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Самоорганизующиеся сетевые экспертные среды в системах с эндогенным принципом целеуказания..pdf

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Г.П. Виноградов, Н.Г. Виноградова
ɍȾɄ 519.21
ɋȺɆɈɈɊȽȺɇɂɁɍɘɓɂȿɋə ɋȿɌȿȼɕȿ ɗɄɋɉȿɊɌɇɕȿ ɋɊȿȾɕ
ȼ ɋɂɋɌȿɆȺɏ ɋ ɗɇȾɈȽȿɇɇɕɆ ɉɊɂɇɐɂɉɈɆ ɐȿɅȿɍɄȺɁȺɇɂə
Ƚ.ɉ. ȼɢɧɨɝɪɚɞɨɜ1, ɇ.Ƚ. ȼɢɧɨɝɪɚɞɨɜɚ2
Ɍɜɟɪɫɤɨɣ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ, Ɍɜɟɪɶ, Ɋɨɫɫɢɹ
1
wgp272ng@mail.ru, 2n-nataly08@mail.ru
Ⱥɧɧɨɬɚɰɢɹ
ȼ ɫɬɚɬɶɟ ɨɛɫɭɠɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɹ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ, ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɳɟɣ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɵ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɟɺ ɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɨɜ. ɐɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɦɨɦɟɧɬɨɦ ɬɚɤɨɝɨ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɨ
ɰɟɥɹɯ, ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɢɹɯ, ɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɨɫɬɹɯ, ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɹɯ ɢ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɯ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ. Ɇɨɞɟɥɶ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɧɟ
ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɶ ɡɚɤɚɡɱɢɤɨɜ ɢ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɬɨɜɚɪɨɜ ɢ ɭɫɥɭɝ, ɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɤ ɨɛɴɺɦɚɦ ɢ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɹɦ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚ, ɧɨ ɢ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɢɯ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɨ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɨɫɬɹɯ. ɗɬɨ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ
ɫɱɢɬɚɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɵ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɢ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɨɜ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɨɜ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɦɢ, ɱɟɦ, ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɪɵɧɨɱɧɵɟ ɢɥɢ ɤɨɦɚɧɞɧɨɢɟɪɚɪɯɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ. ɉɨɤɚɡɚɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɮɨɪɦɨɣ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ
ɩɪɢ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɢ ɡɚɞɚɱ ɩɨɢɫɤɚ, ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɧɨɜɨɝɨ ɡɧɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɟɝɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɬɚɧɨɜɹɬɫɹ ɫɚɦɨɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɸɳɢɟɫɹ ɫɟɬɟɜɵɟ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɧɵɟ ɫɪɟɞɵ. ɗɥɟɦɟɧɬɚɪɧɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɶɸ ɬɚɤɨɣ
ɫɪɟɞɵ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɬ-ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥ, ɜɥɚɞɟɸɳɢɣ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɬɟɥɟɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɦɢ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɹɦɢ. ɂɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢɹ ɜ ɫɟɬɟɜɨɣ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɟ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɢɧɬɟɥɥɟɤɬɨɜ ɨɛɪɚɡɭɟɬ ɤɨɥɥɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɣ
ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦ ɫɢɧɟɪɝɢɢ ɡɧɚɧɢɣ ɢ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ ɜ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɟ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ. Ɋɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɹ ɫɚɦɨɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɭɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɫɟɬɟɜɵɯ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɧɵɯ ɫɪɟɞ ɞɥɹ
ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɢɧɧɨɜɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜ, ɜɵɩɭɫɤɚɸɳɢɯ ɜɵɫɨɤɨɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɧɭɸ, ɧɚɭɤɨɺɦɤɭɸ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɸ ɢ ɭɫɥɭɝɢ.
Ʉɥɸɱɟɜɵɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ: ɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɧɚɹ ɫɪɟɞɚ, ɫɚɦɨɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹ, ɫɟɬɟɜɵɟ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɢ, ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ, ɢɧɧɨɜɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɟ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ.
ɐɢɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ: ȼɢɧɨɝɪɚɞɨɜ, Ƚ.ɉ. ɋɚɦɨɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɭɸɳɢɟɫɹ ɫɟɬɟɜɵɟ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɧɵɟ ɫɪɟɞɵ ɜ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɯ
ɫ ɷɧɞɨɝɟɧɧɵɦ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɨɦ ɰɟɥɟɭɤɚɡɚɧɢɹ / Ƚ.ɉ. ȼɢɧɨɝɪɚɞɨɜ, ɇ.Ƚ. ȼɢɧɨɝɪɚɞɨɜɚ // Ɉɧɬɨɥɨɝɢɹ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ. – 2016. – Ɍ. 6, ʋ 1(19). - ɋ. 39-54. – DOI: 10.18287/2223-9537-2016-6-1-39-54.
ȼɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ
ȼ XXI ɜɟɤɟ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɜɨ ɜɫɟ ɛɨɥɶɲɟɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞɢɬ ɨɬ ɷɜɨɥɸɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɬɢɩɚ ɤ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɧɨɦɭ. ɍɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɷɬɢɦ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɦ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬ ɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɟ ɤɚɡɭɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɚ (ɩɪɢɱɢɧɧɨ-ɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ) ɫ ɬɟɥɟɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ (ɰɟɥɟɜɚɹ ɞɟɬɟɪɦɢɧɚɰɢɹ).
Ⱦɜɢɠɭɳɟɣ ɫɢɥɨɣ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ, ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɚɹ ɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɨɦ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɣ, ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ, ɩɪɟɠɞɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ, ɧɚ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ ɢɧɧɨɜɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ [1, 2] ɩɭɬɺɦ ɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ ɜ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ, ɜ ɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɟɬɟɜɨɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢ. ɂɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɩɪɟɞɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɲɢɪɨɤɢɟ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɩɨ ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɸ ɫ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɵɦɢ ɢ ɢɟɪɚɪɯɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɦɢ, ɬɚɤ ɤɚɤ ɨɧɢ ɫɨɡɞɚɸɬ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɫɵɥɤɢ ɢ
ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɜ ɫɨɡɧɚɧɢɢ ɚɝɟɧɬɨɜ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɧɨɣ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ ɫɪɟɞɵ ɢɯ ɠɢɡɧɟɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ. ɋɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɺɧɧɵɟ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɵ ɫ ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɚɦɢ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɩɨɬɨɤɨɜ ɜ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ. ɂɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɞɟɥɚɬɶ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫ ɢ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬ
Онтология проектирования, том 6, №1(19)/2016
39
Самоорганизующиеся сетевые экспертные среды в системах с эндогенным принципом...
ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɹɟɦɵɦ ɢ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɧɵɦ. ȼ ɷɬɨɦ ɫɦɵɫɥɟ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɵɟ
ɢ ɢɟɪɚɪɯɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɱɚɫɬɧɵɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟɦ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ, ɩɟɪɟɧɟɫɺɧɧɵɯ ɜ ɪɚɦɤɢ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɺɧɧɵɯ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪ. ɉɪɨɫɬɟɣɲɚɹ ɦɨɞɟɥɶ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ, ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɭɸɳɚɹ ɧɚ ɛɚɡɟ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ, ɜɤɥɸɱɚɟɬ ɩɹɬɶ ɬɢɩɨɜ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ:
ƒ ɦɚɤɪɨɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɹ;
ƒ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɟ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨ;
ƒ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ;
ƒ ɤɨɥɥɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ ɫɪɟɞɵ;
ƒ ɥɸɞɢ, ɤɚɤ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɟ ɥɢɰɚ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ.
Ɍɚɤɨɣ ɩɨɞɯɨɞ ɨɡɧɚɱɚɟɬ, ɱɬɨ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɮɨɪɦɨɣ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɩɪɢ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɢ ɡɚɞɚɱ ɩɨɢɫɤɚ, ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɧɨɜɨɝɨ ɡɧɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ
ɟɝɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɬɚɧɨɜɹɬɫɹ ɫɚɦɨɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɸɳɢɟɫɹ ɫɟɬɟɜɵɟ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɧɵɟ ɫɪɟɞɵ. ɗɥɟɦɟɧɬɚɪɧɨɣ
ɱɚɫɬɶɸ ɬɚɤɨɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɬ-ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥ, ɜɥɚɞɟɸɳɢɣ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɬɟɥɟɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɦɢ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɹɦɢ, ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚɦɢ ɂɧɬɟɪɧɟɬɚ. ɂɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢɹ ɜ ɫɟɬɟɜɨɣ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɟ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɢɧɬɟɥɥɟɤɬɨɜ ɨɛɪɚɡɭɟɬ ɤɨɥɥɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɣ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ
ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦ ɫɢɧɟɪɝɢɢ ɡɧɚɧɢɣ ɢ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ ɜ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɟ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ.
ɗɬɨ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɫɱɢɬɚɬɶ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚɬɢɤɭ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɫɚɦɨɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɢɧɧɨɜɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ
ɫɪɟɞ, ɫɨɫɬɚɜɧɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɶɸ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɫɚɦɨɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɭɸɳɢɟɫɹ ɫɟɬɟɜɵɟ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɧɵɟ ɫɪɟɞɵ,
ɨɞɧɢɦ ɢɡ ɜɚɠɧɵɯ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɜ ɬɟɨɪɢɢ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ. ɇɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɚ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɚ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɨɫɧɨɜ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɩɨɞɨɛɧɵɯ ɫɪɟɞ ɢ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɢɦɢ. ɐɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɚɫɩɟɤɬɨɦ ɜ ɷɬɨɦ
ɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɚɦɢ (ɜ ɞɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɟɦ ɚɝɟɧɬɵ) ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ, ɩɨɥɟɡɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɨɜɨɝɨ ɡɧɚɧɢɹ ɢ
ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɣ, ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɪɢɫɤɨɜ, ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚ ɢɯ ɢɫɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɹ, ɫɨɨɬɧɟɫɟɧɢɹ ɧɨɜɨɝɨ ɡɧɚɧɢɹ ɫ ɰɟɥɹɦɢ ɢ ɡɚɞɚɱɚɦɢ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ. ɗɬɨ ɬɪɟɛɭɟɬ, ɜ ɫɜɨɸ ɨɱɟɪɟɞɶ, ɧɨɜɵɯ ɦɨɞɟɥɟɣ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ
ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɦ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɚɝɟɧɬɨɜ ɨ ɩɪɟɞɦɟɬɧɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ (ɉɪɈ) ɩɪɢ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɢ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ.
ɉɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɟɦɵɣ ɩɨɞɯɨɞ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɺɧ ɞɥɹ ɮɨɪɦɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɧɵɯ ɡɧɚɧɢɣ, ɨɫɧɨɜɨɣ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɨɧɬɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɭɪɨɜɧɟɣ. ȼɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɢɯ ɪɚɫɲɢɪɟɧɢɹ ɡɚ ɫɱɺɬ,
ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɫɚɦɨɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɟɣ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɧɵɯ ɫɪɟɞ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɬɶ ɡɚɞɚɱɢ:
ƒ ɤɥɚɫɫɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɢ ɩɨɥɭɱɚɟɦɨɣ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ;
ƒ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢɢ ɪɚɡɧɨɪɨɞɧɨɣ ɢ ɪɚɡɧɨɝɨ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ;
ƒ ɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɢ ɢ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɩɨɥɟɡɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɵɯ ɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɣ;
ƒ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɪɟɥɟɜɚɧɬɧɨɣ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ ɨɬ ɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɝɨ ɡɧɚɧɢɹ;
ƒ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɨɧɬɨɥɨɝɢɣ ɩɪɟɞɦɟɬɧɵɯ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɟɣ ɭ ɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɡɧɚɧɢɣ.
ɉɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɵɟ ɨɧɬɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɞɥɹ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɧɵɯ, ɩɥɨɯɨ ɮɨɪɦɚɥɢɡɭɟɦɵɯ ɢ ɫɥɚɛɨ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɉɪɈ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɫɚɦɨɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɭɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɫɟɬɟɜɵɯ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɧɵɯ ɫɪɟɞ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɪɚɫɲɢɪɢɬɶ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɢ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɹ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ, ɜ ɬɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɟ ɢ ɩɪɢ
ɩɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɫɥɨɠɧɵɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ.
1
ɉɪɢɧɰɢɩɵ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ
ɷɜɨɥɸɰɢɟɣ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɨ-ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ
ɉɭɫɬɶ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɨ-ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ (ɈɌɋ) ɫɨɫɬɨɢɬ ɢɡ ɰɟɧɬɪɚ ɢ n ɩɨɞɱɢɧɺɧɧɵɯ ɟɦɭ ɚɝɟɧɬɨɜ, ɨɛɥɚɞɚɸɳɢɯ ɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɚɦɢ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ, ɰɟɥɟɭɫɬɪɟɦɥɺɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɢɧɬɟɥɥɟɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ. ɋɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɈɌɋ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɤɚɤ ɰɟɥɟɭɫɬɪɟɦɥɺɧɧɨɟ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ, ɚ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬ
ɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɹ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ – ɷɬɨ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬ ɤɨɦɩɪɨɦɢɫɫɚ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɰɟɥɟɭɫɬɪɟɦɥɺɧɧɵɦɢ ɜɵɛɨɪɚɦɢ ɚɝɟɧɬɨɜ ɢ ɰɟɧɬɪɚ ɜ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ ɰɟɥɟɭɫɬɪɟɦɥɺɧɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ ɫ ɭɱɺɬɨɦ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɧɚ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɭ
40
№1(19)/2016,
v.6, Ontology of Designing
Г.П. Виноградов, Н.Г. Виноградова
ɭɩɪɚɜɥɹɸɳɢɯ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ ɢ ɜɨɡɦɭɳɟɧɢɣ ɜɧɟɲɧɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ. ɗɬɨ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɩɨɞ ɷɜɨɥɸɰɢɟɣ
ɈɌɋ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɬɶ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɦɟɧɵ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɣ ɰɟɥɟɭɫɬɪɟɦɥɺɧɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ, ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɹɳɢɯ ɜ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɰɟɥɟɭɫɬɪɟɦɥɺɧɧɨɝɨ ɜɵɛɨɪɚ, ɫ ɰɟɥɶɸ ɟɺ ɚɞɚɩɬɚɰɢɢ ɢ ɫɚɦɨɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɩɨ
ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɚɦ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ.
ɂɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɹ ɨ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɢ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ, ɩɨɥɭɱɚɟɦɚɹ ɰɟɧɬɪɨɦ ɜ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɟ
ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ, ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɢɦ ɞɥɹ ɧɚɫɬɪɨɣɤɢ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɈɌɋ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ
ɜɤɥɸɱɚɟɬ ɜ ɫɟɛɹ ɩɪɨɰɟɞɭɪɵ:
ƒ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ ɨ ɪɟɡɟɪɜɚɯ;
ƒ ɩɥɚɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ;
ƒ ɫɬɢɦɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ;
ƒ ɨɛɭɱɟɧɢɹ;
ƒ ɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɬ.ɩ.
Ɉɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ, ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɳɟɝɨ ɧɚɭɤɨɺɦɤɢɟ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɢ, ɫɜɹɡɚɧɚ ɫɨ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɟɣ ɡɧɚɧɢɣ ɢ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɢɟɦ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɢɧɬɟɥɥɟɤɬɭɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɬɪɭɞɚ ɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɥɚ, ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟɦ ɰɟɧɬɪɨɜ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɹ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ ɢ ɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ. ɗɬɨ ɞɟɥɚɟɬ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɵɦ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɷɬɨɣ
ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ ɨɬ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɨɜ ɜɵɛɨɪɚ ɚɝɟɧɬɨɜ ɢ ɤɚɤ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬ ɤ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ
ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ, ɢɧɬɟɥɥɟɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ, ɮɢɧɚɧɫɨɜɨɝɨ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɨɝɨ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɨɜ ɈɌɋ. ɉɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɨɞɧɨɣ ɢɡ ɜɚɠɧɟɣɲɢɯ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ ɞɥɹ ɰɟɧɬɪɚ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɢɟ
ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɈɌɋ ɩɭɬɺɦ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɢɹ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɚɝɟɧɬɨɜ,
ɩɭɬɺɦ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɢɯ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɢ ɜɢɞɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɭɱɺɬɚ ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɵ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɣ ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟɦɵɯ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ, ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɣ ɜɨ ɜɧɟɲɧɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɟ ɢ ɫɥɭɱɚɣɧɵɯ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ. Ɋɟɲɟɧɢɟ ɟɺ
ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɣ ɢ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜ ɚɜɬɨɦɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɨɛɪɚɛɨɬɤɢ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ. ɂɯ ɜɧɟɞɪɟɧɢɟ ɞɨɥɠɧɨ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɬɶ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɵɜɚɬɶ ɜ ɰɟɥɟɜɨɦ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɢ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɵ ɚɝɟɧɬɨɜ ɢ ɰɟɧɬɪɚ ɢ ɢɯ ɨɰɟɧɨɤ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ ɰɟɥɟɭɫɬɪɟɦɥɺɧɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɤɚɠɞɨɦ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɟ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɞɥɹ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɹ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɝɨ
ɭɪɨɜɧɹ ɦɨɬɢɜɚɰɢɢ ɢ ɟɞɢɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ ɡɚɞɚɱ ɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɥɨɦ. ȼ ɷɬɨɦ ɫɦɵɫɥɟ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ ɈɌɋ
ɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹ ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɦ ɧɚ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɸ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜ, ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɡɚ
ɫɱɺɬ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɷɧɞɨɝɟɧɧɵɯ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ ɰɟɥɟɩɨɥɚɝɚɧɢɹ, ɜ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɺɧɧɨɦ ɫɦɵɫɥɟ ɩɭɬɺɦ ɰɟɥɟɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɧɚ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɨɤɪɭɠɟɧɢɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ, ɚ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɩɭɬɺɦ ɫɜɨɟɣ
ɧɚɫɬɪɨɣɤɢ ɧɚ ɷɤɡɨɝɟɧɧɨ ɡɚɞɚɧɧɭɸ ɰɟɥɶ.
Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɵɟ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɦɟɬɨɞɵ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɷɜɨɥɸɰɢɟɣ ɈɌɋ ɩɪɢ ɬɚɤɨɦ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɟ ɨɬɪɚɠɚɸɬ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɤɭ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɜ
ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜ ɢ ɨɰɟɧɨɤ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ ɰɟɥɟɭɫɬɪɟɦɥɺɧɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ ɩɭɬɺɦ ɭɱɺɬɚ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɚɝɟɧɬɨɜ ɢ ɚɤɬɢɜɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɢɯ ɬɜɨɪɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɚ, ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɹ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɫɯɟɦ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜ. Ʉ ɧɢɦ ɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɵ:
ƒ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɨɤɪɭɠɟɧɢɹ;
ƒ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɹ ɤɨɚɥɢɰɢɣ ɫ ɰɟɥɶɸ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜ ɜɫɟɯ ɞɜɢɠɭɳɢɯ ɫɢɥ, ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɳɢɯ
ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ;
ƒ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɧɨɣ ɨɩɬɢɦɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɧɚ ɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɟ ɤɨɦɩɪɨɦɢɫɫɧɵɯ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ,
ɩɪɢɧɹɬɵɯ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ;
ƒ ɦɨɞɟɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ (ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢɹ ɧɚ ɛɚɡɟ ɬɟɨɪɢɢ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ, ɦɟɬɨɞɨɜ ɢ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜ ɦɨɞɟɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɜɤɥɸɱɚɹ ɚɥɝɨɪɢɬɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɩɨɞɯɨɞ, ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɧɨɟ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ, ɦɨɞɟɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɬɟɨɪɢɢ ɦɧɨɝɨɚɝɟɧɬɧɵɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ, ɢɝɪɨɜɨɟ ɢɦɢɬɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɟ ɦɨɞɟɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ);
ƒ ɝɢɛɤɨɫɬɢ ɞɥɹ ɚɩɩɚɪɚɬɧɨ-ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɧɵɯ ɢ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɣ, ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɸɳɢɯ
ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɵ ɜɵɪɚɛɨɬɤɢ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ;
ƒ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɚɝɟɧɬɨɜ ɜ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɹɯ;
ƒ ɩɨɷɬɚɩɧɨɝɨ ɜɧɟɞɪɟɧɢɹ ɞɥɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɨɜ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɨɛɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɟɥɟɣ ɧɚ
ɤɚɠɞɨɦ ɷɬɚɩɟ;
Онтология проектирования, том 6, №1(19)/2016
41
Самоорганизующиеся сетевые экспертные среды в системах с эндогенным принципом...
ƒ
ɜɢɡɭɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɩɪɢ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɢ ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ ɢɧɬɟɪɮɟɣɫɚ ɞɥɹ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɜ
ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ ɢ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ ɨ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɚɯ ɢ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɚɯ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ ɢ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ
ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɜ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɟɣ, ɜɵɛɨɪɚ ɲɚɝɨɜ ɜ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟ
ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ, ɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɚ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚ.
ɉɪɢɧɰɢɩ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɨɤɪɭɠɟɧɢɹ
Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɵɦɢ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɚɦɢ ɜɧɟɲɧɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ ɞɥɹ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɨ-ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ
ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɳɢɤɢ ɫɵɪɶɹ, ɷɧɟɪɝɨɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ, ɩɨɥɭɮɚɛɪɢɤɚɬɨɜ, ɩɨɬɪɟɛɢɬɟɥɢ ɜɵɩɭɫɤɚɟɦɨɣ
ɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɢ, ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɢ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɫɥɭɠɛ, ɨɬɜɟɱɚɸɳɢɯ ɡɚ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɶ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ
ɫɪɟɞɵ ɢ ɬ.ɩ. Ⱦɥɹ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ ɰɟɥɟɭɫɬɪɟɦɥɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɧɚɞɨ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɬɶ ɤɚɤ ɦɢɧɢɦɭɦ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɭɸ ɰɟɩɨɱɤɭ: ɩɨɫɬɚɜɳɢɤ – ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɶ – ɩɨɬɪɟɛɢɬɟɥɶ (ɝɥɭɛɢɧɚ ɪɟɮɥɟɤɫɢɢ – ɞɜɚ). Ɍɚɤɨɣ ɩɨɞɯɨɞ ɤ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɨɤɪɭɠɟɧɢɹ ɈɌɋ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɢɬɶ
ɜ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɟ ɬɪɺɯɭɪɨɜɧɟɜɭɸ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɭɸ ɦɧɨɝɨɚɝɟɧɬɧɭɸ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɭ.
