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Allison Coudert ?аProfessor of Religious Studies, University of California at Davis, USA. apcoudert@ucdavis.edu
The early modern time was a period of cardinal changes in European cultures and worldviews. Trade, travel, and exploration, together
with the wars of religion precipitated by the Protestant Reformation
and the startling new developments in the natural sciences, psychology, and epistemology, shattered the teleologically and hierarchically ordered Aristotelian-Ptolemaic cosmos. With the demise of this
worldview went the framework that had existed for some two thousand years allowing Europeans to understand the world, their place
in it, their purpose and identity. This was a time of unmasking, dismantling and satirizing of dominant truths, most of all, the truths of
Christianity. Laughing, jokes and parodies were tools of reconstructing European identities. The author draws upon a variety of examples from literature and art of the era, mostly on British material.
Keywords: Eighteenth century, humor, satire, parody, Scientific Revolution, Age of Discovery, desacralization of the world.
?
????? XVIIIа??? ?а?а1650 ??а1800а?. ?а???????? ????? ???-
????????, ????? ?а?????? ????????????, ??????? ?а?????????????, ????? ?а????, ?, ????? ????, ???? ????? ?????
???? ???, ??? ??? ????????. ??? ??????????? ???????? ????????
?а???? ????????????? ?а???? ?????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??а??? ????? ?????? ?а????????????, ???????? ?а????? ???????. ????????? ????, ?а????? ????????? ???? ????????? ?а????
????????? ????? ??????????, ???? ??????? ????? ?а?????????,
?????? ?а??????????, ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????
????????? ?а???? ???????????? ??????????, ???????? ???????????????? ??.: Coudert?A.?Laughing at Credulity and Superstition in the Long Eighteenth
Century // Ed. Albrecht Classen. Laughter at the Middle Ages and in Early Modern
Times: Epistemology of a Fundamental Human Behavior, Its Meaning, and
Consequences. De Gruyter, 2010. P.?803???829.
??1(31) ? 2013 101
??????? ?ал??????? ?????????╗
????? ??????? (1669); ?а???????????? ??????????, ????????????
?а?????? ??????? ??????????? л???????????╗ ????? ??????? ???????? ??а?????? ???????1. ??????? ????????? ??а???????? ?а???????????? ????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????? ??а??????????? ???????? ?а???????????, ??????? ??а????????????.
?????????? ???????, ???????????????, ?????? ?а?????? ?а??? ????? ?????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ???????.
????? ?????????, ??? ?а???????????? ??????????? ??? ???
?????? ??????, ????????? ??? ???? ??????????? ???? ??? ?а???????????? ?а????????????? ??????????. ??а?а???? ???? ?а???? ????????, ??? ?а?????? ????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????
?????????? ????? ?????????, ??? ????? ????? ??а?????????????? ???? ?????? ?а??????????, ??????? ???? ????????, ????????, ???????? ?а????? ???????? ?????? ?а???????. ???а???????
???? ????, ????? ?????? ???????? XVIII ???????? ???? ????????, ??? ??а??? ?????????????? ??а????? ???, ?а??? ?????????, ?????? ?????????????? л?????????╗, л?????????╗ ?ал????????╗
??? ????? ??????? ?а??????? ??????????2.
?????? ???????? ???? ??а??????? ?а????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ????? ??а??????? ?а?????????? ??а???????. ????????? ??а?????????? ???? ????? ????????? ??????? ??а????????? ????????????, ????????????, ????????, ?а???????????
??????? ??????????? ????? ???????? ???????? ?????????, ??????????, ???????????? ????????, ??????????, ?????????, ????????, ?????????, ??????? ?а?????. ???????? ????????? ??????,
??????? ????????? ?а?????? ?????? ???????, ??????? ?????????
???????????? ????? ????????????? ??????? ?????? ?а???? ??????.
???????? ?а???????????, ?????? ?а?????????????? ??а??????????? ???????????? ???????, ?а????? ????????????? ?????
???????? ?а???????????? ??????, ?????????? ?а?????????????,
???????? ???????? ?????????????? ?а???????????? ????????????? ?????? ?????????? ?а????????. ?а???????? ????? ???????
?а??????? ???? ??????? ????, ??а?????? ??????? ?а??????? ???????? ???? ????? ??? ????????? ??????? ???, ???? ????? ?а???,
???? ????? ?а??????????? ????????????. ???? ?????? ???? ?????????? ?а????????? ????????? ???????????? ???? ???????, ??а??1. Heyd??. лBe Sober and Reasonable:? The Critique of Enthusiasm in the Seventeenth
and Early Eighteenth Centuries // Brill?s Studies in Intellectual History. 1995. Vol.?63.
2. Lynch?J.?Deception and Detection in Eighteenth-Century Britain. Aldershot and
Burlington: Ashgate, 2008. P.?2.
102
й ??????????? ? ??????? ? ???????
??????? ?????
??? ?????????????? ???????, ??? ??а??????????? ???? ?????????????????, ???? ??а????????????. ?????а?? ????????? ??а????
???????????? ?а???????? ??а??? ??? ???????? ????????, ???????? ??а??-?????????????? ????????? ?а????-????????????? ????
??? ??????? ???????; ??? ??? ???? ??? ??а?????? ???????? ????????? ?а?????? ??а????????? ???, ??а????????? ????? ?а????????? ???????? ?а??????? ?а?????????? ?????? ????? ???? ?а?????,
?????????? ???3.
??? ?????????????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????
????????, ??? ??а?????? ?????? ?????????? ?а??????????????
?????????? ?????, ??а??? ?а???? ????????????? ???????????, ???????? ?а????????? ???????? ?????? ?а?????????????.
?????????? ??????? ???????, ??? ???????, ????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ???????????? ?а????????????, ????? ????????? ?????, ??а??????? ????, ??? ?????????
?????; ???? ????? ??а????? ????? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????, ?????????? ????? ???????????? ??????????
?а???????????? ????????, ??? ?а?????????????? ??а?????????.
?????????????, ????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?а???????????? ?????????? ???????? ?а?????????, ?а?????? ???
?????????? ?????, ??? status quo ???????? ??? ????????. ??????????? ??а??????? ????? ?а???????? ?а??????, ???? ?????? ???????????? ??? ?????, ???????, ??? ?????, ?????? ?????, ????????
??а??????? ????????; ??? ????????????????? ????? ??????????????? ?а????????????? ?а????? ??????????? ????? ?а???????, ???? ??а????????????? щlan vital ??? ??????????? libido; ????? ?????? ?????:
????? ?????? ???? ??????????? ????????, ??? ????? ????????????
??а???? ?????????????. ?? ???? ?а?а?????????????, ??? ????? ???????????? ???????????? ????? ????? ???? ????????? ?а?????????-
3. Grafton?A.?The Importance of Being Printed //Journal of Interdisciplinary History.
1980?/?81. Vol.?11. P.?265???86; Grafton?A., Shelford?A., Siraisi?N. (eds.). New Worlds,
Ancient Texts: The Power of Tradition and the Shock of Discovery. Cambridge, MA : The
Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1992; Eisenstein?E.?L.?The Printing Press as
an Agent of Change. Communications and Cultural Transformations in Early-modern
Europe. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1979; Eisenstein?E.?L.?The
Printing Revolution in Early-Modern Europe. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge
University Press, 2005; Pagden?A.?The Fall of Natural Man: The American Indian and
the Origins of Comparative Ethnology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982;
Popkin?R.?H.?The History of Skepticism: From Savonarola to Bayle. Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 2003.
??1(31) ? 2013 103
??????? ?ал??????? ?????????╗
???. ??? ????????????? ??????, ??? ??а???? ??????? ???????? ????????????, ?а?????? ?а???????? ?а????????????? ??????? ???????
??а????? ??? ???????4.
???а?? ?????? ?????, ?????? ????????????? ???????????, ??????? ????? ????? ?а????? ?????. ?????, ????????? ?а???? ??????, ???? ?????? ??а????????????? ?а??? ??? ???? ?????????
????????????; ??? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ?а???
?????? ?????????? XVIIIа???? ????????? ????? ??????????? ???????????? ?а????, ??????? ?????????? ??? ????? ????????????????, ??????????????, ????? ?????? ?а???????????. ?????????? ????????? ???????????????? ?аXVIIIа???? ?????????
?а?????????? ???????????? ????, ??????? ????? ?????????,
??????? ????????? ???????, ????????? ?а???????????? ??????????? ???????????, ????????????, ??????? ????? ?а?????????? ????? ???? ?а???????, ??????? ???????????? ????? ?а?????????? ??????.
