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Эжекторная установка с авиационным газотурбинным двигателем для ледокольной платформы на воздушной подушке..pdf

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ISSN 2073-1574. Вестник АГТУ. Сер.: Морская техника и технология. 2014. ? 2
СУДОВЫЕ ЭНЕРГЕТИЧЕСКИЕ УСТАНОВКИ
И МАШИННО-ДВИЖИТЕЛЬНЫЕ КОМПЛЕКСЫ
??? 629.12
?. ?. ?????, ?. ?. ???????, ?. ?. ???????, ?. ?. ???????????
ЭЖЕКТОРНАЯ УСТАНОВКА
С АВИАЦИОННЫМ ГАЗОТУРБИННЫМ ДВИГАТЕЛЕМ
ДЛЯ ЛЕДОКОЛЬНОЙ ПЛАТФОРМЫ НА ВОЗДУШНОЙ ПОДУШКЕ
D. S. Burov, S. N. Zelenov, P. V. Semashko, A. R. Khabibullina
EJECTOR UNIT WITH AVIATION GAS TURBINE ENGINE
FOR THE ICE-BREAKING PLATFORM ON THE AIR CUSHION
???? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ??????? ??????????, ??? ? ???????????? ???????? ????? ???? ??????????? ????? ????????????, ??? ????? ?????? ???????????? ????????. ???????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ??????. ??????????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ???? ????????? ?? ????????? ???????.
????????????? ??????????? ? ????????????? ????????????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ???????????? ?????????????? ????????? ? ????????????????? ????????. ???????? ?????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????????? ????????: ??????????? ????????, ????? ? ???????? ?????? ????????. ?????????? ??? ????????????????
??????????????: ??????????? ???????, ???????? ? ??????? ???? ?? ????? ? ???????. ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ???????????????? ????????? ????????????????? ??????????? ????????? ?? ????????? ??????? ? ??????????????? ??????????.
???????? ?????: ??????????? ????????? ?? ????????? ???????, ????????? ????????,
?????????????? ?????????, ???????, ??????????? ????????????? ?????????.
The experience of the application of ice-breaking platforms on the air cushion shows that under
certain conditions such vessels prove to be more economical than any other transportation means. The
urgent problem of guaranteeing the reliable year-round maintenance of the objects of oil and gas extraction under the conditions of the shallow waters of the North Caspian Region is solved. Application for breaking the ice of the platform on the air cushion is examined. The possibility and effectiveness of its use as a pressuring turbine ejector unit in the structure of aviation gas-turbine engine
and gas-dynamic ejector is analyzed. The calculation of such fundamental geometric characteristics
of the ejector as inside diameter, length and diameter of the mixing chamber is executed. Its gasdynamic characteristics such as the coefficient of ejection, pressure and gas supply at the entrance into
the air cushion are determined. The obtained results are necessary for the confirmation of the expediency of building an experimental ice-breaking platform on the air cushion with the turbine ejector unit.
?ey words: ice-breaking platform on the air cushion, lifting complex, pressuring set, ejector,
aviation gas turbine engine.
????????
? ?????? ????? ? ?????? ? ?? ??????? [1] ???? ????????? ? ????????????????? ??????????? ????????? ?? ????????? ??????? (????). ??????????? ????????? ?? ?????????
??????? ? ??? ???????????? ?????, ????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? 5?12 ??/? ?????????
??? ???????? ?? 1,5 ? ? ??????, ??? ?? ????? ???????? ?????? ????????.
????????????? ???? ??????????????? ??? ???????????? ? ???????? ????? ???????????
????. ????????, ??? ??? ??????? ????? ??????? (68 %) ????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????
46
Судовые энергетические установки и машинно-движительные комплексы
??????? ????? 4,5 ?, ??? ?????????? ????????????? ????? ??????? ????????? ? ???? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ????????. ? ?? ?? ????? ????????????? ?????? ????????????? ? ???? ??????? ????????? ? ?????? ?????. ? 2020 ?. ????? ?????? ????? ????????? ?? ?????? 200 ???? ?,
???? ? 270 ???? ?3, ??? ?????????? 3 % ???????? ?????? ????? ? 5 % ????. ???????? ?????? ?????
?????? ? ???? ??????? ???? ??????? ????????.
????????? ????? ?????????????? ??? ??????? ????????? ?????:
1. ??????????????? ??????, ? ??? ????? ????????????????, ?? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????????????.
2. ???????? ?????? ?? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????? ???? ? ?? ??????.