ɉɨɫɬɚɜɳɢɤɢ, ɤɨɧɤɭɪɢɪɭɸɳɢɟ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɫɨɛɨɣ, ɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɬ ɝɪɭɩɩɭ ɚɝɟɧɬɨɜ ɧɢɡɲɟɝɨ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ, ɢ
ɢɯ ɰɟɥɶ ɫɨɫɬɨɢɬ ɜ ɭɞɨɜɥɟɬɜɨɪɟɧɢɢ ɠɟɥɚɧɢɣ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɢɬɟɥɟɣ, ɪɚɫɲɢɪɟɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɷɬɨɣ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɞɨɥɢ
ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɢɪɭɟɦɨɝɨ ɪɵɧɤɚ ɢ ɪɨɫɬɟ ɩɪɢɛɵɥɢ. Ⱥɝɟɧɬɵ-ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɢ ɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɬ ɜɬɨɪɨɣ ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ
ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ. ɂɯ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɚɹ ɰɟɥɶ ɫɨɫɬɨɢɬ ɜ ɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɬɟɧɢɟ ɫɵɪɶɹ, ɩɨɥɭɮɚɛɪɢɤɚɬɨɜ ɢ ɭɫɥɭɝ
ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɜɵɫɨɤɨɝɨ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚ, ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɢɡɞɟɪɠɟɤ ɢ ɜɵɩɭɫɤ ɤɨɧɤɭɪɟɧɬɨɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɣ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɢ. Ɍɪɟɬɢɣ ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɬ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɢɬɟɥɢ ɤɨɧɟɱɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɨɜ, ɢɯ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɣ ɰɟɥɶɸ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɥɢɛɨ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɟ ɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɚ ɡɚ ɫɱɺɬ ɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɬɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɨɜ
ɨɬ ɚɝɟɧɬɨɜ ɜɬɨɪɨɝɨ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ, ɥɢɛɨ ɭɞɨɜɥɟɬɜɨɪɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɨɫɬɟɣ. ɏɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɨɣ ɱɟɪɬɨɣ ɬɚɤɨɣ
ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɶ, ɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɸɳɚɹ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɜɡɚɢɦɧɵɯ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜ.
Ɉɞɧɨɣ ɢɡ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɞɥɹ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɢɹ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɷɬɨɣ ɬɪɺɯɭɪɨɜɧɟɜɨɣ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɣ
ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɚɧɚɥɢɡ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɭ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɳɢɤɨɜ ɢ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɢ ɢ, ɩɨ
ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ, ɭ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɢɬɟɥɹ, ɤɨɦɭ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɹ. ɋɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɳɢɤ ɢ
ɩɨɬɪɟɛɢɬɟɥɶ ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɨɛɥɚɞɚɬɶ ɩɨɞɨɛɧɵɦ ɡɧɚɧɢɟɦ. Ɍɚɤɨɝɨ ɪɨɞɚ ɡɧɚɧɢɟ ɫɨɡɞɚɺɬ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɫɵɥɤɢ
ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɠɟɥɚɟɦɵɯ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɣ ɜ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɟɣ ɡɚ ɫɱɺɬ ɩɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɢɞɟɣ ɭɥɭɱɲɟɧɢɹ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ, ɜɵɛɨɪɚ ɲɚɝɨɜ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ ɜ ɷɬɨɦ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟ ɫ ɨɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɣ ɬɪɚɧɫɥɹɰɢɟɣ ɭɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɢɬɟɥɸ. ɗɬɨ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɧɟ
ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɬɶ ɩɨɠɟɥɚɧɢɹ ɤɥɢɟɧɬɚ, ɧɨ ɫɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɟɝɨ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɨɫɬɢ, ɱɬɨ ɫɨɡɞɚɺɬ
ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɞɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɢɯ ɧɨɜɨɜɜɟɞɟɧɢɣ.
ɉɪɢɧɰɢɩ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɹ ɤɨɚɥɢɰɢɣ
ɗɬɨɬ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩ ɡɚɤɥɸɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɩɪɢ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɟ ɢ ɜɧɟɞɪɟɧɢɢ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɷɜɨɥɸɰɢɟɣ ɈɌɋ ɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɝɪɭɩɩɵ, ɜɤɥɸɱɚɸɳɟɣ ɜ ɫɟɛɹ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɳɢɤɨɜ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɣ, ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɱɢɤɨɜ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ, ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɟɥɟɣ ɢ ɪɭɤɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɟɣ, ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɸɳɢɯ
ɮɢɧɚɧɫɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɪɚɛɨɬ, ɞɥɹ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɮɚɤɬɚ ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɪɟɡɟɪɜɨɜ ɡɚ ɫɱɺɬ
ɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɟɦɵɯ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɜ ɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚ. Ɍɚɤɚɹ
ɤɨɚɥɢɰɢɹ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɟɬ ɩɪɨɪɚɛɨɬɤɭ ɢ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɟ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ ɩɨ ɜɫɟɦ ɫɬɚɞɢɹɦ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ
ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɷɜɨɥɸɰɢɟɣ ɈɌɋ: ɩɨ ɨɛɴɺɦɚɦ ɮɢɧɚɧɫɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɩɨ ɫɪɨɤɚɦ ɢ ɷɬɚɩɚɦ ɪɚɛɨɬ, ɨɰɟɧɤɟ
ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɟɦɵɯ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɨɜ ɢ ɬ.ɞ.
ɉɪɢɧɰɢɩ ɦɨɞɟɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ
ȼɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɟ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɡɧɚɧɢɹ ɨ ɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɚɯ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚ ɢ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɧɵɯ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɷɜɨɥɸɰɢɟɣ ɈɌɋ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɚɤɬɢɜɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɬɜɨɪɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɚ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɥɚ, ɱɬɨ ɨɛɭɫɥɚɜɥɢɜɚɟɬ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɪɨɰɟɞɭɪ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɧɨɣ ɨɩɬɢɦɢɡɚɰɢɢ. ɂɯ ɰɟɥɶ - ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɧɚ ɜɫɟɯ ɭɪɨɜɧɹɯ ɨ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɯ
42
№1(19)/2016,
v.6, Ontology of Designing
Г.П. Виноградов, Н.Г. Виноградова
ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɢ ɨɤɪɭɠɟɧɢɹ. ɉɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɞɨɛɧɨɣ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ ɜɵɡɵɜɚɟɬ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɫɬɚɞɢɹɯ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɷɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɚɰɢɢ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɷɜɨɥɸɰɢɟɣ ɈɌɋ
ɫɨɜɨɤɭɩɧɨɫɬɢ ɦɨɞɟɥɟɣ (ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɯ, ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯ, ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ, ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɧɵɯ,
ɚɥɝɨɪɢɬɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ, ɷɜɪɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ, ɦɚɬɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ, ɢɦɢɬɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɢ ɞɪ.) ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɨɦɚɲɢɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɜ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɹ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ. Ɉɧɢ ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɨɩɢɫɵɜɚɬɶ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟ
ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ, ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶ ɤɚɤ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɭɸ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɭɸ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɸ ɢ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɵɜɚɬɶ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɣ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫ, ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɣ ɬɨɱɤɚɦ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɹ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ.
ɂɯ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢɹ ɞɨɥɠɧɚ ɛɵɬɶ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɚ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɬɟɨɪɢɢ ɦɧɨɝɨɚɝɟɧɬɧɵɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ, ɬɟɨɪɢɢ ɢɧɬɟɥɥɟɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɣ, ɬɟɨɪɢɢ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ, ɦɟɬɨɞɨɜ ɢ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜ ɦɨɞɟɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɜɤɥɸɱɚɹ
ɚɥɝɨɪɢɬɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɩɨɞɯɨɞ, ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɧɨɟ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ, ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɫɢɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɚ
ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ [3, 4].
ɉɪɢɧɰɢɩ ɝɢɛɤɨɫɬɢ
ɋɢɫɬɟɦɚ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɷɜɨɥɸɰɢɟɣ ɈɌɋ ɞɨɥɠɧɚ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɨɜɵɜɚɬɶ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɸ ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɢ
ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɹ ɦɨɞɟɥɟɣ ɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɚɝɟɧɬɨɜ, ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ ɫ ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɚɧɧɵɯ ɢ
ɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɟɦɵɯ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɢ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɨɜ ɫ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɵɦ ɢɧɬɟɪɮɟɣɫɨɦ ɞɥɹ
ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ ɭɛɟɠɞɺɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɭ ɚɝɟɧɬɨɜ ɡɚ ɫɱɺɬ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɫ
ɭɱɺɬɨɦ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɢɣ ɧɚ ɢɯ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɭɸ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɭ. Ɉɧɚ ɞɨɥɠɧɚ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɬɶ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ
ɦɟɬɨɞɨɜ ɢ ɦɨɞɟɥɟɣ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɟɥɟɣ ɨ ɉɪɈ ɧɚ ɜɫɟɯ ɭɪɨɜɧɹɯ, ɢ ɢɯ
ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɢɟ, ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɧɨɣ ɨɩɬɢɦɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɧɚ ɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɟ ɤɨɦɩɪɨɦɢɫɫɧɵɯ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ, ɩɪɢɧɹɬɵɯ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ, ɩɪɢ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɸɳɢɯ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɣ (ɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɳ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ, ɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɧɵɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ, ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜ ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɡɧɚɧɢɣ, ɩɪɟɞɦɟɬɧɨ ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɧɵɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɢ ɬ.ɞ.). Ɉɧɚ ɞɨɥɠɧɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ
ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɬɶ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɟ ɡɚɞɚɱ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɢ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɢ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ ɉɪɈ, ɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɜ ɢ ɦɨɞɟɥɟɣ, ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɧɵɯ ɢ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜ.
ɉɪɢɧɰɢɩ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ
ɋɪɟɞɫɬɜɚ ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɦɨɞɟɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɚɝɟɧɬɨɜ ɢ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɹ ɧɚ ɢɯ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ, ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɵ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɦɢ, ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɢɟ
ɢ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɧɚɹ ɨɩɬɢɦɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɛɵɬɶ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɧɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɶɸ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɣ
ɧɚ ɜɫɟɯ ɭɪɨɜɧɹɯ ɈɌɋ ɢ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɬɶ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ, ɦɚɬɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ ɢ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɭɸ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɭ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɚɝɟɧɬɨɜ. Ɉɧɢ ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɛɵɬɶ ɜɫɬɪɨɟɧɵ ɜ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɦ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɜ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɜ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɟɣ ɈɌɋ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜ ɚɜɬɨɦɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɞɥɹ ɩɪɢɞɚɧɢɹ ɢɦ ɠɟɥɚɟɦɵɯ ɫɜɨɣɫɬɜ.
ɉɪɢɧɰɢɩ ɩɨɷɬɚɩɧɨɝɨ ɜɧɟɞɪɟɧɢɹ
ɗɮɮɟɤɬ ɨɬ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɢ ɢ ɜɧɟɞɪɟɧɢɹ ɚɜɬɨɦɚɬɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɨɝɨ
ɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ, ɩɨ ɡɚɪɭɛɟɠɧɨɦɭ ɨɩɵɬɭ, ɥɢɲɶ ɜ 30% ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɨɠɢɞɚɧɢɹɦ. Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɚɹ ɩɪɢɱɢɧɚ ɜ ɷɬɨɦ ɫɨɫɬɨɢɬ ɜ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɢ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɨ ɰɟɥɹɯ, ɡɚɞɚɱɚɯ, ɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɟɦɵɯ
ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜ ɢ ɬ.ɩ. ɭ ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɟɥɟɣ ɢ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɱɢɤɨɜ. Ⱦɟɥɨ ɜ ɬɨɦ, ɱɬɨ ɢɯ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɚ ɢ ɜɧɟɞɪɟɧɢɟ
ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɜ ɢɡɦɟɧɹɸɳɟɣɫɹ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɪɟɞɟ, ɬɨɱɧɨɟ ɨɩɢɫɚɧɢɟ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ
ɩɨɥɭɱɢɬɶ ɜ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɟ ɧɟɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ ɢɥɢ ɧɟɰɟɥɟɫɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɨ. ɉɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɞɥɹ ɫɨɤɪɚɳɟɧɢɹ ɫɪɨɤɨɜ ɢ
ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɚ ɨɬ ɜɧɟɞɪɟɧɢɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɷɜɨɥɸɰɢɟɣ ɈɌɋ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩ ɩɨɷɬɚɩɧɨɝɨ ɜɧɟɞɪɟɧɢɹ. Ɉɧ ɞɨɥɠɟɧ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɨɜɵɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɧɚ ɜɫɟɯ ɫɬɚɞɢɹɯ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ, ɧɚɱɢɧɚɹ ɨɬ ɩɪɟɞɩɪɨɟɤɬɧɨɝɨ ɨɛɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɞɨ ɜɧɟɞɪɟɧɢɹ. Ⱦɥɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ
ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɧɵɯ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɪɚɛɨɬ
Онтология проектирования, том 6, №1(19)/2016
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Самоорганизующиеся сетевые экспертные среды в системах с эндогенным принципом...
ɞɥɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɟɦɵɯ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜ ɢ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ, ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɦɵɯ ɜ ɮɨɪɦɟ ɢɝɪɨɜɨɝɨ ɢɦɢɬɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ
ɦɨɞɟɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫ ɭɱɺɬɨɦ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ ɫɜɨɣɫɬɜ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ.
ɉɪɢɧɰɢɩ ɜɢɡɭɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ
ȿɝɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɪɢ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɢ ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ ɢɧɬɟɪɮɟɣɫɚ ɞɥɹ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɜ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ ɢ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɨ ɧɚ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɨɛɪɚɡɚ ɤɚɤ ɜɵɪɚɛɚɬɵɜɚɟɦɨɝɨ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɨɝɨ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ. ɗɬɨ ɞɚɺɬ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɟɥɹɦ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɬɶ ɨɰɟɧɤɭ ɤɚɤ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ ɩɪɢ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɢ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ
ɈɌɋ. Ɍɚɤɚɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɚ ɧɚ ɛɚɡɟ ɚɜɬɨɦɚɬɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɣ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ
ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɧɨɣ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɢ ɩɭɬɺɦ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɦɨɞɢɮɢɰɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɣ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤɢ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɧɨɣ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɩɪɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɨɣ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɢ [5]. Ⱦɥɹ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɜ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɟɣ, ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɦ ɉɪɈ ɚɝɟɧɬɚ, ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɢɦ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟ ɷɬɢɯ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɟɣ, ɜɵɛɨɪɚ ɲɚɝɨɜ ɩɪɨɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹ
ɜ ɜɵɛɪɚɧɧɨɦ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɢ, ɩɪɚɜɢɥ ɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɚ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚ, ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɢ ɫɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɢɹ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɢ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ. ɉɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤɚ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ, ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɧɚɹ ɜ [6] ɢ ɦɨɞɢɮɢɰɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɚɹ ɜ [7].
2
Ɇɟɯɚɧɢɡɦ ɫɚɦɨɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɫɟɬɟɜɵɯ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɧɵɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ
ɋɚɦɨɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬ ɜɨɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɫɟɬɟɜɵɯ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɣ ɩɪɨɞɜɢɧɭɬɵɯ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɬɨɜɚɪɨɜ ɢ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɜ ɢɧɧɨɜɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɣ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫ ɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɢɬɟɥɶɫɤɢɯ ɫɜɨɣɫɬɜ ɬɨɜɚɪɨɜ ɢ ɭɫɥɭɝ, ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɢɞɟɣ ɢɥɢ ɤɨɧɬɟɧɬɚ ɩɭɬɺɦ ɨɛɪɚɳɟɧɢɹ ɤ ɢɯ
ɤɪɟɚɬɢɜɧɵɦ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɹɦ ɜ ɨɛɦɟɧ ɧɚ ɜɨɡɧɚɝɪɚɠɞɟɧɢɟ, ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɟ ɜɤɥɚɞɭ. ȼ ɋɨɜɟɬɫɤɨɦ ɋɨɸɡɟ ɬɚɤɨɟ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɥɨɫɶ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟɦ ɧɨɜɚɬɨɪɨɜ. ɇɚ Ɂɚɩɚɞɟ ɨɧɨ ɛɵɥɨ
ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɪɚɫɲɢɪɟɧɨ, ɦɨɞɢɮɢɰɢɪɨɜɚɧɨ ɢ ɧɚɡɜɚɧɨ ɤɪɚɭɞɫɨɪɫɢɧɝɨɦ1. Ⱦɥɹ ɟɝɨ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɚɧɵ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɟ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɢ [8]. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɢɯ ɩɪɹɦɚɹ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɛɟɡ ɭɱɺɬɚ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɚ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɨɤɪɭɠɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬ ɤ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɦɭ ɪɨɫɬɭ ɬɪɭɞɨɺɦɤɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɢ ɩɨɢɫɤɟ ɢ ɨɛɪɚɛɨɬɤɢ ɛɨɥɶɲɨɝɨ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ. ɉɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɚ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ, ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɸɳɚɹ
ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɢɫɤɚ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ ɢ ɢɞɟɣ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɮɢɥɶɬɪɚɰɢɸ, ɨɛɨɛɳɟɧɢɟ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ, ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɟɺ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ. ɋɩɨɫɨɛɨɦ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɢɹ ɤɪɚɭɞɫɨɪɫɢɧɝɨɜɵɯ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɫɢɧɬɟɡ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɣ ɤɪɚɭɞɫɨɪɫɢɧɝɚ, ɫɟɬɟɜɨɣ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɢɡɵ ɢ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɬɟɨɪɢɢ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ (ɪɢɫɭɧɨɤ 2).
ɉɨ ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɸ ɫ ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɵɦɢ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɹɦɢ ɩɨɢɫɤɚ ɧɨɜɵɯ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ ɬɚɤɨɣ ɩɨɞɯɨɞ ɞɥɹ
ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɨɛɥɚɞɚɟɬ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɦɢ ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɚɦɢ [8, 9].
ƒ ɋɚɦɨɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹ. Ɉɬɤɪɵɬɨɟ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɟ ɨɤɪɭɠɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɩɪɢɜɥɟɱɶ ɞɥɹ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ
ɢɞɟɣ, ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɣ ɩɨ ɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɸ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɢ ɢ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɧɟɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɧɨɟ ɱɢɫɥɨ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɨɜ. Ɇɨɬɢɜɚɰɢɟɣ ɞɥɹ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɫɥɭɠɢɬɶ, ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ ɝɪɚɧɬɨɜ.
ƒ ɇɟɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɶ. ȼɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ, ɨɬɪɚɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟ ɬɨɱɤɢ
ɡɪɟɧɢɹ ɫ ɨɛɴɹɫɧɟɧɢɟɦ ɩɨɡɢɰɢɢ.
ƒ ɐɟɥɟɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ. ɋɭɛɴɟɤɬɵ, ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɢɟ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɟ ɨɤɪɭɠɟɧɢɟ ɢ ɭɱɚɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɟ ɜ
ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɦ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɢ, ɤɚɤ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɨ, ɫɜɹɡɚɧɵ ɨɛɳɢɦɢ ɰɟɥɹɦɢ, ɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ
ɨɳɭɬɢɦɨɝɨ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɚ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɞɨɛɢɬɶɫɹ ɫɨɜɦɟɫɬɧɵɦɢ ɭɫɢɥɢɹɦɢ. ɉɪɢɧɰɢɩ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɢɹ
ɭɪɨɜɧɹ ɜɨɡɧɚɝɪɚɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ ɜɤɥɚɞɚ ɤɚɠɞɨɝɨ ɜ ɨɛɳɢɣ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ
ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɬɶ ɬɜɨɪɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɭɫɢɥɢɹ ɧɚ ɬɪɟɛɭɟɦɨɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ.
1
Ʉɪɚɭɞɫɨ̗ɪɫɢɧɝ (ɚɧɝɥ. crowdsourcing, crowd — «ɬɨɥɩɚ» ɢ sourcing — «ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ») — ɩɪɢɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɤ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɸ
ɬɟɯ ɢɥɢ ɢɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ ɢɧɧɨɜɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɲɢɪɨɤɨɝɨ ɤɪɭɝɚ ɥɢɰ ɞɥɹ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢɯ ɬɜɨɪɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɟɣ, ɡɧɚɧɢɣ ɢ ɨɩɵɬɚ ɧɚ ɞɨɛɪɨɜɨɥɶɧɵɯ ɧɚɱɚɥɚɯ. ɉɪɢɦ.ɪɟɞ.
44
№1(19)/2016,
v.6, Ontology of Designing
Г.П. Виноградов, Н.Г. Виноградова
ƒ
ɋɨɪɟɜɧɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ. ɍɩɪɚɜɥɹɟɦɵɣ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫ ɨɛɦɟɧɚ ɬɨɱɤɚɦɢ ɡɪɟɧɢɹ ɰɟɧɬɪɨɦ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬ ɤ
ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɢɸ ɨɛɳɟɝɨ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɣ, ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɸ ɤɨɚɥɢɰɢɣ
ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ.
ɉɪɟɞɜɚɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ ɨɛɪɚɛɨɬɤɚ
ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ
Ɏɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ
ɡɚɩɪɨɫɚ
Ɍɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹ
ɪɵɧɤɚ
Ʉɪɚɭɞɫɨɪɫɢɧɝ
Ⱥɧɚɥɢɡ ɩɪɟɞɦɟɬɧɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ
Ɏɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɬɨɱɟɤ
ɡɪɟɧɢɹ
ɐɟɧɬɪ
ɋɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɢɟ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ
Ɉɰɟɧɤɚ ɭɞɨɜɥɟɬɜɨɪɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɟɦ
Ʉɨɪɪɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɤɚ
Ɍɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɤ ɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɚɦ ɤɪɚɭɞɫɨɪɫɢɧɝɚ
Ɇɨɞɟɥɢ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɢ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɨɜ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ
ɗɤɫɩɟɪɬ
Ɏɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɢ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɣ
ɉɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɟ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ ɠɟɥɚɟɦɨɝɨ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ
Ɋɢɫɭɧɨɤ 2 –Ɏɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɤɪɚɭɞɫɨɪɫɢɧɝɚ
ȼ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɟ ɨɬ ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɨɜ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɣ ɤɪɚɭɞɫɨɪɫɢɧɝɚ ɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɟɬɫɹ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɬɶ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫ ɢɡɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɧɨɜɵɯ ɢɞɟɣ ɢ ɡɧɚɧɢɣ ɤɚɤ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɭɸ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɭ ɫ ɧɟɨɞɧɨɪɨɞɧɵɦɢ ɚɝɟɧɬɚɦɢ ɫɨ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɧɵɦ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɨɦ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɧɢɹ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ ɢ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɵɦ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɦ ɰɟɧɬɪɚ ɜ ɮɨɪɦɟ ɡɚɩɪɨɫɨɜ ɞɥɹ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɪɟɮɥɟɤɫɢɜɧɵɯ ɨɰɟɧɨɤ. ɋɪɟɞɫɬɜɚ ɤɪɚɭɞɫɨɪɫɢɧɝɚ ɜ ɷɬɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɫɹ ɞɥɹ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ ɡɚɞɚɱɢ ɩɨ ɢɡɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɸ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ, ɨɱɢɫɬɤɢ
ɢ ɩɪɟɞɜɚɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɨɛɪɚɛɨɬɤɢ (ɜɵɞɟɥɟɧɢɸ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɨɜ, ɫɟɦɚɧɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɤɥɚɫɬɟɪɢɡɚɰɢɹ, ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɟ ɨɧɬɨɥɨɝɢɣ ɢ ɬ.ɩ.), ɱɬɨ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɭɫɤɨɪɹɟɬ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɹ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɧɨɣ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ
ɜɵɛɨɪɚ ɜ ɫɟɬɟɜɨɣ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɢɡɟ ɢ ɟɺ ɬɪɚɧɫɥɹɰɢɢ ɜ ɨɤɪɭɠɟɧɢɟ ɈɌɋ.