????????? ?а???? ??????? ????, ????? ????? ?????, ???????????, ?????? ?ал??? ??????╗ ??????????, ???????????? ?а???????
???????? ??а????????? ??????? ????, ????????, ???? ??????,
??? ?а????? ???????. ???а??? ????? ??????, ????????? ????????????? ?????? ????????, ??????? ??????? ???? ???????? ????????? ?а????????? ????? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ??????????.
?а?????? ??? ??????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ?а??????????, ??????????? ?а??????????, ?а??? ?????????? ???????? ????
?а???????????? ???? ??????? ??????????: ?????????? ??????
??? ??????, ??? ??????????? ????????? ???? ?а??? ??????????????? ???????? ????? ????????????? ?а???????, ?????????? ????? ????? ?а??? ??????????????? ????????? ??а??????? ??????
?????????. ???а??????? ?????, л?????? ??а??????????? ??? ?а???
????? ???????╗5. ??, ??? ?? ??????, ????? ??? ??????: ?а?????? XVIIIа???? ???????? ??? ?????? ???? ????????, ?а???????????? ??????? ????? ??а????? ?????? ??а??????? ??????? ????????? ?а?????? ???????????? ????, ??? ?а??? ?? ????? ?а???
???? ??????? ??????.
4. Douglas?M.?Jokes // Implicit Meanings: Selected Essays in Anthropology. 2nd edition.
London and New York: Routledge, 1999. P.?146???64, 150???51.
5. ???. ??: Paulson?R.?Don Quixote in England: The Aesthetics of Laughter. Baltimore
and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998. P.?6.
104
й ??????????? ? ??????? ? ???????
??????? ?????
???????? ??? ?????? ?а????????? ?????????? ?а?????????
??а????????? ????? ?а??? ????? ????????? ???????, ??????????? ???????? ????? ?а????????, ??????? ?а??????????. ????? ????? ??а?????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ??? ??????,
??а?????? ??а?а?????? ?????????? ??????. ????????, ?а?????
??а???? ??? ????? ????????? ?????? ????, ??????? ??а?????
???? ?????? ??????, ?а??? ????????, ??? ??????? ?а????????
??????? ??? ??????. ??? ????????? ?а??? ????????? ??? ?????,
?а??? ??? ?а????????? ??? ????????? ???????? ????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ?а??? ?????????? ?????????, ?????? ?????? ??????. ???????? ???????????? ??а?????? л?????????╗
???????? ??? ??????; ???????? ???????? ???????? ??а???????????? ?а????????????? ?????? ?????? ??????. ???а????? ??? ?????? ?????????, ????? ?????????? ?????, ????? ???????????
????????? ???????? ????????? ????? ?????? ??? ??? ???????????? ?а??? ?????? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ?а??????????? ??????, ????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ???? ??????? ?а????
???????, ?а??? ????? ??????? ?????????? ???????, ?а??????
?а??????? ???????? ?а?????? XVIIIа????. ???? ?????? ?а???
????? ??? ??? ?????????? л????? ????? ???????? ?а??????╗,
?????, ?а??????? ?????? л???????????╗ ?????? ????????????? ?а??????? ?????? ??а?????? ??а???????, ????????? ??а????????? ?а???????????6.
??????? ??????? ??????? ??а???????? ???????, ??????? ?????? ????????? ??а?????????? ?????????? ?????????? XVIIIа????.
???????, ?????, ??????? ?а????? ???? ?????? ???????????
?а????? ???????, ???????????? ??? ???????, ?а??? ??????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??а?????? ????????????
?????????????? ??????. ?а???????, ??????? ??????? ??а????????? ????? ?????? ?????? л?????? ??????╗, ??? ?? л???????
?а?????????? ?????? ??????????╗. ?????? ??а????? ???????????,
6. Haywood?I .?Faking It: Art and the Politics of Forgery. New York: St. Martin?s, 1987;
Haywood?I .?The Making of History: A Study of the Literary Forgeries of James
Macpherson and Thomas Chatterton in Relation to Eighteenth-Century Ideas of History
and Fiction. Rutherford, N.?J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1986. ?????? ??????????? ????????? ?а???????? ?а???????????? ??????????? ?а????????? ??????????? ?а???? ??????? XVIII а????. ????????, л??????? ???????╗ ????? ???????
?????????? ?а11 ????? ?а???????? ????????????? ?????, ???????????? ???????, ?????????, ?а??? ??? ???????? ???????? ?а????????????? ??????. Mackenzie?H.?The
Man of Feeling [1771]?/?Ed. by B.?Vickers. Oxford World?s Classics. Oxford and New York:
Oxford University Press, 1987.
??1(31) ? 2013 105
??????? ?ал??????? ?????????╗
????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?а????? ???? ????????? ??????,
?????? ??а???????? ?а??? ??????, ????????? ???? ???? ?????? ?, ??а????????, ????????? ?а???, ??? ?????? ?а??????????? ?????? ??а????????? ????????, ?а??а?????????, ??а??а????
?а???а?? ???????????. ????????????? ?????? ????? ???????
?????? ?а?????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?а??? ???????????
?а?????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????, ?а?????? ??????????????, ??а??????? ????????????? ????? ?????? ????????? ??????, ???????????? ????? ??а????? ?????????? ????????, ???
??, ??????? ???? ?а??? ??????7.
????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ?а???????????????
??????? XVIIIа???? ????? ?????? ??????????????, ????????????? ?а?????????? ???? ????????????, ??? ???????? ??? ?????? ????????? ??? ??? ???? ??????????? ???????? ??????????
?????? ?а???, ?????????? ?а???????. ??а????????? cogito ergo
sum, ??а?????? л???? ?а???????????? ?????????╗ ??а????????? ????????, ???????? ???????????; ????????? ???? ????????
?а??????? ??а????? ?????? ??????, ???, ???????????, ???????
??????, ?а???? ???????? ?а??? tabula rasa ??? ??????? ??????
?????????? ????, ??? ??????? ????, ??а??? ???? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ?а???? ?????? ?????, ??? ???? ????????? ??? ????, ??? ?????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?а???,
??? ?? ??????? ?а??? ?? ?????. ???????????, ??? ???????????? ??????? ???????????? ???? ?а??? ???????????? ???????
??????????? ?а???????? ???????, ?????? ??????????, ??? ???????????? ??????? ????????????? ??? ????????? ??????????
??????? ???????? ?????. ????, ????, ???????? ?а????? ?а??? ??,
??? ?????? ????? ??є????, ??а??????? ????, ?????????? ?а??????????? ?????? ??????????????? ??????????, ??????????
????? ???????? ?а?????? ????????, ??? ?????????? ?????
?а???????? ?????. ?????????????, ?????????? ?а????????????
?????????? ???? ?????????? ?а?????????????. ????????? ???
???????????, ???????????? ??а????? ????, ????????, ??????
??? ???? ???? ?????? ?а??????? ?????????? ???? ???? ??а????? ??????, ??а??? ???? ????? ???? ???????, ??? ???????????? ???а?? ????? ???, ??? ?а??????? ? ?а??? ???? ??????? ???
?????? ???????????
7. ??? ???? ?????, ?????????? ????????? ???????, ??? ????????? л??????? ?????, ??? ??????????? ????????╗: Lennox?Ch. The Female Quixote, or the Adventures
of Arabella [1752]?/?Ed. by Amanda Gilroy and Wil Verhoeven. London: Penguin, 2006.
106
й ??????????? ? ??????? ? ???????
??????? ?????
???а????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ???? ???????????
?????????? ????? ??????????, ??????? ?????????? ??а??? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????, ???????????
?а????????????8. ????? ???? ???????? ???????? ??? tabula rasa,
?? ????? ?а???????????? л?????????? ????╗. ??а???? ?а??а????,
??? ???? ???????? ??а??? ??????, ??а????????????? ???? ???
????????. ?????????????, ??? ????? ?????????? л??????????
????╗, ??????? ????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ???? ?????
??а??? ??????? ?а???????, ???? ??а???? ?????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????? ?а????????????, ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?а????????? л????╗ ??а????? ??????? ????? ???а????????? ????? ????? ?а?????? ?а????
????????, ?? ???????? ?????? ????????, ??????? л????а?? ??????? ???? ????? ??а???????????? ??????????╗9. ????????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ????????, ??а???, ????????, ??а????????
