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Potential of culturological study of modern cities
Kniazeva Ekaterina Dmitrievna,
NationalаInstitute for Higher Education, postgraduate student,
the Faculty of History and Cultural Heritage of Belarus
E?mail: kate.kniazeva@gmail.com
Potential of culturological study of modern cities
Abstract: This article focuses on the role of the cityаin modern culture. The author carries out a
briefаinsightаinto the study of the cityаin culturology as well as substantiates theаidea of the need to
analyse urban space from the perspective of the culturological approach. This problemаis understudied
and requires further research perhapsаin a separate scientific field such asаin urban cultural studies.
Keywords: Urban studies, culturology, cultural space, urban environment, urban culture.
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E?mail: kate.kniazeva@gmail.com
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????????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ?а??????? ??????????????????? ???????.
?????? ???????? ???? ??????? ?а??????? ?????????? ????????????, ????????, ?а?????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????а? ??????????????? ?????????????.
???????? ?????: ???????????, ???????????? ?????????????, ?????????? ????????????,
????????? ?????, ????????? ????????.
?????????? ????????? ???????? ?а????????? ???????? л?????╗. ????????????, ??? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ?????, ??????????? ????????????? ??????? (????
????? ??? ????) ??? ?????? ??а??????????????
?????????. ???? ????? л?????╗, ?а?а???????????????а? л?????╗, ???????? ???????????, ?????????? ????? (????????, ??????, ??????,
??????????). ????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ??а????? ????????? ?а??? ?????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ?а????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????????. ?а ?????????, ??а ????,
?????? ???? ???????? ??????????? ????? ?????
????????? ?а???????? ???????????. ?а????????
??????? ????????? ?а??????????? ?????? ?????????????????? ?а?????? ??? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ?а????????
?????????? ????????? ?а?????????, ???????????
?а????????, ????? ?а????????. ????????, ?а?????????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ????? ?а?????????? ????? 6а????? ???????,
??????? ???????????? ???????????, ???? ?????????? ?????????-??????????? ?а???????? ??????????, ?а????????????? ??????????? ????????
?а????? ??????????? ?????????.
????? ??? ???????????? ????????????, ????????, ??????? ???????? ?????? ??? ????????
???????????? ???????? ?????????, ?????????,
??????????, ?????????. ?????????? ????????????,
??????? ???????, ???????? ??а ??????? ?????????????, ????????????????? ???????? ?а???????????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????.
?????? ????? ?????? ?а ?????? ??? ?а ???????
??????? ????????? ????????? л???????╗ ??41
Section 3. Theory and history of culture
??? ?а??????? ?а????????? ????????? ???????
????????????а? ???????????. ???????? ??а??,
???, ??? ?? ??? ????????, ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ?а ?????????????
???????????????? ?а???????? ???????, ?? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ?а??????????, ?????? ?????????-?????????????? ??????.
??а??????????????? ?????? ??????? ??? ?а1971а?.
???????? ???????? ?.??.??????? ?а?.??.?????????
?а????? ?????? л??????????? ???????? ?а?????╗
?а????????? ?????? ?а?????????????????? ???????????? ??????. ?? ????? ??????? ????????????
????? ?а???, ??? ????????????, ???????? ??????
??????????? ??????? ??а????? ??????????????
??? ???????????????? ??????? ????????? ?????
?а??????? ?а???????? ?????????? ????????????,
?а?????? л?????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ???????? ???????????
??а ???? ?????????? ???? ???????????????????
?????╗ [3, 102].
??????, ???? ????? ?а???????? ??????? ????????????? ??????? ?????? ?а??????аXXа????. ????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????
?а ???????? ????? ???????? ????? ??????????
?????? ??? ?.?????????, ?.???????, ?.???????
?а?.??????????. ?а????? ??????? ??? ???????????
???????? ???? ??????? ?а???????? ?а?????? ???????????? ???????????.??.????????, ????????????
?????????? ?а??????? ?????????????????? ?а?????????, ??????? ???????? ??а???? ?????????????