ɐɟɧɬɪ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɟɬ ɡɚɩɪɨɫɵ, ɨɮɨɪɦɥɹɟɬ ɢɯ ɞɢɡɚɣɧ, ɞɨɪɚɛɚɬɵɜɚɟɬ ɫɟɦɚɧɬɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ ɤɥɚɫɬɟɪɢɡɚɰɢɸ ɢ ɨɧɬɨɥɨɝɢɸ ɉɪɈ. ɐɢɤɥ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɰɟɧɬɪɚ ɫ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɚɦɢ ɛɭɞɟɬ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɚɬɶɫɹ
ɞɨ ɬɟɯ ɩɨɪ, ɩɨɤɚ ɜɤɥɚɞ ɧɨɜɨɣ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ ɜ ɪɨɫɬ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɩɨɥɟɡɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɫɬɚɧɟɬ ɧɟɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦ. ɉɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɚɹ ɦɨɞɟɥɶ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɉɪɈ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹ
ɞɥɹ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɚ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ. Ⱥɧɚɥɢɡ ɭɞɨɜɥɟɬɜɨɪɺɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɨɝɨ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɤɨɪɪɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɤɚɤ ɦɨɞɟɥɶ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɦɨɞɟɥɶ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɚ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ
(ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ).
ɋɩɨɫɨɛɵ ɨɩɢɫɚɧɢɹ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɨɤɪɭɠɟɧɢɹ, ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ
ɢɯ ɢɞɟɧɬɢɱɧɨɫɬɢ, ɪɟɝɭɥɹɪɧɨɫɬɢ, ɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ, ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɣ ɜ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ, ɚ
ɬɚɤɠɟ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɜɧɨɜɟɫɢɹ, ɦɨɞɟɥɢ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɜ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɟ ɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɢ ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɵ ɜ [10].
Онтология проектирования, том 6, №1(19)/2016
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Самоорганизующиеся сетевые экспертные среды в системах с эндогенным принципом...
3
Ɇɚɬɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚ ɢ ɨɩɢɫɚɧɢɟ ɡɚɞɚɱɢ
ɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɹ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ
ɉɭɫɬɶ ɢɟɪɚɪɯɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɢ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɭɤɨɺɦɤɨɣ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɢ ɡɚɞɚɧɚ ɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɢɟɦ ɜɯɨɞɹɳɢɯ ɜ ɧɟɺ ɚɝɟɧɬɨɜ, ɨɩɢɫɚɧɢɟɦ ɢɯ ɩɪɚɜ ɢ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜ, ɜ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɢ
ɫ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɦɢ ɨɧɢ ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɸɬ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ. Ʉɪɨɦɟ ɬɨɝɨ, ɩɭɫɬɶ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɚ ɪɟɝɥɚɦɟɧɬɚɰɢɹ ɩɪɨɰɟɞɭɪ
ɞɨɫɬɭɩɚ, ɨɛɪɚɛɨɬɤɢ ɢ ɩɟɪɟɞɚɱɢ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ. Ȼɭɞɟɦ ɫɱɢɬɚɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɩɪɚɜɚ ɚɝɟɧɬɨɜ ɜ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ ɧɟ ɨɞɢɧɚɤɨɜɵ (ɱɬɨ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɝɨɜɨɪɢɬɶ ɨɛ ɢɯ ɧɟɨɞɧɨɪɨɞɧɨɫɬɢ [9]). ɇɟɨɞɧɨɪɨɞɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɨɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ ɚɝɟɧɬɨɜ ɞɪɭɝ ɧɚ ɞɪɭɝɚ.
Ⱦɥɹ ɰɟɥɟɣ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ ɛɭɞɟɦ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɬɶ ɛɚɡɨɜɭɸ ɦɨɞɟɥɶ ɢɟɪɚɪɯɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ, ɫɨɫɬɨɹɳɟɣ ɢɡ ɰɟɧɬɪɚ (ɚɝɟɧɬ ɜɟɪɯɧɟɝɨ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ) ɢ ɚɝɟɧɬɨɜ ɧɢɠɧɟɝɨ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ. ɋɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ [11] ɰɟɥɢ ɜɟɪɯɧɟɝɨ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ ɭɫɥɨɜɧɨ ɪɚɡɞɟɥɢɦ ɧɚ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɝɪɭɩɩɵ:
ƒ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɢ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɰɟɥɟɣ ɜɵɠɢɜɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɜ ɰɟɥɨɦ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ
ɧɟɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɺɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɢ ɪɵɧɤɚ;
ƒ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɜɨɫɩɪɢɹɬɢɹ ɜɧɟɲɧɟɣ ɢ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ;
ƒ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɨ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ ɰɟɥɟɭɫɬɪɟɦɥɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ;
ƒ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɚ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɥɚɧɚ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ, ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɸɳɟɝɨ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɵ ɜɫɟɯ ɩɨɞɫɢɫɬɟɦ;
ƒ ɨɩɬɢɦɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɩɨ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɛɨɛɳɟɧɧɵɯ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɟɣ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ, ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɢɯ ɫɨɛɨɣ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɨɬ ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɨɜ ɜɫɟɯ ɩɨɞɫɢɫɬɟɦ (ɚɝɟɧɬɨɜ).
Ɋɟɲɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɯ ɞɜɭɯ ɡɚɞɚɱ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɡɚɩɢɫɚɧɨ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ:
(u, v)  :,
(1)
ɝɞɟ u – ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɰɟɧɬɪɚ, v
(v , v ,..., v ) - ɜɟɤɬɨɪ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɩɨɞɫɢɫɬɟɦ, : - ɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɨ
1 2
n
ɬɚɤɢɯ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɹɬ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɭ ɜ ɨɞɧɨ ɢɡ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɣ ɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɚ X (X – ɨɛɥɚɫɬɶ
ɠɟɥɚɟɦɵɯ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ).
ɍɫɥɨɜɢɟ (1) ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɨ ɥɢɲɶ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɫɨɜɨɤɭɩɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɨ ɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɢ ɢ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɜɫɟɯ ɚɝɟɧɬɨɜ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ. ɉɪɢɦɟɦ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ.
1) ɰɟɧɬɪ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɫɮɨɪɦɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɠɟɥɚɟɦɨɟ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɜ ɜɢɞɟ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨ ɧɚɛɨɪɚ
ɨɛɨɛɳɺɧɧɵɯ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɟɣ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɹɦɢ ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɨɜ ɚɝɟɧɬɨɜ. Ʉɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɟ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɰɟɧɬɪɭ ɜ ɨɛɳɟɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɧɟɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɵ, ɧɨ ɞɥɹ ɢɯ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɨɧ ɦɨɠɟɬ
ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɩɪɨɲɥɵɯ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɨɜ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ, ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɸ ɨ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɚɯ, ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɵɯ ɤɨɧɤɭɪɟɧɬɚɦɢ ɜ ɞɚɧɧɨɦ ɫɟɝɦɟɧɬɟ ɪɵɧɤɚ ɢ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɫɟɬɟɜɨɣ
ɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɢɡɵ. Ɍɚɤɨɟ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ ɡɧɚɧɢɟ ɛɭɞɟɦ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɬɶ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɦɢ ɰɟɧɬɪɚ ɨ
ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɹɯ ɚɝɟɧɬɨɜ ɢ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɢ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ.
2) ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɨ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɹɯ ɚɝɟɧɬɨɜ ɢ ɠɟɥɚɟɦɵɯ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹɯ ɰɟɧɬɪ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬ ɫɜɨɟ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ (ɩɥɚɧ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ ɢ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɣ ɡɚɩɪɨɫ) u  U ɢ ɫɨɨɛɳɚɟɬ ɟɝɨ
ɚɝɟɧɬɚɦ.
3) ɩɪɢ ɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɨɦ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɢ ui-ɣ ɚɝɟɧɬ ɜɵɛɢɪɚɟɬ ɫɜɨɟ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ vi  V(ui), ɤɨɬɨɪɨɟ ɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɢɬ ɟɝɨ ɜ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ yi  Yi , ɝɞɟ Yi – ɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɨ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɯ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɣ. Ȼɭɞɟɦ ɫɱɢɬɚɬɶ,
ɱɬɨ ɚɝɟɧɬɵ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɵ ɩɨ ɜɵɛɨɪɭ ɫɜɨɢɯ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɣ. ɗɬɨ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬ ɩɪɢ ɜɵɛɨɪɟ
ɭɱɺɬ ɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɢɣ Y ɝɥ . ɋɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ, ɩɪɢ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɢ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ (1) ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ
n
n
ɦɨɠɟɬ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɶɫɹ ɜ ɨɞɧɨɦ ɢɡ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɯ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɣ Y Y ɝɥ ˆ ( – Yi ) . Ɂɞɟɫɶ – Yi – ɷɬɨ
i 1
i 1
ɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɨ, ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɦɨɟ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɢɹɦɢ, ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɩɨ ɨɛɴɺɦɭ ɜɵɩɭɫɤɚ,
ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɭ, ɡɚɬɪɚɬɚɦ ɢ ɬ.ɞ.
46
№1(19)/2016,
v.6, Ontology of Designing
Г.П. Виноградов, Н.Г. Виноградова
4) ɩɭɫɬɶ ɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ ɚɝɟɧɬɚ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɝɢɩɨɬɟɡɟ ɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ. Ɍɨɝɞɚ ɜɵɛɨɪ
ɚɝɟɧɬɚ ɛɭɞɟɬ ɫɞɟɥɚɧ ɬɚɤ, ɱɬɨɛɵ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɫɜɨɣ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɟɦɵɣ ɤɪɢɬɟɪɢɣ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ Gi(u, vi).
5) ɰɟɧɬɪ, ɜ ɨɛɳɟɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ, ɩɪɢɛɥɢɡɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɡɧɚɟɬ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɢ ɤɪɢɬɟɪɢɢ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɚɝɟɧɬɨɜ, ɩɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɞɥɹ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɨ ɠɟɥɚɟɦɵɯ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹɯ ɚɝɟɧɬɨɜ ɨɧ ɞɨɥɠɟɧ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɨɜɚɬɶ ɫ ɧɢɦɢ ɨɛɦɟɧ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɟɣ. Ⱦɥɹ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɰɟɧɬɪ ɡɚɩɪɚɲɢɜɚɟɬ ɭ
ɚɝɟɧɬɨɜ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɢ ɢ ɭɫɥɭɝ u ɢ ɠɟɥɚɟɦɵɟ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ yi, ɭɬɨɱɧɹɟɬ ɢɯ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɵ ɜ ɨɤɪɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɨɛɦɟɧ ɧɚ ɫɬɢɦɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɡɚ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɟ
ɜɫɬɪɟɱɧɨɣ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ.
6) ɩɨɥɭɱɢɜ ɧɨɜɭɸ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɸ, ɰɟɧɬɪ ɩɟɪɟɫɱɢɬɵɜɚɟɬ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɟ ɢ ɡɚɞɚɟɬ ɧɨɜɵɟ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɵ
ɚɝɟɧɬɚɦ ɞɨ ɬɟɯ ɩɨɪ, ɩɨɤɚ ɧɟ ɛɭɞɟɬ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɨ ɬɨɱɧɨɟ ɢɥɢ ɛɥɢɡɤɨɟ ɤ ɧɟɦɭ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɟ.
7) ɩɪɢ ɧɚɥɢɱɢɢ ɧɟɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɺɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ ɰɟɧɬɪ ɫɬɪɟɦɢɬɫɹ ɜ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɢ ɫ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɨɦ
ɞɟɬɟɪɦɢɧɢɡɦɚ ɫɧɢɡɢɬɶ ɟɺ ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɡɚ ɫɱɺɬ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɨɰɟɞɭɪ, ɩɨɜɵɲɚɸɳɢɯ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ
ɩɨɥɟɡɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɜɨɢɯ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ [12].
Ɉɩɢɫɚɧɧɚɹ ɦɨɞɟɥɶ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɥɚɧɚ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬ, ɱɬɨ ɚɝɟɧɬɵ, ɤɚɤ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɹɸɳɢɟ ɫɜɨɢɦɢ ɩɨɞɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɦɢ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɳɢɟ ɟɺ ɧɚ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ ɫɜɨɢɯ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ, ɯɨɪɨɲɨ «ɡɧɚɸɬ» ɢ «ɱɭɜɫɬɜɭɸɬ» ɫɜɨɢ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɵ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɫ ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨɣ
ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶɸ ɬɨɱɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɬɜɟɬɢɬɶ ɧɚ ɡɚɩɪɨɫɵ ɰɟɧɬɪɚ.