????? ??а?????????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????????????, ??а??????? ????????? ????? ????????? ?а?????????? ???????? ??????,
?????????? ????????? ?????? ?а?????? ?????? ??????, ?????? ??а????? ???????????, ??? ???? ?а?????????, ??????????? ???????. ???а???? ?? ?????? ???????, ??? ?а?????? ????? ????? ???? ????? ??? ??? ????????? ?????????? ??а??????,
????? ?????? ?а???????????? ???????? ?????. ???????? ????,
??????? ??????????????? ?????? ?а???? ??????, ??? ?????? ?????????? ?????????: ??? ??????, ?а??? ????? ????? ??а?????
?????????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ??? ??? ?????????? ?????щ?, ??? л???????????? ???????╗. ????????????? ?????? ???????? ?а?????????????? ?????????????? ????? ????? ????, ????????, ???????????? ???????????? ??? ??????????? ???????????
????????????10. ??? ????? ?? ????? ?????????? ????, ????????
??а??????, ????????? л????╗ ??? ???? ??????? ?????. ????а??
???? ?а?а????? ???? ????? ????? ??а???????, ????а?? ??? ???
?????????а?? ?????????, ?а????? ??????????? ??????? ????
????а?? ???????????? ???????????.
????? ?? ??????? ??????? ??а????? ??? ??а??????????, ??
????а?? ???????????? ?а???, ??? ??а????? ???? ?????? ????? л??8. Greenblatt?S.?J.?Marvelous Possessions: The Wonder of the New World. Oxford:
Clarendon Press, 1991.
9. ?????? ?????? ????? ??а27а?????? 1726. William?H. (ed.). The Correspondence of
Jonathan Swift. Vol.?3. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1963???65. P.?189.
10. ??????? ?????????? ??а??????????? ????? ????? ??????????: Parkinson?J.?Paradisi
in sole paradisus terrestris. London: H.?Lownes and R.?Young, 1629.
??1(31) ? 2013 107
??????? ?ал??????? ?????????╗
?????╗. ???? ?????? (news) ????? ?а???????????? ?????????????
?а XVIа???? ?а??????? ??? ?? ????? ??????????, ??????? ????????? ?????? ?а?????????? ??????? ???????????????? ???????????,
??????????? ?а????????, ?????????? ?????? ????? ?а??????????????? ???????? ???????11. ?а??а????? ??? ??? ????????? ?????
???? ????? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ?а?????????????,
?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?а?????. ?????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ??????????????? ??????, ??????? ????? ???? ??????
??а?????????? ???????. ????? ????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ??????? nil admirari (?????? ??а?????????) ?????? ??а????? ??????. ???а????? ????????:
??а???? ?????? ????? ???????????? ?????? ???????, ??????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ?а????????????, ?а???????????. ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ????
???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ????? л???????? ?????????╗ (startle reflex), ??????? ?????
????????? ?а?????: ????? ?????????, ???? ????????? ?а???????,
??????? ???????????, ??? ???? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ??а???, ???? ?????? ??????, ???? ?а?????? ?????
????????12.
???????? ???????????? ???, ???????? ??а???? ?? ???? (Jean de
Lщry, 1536???1613), ???????????? ???????-????????, ?????? ?????
л??????? ??????????? ?а?????? ????????╗ (1578). ???? ??????????, ??? ??? ????????? ????????? л???????? ?а??, ??? ????? ??????? ???? ?а???? ??????? ??? ??а?????, ??? ??? ?????; ?а??, ????
??а????? (??? ????? ?а??? ??а??????) ???????; ?а????? ????????
????, ??????? ??а????? ???? ??????????? ???? ?а???? ???, ???
??а????? ???? ??а?????╗?13 ???????? ?а?????????? ????? ?????
11. ?????? ???? ??????????, ??? ???????? ?????????? ??а???, ??? ?????????????
???? ????? ??? л?????╗: Eamon?W.?Science and the Secrets of Nature: Books of
Secrets in Medieval and Early-Modern Culture. Princeton: Princeton University Press,
1994. P.?108. ???? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ???? ???????????? ????, ?????????? лnovus╗ ??? л???????????╗: Thorndike?L.?Newness and
Craving for Novelty in Seventeenth-Century Science and Medicine. // Journal of the
History of Ideas.?1952. Vol.?12. P.?584???598.
12. Greenblatt?S.?Marvelous Possessions. P.?14, 20. ????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????, ???????, ??? ??? ???????? ???? ???????? ??а??????
????.?Cf.?Elliott?J.?H.?The Old World and the New. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 1970.
13. Greenblatt?S.?Marvelous Possessions. P.?21.
108
й ??????????? ? ??????? ? ???????
??????? ?????
???????а?? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????, ??? ?????? ?????????. ?????? ?????????, ??? ????? ?????а?? ????? ???
????????????? ???? ????? ????????? (1470?1533) ?а?????? ?????????? ???, ??? ?а??? ????? ???????? ?????????? ?а????????????? ????????? ?а??????????14. ??а??? ????, ????? ???????? ????,
??????????? ???? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????
?????????????, ??? ???????? ????. ????, ??а????? ????, ??????
??????? ????? ?????????, ??? ???? ?????? ????????????? ?????? ?????? ?а????????????? ??????? ?а?????. ????а?? ??????
????? ????????? ?????????? ??а???????????? ????, ?????????,
??????????? ?а??????? ???? ?а??????? ??? ???????? ????????
?а??????????? ????.
?а????? ????? л????????? ????????: ??????????? ?????????
XVIIа????╗ ???????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?????????????
???????? ????, ??? ?а?????? ????? ????? ????????? ?а?????????????????? ???? ????????? ????? ?а???а?? ????????? ?????????? ????? ?а???????, ?????????? ?а???????????. ?а??а????? ???
????????????? ????? ????? ??а?????? ???????????? ????, ???
????????? ?а????? ???????? ??????????, ??а??????????? ???????????? ?а???????????? ???????? ???????? ????????. ????????
???????? ????? (1635?1703) ???????????? ????????????? ??????? ???????????? ???а?? ????????????, ??? ?????? ?????? ????????? ??, ??? ?а???? ??а????. ??? ??????? ??а????????? ???????
??????????? ???:
??а??? ??а????? ????????? ??? ?????, ??а???????????? ???? ???????????, ??? ???????? ??????, ??? ??????? ?????????? (???? ?а?????? ????????????, ???, ??? ??? ?????, ????????? ??????? ?????
??????????? ??????????) ?а??????? ????? ???? ????????? ????
??а?????? ????, ????? ??????? ?а??????? ??а?????? ???? ??? ???
????15.
?а????? л??? ?а???????????? ????????╗ (1667), ??????????????
?а??????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ??????, ??????? ?????? ????
????????, ??? ?????? ??????? ?а?????? ???? ?а???, ????? ????????
л???????? ??????╗:
14. Stephens?W.?Demon Lovers: Witchcraft, Sex, and the Crisis of Belief. Chicago: University
of Chicago Press, 2002. P.?235.
15. Hooke?R.?Micrographia (1664). Preface; ???. ??: Alpers?S.?The Art of Describing: Dutch
Art in the Seventeenth-Century. London: John Murray, 1983. P.?73.
??1(31) ? 2013 109
??????? ?ал??????? ?????????╗
???а???????? ?????? ??????? ?????,
????? ??а???????? ????? ??????.
?а???, ?? ?????? ?????? ???? ?????
???????????? ????????? ??? ?????:
?????? ???????? ?????? ?????????
????????? ?????, ???? ??????????16.
?????????????, ??? ????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????,
л??? ??? ????╗, ??а?????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ?а??????, ??а????? ???? ???????? ??? ?????????. ???????
Orbus Pictus ????????? (л??? ??????????? ????? ?а?????????╗
??? ????? ??????????, 1658) ???????????? ????? ????? ???? ??????, ??? ?а???? ????? ????? ?????????? ??, ??? ??????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ?????, ?а????? ????????? ?а??????? ?????.
???? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????, ?????? ??? ??? ??????????, ???
л???????? ?а??? ??? ?????????????? ?????╗17. ??а???????? ????,
??? ???????? ??????? ??а???? ????????????, ????????? ???????
??????????. ??? ???? ?? ?а?????????? ?а???, ??? л?????? ?а???
??????╗, ?? ??а??????, ??? ??? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????????.
??? ??? ?? ??????? ?ал??????? ?????????╗ (1641):
???а??? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????????
????, ??? ????? ?????? ?а???????? ???????????? ?????? ??? ??????, ??? ????а?? ?? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??а????????,
?а?????? ??????? ?????? ??а?????. ?????? ?????????: ?????? ?????? ???????
????? ?????? ?????? ?????????, ?????????? ?????????: 1) ????????? ??? ????? ???????, 2) ??а??а?????, ?а??а?????????? ??????????,
3) ?а?????? ??а?????, ??а????? ???? ???????, 4) ??????? ???????