??????? ?а?????????? ?????????????? ?а????????? ?????????? ??????? ???? ??? ????? ?????????.??.????? ?????????????? ?а1960а???? ?????? л????? ??????╗ ???????? ???? ???????????
???????????? ???? ???????а? ???????, ??????
???? ?а??? ?????????. ???, ?? ?????????? ????
??????????? ?????? ?????? ?а ?????????? ????,
?а????? ???? ??????? л?????????????????╗ (imageability) ?ал????????╗ (legibility) ????? [7].
? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????
???????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????
?.??.?????? ?а??? ?????? ?.??.??????????. ???
??????? ??????????? ????????????? ????? ???
????????? ????? ?а?????????????? ???? ?????????
????????. ??????? ????????? ??????, ????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ????????, ?????????? ???42
?????? ????????? ?а?????????, ???????? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ?а?????? ??? ?а?????
?????????, ?????????? ??а???????? ????????????? ????????, ?????????? ?а?????????? ??????. ?????? ??????????? ?а20?? ???? ????????
???? ??????? ???? ?????????? ????????????????
???????? ??????????????????? ???????? ??????.
??? ???? ?????????? ??????а?а?.??.??????а?
?а????? ????? л???? ?????? ?а??????? ???????
????????╗ ????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ????? ?????? ???????: ??????????????; ?????????? ?????? ?а???????? ????????
???????????? ???????; ????????????? ?????;
??????? ?????????????? ?????.
??????????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ????? ?а????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ???????. ?а????????? ????? ????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ??????????
????????? ?????????? ?.??.???????, ?.???????,
?.??.?????????. ????? ?????? ?????????????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ?????
?а ??????? ?.??.???????????, ?.??.???????????,
?.??.??????????, ?.??.?????????, ?.??.?????????. ?а ????????? ???? ???????????? ???????
????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?а????????
?????????????? ???????????? ??????. ?????????????, ?а?????? ?????????????? ??????? л???????????????? ????? ?????? (????, ????????,
????, ??????, ??????? ?а?.??.)а? ??а?????? ?????
??????????? ?????????, ?а????? ?????????? ??????????, ??????? ?а????? ?????????? ?????.
????????????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ????
?????╗ [5, 130]. ??? ????, ???????? ??а????????????? л?????????╗ ???????????? ??????????
??????????? ???????????? ?а????????, ??? ??????????? ??? ??????????????? ??????, ????????
?????, ??? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ????,
?????????? ?.??.??????? л?????? ???????? (60??
????аXIX-??????аXXа?????)╗, л?????? ??? ?????
????╗ ?а??????.
???? ??а???? ???????? ???????? ?????, ???
???? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????
??????? ??? ????? ?а????????? ????? ????? ???
???????????? ????????? ????? ?а??????? ??????????????????? ???????. ??????????, ??????
???????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????
Potential of culturological study of modern cities
????????? ??????????????? ????????? ?а????????, ?а ????? ??????????????????, ??? ??????
???????????? ??????? ????????? ????????????,
????????????????, ?????????? ??????????
????????? ????????, ???????? ?????????????.
?а????????? ????? ??????? ?????? ??????????
?????????, ????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ?а?а??а?? ????? ????????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????, ???
?????? ????? ?????? ??????????????? ?????????. ?????????????????? ?????? ?????????????
??? ??????????? ????????? ??а????? ??а??????
??? ??а????? ???????????? ?а?????????????? ???????????? ?а???????? ???????????? ????????,
??а?а??? ??а????? ?????????? ???????-????????????? ???????????? ????????: ?????????, ?????????, ?????, ???????, ?????.
??? ??????? ??? ?????, ??????? ?????? ??????? ?а???? ?????????? ??????????? ????????
??????????, ?????????? ??????? ?????????
?а?????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????, ?????????? ??а ?????? ????????
??????????? ??????????? ??а?????? ?????????
?а?????????? ????????? ?а????????, ?а??????????? ????????????? ?а?????????????, ??????????
?а???????????. ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ????
??????????? ??????, ??????? ?? ??????????.
?а ??? ????? ?????? ??а ?????? ????????????