ɗɬɢ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɸɬ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɶ ɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɨ ɞɨɩɭɫɬɢɦɵɯ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɰɟɧɬɪɚ
ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ:
(2)
ɝɞɟ R (u )
i
U0
­°
½°
n
n
®u  U | V (u ) – Vi (u ) z‡, (u, v)  :, v  R(u ) – Ri (u )¾ ,
°̄
°¿
i 1
i 1
max G (u , v ) .
i
i
v  V (u )
i
i
ȿɫɥɢ ɭ ɰɟɧɬɪɚ ɢɦɟɟɬɫɹ ɤɪɢɬɟɪɢɣ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ F(u, v), ɬɨ ɨɩɬɢɦɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɝɚɪɚɧɬɢɪɭɸɳɢɦ
ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɦ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɬɚɤɨɟ u 0  U 0 , ɱɬɨ
(3)
Arg
F0
inf F (u , v ) .
0
u  U v  R(u )
sup
Ɉɛɳɧɨɫɬɶ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɜ ɰɟɧɬɪɚ ɢ ɚɝɟɧɬɨɜ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɦɢ ɧɚ ɫɭɦɦɚɪɧɨɟ ɜɨɡɧɚɝɪɚɠɞɟɧɢɟ
n
0
(4)
¦ G(ui , vi ) F d C (Y ),
i 1
ɝɞɟ Y – ɞɨɯɨɞ ɨɬ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɹ ɡɚɤɚɡɨɜ, ɋ(˜) – ɮɨɧɞ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɨɳɪɟɧɢɹ.
Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɩɪɢ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɬɨɜɚɪɨɜ ɢ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɜ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ ɫ ɧɟ ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɩɨɥɨɠɧɵɦɢ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚɦɢ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɬɶ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɣ ɬɢɩ
ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɦɩɪɨɦɢɫɫɚ, ɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɚ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɦɨɝɨ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɚ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ (4) ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɨɣ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɣ, ɡɚɜɢɫɹɳɟɣ ɨɬ ɢɯ ɫɭɦɦɚɪɧɵɯ ɭɫɢɥɢɣ. ɉɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɰɟɥɶ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɢɹ
ɫɨɫɬɨɢɬ ɜ ɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɢ ɫɭɦɦɚɪɧɨɝɨ ɜɵɢɝɪɵɲɚ, ɢ ɨɧ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧ ɩɭɬɺɦ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɧɢɹ
ɞɨɫɬɨɜɟɪɧɨɣ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ ɢ ɫɨɜɦɟɫɬɧɵɦ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɟɦ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ. ȼ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɯ, ɝɞɟ ɚɝɟɧɬɵ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɵ
ɨɛɳɢɦɢ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚɦɢ ɢ ɰɟɥɶɸ, ɫɩɪɚɜɟɞɥɢɜ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩ «ɡɚɩɪɟɬɚ ɷɝɨɢɡɦɚ», ɬɚɤ ɤɚɤ ɤɚɤɨɣ-ɥɢɛɨ
ɚɝɟɧɬ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɧɚɧɟɫɬɢ ɭɳɟɪɛ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ, ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɟɫɥɢ ɩɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɨɧ ɧɚɧɨɫɢɬ ɭɳɟɪɛ ɫɟɛɟ.
Онтология проектирования, том 6, №1(19)/2016
47
Самоорганизующиеся сетевые экспертные среды в системах с эндогенным принципом...
ɉɭɫɬɶ ɨɛɴɟɤɬ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ i-ɝɨ ɚɝɟɧɬɚ ɨɩɢɫɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɭɪɨɜɧɟɦ ɡɚɬɪɚɬ yiɜɯ , ɭɪɨɜɧɟɦ ɜɵɩɭɫɤɚ
yiɜɵɯ ɢ ɧɚɛɨɪɨɦ ɪɟɠɢɦɧɵɯ ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɨɜ zi , ɫ ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɚɝɟɧɬ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɜɥɢɹɬɶ ɧɚ ɯɨɞ
ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚ ɜ ɫɜɨɟɣ ɉɪɈ. Ɍɨɝɞɚ ɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɨ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɯ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɣ i-ɝɨ ɚɝɟɧɬɚ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɶ
ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ
ɜɯ ɜɵɯ
­
½
ɜɯ
ɜɯ
ɜɵɯ
ɜɯ
w ( y , z ) Y
, z  Z ¾.
® yi | y i d yi d y i , yi
i
i
i
i
i
i
¯
¿
Ɂɚɞɚɱɚ (1-5) ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɡɚɞɚɱɟɣ ɩɨɢɫɤɚ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɢɧɚ ɫɨ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɦɢ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɢɹɦɢ.
Ɉɛɨɡɧɚɱɢɦ ɱɟɪɟɡ yiɜɵɯ wi* ( yiɜɯ , z i )  Yiɜɵɯ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɚɝɟɧɬɚ ɨ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɢ
ɨɛɴɟɤɬɚ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ, ɬɨɝɞɚ
Y
i
(5)
ɜɯ ɜɵɯ
­
½
ɜɯ
* ɜɯ
ɜɵɯ
ɜɯ
w ( y , z ) Y
, z Z ¾
® yi | y i d yi d y i , yi
i i
i
i
i
i¿
¯
ɦɨɠɧɨ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɬɶ ɤɚɤ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɚɝɟɧɬɚ ɨ ɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɟ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɯ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɣ. Ɉɱɟɜɢɞɧɨ, ɨɧɨ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɟɝɨ ɡɧɚɧɢɟɦ, ɨɩɵɬɨɦ.
ȼ ɫɜɨɸ ɨɱɟɪɟɞɶ ɰɟɧɬɪ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɢɦɟɬɶ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɨ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɹɯ ɚɝɟɧɬɨɜ ɜ
ɜɢɞɟ
ɰ ­ y | y ɜɯ d y ɜɯ d y ɜɯ , y ɜɵɯ wɰ ( y ɜɯ , z )  Y ɜɵɯ , z  Z ½.
(7)
Y
® i i
i
i
i
i
i i
i
i
i
i ¾¿
¯
ȼ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɫ ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶɸ ɬɨɱɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɶ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟ ɝɢɩɨɬɟɡɵ ɨ ɩɨɥɧɨɣ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɰɟɧɬɪɚ ɨ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɹɯ, ɠɟɥɚɟɦɵɯ
ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹɯ ɚɝɟɧɬɨɜ ɢ ɢɯ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɫ ɬɨɱɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɞɨ ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɨɜ. ɗɬɨ ɨɡɧɚɱɚɟɬ, ɱɬɨ
ɰɟɧɬɪ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬ ɜɫɟɣ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɣ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɟɣ ɨ ɦɨɞɟɥɹɯ V , i 1, n ɚɝɟɧɬɨɜ, ɧɨ ɧɟ ɡɧɚi
ɟɬ ɜɵɛɨɪ ɚɝɟɧɬɨɜ. ȼ ɷɬɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ, ɤɚɤ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɧɨ ɜ [13], ɰɟɧɬɪ, ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɹ ɷɬɨ ɡɧɚɧɢɟ, ɪɚɫɫɱɢɬɵɜɚɟɬ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ u 0  U 0 , ɚ ɚɝɟɧɬ ɞɟɥɚɟɬ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɨɞɢɧ ɯɨɞ, ɜɵɛɢɪɚɹ ɫɜɨɺ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ y ɢ
Y*
i
(6)
i
ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ v ɢɡ ɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɚ ɞɨɩɭɫɬɢɦɵɯ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɣ Bi (ui ) Yi (ui ) ˆ Yi , ɩɵɬɚɹɫɶ ɩɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ
i
ɦɚɤɫɢɦɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɫɜɨɟɣ ɰɟɥɟɜɨɣ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ
(8)
G (u , v )
o
max .
i i i
v  B (u )
i
i i
Ɍɨɝɞɚ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬ ɜɵɛɨɪɚ ɜɫɟɯ ɚɝɟɧɬɨɜ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɷɬɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɤɚɤ ɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɨ R(D)
n
ɜɫɟɯ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɣ, ɝɞɟ D Y ɝɥ ˆ B (u ) ɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɨ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɯ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɣ ɜɫɟɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ. ȼɚi i
i 1
ɪɶɢɪɭɹ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ u {u , i 1, n} , ɰɟɧɬɪ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɩɪɨɢɝɪɵɜɚɬɶ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɟ ɫɰɟɧɚɪɢɢ ɩɨɜɟɞɟi
ɧɢɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ.
4
Ⱥɥɝɨɪɢɬɦ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɹ ɚɝɟɧɬɨɦ ɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɚ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɣ
Ⱥɝɟɧɬ, ɨɛɥɚɞɚɹ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɞɟɬɚɥɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɣ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɟɣ, ɦɨɠɟɬ ɩɪɢ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɢ ɰɟɧɬɪɨɦ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɩɪɢɜɥɟɤɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ uk ɩɭɬɺɦ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ ɡɚɞɚɱɢ (8) ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɬɶ ɞɥɹ ɫɟɛɹ ɬɚɤɨɣ ɜɟɤɬɨɪ
48
№1(19)/2016,
v.6, Ontology of Designing
Г.П. Виноградов, Н.Г. Виноградова
(h)
(h)
x , ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɪɚɫɲɢɪɢɬɶ ɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɨ X
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɰɟɧɬɪɚ ɨ ɟɝɨ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨk
k
ɫɬɹɯ, h – ɲɚɝ ɢɬɟɪɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚ.
(h)
{Ȧ , h 1,H }  A – ɜɟɤɬɨɪ ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɨɜ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ, ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɈɛɨɡɧɚɱɢɦ ɱɟɪɟɡ Ȧ
k
k
k
(h) ­ (h)
(h)
½
ɳɢɣ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɜɟɤɬɨɪɚ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ x
® xkj ,j  [1,mk ]¾  X k . Ɇɨɠɧɨ ɫɱɢɬɚɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɷɬɨɬ ɜɟɤk
¯
¿
ɬɨɪ ɨɩɢɫɵɜɚɟɬ ɡɧɚɧɢɟ ɚɝɟɧɬɚ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɢɪɭɟɦɨɝɨ ɢɦ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɚ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ. Ɂɞɟɫɶ
Ak – ɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɨ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɯ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɣ ɜɟɤɬɨɪɚ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ. Ȼɭɞɟɦ ɫɱɢɬɚɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɚɝɟɧɬ ɨɛɥɚɞɚɟɬ
(h)
ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɹɦɢ, ɡɧɚɧɢɹɦɢ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɝɚɪɚɧɬɢɪɭɸɬ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɟ Ȍ :A o X .
k k
k
Ⱦɨɫɬɭɩɧɵɣ ɚɝɟɧɬɭ ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɡɧɚɧɢɣ ɨ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɹɯ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɹɟɦɨɣ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɢ ɢ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɞɟɥɚɸɬ ɫɩɪɚɜɟɞɥɢɜɵɦ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɨ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɞɥɹ k-ɝɨ ɚɝɟɧɬɚ ɩɪɟɞɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɚ ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɨɜ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ.
(h)
(h) (h)
Ɉɛɨɡɧɚɱɢɦ ɱɟɪɟɡ O* {o*|o (x ), x  X (Ȧ ), Ȧ  A } – ɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɨ ɞɨɫɬɢɠɢɦɨk
k
k
k k k
k
k
k
ɫɬɢ ɢɥɢ ɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɨ ɩɪɟɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɟɣ.