???????? ?????? ???? ??а????????? ??? ???????????, ??а????????
????? ?а??????, 5) ???, ????? ?????? ????? ???? ????????? ???????
?а?????, 6) ?а????? ????????? ?????? ????? ?а???????????, 7) ?а?????? ??а??????? ??а?????? ??а?????, 8) ?а??????????????? ??а??????
????? ??а??? ???, 9) ???? ??? ??а????? ?????????? ?а??????? ?????????
???????. ????? ??? ??? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????,
??а?????????? ?????????? ???????; ????а?? ????а?? ???? ??а???
??а???????????, ??а????? ????? ???? ?????? ?????????18.
16. ???. ??: Alpers?S.?The Art of Describing. P.?79.
17.Ibid.
18. Ibid, P.?95.
110
й ??????????? ? ??????? ? ???????
??????? ?????
л??????????? ???????╗, ????????????? ??????????, ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ???????????
??????????? ????????? ?а??? ????? ?а??????????? ?????????
???????? ???????. ?????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ???????
??????????? ?а????????? ??????????, ????????? ?????? ???????. ??????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ?а??????? ???????? ?????? ??? ????????? (1667?1723) ?????? ????? ?????????; ?а??? ????????? ???а?? ??????????????, ???????? ??????
??????????:
???????? ??? ??????? ??????????? ???? ????????? ?а??????. ??
??????? ??а?????? ??а???, ??а?а?????? ???. ???а???????? ????, ???
????? ????? ????? ??? ??????????, ?? ??а??? ?????????? ????????
?а???? ?????, ??? ??? ????????? ??а??????, ??? ?? ?????, ??а?????
?????? ???????????, ???????????? ???????. ????????, ??????
??????? ???????????, ??????? ??а???????????. ????? ????? ??????
??? ??????? ???? ???????? ??а??????? ???? ??? ????????? ?????? ??а???? ?????, ??????????? ?????а??????????, ??? ??? ?????
???????? ?????????? ??????19.
?????? ?????? ????????????, ??? ?????? ??а???????????? ??????????? ??? ?????, ??? ????? ????а?? ???????, ??а??? ???????, ??? ??? ???? ???? ???????? ???, ??? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ???????????? ??????20. ????, ???
??????? ?а???? ???? ????? ?а??? ?? ????????? ??????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ?а?????????? ???? ?а???????? ???????
????????????? ????? ?а???? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ?а??????????. ??? ???????????? ????? ???????? ?а???????????, ??????? ??????? ????????? ??? ??????????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ?а????? ?аXVIIа????, ???????????
?а????? ????? ??????? ?а????????? ???????? ???????????????
?а?????????????.
???? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ???? ?а???, ??? ???????????
??? XVIIа??? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ?а???????, ???????? ?а?????? ?????, ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????
???????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????????????? ???19. Ibid. P.?83???84.
20. Wilson?C.?The Invisible World: Early-modern Philosophy and the Invention of the
Microscope. Princeton, N.?J.: Princeton University Press, 1995.
??1(31) ? 2013 111
??????? ?ал??????? ?????????╗
????, ???????????? ?а?????? ????? ?????. ???а????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? л???????????????????╗ ??? л??????????????╗ ????. ???? ??????????? ?????????? ???????, ?????
????? ????????? ??? ????????, ??? ????????? ???????? ?а????
????? ??????? ?а???, ??? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ????????, ??????-??????????????? ???, ?а????? ???????? ????
??????? ?а???? ????? ?а????????????.
???????, ??? ???????? ?????? л???????????????????╗,
???? ????????-?????????, ????????????, ??? ??????????, ????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????. ????????, ????
???? ?а????? ????? л?????????? ???????????? ????????╗ ??????????, ??? ????? ?а?????????? ???????? ??????????????? ?а???????? ??а?????, ??????? ??? ?????????21. ????? ??? ????? л??????????????????????╗ ?а?????????? ??а?????, ???????
??? ?????????? ?а??? ?а???? ???? ???????????? ???? ??а?????.
??????? ?а??????????????????, ??????????????, ??????????????? ?????????? ?а????????? ??а?а???????????, ??????????
?а??????? ??????????? ?а?а?????? ???? ????????????? ??а???
???, ???? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ?а?????
?????, ?????? ?а????? ????? ????????. ??????? ??????????????????? ????? ??????? ????? ??а???????? ???????? ????????, ???
????? ?????? ????, ??ал???????? ???????╗ ?ал???????? ??????? ?а???????╗.
???????? ?????????? (1493?1541) ?ал?????? ???????╗ ???????????? ????? ????? ?????? л???????? ???????╗. ???а?????????? ?????? ????, ??? ???? ????, ?????? ??а????? ?????? ????,
??а??? ??? ??????; ?? ???????? ?? ?а???????? ??????????? ??????????, ?????????? ??а??????????? ????? ??а?????? ??? ??????. ?????????? ?????????? ?а???????????? ??????? ???????????? ??а???????: ?????? aconitum ????? ??? ?????, ??????
??? ??? ?????? ?????? ??а?????; ??????? ???? ????? ?????? ??????22. ???? ??? ?а????? ????? ??????? ???? ????? ???????,
??? ????????? ??????, ?????? ?????? ??????????? ????????
21. Goody?J.?The Domestication of the Savage Mind. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 1977. P.?46: л?????? ???????? ???? ????????? ?а???????? ?а???????, ?????
??? ???????? ??а?????? ?а?а??????? ??а???? ????????????? ?????. ?????? ????????, ??? ?????? ??а??????? ???????? ?а?????????????; ?????????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ???????, ??а????????а??????? ??????????? ??а?????? ????; ???
?????? ?????? ????? ?а????????? ?а???????╗.
22. ??? ??????? ????? ??а?????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ?а????????????? ?а?????? ????: Foucault?M.?The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the
Human Sciences. New York: Vintage Books, 1973. P.?27.
112
й ??????????? ? ??????? ? ???????
??????? ?????
?а???? ???????? ????? ?а????? ????????, ??????? ?? ???????? ??а???????????? ?а???? ??? ????????????. ?????, ?а???????, ?????? ?????? (1516?1565) ????????? ???????, ?? ???????? ?а???????? ??????? ??????, ??? ?????????? ??????????????
???? ?????. ?? ???????? ?а???? ???? ?, ?а????? ?????? ???????, ????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ???????.
?????? ????????? ???? ??????? ????????? ?а?????? ??????????? ?а??????????, ????????? ?а???????. ?????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ??? ???????? ??? ????, ??? ?? ????????
л??????????????? ??????????????╗, ??? ??????? ??? ???????
??? ???? ??? ?????? ????????? ?????23. ??а????????? ???????
?????? ???????????? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ?а???????
л????? ???????╗, ?????????? ?????. ?а??????????? ??????
????????, ??? ??? ??????? ?а???????? ???????? ????? ???, ???
??????????, л??? ?а????????, ?????????? ????? ?????, ?????? ????? ????? ???? ?????, ?????? ??? ?а???????????, ?а???
??? ?????? ?а??????? ???????, ?а??????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?а??????, ??????? ????, ???? ?а?????? ??а????? ?????╗24.
?а?????? ????? ????? ????? ??????????????? ??????? ????
????????? ?????, ????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ??а?????????, ????????????? ?а???????????? ??????? ??? ??а?а???????? ??????? ?а??????? ?????????, ?а?а???????? ???????. ????
?????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ????? ??????, ??а?????? ????? ?????????? ??????, ??? ?????, ?а????? ?????? ????????? ????. ??????????? ????? ?????23. Ashworth?W.?B., Jr. Natural History and the Emblematic World View // Reappraisals of
the Scientific Revolution?/?Eds.?D.?C. Lindberg and R.?S.?Westman. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1990. P.?303???332, 312. ?????? ?????: л????????????? ???????
????, ??а????? ??????, ???????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????? ????????
??????????? ?а???? ????????. ????? ????? ????????????? ???? ???? ?а???, ???
?????? ?????? ?а??????? ????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?а??? ?????? ??????? ??а?????????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ???????. ????? ??????? ???????,
??? ???????? ???????, ???? ???? ????? ??а?????? ??, ??? ?? ????????, ??а?а???
???????? ??? ???????? ??а???? ??????; ?????? ????????? c ??? ???????????? ??????????; ??? ?? ?????? ??? ????????? ?а??? ????????; ?а?????? ??????? ????????? ?а???? ???? ??????? ??? ??????? ????????; ?а????? ?????? ?????????
?????, ??????? ?а???? ????? ???? ??а????????, ??????????, ??????????, ???????, ???????? ?а??? ??????. ?????? ?????????? ??? ??? ??а??????, ??? ??? ??а??????? ???????????? ???????? ??? ?????????, ??а??????, ??? ?????? ?а???????