?????????????а? л??????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ??а ?????????-???????????? ???????????? ?а???????? ???????, ????? ???????? ??? ??????? ???????╗ [4].
???????????, ???????????? ?а?????? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ??? ????????????
?????? ???????????? ??????????????, ??? ???
?????????? ???????????? ?а????? ??????? ?????
???????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????????????? ?а ?????????? ?????????. ??????,
??? ????? ???????????? ???????? ????????????
??а?????? ???? ??????? ???????????? ?а???????????? ???????, ?????????????????? ??? ??????;
????????? ??????? ??а ????????????? ???????? ?а????? ????????????? ????????, ?ал?????
??а????????? ???????????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ????-
??????? ?????? ?а??????????, ??????????????
?а??????????╗ [4].
????? ???????, ????? ??? л????????╗ ???????? ??а???? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????????, ?????????? ???? ?? ??????????? ????????. ?????????????? ?а???????????? ????????
?????? ???а?? ???????????? ?а????? ??????????
???????????? ???????, ????????? ???? л???????????? ??????╗ ??? ?????????? ????????????
?????????????.
???????????, ??????????? ??????????? ?а??????? ?????? ?а ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ?, ????????,
?????-?????? ??? ????????? ?а ????????? ??????? ????????????а? ??????????????? ?????????????. ?????? ??????????? ???????????????
????????????? ????? ????????? ??а ???????
??????????? ??????????????????, ??????????????? ?а??????????? ?????????. ????????, ??? ???
?а??а????? ???? ?????????????? ?а????????????
??????? ?? ???????. ??а?????? ??????, ??????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ???????? ???????, ?а????? ??????? ?а????????
??????????????? ?????????????. ?а???????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?????????: л??????????
????????????╗, л???????? ??????╗, л?????????
?????╗, л?????????? ????????╗. ????, ??? ???????? ??????????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????, ?а??????? ????? ?????? ??????????????
?????? ??а????? ??? ??????? ????????? ?а?????????? ??????????? ???? ?????????????.
?????? л????????????╗ ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????, ??а??? ??????, ??????
?????????? ???????? (???????) ?а?????? (?????)
????? ???????? ?а?????????, ????????? ??????,
??????? ?а ????????, ???????????????? ??????? ?а ?????????? ?а ????????????? ??а ????????? ???? ????????? ?????. ??? ???????? ????????????? ??????????, ????????, ???????????
?а????????????-?????????? ???? ??????????.
????????????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????? ?а ?????????? ????????? ???????? ???????
?а?а?.??.???????: л??а???? ?а??????????, ??а???????? ??а???????? ????? ??????? ?а?а????????
????????????? ??????? ????? ?а?????????? ?а?????!╗ [2, 11].
43
Section 3. Theory and history of culture
???????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ?а???, ??? ??? ??а?????? ???? ????????? ???
????????? ?????????? ??? ?? ??????. ???????
??????? ???????, ??????? ???????? ???????????? ?а???????????? ??? ????????????? ?????? ???
??????? ???? ????????? ????? ?а???????? ???????
???? ????????. ????? ??????????? ???? ?????????
?а?а?????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????
????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ???????
?а?????????? ????? ????????? ????? ?а????????
?а??? ????????? ?????????????, ????????? ?а??????????????? ????????????, ?а????? ??????????????
?????????????? ?а??? ?????????? ?а???????? ???????? ???????? ?а?????? ????? ?????????а? ???
??? ?????????????? ?а???????? ???????????? ?????,
?а???????????????, ?а????????????????? ?????
?? ?????????? [5, 133]. ????????? ?????, л???????╗
??а???? ???? ???????? ??????? ?а??????????? ???????, ??????????? ??????????? ????? ???????, ????????? ?а???????, ?а????? ????? ???????????,
????????????? ?а????????? [1, 125].
????? ?????? ??? ?а???????? ?????? ???????????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ?а??????????????, ??? ?а?а?????????? ??? ???? ????? ??????
?????. ??? ???????????? ?а?????????????? ??????. ?а?????????? ???????? ??а????????? 18а???