Ȼɭɞɟɦ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɚɝɟɧɬ ɡɚ ɫɱɺɬ ɫɜɨɢɯ ɤɪɟɚɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɟɣ, ɜ ɬɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɟ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɢ ɤ ɫɚɦɨɨɛɭɱɟɧɢɸ ɢ ɩɨɢɫɤɭ ɧɨɜɨɣ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ, ɩɪɢ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɦ ɫɬɢɦɭɥɢɪɭɸ(1)
(2)
 A , ɱɬɨ
ɳɟɦ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɢ ɰɟɧɬɪɚ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɟɧ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɬɶ ɬɚɤɢɟ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ Ȧ  A ɢ Ȧ
k
k
k
k
(1 )
(2)
Ȧ , ɝɞɟ ɫɢɦɜɨɥ
ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ Ȧ
ɨɡɧɚɱɚɟɬ «ɛɨɥɟɟ ɡɧɚɱɢɦɨ» ɢ ɩɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ
k
k
(2) (2)
(1) (1)
) . ɋɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ, ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɬɚɤɚɹ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ
(Ȧ
X (Ȧ ) Ž X
k
k
k
k
(h) (h) (h)
(1 ) ( 2 ) ( 3 )
Ȧ , Ȧ , Ȧ , ... , ɱɬɨ lim ok (xk (Ȧk )) O*k .
k
k
k
hof
Ɍɨ ɟɫɬɶ ɚɝɟɧɬ ɩɭɬɺɦ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɚ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɟɧ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɶ ɟɝɨ ɩɪɟɞɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɜɨɡ(1 ) ( 2 ) ( 3 )
ɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɞɥɹ ɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɠɟɥɚɟɦɨɝɨ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ. ɉɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ Ȧ , Ȧ , Ȧ , ... ɛɭk
k
k
ɞɟɦ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɬɶ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɜɫɤɪɵɬɢɹ ɪɟɡɟɪɜɨɜ ɨɬ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɧɵɯ
ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ ɡɚ ɫɱɺɬ ɢɯ ɞɨɪɚɛɨɬɤɢ ɢ ɭɩɪɨɳɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɨɛɫɥɭɠɢɜɚɧɢɢ.
Ɍɚɤɚɹ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶ ɚɝɟɧɬɚ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɪɚɫɲɢɪɹɸɳɟɟɫɹ ɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɨ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɨɜ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ
ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɶ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɚ ɰɟɥɟɜɨɣ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɚɝɟɧɬɚ ɢ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɟɣ ɞɨɫɬɢɠɢɦɨɫɬɢ:
(1 )
(2)
(2) (2)
(1 ) (1 ) (1 )
(2)
(1 ) ( 2 )
Ȧ ,Ȧ
 A ,Ȧ
) ! EM (x ) .
) EM (x
(Ȧ
Ȧ , X (Ȧ ) Ž X
k k
k k
k
k
k
k
k
k k
k
k
ɗɬɨ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɟ ɨɡɧɚɱɚɟɬ, ɱɬɨ ɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ ɚɝɟɧɬɚ ɩɪɢ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɢ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɚ ɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɡɚɤɨɧɭ ɩɨɜɵɲɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɨɫɬɟɣ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɜ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɟ ɩɨ ɩɫɢɯɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬ ɦɨɬɢɜɚɰɢɸ ɢ ɰɟɥɟɭɫɬɪɟɦɥɺɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɚɝɟɧɬɚ.
ȼ ɪɟɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɚɝɟɧɬ ɩɪɢ ɩɪɟɜɵɲɟɧɢɢ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨ ɩɨɪɨɝɚ ɡɧɚɱɢɦɨɫɬɢ
(1 )
(2)
) EM (x ) ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ ɰɟɥɟɭɫɬɪɟɦɥɺɧɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ ɩɨ
¨ EM (x
k k
k k
ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɭ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɟɧ ɢɞɟɧɬɢɮɢɰɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɵ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɢ ɜɢɞɢɬ ɨɬɤɪɵɜɚɸɳɢɟɫɹ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɢ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɢ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ ɫɜɨɟɣ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɢ (ɡɧɚɧɢɹ).
ȼɵɪɚɛɨɬɤɚ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɢ ɬɚɤɨɦ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɟ ɡɚɤɥɸɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɫɨɜɨɤɭɩɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɰɟɞɭɪ, ɩɪɟɞɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɧɵɯ ɞɥɹ ɩɨɢɫɤɚ ɩɪɨɦɟɠɭɬɨɱɧɵɯ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ, ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɢ
Онтология проектирования, том 6, №1(19)/2016
49
Самоорганизующиеся сетевые экспертные среды в системах с эндогенным принципом...
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɚɝɟɧɬ ɭɬɨɱɧɹɟɬ ɫɜɨɢ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɟɬ ɨɤɨɧɱɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɟ. ɉɨɥɧɵɣ
ɰɢɤɥ ɟɝɨ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ k-ɦ ɚɝɟɧɬɨɦ ɫɨɫɬɨɢɬ ɜ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɢ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɯ ɲɚɝɨɜ ɧɚ ɷɬɚɩɟ h.
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ɤɢ O
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ki
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(h)
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ɩɨɢɫɤɚ ɧɨɜɨɣ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ (ɡɧɚɧɢɹ) ɨ Ȧ  A ɢ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɟ Ȍ :A o X .
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.
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, ɝɞɟ
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o
k - ɦɢɧɢɦɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɚɝɟɧɬɚ ɤ ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟɦɵɦ ɢɦ ɜɨ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɚɦ.
ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɨɰɟɞɭɪɵ ɩɨɢɫɤɚ ɦɢɧɢɦɚɥɶɧɨ-ɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɬɨɱɤɢ ɜ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟ
(h)*
(h) (h)*
A ɢ
ɤɪɢɬɟɪɢɟɜ ɩɨ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɸ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɬɟɧɢɹ o ,o
, ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɜɟɤɬɨɪɚ Ȧ
k k
k
k
(h) (h)*
(h)*
 X (Ȧ
x
) – ɦɢɧɢɦɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɩɥɚɧɨɜɵɯ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɟɣ, ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯ
k
k
k
(h)
ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹɦ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬ ɜɟɤɬɨɪɚ o
k .
(h)* (h)*
,o
ɟɫɥɢ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɵɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɞɥɹ x
ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɸɬɫɹ ɤɚɤ ɤɨɦɩɪɨɦɢɫɫɧɨɟ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɟ, ɬɨ
k
k
ɩɪɨɰɟɞɭɪɚ ɨɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ, ɜ ɩɪɨɬɢɜɧɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞ ɤ ɩ. 8.
(h)
i [1,N ] , ɩɨ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ
ɞɥɹ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɢɣ ɧɚ o
k
k ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɢɨɪɢɬɟɬɧɚɹ ɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɬɚ
(h)
(h) (h)
(h)
(h)
ɞɟɥɚɟɬɫɹ ɪɚɫɲɢɪɟɧɢɟ ɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜ Ak ɢ X , ɬɚɤ ɱɬɨɛɵ o (x ) o ǻ ,
k
k
ki
ki
ki
50
№1(19)/2016,
v.6, Ontology of Designing
Г.П. Виноградов, Н.Г. Виноградова
(h)
ɝɞɟ ǻ - ɦɢɧɢɦɚɥɶɧɨ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɟ ɭɥɭɱɲɟɧɢɟ, ɤɨɬɨɪɨɟ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɡɧɚɱɢɦɵɦ ɞɥɹ ɚɝɟɧɬɚ ɢ
ki
ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɩɨ ɟɝɨ ɜɵɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɧɢɹɦ ɨ «ɝɢɛɤɨɫɬɢ» ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɹ
ɩɪɨɰɟɞɭɪ ɩɨɢɫɤɚ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ. ɉɟɪɟɯɨɞ ɤ ɩ. 1.
Ɉɩɢɫɚɧɧɵɣ ɚɥɝɨɪɢɬɦ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬ ɬɪɢ ɬɢɩɚ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ, ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɩɨɪɨɠɞɚɟɬ
ɢɧɬɟɪɚɤɬɢɜɧɵɣ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫ ɞɥɹ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɹ ɤɨɦɩɪɨɦɢɫɫɧɨɝɨ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ.
ɋ ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ ɚɝɟɧɬ ɜ ɦɨɦɟɧɬ r ɨɛɪɚɛɚɬɵɜɚɟɬ ɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ, ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɵɟ ɧɚ
ɲɚɝɟ r - 1 ɞɥɹ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɹ ɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜ Pk ɢ X k ɫ ɰɟɥɶɸ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ xk , y o* , c* , z* . Ɂɞɟɫɶ
ɫɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ, ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɵɟ ɧɚ ɦɨɦɟɧɬ r ɫ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɚɦɢ ɧɚ ɲɚɝɟ r – 1, ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɨ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹɯ ɜɟɤɬɨɪɚ o o* ɢ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɣ ɭɫɬɭɩɨɤ ɩɨ ɟɝɨ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɚɦ. ɋɬɪɨɢɬɫɹ ɩɪɟɞɜɚɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɨ ɠɟɥɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹɯ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɟɣ EM k (o(y o* )) ɢ
EE k (o(y o* )) .
ɋ ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚ ɰɟɥɟɩɨɥɚɝɚɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɚɦ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ
ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɠɟɥɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɣ
xk , y o* , c* , z* ,
EM k (o(y o* )) ,
EE k (o(y o* )) . Ɋɚɫɫɱɢɬɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɢɞɟɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɬɨɱɤɚ ɜ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟ ɨɰɟɧɨɤ o, ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɚɹ ɫ ɦɧɨɠɟ*
*
*
ɫɬɜɚɦɢ Pk ɢ X k – ɷɬɨ ɬɨɱɤɚ o , ɢɦɟɸɳɚɹ ɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɬɵ o i max o (x(p)), i 1,L . Ɍɨ ɟɫɬɶ o
i
pP , x X
k
k
– ɧɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɟɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɩɨ ɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɬɟ i, ɤɨɬɨɪɨɟ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɨ ɫ ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ
ɧɚɦɟɱɟɧɧɵɯ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ. ɗɬɚ ɬɨɱɤɚ ɨɛɪɚɡɭɟɬ ɰɟɧɬɪ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɩɨɢɫɤɚ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɨɫɬɨɹ*
ɧɢɣ. ȿɫɥɢ ɩɪɢ ɧɚɣɞɟɧɧɨɦ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɢ ɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɬ ɬɨɱɤɢ o ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɢɹ ɧɟ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɸɬɫɹ, ɬɨ
ɚɝɟɧɬ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɬ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɪɚɫɲɢɪɟɧɢɹ ɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜ Pk , X k ɢ Ck ɡɚ ɫɱɺɬ ɜɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɹ
ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɯ, ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɧɵɯ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɣ ɢ ɬ.ɩ. ɞɥɹ ɨɫɥɚɛɥɟɧɢɹ
ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɠɺɫɬɤɢɯ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɢɣ ɬɚɤ, ɱɬɨɛɵ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɥɨɫɶ ɜɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟ Pk (r) Ž Pk (r 1 ) ɢ
*
X k (r) Ž X (r 1 ) . ȿɫɥɢ ɷɬɨ ɧɟɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ, ɬɨ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ ɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɨ ɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɬɚɯ oi oi
k
*
ɬɨɱɤɢ o i z o i , ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ ɛɵɥɚ ɛɵ ɞɨɫɬɢɠɢɦɨɣ ɢ ɥɭɱɲɢɦ ɤɨɦɩɪɨɦɢɫɫɨɦ ɜ ɨɤɪɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɬɨɱɤɢ
L
*
o . ɉɭɬɺɦ ɦɢɧɢɦɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɩɨɬɟɪɶ ¦ oi oio* ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɵ p oi oio* z 0 ɩɪɢi
i 1
ɦɟɪɧɨ ɷɤɜɢɜɚɥɟɧɬɧɵɟ, ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɢɟ ɢ ɡɧɚɱɚɳɢɟ ɞɥɹ ɚɝɟɧɬɚ.