????а?? ????? ????????. ????, ??? ??????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ??а????????? ????????? ?а??? ??? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?а????????, ?????????? ?а??????????? ????????, ???? ?????????? ????? ???????? ???????????╗.
24. Ibid. P.?316.
??1(31) ? 2013 113
??????? ?ал??????? ?????????╗
????????????? ??????, ??????????????? ?????? ??????? (???
?а?????? ??????), ?????????? ??а????????? ?а?????????????, ??????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ???? ?а?????????? ????????????? ????????, ??????? ??? ????? ????, ??? ????? ???????
л?????????????? ???????╗ ?а??? ?????. ???а??????? ??????,
л????????? ?а??????? ??а?????????? ?а??????, ?????????? ???
????? ?????????; ??? ??????????? ?а?а???????? ??????. ??? ?????? ?а?????? ???? ??????, ??? ???????????????? ????????╗25.
?а 1623а???? ??????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??а?????
????? ????????????? ????????; ??а?а1676а???? ???? ??? ???????? ?????? ??а???????????? ?????, ????? ???? ???????? ???
??а????????????26.
???а?????????? ???????, ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? XVIIа????: л????????? ?????????. ??а????????? ????? ?а??????????, ?????? ??? ?а?????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ?а????? ?????? ?????╗27. ?а???????? ????????
????? ????????? ?????????????? ?а??????????????? ???????
?????? ??????? ????????? ??а??????? ?????? peep-box28 ?а???????????, ??? ???????? ?????????? ?а?????? ????????????.
??????? ?????:
Peep-box ?а??? ???????????, ??????? ????????? ????????? ??????
??? ??а????????????? ?????????? ????? ??????, ??? ??? ?????????? ?а????????????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ????????????.
?????????? ?а????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????
?а????????? ??????, ?????????? ?????? ??? ???? ??а??????
??????? ?а??? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ???????. ??????? ????? ??????????. ???? ?????????? ????? ??????? ?????? ????
??а????????, ??а???? ??а???????? ??а?????????? ?????? ??????????
??? ???????29.
25. Ibid. P.?318.
26. ??а??????? ?????????? ?а????? ???????? ??.: Slaughter?M.?Universal Language and
Scientific Taxonomy in the Seventeenth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 1982.
27. Alpers?S.?The Art of Describing. P.?85.
28. Peep-box ?а??? ??????????? ??????????? ?а?????? ??????? ?аXV ???X VI а??., ??????????????? ????? ???? ?а??????????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ?????; ??????? ?????? ????????? л????╗. ?а????. ???.
29. Ibid. P.?163.
114
й ??????????? ? ??????? ? ???????
??????? ?????
Peep-box ?а??? ?????? ????? ????, ??? ????????? ?а????? XVIIа????.
????? ??? ???? ??????????? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ????? ??????, ???????????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ???
??????????, ????? ????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ??а????? ?????????? ????????, ?????????????? ?а?????????. ?а????? ????? ????? ????????? ????????????? ????????, ???????????? ????? ???? ?а??????
?а?а????? ?а?????, ?а???????????? ???? ???????????. ??, ????????? ???????????? ???? ????????, ???????????? ????????????? ?а????????, ??? ????????? л??????╗, ?????????? ??????
??????, ??а?????? ?а??? ?????????? ????????????? ?а????????
?а??????????? ????????????? ????. ????? ????? ??? ??????
?а??????????, ??? ?????? ????? ????? ???? ?????? ????????
?а???????, ??????? ??? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ????
???? ?????????? ?а??????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????
?????. ??????? ??????????, ??? л???????????╗ ?????? ????
?а??? ????? ??? ????????? ??? ??? ?????? ?а????? ????? ????????? ??????????? ?а?????????? ?а?????: ???? ??? ??? ???????
???? ??????????? ?а????????? ???????????30. ????????? ?????????????? ????????? ???????? ?а?????, ??????? ??? ?а?????? ???????, ???? ????? ??а?????????? ??????????? ??????? ??а?????
?а????????? ????????? ?а???????????31. ??а??? ????????? ????,
????????, ????????????? ???????? ??? ???? ???, ??? ??? ???
??????????? ????? ?????? ??????????????? ???? ?????????????
??? ????????? ??а???????????? ????????????? ?а????????, ??????? ????? ????? ?а??? ?????.
???? ??а????? ????? ??а?????? ???????????? ????????????,
????????? ?а?????????? ??????, ????????? ?а1726а???? ?а???? ??????? ?а?????????????????? ????????? ??а????? ???? ????, ?а??????? ??????????, ??? ??? ?????? ??????????? ????????. ????
??????????? ???? ???????? ?????????. ?????? ??????????, ???
????? ????????????? ??а?????????????? ???????? ??а???????
30. Findlen?P.?Jokes of Nature and Jokes of Knowledge: The Playfulness of Scientific
Discourse in Early-modern Europe. // Renaissan Quarterly. 1990. Vol.?43. P.?292???331,
310: л?????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ????? ??а???? ???????? ???????????? ?????╗.
31.????? ??????????? ??а??????? ?а????? ??.: Greenblatt?S.?Renaissance SelfFashioning: From More to Shakespeare. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1980;
Daston?L., Parks?K.?Hermaphrodites in Renaissance France // Critical Matrix. 1985.
Vol.?1. ??а??????? ????????? ??????? ?а?????? ??. Levine?L.?Men in Women?s
Clothing: Anti-Theatricality and Effeminization from 1579???1642 // Criticism. Spring
1986. Vol.?28. P.?121???43.
??1(31) ? 2013 115
??????? ?ал??????? ?????????╗
????? ?а???????? ??а???? ?а????? ????; ????? ????, ?а??? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ???????.
?? ??????????? ???? ????????????? ???????????????? ??????,
??? ??????? ???????????, ???????????? ?????????? ????????,
????? ???????? ??а????. ?а???? ?????? ??????? ???????????
??а???????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ???? ?а???????? ????????. ???? ?а???? ???????? ???????-?????? ???? ??????, ??????? ??? ??? ??????? ???????????, ??? ???? ??????? ?????????????. ?????, ???????-??????? ??? ?????? ?????? I, ?а???????
??????? ???? ??????? ??????????, ????? ?????? ??а?????? ?а????? ????????? ???????. ??????? ?????? ?а?????? ?а?????????
????????; ????????? ???????? ?а???????? ??а?а?????? ????????????? ????? ???????. ???а??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?а????
???? ???? ?????????????? ??????: ?? ??????????? ?? ??? ????,
????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?а??????? ????????
??? ????. ??? ??????? ??? ????????? лCunicularii╗ ???? ??а?????? ???????????? ????????? ???? ???????, ??а?а???????, ???????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ?а?????? ?????
??????????? ??????, ???????????? ??????????? ???????. ????? ??а???????? ????????? ???? cuniculus (??????) ?аcunnus (??????), ?????? ?????????? ?а???? ?????? ??а???? ?????????????? ???
???????? ???????? ????? л??????? ????!╗. ???а?????????????
????????? ??????? ???????, ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ?а????? ????????, ??????????? ???? ???????? ??????, ?а???? ???? ?а???? ???? ????? ?а????????? ?????? ??????32.
???????????? ??????? ??????? ??а????? ???? ????? ??а???????????? ???? ????????. ??????? ??????????? ??????????????
????????? л??????? ???????????╗ ??? ??? ????? ?????? ?????
??а?????????? ?????????; ??? ?а???? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ?.??????????, ??? ?????? ??????? ????, ?а??????, ?????????? ??а????????????, ????????? ?????, ????????? ?а?????? ??????. ?а???? ???????????? ????? ?а??????? ?????? ???? ?а????,
?а?? ????????? ????33. ???????????? ????? ??????? ??а?????? ???????????? ????????, ???????????????, ?????????? ?ал???????
??????╗. ?а??????? ??????, ???????????? ????? ??????????
???????? ????????? (1733), ?? ????? ??а????? ??????????? л??????????????? ??????╗. ??а??? ?????????? ???? ?????, ??32. Paulson?R.?Hogarth?s Harlot: Sacred Parody in Enlightenment England. Baltimore and
London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003. P.?75???76.
33. Ibid. Passim.
116
й ??????????? ? ??????? ? ???????
??????? ?????
?????? ???????? ?????? ?а???????, ?а?а??????? ????? л??????╗
?а???? ??????????, ????????????? ???????? ??? ?????????????????? ????????, ???????? ??????? ???????.
?ал??????? ????╗ (1749) ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ???