3. ??????????????? ????????? ?????? ? ????????, ????????????? ? ??????????? ? ?????? ??????, ???????? ????? ? ?. ?.
???????, ??? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??? ?????? ????????????; ????????, ???????? ?? 0,5 ?, ????? ? ?????????? ?????; ???
???????????? ????; ??????? ????????; ??? ??????, ????????? ??????? ? ?????? ???????????; ??? ???????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ?? ?30 ?? + 30 ??.
???????? ???????????? ?????????????? ????????? (??) ????? ????? [2?4] ???????? ??,
??? ??? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ?? ???????? ? ??????????? ? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? P, ??????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???? ????????????
???????, ? ??????? ??????? (??? ????) Q. ??????????? ???????? ???????? ? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??????? ? ??????? ? ?????? ?????????? 3?5 ?? ? ????????? ????????? ???????
???? ??? ????, ?? ?????????????? ??????, ?????????? P = 10?12,5 ??? ? Q = 0,6?0,9 ?3/? ??
1 ? ??????? ?????????? [1, 2].
??? ?????? ???? ? ??????? ?? ???? [3] ?????????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ?????? ? ???????? ?????? ???????? ???????????, ????????????? ? ????????????? ?????????? ???????. ??? ????????? ? ? ????????, ?????????????? ??????, ???????? ? ??????
???????, ?????? ??????????. ? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ??? ?? ??????? ?????? ?????????????? ? ????? ??????????,
???????????????? ? ????? ?????, ??? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????.
???? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????????
???????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????? (???) ??? ????, ?????????????? ????? ? ????? ?????? ????????????? ????? ? ???????????? L Ч B Ч H = 14 Ч 12 Ч 1,5 ? (???. 1).
???. 1. ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ????
47
ISSN 2073-1574. Вестник АГТУ. Сер.: Морская техника и технология. 2014. ? 2
??????? ???????????? ??????????????? ????????? [2, 4] ????????, ???, ???????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ? ????????, ??? ????? ??? ???????????: ???????? ? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????, ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????, ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ? ??. ? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????? ???? ????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????????
? ????????? ????????? ?, ??? ?????????????, ???????? ?? ??????????????? ?????.
??????????????? ???? ????????? ???????? ??????????????? ????????? ??-25?? ? ???????, ????????? ?? ????????????????, ???????????? ?????? ? ?????????. ? ???? ?????? ??????????????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ???? ???????? ????????????? ?????, ????????? ??
????????? ????? ??? ? ????????????? ?????????? ???????. ????????? ????? ?? ?????? ??
????????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?? ????? 4,2 ???, ?? ?????????? ??????? ? ?? ????? 40 ??/?, ??????????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? +70?80 oC.
??? ?????? ???? ??? ? ?????? ??? ?????? ???? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????
??????????? ????????, ??????? ? ??????????? ???? ? ??????? ????, ? ????? ?????????? ???
???? ?????-???? ??????????? ?? ??????? ????????? ?????????, ?????????? ? ???????? ???
???????. ?????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??? ???????, ??? ???????? ?????????? ?? ????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ??? ??-25??. ?? ??????? ????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ????? 0,5 ????????????. ???????????? ????????? ?? ????????? ?????? ????????
??????????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ????? ???????? ? ????????? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????, ??????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? 6000 ?, ?, ????? ???????, ?? ????????????? ??????????? ?? ????????????????? ??????????? ??????.
??? ??????? ?????? ???? ??????? ????????? ?????????:
1. ??????? ? ????????, ?????? ???????? ? ????????? ??????????, ?. ?. ?1 < 1.
2. ????? ???? ? ???????? ??????? ?????? ????????, ??????? ????????? ??????????????, ??????? ?????????? ? ???????????????. ???????? ??????? ??????? ????? ???? ???????? ??? ???????? ??????????.
3. ??? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ? ?????????? ?????.
4. ??? ??? ????? ????????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????, ????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? (??? ????????? ????????) k = 1,33.
5. ? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????.
????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????????????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ? ??????? ???? ??, ?????? ???? (???????) Q? ? ?????????? ??????????? ? ??????? ??. ????????
?????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ????, ??????????? ??? ??????? ????????? ??????, ?????? ? ??
??????? ????? ????? ? ?????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ????, ??????????? ? ?? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??????????.
? ?????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ????????? ???????? ??????????.
1. ???????? ???? ? ??????? (??????????) ? 0,042 ???/??2 (4,2 ???), ??????????? ? ??????????? ?? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ???? h = 0,3 ?.
2. ????????? ?????? ??????? (????) ? 40 ??/?.