Ȼɥɚɝɨɞɚɪɹ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɭ ɫɚɦɨɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ ɡɧɚɧɢɹ ɨ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɚɯ ' ɢ < ɞɥɹ ɪɚɫɲɢɪɟɧɢɹ ɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜ Pk , X k ɢ Ck . Ɇɟɯɚɧɢɡɦ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɢɦɟɬɶ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟ ɮɨɪɦɵ:
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɧɚ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɟ ɫ ɰɟɥɶɸ ɭɥɭɱɲɟɧɢɹ ɫɜɨɟɝɨ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɨ ɟɝɨ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɢ;
ɚɧɚɥɢɡ ɨɛɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢ Q k ;
ɩɪɢɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɨɜ ɞɥɹ ɩɨɞɝɨɬɨɜɤɢ ɪɟɤɨɦɟɧɞɚɰɢɣ ɩɨ ɭɥɭɱɲɟɧɢɸ ɪɟɠɢɦɨɜ ɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ
ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚ;
ɩɪɨɰɟɞɭɪɵ ɨɩɪɨɫɚ ɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɥɚ;
ɩɪɨɰɟɞɭɪɵ ɝɨɥɨɫɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɬ.ɩ.
Онтология проектирования, том 6, №1(19)/2016
51
Самоорганизующиеся сетевые экспертные среды в системах с эндогенным принципом...
Ɂɚɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟ
ȼ ɫɬɚɬɶɟ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɹ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɢɧɧɨɜɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɸ, ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɧɵɣ ɧɚ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɹɟɦɨɦ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɦ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɢ ɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɨɜ. Ɍɚɤɨɣ ɩɨɞɯɨɞ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɤɚɤ ɚɥɶɬɟɪɧɚɬɢɜɚ ɪɵɧɨɱɧɵɦ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚɦ, ɬɚɤ ɤɚɤ ɨɧ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ
ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɹ:
ƒ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɨ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ ɰɟɥɟɭɫɬɪɟɦɥɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ ɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɚɦɢ
ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ (ɩɨɧɢɦɚɟɦɨɣ ɜ ɫɦɵɫɥɟ [13]);
ƒ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɧɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɰɟɥɟɣ ɢ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɨɜ ɢɯ ɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɚɦɢ, ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɦɢ ɨɛɳɢɦɢ ɧɟ ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɩɨɥɨɠɧɵɦɢ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚɦɢ, ɜ ɨɛɳɟɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɧɟ ɫɨɜɩɚɞɚɸɳɢɦɢ.
Ɋɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɟɧɵ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɵ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟɦ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ, ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɳɟɣ ɢɧɧɨɜɚɰɢɢ. ɇɚ ɢɯ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦ ɫɚɦɨɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɫɟɬɟɜɵɯ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɧɵɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ, ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɳɢɣ ɫɟɬɟɜɵɟ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɢ
ɞɥɹ ɜɨɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɳɢɤɨɜ, ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɢ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɬɨɜɚɪɨɜ ɢ ɭɫɥɭɝ ɜ ɢɧɧɨɜɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɣ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫ.
Ɋɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɸ ɬɚɤɨɝɨ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɨ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɬɶ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɫɢɧɬɟɡɚ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɣ
ɤɪɚɭɞɫɨɪɫɢɧɝɚ, ɫɟɬɟɜɨɣ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɢɡɵ, ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɫɟɬɟɜɵɯ ɢ ɬɟɥɟɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɣ, ɦɟɬɨɞɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɬɟɨɪɢɢ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ. ɗɬɨ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɨɜɵɜɚɬɶ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɪɟɮɥɟɤɫɢɸ ɧɭɥɟɜɨɝɨ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ, ɧɨ ɢ ɪɟɮɥɟɤɫɢɢ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɜɵɫɨɤɢɯ ɭɪɨɜɧɟɣ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɫɞɟɥɚɬɶ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫ ɢ
ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬ ɪɟɮɥɟɤɫɢɢ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɹɟɦɵɦ, ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɩɭɬɺɦ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɹ ɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɯ ɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ
ɨɧɬɨɥɨɝɢɣ ɉɪɈ. Ɍɚɤɨɣ ɩɨɞɯɨɞ ɨɡɧɚɱɚɟɬ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɟ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜ
ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɞɥɹ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɹ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪ ɭ
ɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɨɜ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ.
ɉɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧ ɚɥɝɨɪɢɬɦ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɹ ɚɝɟɧɬɨɦ ɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɚ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɣ, ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɳɢɣ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɵ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ, ɰɟɥɟɩɨɥɚɝɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɫɚɦɨɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ.
Ȼɥɚɝɨɞɚɪɧɨɫɬɢ
Ⱦɚɧɧɚɹ ɪɚɛɨɬɚ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɚ ɩɪɢ ɱɚɫɬɢɱɧɨɣ ɮɢɧɚɧɫɨɜɨɣ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɟ ɊɎɎɂ ɜ ɪɚɦɤɚɯ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚ 14-01-00328\14.
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɨɜ
[1] Gubanov, D. E-Expertise: Modern Collective Intelligence / D. Gubanov, N. Korgin, D. Novikov, A. Raikov //
Springer Series: Studies in Computational Intelligence. – 2014. - Vol. 558, XVIII. - 112 p.
[2] ȼɢɬɬɢɯ, ȼ.Ⱥ. ɋɨɰɢɨɝɭɦɚɧɢɬɚɪɧɵɟ ɢ ɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɢɧɬɟɪɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɢɧɧɨ-
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ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɢɧɧɨɜɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɜ ɧɚ ɟɜɪɚɡɢɣɫɤɨɦ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟ. ɉɨɞ ɪɟɞ. ȼ.ȿ. Ʌɟɩɫɤɨɝɨ. – Ɇ.: Ʉɨɝɢɬɨ-ɐɟɧɬɪ, 2014. – ɋ. 214-224.
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Ʉɭɡɧɟɰɨɜ, ȼ.ɇ. ɗɜɪɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɹ ɞɢɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɤɢ ɫɥɚɛɨ ɮɨɪɦɚɥɢɡɭɟɦɵɯ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ /
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________________________________________________________________________________
SELF-ORGANIZING NETWORK EXPERT SYSTEMS ENVIRONMENT
IN PRINCIPLE ENDOGENOUS TARGET DESIGNATION
G.P. Vinogradov1, N.G. Vinogradova2
Tver State Technical University, Tver, Russia
1
wgp272ng@mail.ru, 2n-nataly08@mail.ru
Abstract
The article discusses the problem of constructing a model of the functioning of the socio-economic system, using the
mechanisms of information exchange participants. The central point of this interaction is the formation of coherent ideas about the purpose, limitations, needs, possibilities and directions of development. The model allows not only to identify customers and consumers of goods and services to the volume and quality of performance requirements, but also to
form their perceptions of their own needs. This suggests that the mechanisms of formation of coherent ideas and ways
of acting members of the system are more effective than, for example, market or command hierarchy. It is shown that
the most promising form of information exchange in solving search problems, the production of new knowledge and
determine the direction of its self-developing expert network environment. An elementary part of any environment is an
expert professional, owning modern telecommunication technologies. Integration into the network structure of the natural intelligence forms is a subject of a collective strategy, which is a means of synergy of knowledge and actions in the
process of building a self-organizing development. The article considers the problem of creation of media expert networks for the development of innovative industries that produce high-tech, high technology products and services.
Keywords: expert community, self-organization, networking, coordination of ideas, innovative development.
Citation: Vinogradov GP, Vinogradova NG. Self-organizing network expert systems environment in principle endogenous target designation. Ontology of Designing 2016; 6(1): 39-54. DOI: 10.18287/2223-9537-2016-6-1-39-54.
References
[1] Gubanov D, Korgin N, Novikov D., Raikov A. E-Expertise: Modern Collective Intelligence. Springer Series Stud-
ies in Computational Intelligence 2014 - Vol. 558, XVIII. - 112 p.
[2] Vittikh VA, Moiseeva TV, Smirnov SV. Socio-humanitarian and communication problems intersubjective man-
agement of innovation processes. Problems of social and humanitarian support for innovative processes in the Eurasian space. Edited by V.E. Lepsky. Mosccow: Cogito-Centr Publisher; 2014: 214-224. (In Russian).
[3] Gorodeckij VI. Teoriya, modeli, infrastruktury i yazyki specifikacii komandnogo povedeniya avtonomnyh agentov.
Obzor (chast 1) [The theory, model, infrastructure and specification languages command behavior of autonomous
Онтология проектирования, том 6, №1(19)/2016
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Rajkov AN. Konvergentnoe upravlenie i podderzhka reshenij [Convergent management and decision making support] Moscow: IKAR Publisher, 2009. – 245 p.(In Russian).
Vinogradov GP, Kuznecov VN. Modelirovanie povedeniya agenta s uchetom sub"ektivnyh predstavlenij o situacii
vybora. [Modeling the behavior of an agent based on subjective perceptions of a situation of choice] Iskusstvennyj
intellekt i prinyatie reshenij [Artificial intelligence and decision making] 2011; 3: 58-72. (In Russian).
Vinogradov GP, Shmatov GP, Borzov DA. Formirovanie predstavlenij agenta o predmetnoj oblasti v situacii vybora. [The formation of preception of the the agent of the domain in a situation of choice] Programmnye produkty i
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Publisher, 2013. – 256 p. (In Russian).
________________________________________________________________________________
ɋɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɨɛ ɚɜɬɨɪɚɯ
ȼɢɧɨɝɪɚɞɨɜ Ƚɟɧɧɚɞɢɣ ɉɚɜɥɨɜɢɱ, 1948 ɝ. ɪɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ. Ɉɤɨɧɱɢɥ ɜ 1971 ɝ. ɮɚɤɭɥɶɬɟɬ ɯɢɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɦɚɲɢɧɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɹ Ʉɚɥɢɧɢɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɢɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬɚ, ɞ.ɬ.ɧ. (2013). ɉɪɨɮɟɫɫɨɪ ɤɚɮɟɞɪɵ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɬɢɤɢ ɢ ɩɪɢɤɥɚɞɧɨɣ ɦɚɬɟɦɚɬɢɤɢ Ɍɜɟɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ
ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬɚ, ɱɥɟɧ Ɋɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɣ ɚɫɫɨɰɢɚɰɢɢ ɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɢɧɬɟɥɥɟɤɬɚ. ȼ
ɫɩɢɫɤɟ ɧɚɭɱɧɵɯ ɬɪɭɞɨɜ ɛɨɥɟɟ 200 ɪɚɛɨɬ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɬɟɨɪɢɢ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɹ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ, ɦɧɨɝɨɚɝɟɧɬɧɵɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ.
Vinogradov Gennadiy Pavlovich, 1948 b. He graduated in 1971 the Faculty of Chemical Engineering of the Kalinin Polytechnic Institute, Ph.D. (2013). Professor, Department of Computer
Science and Applied Mathematics, Tver State Technical University; member of the Russian
Association for Artificial Intelligence. The list of scientific works of more than 200 works in
the field of decision theory, multi-agent systems.
ȼɢɧɨɝɪɚɞɨɜɚ ɇɚɬɚɥɶɹ Ƚɟɧɧɚɞɶɟɜɧɚ, 1979 ɝ. ɪɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ. Ɉɤɨɧɱɢɥɚ Ɍɜɟɪɫɤɨɣ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ. Ⱥɫɩɢɪɚɧɬ Ɍɜɟɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ
ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬɚ. ȼ ɫɩɢɫɤɟ ɧɚɭɱɧɵɯ ɬɪɭɞɨɜ ɬɪɢ ɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɰɢɢ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɹ ɫɚɦɨɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɭɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɢɧɧɨɜɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɫɪɟɞ.
Vinogradova Natalia G., 1979 b. He graduated in the city of Tver State Technical University.
Postgraduate Tver State Technical University. The list of scientific works of three publications
in the field of self-organizing innovative environments.
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