(?а1996а??а2014а??.) ???? ?????????? ?????????
??????????? ??а4,9%, ?а????? ???????? ???????
???????? 32,36%, ??? ???, ??? ????? ??????????
??????? ?????? ??????????? ?а10177,3а???. ??????? ?а1996а?. ??а9468,2а???. ??????? ??а??????
2014а ?. ??????????, ????? ???????????? ?????
?????? ????????? ???????? ?а ????????????
?????? ???????, ?а??? ?а???? ??????? ???? ?????-
?????? ????? ??? ?????????????????? ????????????. ????, ????????, ???а?? ?.???????? ???????,
??? л??????? ???? ??????????? ??????, ???????
???????? ?????? ??а????? ??????????????? ??????? ???????? ??? ??? ??????????? ?а?????????,
??????? ??а??? ?????????? ??а????????? ?а?????? ??????╗ [8, 11]. ?????? ??? ?????? ??????? ?.??.??????, ??????? ???????, ??? л???? ?????
?????, ??? ???????? ??? ????????? ??? ???????
??????????? ????????? ??а??? ????? ?а?а??????
???????? ?а??? ?????????? ??? ??? ?????╗ [6, 17].
?????????????, ?????? ????? ???????? ????? ?????????????, ???, ??? ????? ?а ?????????
???????? л????? ??????╗. ??? ??????? ??? ?????????????а? ????? ?????? ?а???????, ???????
??????? ?а????????, ?????? ?а???????, ?????????
?а?? ????????? ?а???????. ?????-?????????а?
?????????????а ? ???? ????? ?????????? ?????
??????? ?????? ??????????????? ?????? ?а??а???????? ?????? ?а?а????????????? ??????? ?????????. ???-????а? ??? ???????? ?а??? ??????????????? ???????????? ?а????????? ????????,
???????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ?а?а???????
?а?а???????????? ????? ?????. ????а? ????????????? ?а????????????? ????????????. ?????, ?а?????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ?а??????????
?? ?????????, ???? ?а??????? ????????, ??????,
?????, ??????, ?????. ?????а ? ???????????
?а????????????? ?????. ??? ??????????? ?а????????? ??????? ??? ??????а? ????????? ????????????? ?а??? ??????????? ?а???????????? ?????????????? ????????, ??????? ?а??????????? ??????,
????????? ?????????????? ??????? ???????,
?а????? ?????????? ?а????????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????.
References:
1. ????????, ?.??.?????? ??? ?????? ??????????????????? ????????????: ???. ? ????. ?????????. ????:
24.00.01/?.??.?????????.?? ?., 1998.?? 153а?.
2. ?????, ?.??. ?а ?????? ?а ???????? л?????????╗ ??? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???????
?а?????????????/?.??.??????.?? ???.: ?????. ???., 1910.?? 48а?.
3. ??????, ?.??., ????????, ?.??.???????????? ???????? ?а?????/?.??.???????, ?.??.?????????//??????? ?????????, ?а7.?? ?., 1971.?? ?.а91?102.
4. ???????, ?.??.???????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????/?.??.????????//[??????????? ??????]а? ????? ???????.?? URL: http://www.riku.ru/confs/vrem_cul/LyapkT.htm (????
?????????: 05.01.2015).
44
Potential of culturological study of modern cities
5. ?????????, ?.??.??????????? ???????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ???????????? ?а?????? ????????:
????????????????? ??????/?.??.??????????//????????????? ????????????: ??????? ???????
??????, ???. 3.?? ???.: ???. ?????, 2011.?? ?.а128?147.
6. ?????, ?.??.??????????? ?????: ??????? ?а ??????? (??????? ??????а IV?II ???????????
??а?.??.)/?.??.??????.?? ?.: ?????, 1996.?? 207а?.
7. Lynch, K.?TheаImage of the City/K.?Lynch.?? Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1960. ?194аp.
8. Mumford, L.?The Cityаin History: Its Origin, Its Transformations andаIts Prospects/L.?Mumford.?? New
York: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc., 1961.?? 657аp.
45
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