????????????. ??а?????? ????? ??????? ????? ??????, ???? ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ???? ???. ?????????? ????????? ?????. ?а?????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ????????, ??????? ????? ?а??????? ?????????? ???????
?????? ???????. ????? ????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ?????,
?а???????? ??? ????? ????? ????, ?а??? ??? ??? ???? ?????????
????????????? ??? ?????? ??????. ??????? ????? ????? ???????
?а??????? ?а????????? ???????????? ??????! ????????? ??????,
??? ??????? ????? ??? ??? ?а???? ?????? ?????, ?? ??? ?а???????????? ??????, ??а???? ?а??? ???????????? ??? ???? ?????????????, ?????????? ??????? ?а???? ???????? ??????. ??????????
?????????, ??????, ??? ??? ???? ????????? ?????? ?а??? ??????,
???? ?????????? ?а?????????? ?????? ??? ?????: ???? ??????
?а?????? ????? ??????? ??а??????.
???????????? ??????? ??а??????? ?????? ?????, ??а????? ???????, ??? ??????? ???? ????????. ??? ??? ????? ?????
?а????????:
How I want thee, humourous Hogart?
Thou I hear, a pleasant Rogue art;
Were but you and I acquainted,
Every Monster should be painted..
???а??? ????????? ????, ??????? ??????!..
????? ????, ?????? ????????-?????????;
????а?? ?? ???? ?а????? ???????,
??а?? ?????????? ???? ??????? ????34?
????? ??? ?????а?? ?????????? ???????? ?а????????? ???????????, ??? ?а??????. ?ал?????? ?????╗ ????, ??????????????
????-?????????, ???????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?а????? (????? ??а?????? ?а????????), ??? ?????? ???? ?а??? ??????? ???????. ???, ???, ??? ??? ?????, ?????? ?а??????? ??а???? ?а???
34. Swift?J.?A Character, Panegyric, and Description of the Legion Club. (???. ??:
Fabricant?C.?Swift?s Landscape. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University
Press, 1982. P.?14).
??1(31) ? 2013 117
??????? ?ал??????? ?????????╗
??????? ?????. ????? ???? ??а??????? ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ??????? л?????????? ???????╗ ?а?????? ??а?????, ????? ???????? ???, ?????????, ??? ?????? л??????????╗ ???????
???????? ?а?????????????? ?а?????????????? ??????, ??? ?????? ?????? ????????? ????? ?????????????? ????????? ?а????? ?а??? л??а??????? ???????? ?а??? ?????????? ?а??а???????
??????? ???????????? ?????? ?а??? ???╗35. ????? ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ???????? ??????????????? ?ал???????????? ?????????╗, ????? ???????? ????????? ?????? л???????╗-?????????, ??? ????? ??а??????, ??а??????? ???????? ?????????
?а????? ?а????????, ??? ?????? ?а???, л?????а?? ???? ???? ???
???? ???? ?????; ?а????? ?????а?? ??? ?????????? ????? ??????
??? ?????╗36. л??????????? ?а????? ??а?????╗ ?????? ???????????? ??? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?????????, ??????? ??
????? ??????? ?????? ????, ???????? ????? ???? ???????? ??а??????????? ???????? ?а???????? ????????? ???, ???? ?а?????????, ?????? ???????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????. ??????
??????? ?????????, ????? ??????? ?????????? ?а???? ??????? ?????? (1628?1699), ?а??а???? ????????? ??? ????????? ????????? л????????? ??????????? ?а????????? ?????╗ ???????
????? (1665). ??? ??????????? ????? ???? ?а?????? ????????????? ??????????, ??? ?????? ????, ?а???? ???????? ???
??????????? ????????? ???????? ?а?????, ?а????? ??????????
??????????? ?а?????????? ???????????. ????? ??а??? ??????? ????? ????????????. ??? ??????????? ??? ?????? ??а????? ?????????? ??????? ?а???????? ??????????? ?а??????????? ?????????.
??????????? ?????? ?????? ???? ???????? ?????? ?????????
?а???????, ??а??а????????. ????, ??????, ?а???, ??? ???? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ??????, ??а????? ??а????????????,
??? ?????? ??а?????? ?????????. ??????? ????????? ???????????? ??? ??? ??а???? ?а????? ????????? л???????? ????????
??? ????????╗. ???а?? ????????, ??? л?????? ??? ?????, ??? ??????? ????????? ????? ?а????????? ??а?????? ????? ?а????
?а????????? ??? ????, ???????? ?? ???????? ?а??????? ?????╗.
?????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??????? л?????? ?????╗ ??????,
??? ??? ????????? ????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ???????,
35. Swift?J.?A Tale of a Tub // Jonathan Swift Major Works. Oxford World?s Classics?/?Ed.?A.?Ross
and D.?Woolley. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984. Sect. II . P.?102???3.
36. Swift?J.?Gulliver?s Travels. Chapter 5.
118
й ??????????? ? ??????? ? ???????
??????? ?????
?а??а?????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????. ?????? ?????, ??? ?????? л??????? ???????????? ??а????? ???????╗
?а??? ??? ???? л????? ?????? ???????????? ???? ????, ??? ?????????? ????????? ??? ???? ??????? ???? ?а???????╗, ?а???
л?????? ??????, ???, ??????????? ?????? ?а????????? ???????, ?????? ?а?????????? ?а??? ????????? ??????????, ?а?????
????????? ?а???? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ??????? ?а?????? ??????? ??????╗37.
????????? ?а?????? ???? ?????. ??а??????? ??а???????? ??????? ??а????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ?а???????????
?а????? ???????????????????, ???? ??а??????, ???????, ???????
??? ???????????. ?????? ??????-??. (1762?1836) ?????? ????? ??????? ????????? ?????????????????? ???????, ?а???????
?????? ?а??????; ?а???? ??? ?????? ???? ?а??? ???????? ???
???? ????. ?? ??????? л????????? ??????????╗, ??????????
??? ????????? ??????? л???????????? ??????? ????╗ (Moor ???
Moore), ??????? ??? ???????? ?а????????? ??????? ?а??????????? ??а??? ???? (Cock Lane).
????? ?а?????, ????????, ???????, ???, ???????, ?????, ??????????, ????????? ?а???????.
?а?а???? ????, ??????? ?????? ?а??????????? ????? ????????.
?а?а???????? ???????, ??????? ??????? ????? ?????, ??а????????? ??????? ????????? ????????????, ??а????? ?????? ?????? ????? ?а???-??????? ????.
?а?а?.??. [?????????? ??????], ??????? ????????? ???? ????? ??а?????????? ?а? [?] ? [?] ? [?] ??.
?а??а??? ?????? ????????? ??????-???????????? ??????.
?а???? ?а???; ?а???? ?а?????; ?а???? ?а???????????; ?а???? ?а??????; ?а???? ?а??????????, ????????????? ??????; ?а???? ?а???????????? ???; ?а???? ?а?????? ????? ?????; ?а???? ??а??? ???????,
??????, ???????, ?а?.??., ?а?. ?38.
???а?????????? ???? ??а???? ????????????? ????????, ????????? ?????? ??а??????? ?а??????? ??????? XVIIIа???? ????????? ??? ?????? ?????????. ???а????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?а????????????? ??????, ????? ????? ??? ??????
???????? ?а???????????? ?????? ???????? ?а????? ????. ?????
37. ???. ??: Paulson?R.?Don Quixote in England. P.?126???7.
38.???. ??: Lynch?J.?Deception and Detection. P.?39.
??1(31) ? 2013 119
??????? ?ал??????? ?????????╗
??????????? л?╗ ?аXVIIIа???? ???????????. ??? ????? ?? ???????? л?╗ ??? л????? ??? ???????? ????????? ????????, ???????? ????????? ?а??????????? ??????? ?а????????╗39. ?????????????, ?????????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ?????
????????? ????????, ???????? ????? ????????? ??? ?????????? л??????????????????? ????????╗ (лenterprise society╗), ??????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ??????????? ???? ?????? ?а????????????. ????? ?а???? ??????????
????????????, ??? ?????? ???????, ???? ?а????????? ???????
?а????????? ?????? ?????. ??? ???????????? ????? ???????????
?а???????????? ???????, ??????????? ?а????? ?а?????? ????????
?????? ?а???????????????? ???????????. ?????? ?а????? ??????? ??? ????? ???????? ?а????? ?????? ?а?????? ???? ?????????? ?а???? ???? ?а??????? ????? ??????, ?а??а????????? ?????
???? ??? ????????????, ??? ?а?????????40. ??а???? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ??? ??????????? л?????????╗. ????????, ???????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ?????, ???????? ????? ?ал???????? ???????╗? ???? ??? ???