3. ??????????? ????????? ????????? ??-25?? ?? ?????? 0,5 ???????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ????? Po = 1,033 ???/??2 (103,3 ???), ?? = 15 ??:
? ?????? ???? G? = 32,3 ??/?;
? ???? ????????? R = 750 ??? (7500 ?);
?
? ?????? ???????? ? ?????? ???????? ????????? ???
= 1,29 ???/??2 (129 ???);
? ??????????? ???? ?? ????? ????? ? ?? = 435 ?;
? ?????? ??????? G? = 435 ??/?;
? ??????? ????? ????? d? = 470 ?? (F? = 0,1734 ?2).
??? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ? ????? Pc ?????????? ????????? ???? ?? ????? ?????
?????????. ?????? ??????????, ????????? ???????????????? ??????? (???), ????? ?????????
???????? ????, ??????????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ??????, R = G??C?. ????? ???????? ???? ????? ????? C? = R/G? = 7500/32,3 ? 228 ?/?, ? ??????????? ???????? ???? ????????? ?? ????????48
Судовые энергетические установки и машинно-движительные комплексы
??? a?? = 18,12 ? ?? = 18,12 435 ? 378 ?/?. ????????????? ????????, ?? ??????? ????????????
???????? ???, ????? ????? ? ? = ??/??? = 228/378 ? 0,60. ?? ???????? ??? ???????: ?(??) = 0,8098;
q(?c) = 0,8133; z(?c) = 2,27. ????????? ????????? ??????????????? ????????, ????????? ??????
???????? ???? ?? ????? ????????? ????? ?? ???????
?
???
=
G? Tc?
0,388q (? ? ) Fc
=
32,3 435
= 1, 23 ???/?? 2 ? 123 ??? .
0,388 ? 0,8133 ? 0,1734 ? 104
? ????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ? ????? ????????
Pc* 1, 23
=
? 1,19.
Pa 1,033
Pc* =
????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ? ???????? ?3 ????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ???????? ? ???????: P4* = Pa + P??? = 1, 075 ???/??2 ? 107,5 ???.
?????? ?4 ? ?4? , ?????, ? ?????? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ?????????
? n = 0,97 , ??????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ? ?????? ????????:
?3? =
?4? 1,075
=
? 1,11.
?? 0,97
??????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ????? ?????:
?3 =
P3* 1,11
=
? 1,075.
Pa 1,033
???????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ???????? f 3 ????????? ?? ???????
?. ?. ????????????? [5], ????????? ? ??? ??????????? ???????? (??????? ???????????
??? ?1, ?2, ?3 = 0,15 < ? < 1). ???????:
f3 =
Pc ? 1 f 3 1,19 ? 1
=
=
? 2,53.
? 3 ? 1 f c 1,075 ? 1
??????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????? ????????
d3 = 470 2,53 ? 750 ??.
????? ???????? ????????? ?? ???. 2.
l ?.? = 3000
R 900
Ш 750
R 1460
R = 525
Ш 2250
l ?.?. = 375
l = 1875
Ш 440
90°
???. 2. ????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????
49
ISSN 2073-1574. Вестник АГТУ. Сер.: Морская техника и технология. 2014. ? 2
??????? ???????? ????????? ?? ?????????????? ??????????? ? ???? ????????? ????????? ? = 14?; ????????????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ???????? l?.?/d3 = 4 ? ????? ????????? l?/d3 = 2,5; ?????????? ?? ?????? h/d3 = 0,5; R/d3 = 0,7; ??????? ?????? d?/d3 = 3. ????? ?? ?????? ?? ????????? ????????????? ??? ????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????? ???? (???????????? ????????) ? ???????????? ???????????? ????.
??????????
?????? ??????? ??????????? ? ????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ??? ??? ???????? ????????? ??????? ????. ???????????? ? ??????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ???? ???? ?????? ????????, ?? ??? ??????????????? ?????????? ????????
?????? ???????? ???????? ????????????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ?????????????? ????????? ??? ????????? ??????????, ? ????????? ??? ????.
??????? ?? ????????????????? ???? ? ??????????????? ??????????, ??????????? ????, ??????????????? ??? ????????????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ? ???????
? ???????? ????????.
?????? ??????????
1. ???? ?. ?. ???????? ????????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ????? / ?. ?. ????. ?.: ????????????, 1986. 207 ?.
2. ???????? ?. ?. ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ?? ????????? ??????? / ?. ?. ????????, ?. ?. ???????, ?. ?. ???????? // ?????????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????: ??????. ??.
???????: ??? ??. ?. ?. ???????, 1986. ?. 104?107.
