? ????? ???????? [4, ?. 7].
? ????? ???? ????? ???????? ?? ????????? ????? ? ?а?????. ???? ?????, ???????, ?? ?????? ????? ?????????. ?????? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ???? ?????????????? ??? ??????. ????? ????, ???? ??? ?? ?????????????? ???? ???, ???????
???. ??? ???? ??? ????????????а? ?? ?????? ??????????? ??????????, ??????????? ?? ???????. ?? ????? ???????? ?а???????, ?? ??? ????? ???????? ???????????
?а ????; ??? ???????????, ???????????? ?а ?????, ?? ?????????? ??? ?????? ????.
?а????? ?? ???????????? ?а?????????????????? ?? ??? ???? ??? ??? ???, ?????????, ?? ????? ???????? ???? ????? ???????????? ?????? ????.
??? ?а ????? ??????, ????????? ???? ???? ???????? ?? ??????? ?а ?????. ???
???? ?????? ????? ?? ???????, ??? ?????????????? ???? ?????? ?а ???? ??????.
?а?????? ???? ??? ????????, ????????, ??????? ?а????????. ??? ?????? ???????,
???????? ??????. ?? ???? ????????, ??а??? ????, ??? ?? ????????????? ?? ???????, ?????????? ????????? ?? ????????? ??????????. ??????????? ???????? ?????
?????????????? ??? ??????? ???????? ????????. ?а???????? ???? ??? ??????????
?а????, ???????, ???????? ?а?????????? ??????, ???????????? ?а??? ?а?????? ?а???.
????? ???????? ?? ??????????????? ????????? ???? ????, ??а?? ?а??? ??????,
??? ??? ???????? ?а???????? ?????????? ?? ????? ????? ???? (?а??????? ?? ?????
??????). ??????????????? ?????? ????????? ?а???, ??? ??? ?? ????????? ?? ?а??????????? ?????, ?? ??а ???????. ???????, ?????? ???? ????????????? ???? ?????
???????? XX ?????, ??а???? ???????????? ??????? ???? ?? ?????????? ?? ?а?????
?????????? ????????. ???????? ?? ????????? ??????? ?? ??а??????????? ??????? ????????? ????, ? ??а ??????????? ??????????? ???????. ???????, ????????
???? ?????, ?а????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ????????. ?? ??????
??????, ????????? ?? л??????╗ ?а???, ??? ??? ?????? ?а?????? ?????????? XX ????.
??? ???????? ?????, ?? ?а ????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????????. ???? ????а? ?????????? ?????????? ? ??? ????????? ???????. ????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ?а????????? ???? ????
?? ???-????, ?????? ????? ????????? ???? ?? ????????? ????????? ?а??????????
????????, ?а???? ??, ?? ?????????? ?? ??? ?а?? ?????????? ?? ??? ??? ????????? ?????????
??????????? ?а???????? ????? ??????, ???????, ??? ??????? ?а????????????
?????????????? ????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?? ????? ?????????. ??????? ?а??????
????? ????? ?а?????????, ????????? ????? ?а?????? ??????-???????. ????????????? ??? ??????????. ????? ?? ???????? ?????, ???? ?а????? ??????? ??? ???????
???????????? ??????????????, ??? ?а???????? ?????? ???????? ?а????????. ???????????? ???????? ?????? ?а ???????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????????
??????. ????, ???????, ?а??????????? л??????????????╗ ?????????? ???? ????????
???????????? ?????????, ??????? ?а??????? ???????????????? ????????? ?? ?????
????????.
111
????? ?? ????????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ????? ?????? ?а???? ????,
????? ????? ?? ???? ??????? ?????????????. ???????? ????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?а???, ??? ????????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ???, ???????? ??????
?????? ????????? ???????. ????? ?а?????????? ???????? ???????а? ?а????? ??????,
?????????? ?? ????????а? ???? ?? ???? ?? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????.
?????? ???? ??????? ?????? ???????????, ??????? ????????? ????? ?а???????, ??
??????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????????: ??????? ?????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ???? ?а???????????? ?а1969а?. [15]; ???????????? ?????????
?????????? ???? ????, ????? ????????? ????? л?????? ????????????? ??????╗,
????????? ?а??? ?? 1969а?. ?а????? ??????, ???? ???? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ????
??????????, ??? ?? ??????? ?????? ????? ???????????? ????? ?????????? ???? ????? ??а??????? ?????????, ??? ??????????????, ??? ?а?????????????? ????????????
????? ???? ?а??????.
??????????
1. ????????? ?. ??????? ??????? ????? ?а ???????????. ????? ????? ?а ??? ?????????. ?.;
?????????: ????? ???????? /а???????, 2012. 528а?.
2. Hajdu I., Bэrє D. The art of Ilka Ged?. Budapest: Gondolat kiadє, 2003. 258аp.
3. ??????? ?.-?. ???????????? ???????????. ?.: ?????????, 1991. 368аc.
4. ????? ?. ???????? ?????. ?a?a????? ??? ??????????. ?.: ??????????: ?. ?. ?.-?????, 2000.
381а?.
5. ??????? ?. ?????, ??? ????? ??????????? ????? //а ????? (Seagull magazine). 10а ??? 2002.
?а9а(25). URL: http://www.chayka.org/oarticle.php?id=509а(???? ?????????: 05.06.2014).
6. ????? ?. ????? ?????а? ??. ?. ????????? //а??????? ?а?????????: ???????? ?????. ?????,
?????????, ????. ???.: ????????, 2000. ?. 420?425.
7. Vadas J. Kэv№lа? bel№l = [???????а? ??????] //а╔let щs Irodalom. 01.05.1987.
8. Losonci M. Ged? Ilka kщpei = [??????? ???? ????] //а┌j t№kЎr. 14.07.1985.
9. Lukсcsy S. Szэnek, kont·rok aszimmetriсk = [?????, ???????, ??????????] //а ╔let щs Irodalom.
26.07.1980.
10. ??????? ?. ?????????????? ????? ????? ?????? //а ????? ?????. ?????????????????
?????????. ?????????; ?., 1998. URL: http://www.philology.ru/literature3/kameneva-98.htm (???? ?????????: 05.06.2014).
11. ????? ?. ? ?а?? //а????? ?. ??? ?????? ????. ?.: ??????????, 1995. ?. 15?92.
12. GyЎrgy P., Pataki G. The paradox of an artistic conception. The art of Ilka Ged? //аThe art of Ilka
Ged? (1921?1985) /аGyЎrgy P., Pataki G., Szabє J., Mщszсros F. I. Budapest: ┌j M?vщszet Alapitvсny, 1997.
P. 19?46.
13. ?????? ?. ?. ???????? ?а???????????? ???????? ?????????. ?.: ???????????? ?. ??????, 2010.
368а?.
14. ?????????? ?. ?? ????????? ?а???????????. ???.: ?????? ???????????, 2001. 205а?.
15. Schulz B. Apсm t?zoltє lesz = [??? ???? ????? ????????]. Budapest: Eurєpa KЎnyvkiadє, 1969.
?????? ????????? ?а???????? 25а???? 2014а?.
?????????? ??????????
??????? ????? ?????????а? ????????; shche.alina@gmail.com
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