????? ?????????, ???????? ??????, ??? ??????????? ????? ??а????? ???? ?а??????????, ?а????????? ?а?????? ??????? ????????, ??а??? ??, ????????, ?????? ?а??? ??????? ?а????????? ???????? ??? ???????? ??? ??????????????? ???????? ?а??????
?а???????????
?????? ???????????? ?а??????? ???????????? ???? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ?а??? ?????, ????? ???????????????
?а?????????? ????? ?а????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????????. ????? ????? ???? ??????????, ??? л???????? XVIIIа????
?а????? ?????? ???? ???????, ??? ?????????????, ??? ???????? ????????╗ ?а??? л?????????? ???????? XVIIIа???? ????? ????? ?????????? ?а?????????????, ????? ?????????? ?а?????????????╗, ?а??????, ??????? ??????????? ?????? ????????????41.
?а????? л???? ?а???????? ??????? ??????????╗ (Essay on the
39. Hume?D.?A Treatise of Human Nature // Ed. by Lewis?A.?Sleby-Bigge. Oxford: Clarendon
Press, 1978. P.?252 [Book?I .?Part iv. Sec. vi] [???. ???.: ????.???????? ?а????????????
??????? // ????????? ?а2 ??. ?.?1. ?.: ?????, 1965. ??????I .?????? IV . ??. VI ].
40. Seigel?J.?The Idea of the Self: Thought and Experience in Western Europe since the
Seventeenth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. P.?351.
41. Castle?T.?The Culture of Travesty: Sexuality and Masquerade in Eighteenth-Century
England // British Literature, 1640???1789: A Critical Reader?/?Ed.?R.?Demaria, Jr. Oxford:
Blackwell Publishing, 1999. P.?251???270, 251. ??. ????? ?????? ????? ????а?? ??????:
The Female Thermometer: Eighteenth-Century Culture and the Invention of the
Uncanny. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.
120
й ??????????? ? ??????? ? ???????
??????? ?????
Knowledge of the Characters of Men, 1743) ????? ??????? ???????? ??? ??? л??????????? ????????╗ ?а???????, ??? л????????
????? [?????] ???????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ?а???????╗42. ???????? ?????????? ?а???, ??? л???? ??? ???? ????????╗ ?а????????? ??????? ??а????? ?????????, ????????? ?а???
??? ?ал?????????? ?????????╗ ?ал??, ?? ?а??╗43. ???????? ?????????????, ????????????? ?????????, ??????? ?а??????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?а??????????????,
??????? л????? ?а?????????? ?????????, ??? ?????? ?????? ????? ????╗44. ????? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ????, ??? ?????
????????? ??а????? ???? ?а??????. ?ал???????? ??????╗ ??????? (1784) ??????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ?а??????????????
?????? ???????????? л?╗:
?а??????, ??? ?????????, ?а????? ??? ?а???????? ??? ??????????,
??????а?? ??? ???, ??? ??? ?????????, ?а??? ?????, ???????, л?╗,
???????? ????????? ???? ??? ????? ????????: ????? ??а??????????? ??????????? ??????, ?????? ???????????, ??????????
??????, ??????? ???????, ???????? ????????????, ????????? ???
???????????! ???? ????? ????? ??а?????????? ??????? ????????,
??????? ????????, ?????? ????? ?а?а??????????? ??а??????? ??????, ?????????? ??а?????????, ???????????? ??а?????????????,
??а?а??????? ??а????????????! ?а?????? ????????? ?а??????, ????? ??????? ????????? ?а????, ??? ?????? ????????, ????? ?а??????? ??????????. ?а??? ?????, ???? ?????????, ??? ???????45.
???????? ???? ????? ?????????? ????????????????????. ??????? ????????? ???????? ??????, ??????? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ?а??????????. л???? ??? ?а??????????? ????? ??????????
?а??????????, ?а??????????? ??, ?а?????? ????? ??????, ?????????,
?????????? ?????????? [??а?????????] ? ?а???? ???????? ?????????? ????????? [??????] ??а???????? ???????? ????????-
42. ???. ??: Castle?T.?The Culture of Travesty. P.?251.
43.Ibid.
44. Johnson?S.?The Rambler, The Yale Edition of the Works of Samuel Johnson?/?Ed. by
W.?J.?Bate and A.?B.?Strauss. Vol.?4. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1953. P.?33.
45. Wilkie?B., Hurt?J. (eds.). Literature of the Western World. Vol. II : Neoclassicism Through
the Modern Period. New York: Prentice Hall, 2000. Act?V .?P.?465???66 (???. ?.??.?????????).
??1(31) ? 2013 121
??????? ?ал??????? ?????????╗
???? ???????? ??а?а?????????? ?????? ?а????????╗46. ?????????
???? ????????? ??? ????????: ????? ?а????????? ?????????????
????????? ???????? ???????????? ?а???????????, ????????????
???????, ??????? ?а???? ??????? ?а???????? ???, ???? ??а????
????????????. ?????? ??????, ????????? ????????? ????????
???????? ??? ?????, ??????????????? ?а???????? ??????????.
?????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?????????:
??? ???????, ??? ?а???? ??????? ?а?????, ????????? ?а??????????
?а??? ???????, ?а??а???? ??а????? ???????? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ?????????, ?а?а???? ?????????? ?а??? ??????, ?а??????? ?а??? ???, ????? ????????, ??? ??? ??? ?????47.
????????? ??????? ????, ??а??? ????????????? ???????? ?????????, ????? ????????? ???? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ???????? ?????. ????????, ??????? ??????? л???? ????? ?а?????? ??????, ????? ??? ?????????? ?а?????? ????????
??а????????? ????-????????? ??а??????╗ ?а1749а?. ???????? ?????? ??????, ??? ????????? л????????? ?????, ??? ????????? ????
???а?? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ??????╗48. ???????????
?????????? ???? ??????????? ????????? ?????. ???????? ???????, ?????????? ?????? ?а????????? ?????????? ???? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????, ??? ?а?????, ??? ?а?а?????????.
??????? ????? ??????? ???????? л?????????? ???????, ????????? ?????╗ (1769) ?????????? ???????????, ??????? ?????
?а?????????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ???????
????? ??а????? ?????. ?а1770а???? ????? ????????????? ??а?????
??а?????????? ?????? ???????? ?а????: ?? ??? ?а?????? ?????,
?а???????? ???????-????? ????????? ????? ?ал????????? ??а??????? ???????, ???????? ?а???? ?а????????? ??????? ??????????? ?а????╗. ???а???????? Gentleman?s Magazine (???? 1770),
??? ??????? л?????????? ??????????????╗ (unavoidable indelicacy), ?а??? ????? ???? ??? ????? ???????? ????, ??? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ????? ?а????? ???????????? ?????? ????????49.
46. Letter to Lady Bradshaigh, 17 August 1752. ???. ??: Castle?T.?The Culture of Travesty.
P.?269. Note 25.
47. Ibid. P.?261.
48. Castle?T.?The Culture of Travesty. P.?257.
49. Ibid. P.?258.
122
й ??????????? ? ??????? ? ???????
??????? ?????
????????????? ??а?????? ??????, ??а????? ?а????????? ????????. ?а????????????? л??а??????????╗ (1727) ????????? ????
????????????, ??? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ??? ???????
?а??????? ?а????????? ??:
???????? ????? ?а??????,
?????????, ????? ??а???????,
????? ?а?????? ?????????? ??а?????,
?а????????? ??????? ??а?????50.
??а?????????? ????????? ??а?????? ?????????, ??а?а?????????
???????: ???????????? ???? ?а???????. Gentleman?s Magazine
(?????? 1776) ????????? ??????? ????????? ??а????????? ?а????????, ??????? л???????? ?а??????? ??????, ?а????????? ?а?????? ????, ???????????? ??а?????? ?а?????? ?а?????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ??а???????╗. ?а1755а???? The Connoisseur
????????, ??? ???? ??????????, ?????? ????? ????? ??????,
?????? ??а???????? ?????? ????????, ?а????? ???????? ?а?а???????, ?а????????????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ?????, ??????? ???????? ??????????? ??? ??????. ????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ???? ????????????
????, ??? ???????????? ??????? ??ал???????????╗, ??а???? ???????
?????? ?а??????????. ??, ??? ?????? ???? ???????? л????????????╗ ?а??????????? ???? ?а??????, ???? ???????? ??? ????????????? ?а?????????????????. ????????????, ??? ?а?????, ????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????????
???? ?а?????????.