3. ??????? ?. ?. ?????????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ??????? /
?. ?. ??????? // ?????? ????????. ????. ? ???????? ?? ??????? ???????????????? ???????????: ????????? ????. ????????-97. ???.,1997. ?. 5. ?. 101?103.
4. ???????? ?. ?. ????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ?????????
??-9? / ?. ?. ????????, ?. ?. ?????????, ?. ?. ???????, ?. ?. ???????? // ?????????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????: ??????. ??. ???????: ??? ??. ?. ?. ???????, 1986. ?. 60?62.
5. ????? ?. ?. ???????????? ??????????? / ?. ?. ?????, ?. ?. ????????. ?.: ??????, 1963. 146 ?.
REFERENCES
1. Zuev V. A. Sredstva prodleniia navigatsii na vnutrennikh vodnykh putiakh [Means of the prolongation
of navigation on the inland waterways]. Leningrad, Sudostroenie Publ., 1986. 207 p.
2. Riabinkin A. B., Malakhov P. A., Savateev A. V. Rezul'taty ispytanii ledokol'noi platformy na voz-dushnoi
podushke [Results of the tests of ice-breaking platform on the air cushion]. Proektirovanie sredstv prodleniia navigatsii. Mezhvuzovskii sbornik. Gorky, GPI im. A. A. Zhdanova, 1986. P. 104?107.
3. Zelenov S. N. Energeticheskie ustanovki ledokol'nykh platform na vozdushnoi podushke [The power plants
of ice-breaking platforms on the air cushion]. Vtoraia Mezhdunarodnaia konferentsiia i vystavka po morskim intellektual'nym tekhnologiiam. Materialy konferentsii MORINTEKh-97. Saint Petersburg, vol. 5, pp. 101?103.
4. Bogdanov A. V., Kosolapov A. S., Nazarov V. V., Riabinkin A. B. Nekotorye rezul'taty ispytaniia aviatsionnogo turboreaktivnogo dvigatelia RD-9B [Some results of testing the aviation turbojet engine RD-9B]. Proektirovanie sredstv prodleniia navigatsii. Mezhvuzovskii sbornik. Gorky, GPI im. A. A. Zhdanova, 1986, pp. 60?62.
5. Shchukin R. K., Kalmykov I. I. Gazostruinye kompressory [Gas flow compressors]. Moscow, Mashgiz, 1963. 146 p.
?????? ????????? ? ???????? 19.04.2014
ИНФОРМАЦИЯ ОБ АВТОРАХ
Буров Дмитрий Сергеевич ? Нижегородский государственный технический университет им. Р. Е. Алексеева; магистрант кафедры «Энергетические установки и тепловые
двигатели»; dmitry.burov@mail.ru.
Burov Dmitriy Sergeyevich ? Nizhniy Novgorod State Technical University after R. E. Alekseev; Master?s Student of the Department "Electric Power Installations and Heat Engines";
dmitry.burov@mail.ru.
50
Судовые энергетические установки и машинно-движительные комплексы
Зеленов Сергей Николаевич ? Нижегородский государственный технический университет им. Р. Е. Алексеева; канд. техн. наук, доцент; доцент кафедры «Энергетические
установки и тепловые двигатели»; zelenov.52@yandex.ru.
Zelenov Sergey Nikolayevich ? Nizhniy Novgorod State Technical University after
R. E. Alekseev; Сandidate of Technical Sciences, Assistant Professor; Assistant Professor
of the Department "Electric Power Installations and Heat Engines"; zelenov.52@yandex.ru.
Семашко Петр Владимирович ? Нижегородский государственный технический университет им. Р. Е. Алексеева; канд. техн. наук, доцент; доцент кафедры «Энергетические
установки и тепловые двигатели»; petrsemashko@mail.ru.
Semashko Peter Vladimirovich ? Nizhniy Novgorod State Technical University after
R. E. Alekseev; Сandidate of Technical Sciences, Assistant Professor; Assistant Professor
of the Department "Electric Power Installations and Heat Engines"; petrsemashko@mail.ru.
Хабибуллина Алина Равильевна ? Нижегородский государственный технический
университет им. Р. Е. Алексеева; магистрант кафедры «Кораблестроение и авиационная
техника»; cottononly@gmail.com.
Khabibullina Alina Ravilievna ? Nizhniy Novgorod State Technical University after
R. E. Alekseev; Master?s Student of the Department "Shipbuilding and Aviation Equipment";
cottononly@gmail.com.
51
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