???? ???? ??????? ????? ???? ????а?? ??????а?????, ??а????????? XVIIIа???? ?а???? ????????. ??? ?????????? ??а????????????? ?а???????????? ??????????, ?????????? ?????????? ?а???? ??а?????????? ??????? ???????????, ?????? ??? ???
?а??????? ??????? ???? ????????????? ?а?????????? ?????????? ?????????????, ?а?????? ??а?????????????. ???? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ??????, ??? ???????????
?????? ??а????? ??????? ???????, ?????? ??? ??а??? ????? ????????? ?а???????, ??????, ?????????, ???????, ?????????? ??а????????, ?а??? ????? ???а?? ????????51.
50.Ibid. P.?254.
51. Castle?T.?Masquerade and Civilization: The Carnivalesque in Eighteenth-Century English
Culture and Fiction. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1986; Tseыlon?E.?Masquerade
??1(31) ? 2013 123
??????? ?ал??????? ?????????╗
???а??, ??? ????????? ????????????, ??????? ?а??????????
XVIIIа???? ????? ??????????? (???????? ????а?? ??ал?????
?????╗ ????? ???), ????????? ???????? ???????? ???? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ?а?????????? ????????. ???а?????? ?ал???????????╗ (??14) ?????? ????, ????????? ?????????
????????????? ?а???, л??? ??????а?? ????╗52. ????????? ?????? ?????? ?а?????? ???????????? ?а????????????, ????????????, ?????????? ??? ?????????????????. ?????????? ?а??????????, ?а???????? ????????, ?????????? ?????? ???, ????????
???????????? ????????? ?а????????? ???????, ???????????????, ????????? ?а??????? ???????, ?????????? ?????????????,
??а??????? ????? ??????????? ????.
???????? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ?а??????
?????? ??а????? ???? ????????????? л?╗. ??? ???????? ??????????? ???? ???? ?????. ???а????? ????? ????????? ????, ??? ?????,
???? ?а????, ?????????????? ?а?????? ??????????? ????????? ???,
??????????, ????????? ????? л??????? ??????? ???????????╗,
???????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????, ?????????
?а???, ??а?а???????? ??????, ??а?????? ?????????? ?а??? ????????.
?????? ??????????, ??а?????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????: л???╗ ????, ????????, л???╗, ?а?а?????????? ????????
?????, ????????????????, ???????? ??????????? ??? ????????.
??? ????? ???????????: ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?а???? ?????? ??? ?????? ?а???????? ???? ???????? ?????????, ???????
?????????? ?а1708а???? ?а???????. ?????? ????? ???? ?а????
?????? ???? ??????, ??? ?а??????? ???? ????? ??????? ?а???????? ?????????53. ???а????? ????? ??????????, ??? ??????????
??????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ?а?????? ??????????, ???
??? ??????? ????? ???????? л????????????, ???????? ?а??????????╗, ??? ????? ???????? ?????54. ???????? ??а??????? ?????? British Apollo, ?????????? ??????????? ?а????а?? ?а?????????
???? ??а????? ??? ???? ?????? ?????а?? ??????? ????? ??????
and Identities: Essays on Gender, Sexuality, and Marginality. London and New York:
Routledge, 2001.
52. Castle?T.?The Culture of Travesty. P.?252.
53.?????????, ??? ??? ???????? ????????? ?а?????????? ????, ??? ???? ?????? ????
?????????? ?????, ??????????? ???????? ?а?????? ???????????? (?????? ??????? ???????, ??????????? ?а??????????? ???????? 12а??? 1708а????). ???. ??:
Kerby-Miller?Ch. (ed.). The Memoirs of the Extraordinary Life, Works, and Discoveries
of Martinus Scriblerus. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988.
54. ?????? ??а10а???? 1709а?. ???. ??: Ibid. P.?295.
124
й ??????????? ? ??????? ? ???????
??????? ?????
????????а?? ??а????? ?????????? ??а????? ??а??? ?????? ?а??????? ??? ??????? ???? ????????? ?ал????????╗ ??????? ?а?????, ??????????? ???????? ????, ???????????????? ????????????? ??а??? ????????? ??а????? ??а??????-?????????. ?????
????????? ?????? ?а??????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ?????-???????, ????? ??? ??????????,
??? ???????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?а????????????????
????, ?а?????????, ??? ??????? ????????? ?а??????????:
??????? ????????? ??а???????? ???????, ?а?? ?????? ??? ???????? ??????? ?а????? ???????? ?а??????? ?а?????? ???. ??????? ????????? ??а????????? ???????, ?а?? ???????? ?????? ??а??????? ???????? ?а?????? ???????? ??а?????? ???? ?а????. ??а?????
??????? ??а?????? ??????? ??? ??????? ????? ??? ????? ?????????. ?а????????? ???????, ??? ???? ????? ??????? ?????а?? ??????? ???????? ??? ????? ????????, ??????? ???????????а??
????? ????? ??а??? ????????? ?????? ????? ????. ??????? ????????: ????????? ?а??????? ??а???? ?????????? ??? ???? ????? ?????????? ????, ??а????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????. ????????? ???, ??? ???? ???? ??????? ????, ??а??? ???? ???? ????,
?а??????? ????? ???? ?????? ???? ????; ?????? ??? ????????? ????? ?а???? ????? ????; ?, ?????????????, ??? ?????? ???? ????? ?????, ??? ????? ???? ?????? ???? ????. ????????? ??? ??????????,
????? ??а???????? ?????? ??????, ??? ??а???? ???????, ??а??????? ????, ??а????????, ??а???????? ?????? ?????? ??? ????????? ??????????????? ????, ???? ?????? ?????? ??????????:
?а????? ????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ?а????????????? ??
?????? ?????????? ????????, ??? ????? ??????????? ???? ????????
?а???????????? ????? ????55.
??? ????????????? ?????? ?????? ??а?????????? ???????????
??????! ???а?????????? ??? ??????, ???? ????????????? ????
?????????? ????? ??? ?????, ???? ????????. ???? ???? ???? ??????? ?????? ????????, ???а?? ??????? ??? ???????? ?а???? ????????? ?????????: ??????? ???????????? ??????? ??????????.
?а????? ?????????? ???????? ?а?????? ??????. ????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ?а???????? ????????????? ?????????:
55. Ibid. P.?157???8.
??1(31) ? 2013 125
??????? ?ал??????? ?????????╗
?? ????? ????? ??????? ?а???? ?а????? ??????? ????, ???????????? ??? ??а????, ????? ?????? ???????, ?а??????? ??а?а????????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ??????; ???? ????? ????? ?а??????????? ??? ????? ??? ???????? ?а???????? ?а????? ????? ?????
?????? ???????? ?а????????????? ???????56.
???а????????? ??? ??????, л????? ????? ??а??? ??????? ????????, ??а?а?????????? ?????╗57.
???а????????? ?????, ?????? ?а?????? XVIIIа????, ???????????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????????? ???а?? ?????????? ?а????? ??а?????, ?а??а???? ???????????? ?????? ????, ???
????? ?а??????. ??? ????, ??? ?? ?????? ??а????? ?????, ???
??? ??? ?? ????, ?а???? ???????? ???????? ?а???????? ?????,
???? ???????? ????? ?а??????. ????????, ??????? ?????? ???????????? ????????????? ????? ???????????, л????????????╗,
??а??????? ????, ??? ?????????, ?а??????? ????????. ?а????? ????????? л??а????????????? ???????????╗ ?????? ??????? ????????, ??? ??????? ?а??а?????? ????????? ??????, ??а?а????????? ????????????:
???? ???? ?а????????? ????? ????????? ?а?????????? ?????????????, ??? ????? ?а????? ???????? ????????????, ?а?? ??????, ???
??????????? ????? ?????????? ??????, ??????? ????? ????????
?????, ???? ?а????, ?????? ?????? ????? ?а???????? ?????; ??а???
?????? ???????? ??? ?????????????, ?????????????? ????? ???????????, ?а?????????? ?????? ??????????? ??а?????????? ???????
??? ?а????????? ???????58.
??????? ??????, ?????? ??а??? ?а??? ?????! ??????, ????????
??а???: ??????? ?????????? ???: л?а????? ????, ???? ?а????? ???
??????? ?а??????? ?а????? ???????????, ???, ????????, ????
??а??????? ???╗59. ???????? ????????, ???????, ??????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?а?а??????? ?? ?????? ??? ????, ??????????
??????? л????????????╗. ??? ??????? ?????? ????? ???? ??????? ??а??????????? ?а???? ?????????? ???????????. ??????, ???,
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57. Ibid. P.?298.
58. Addison?J.?The Pleasures of the Imagination // The Spectator. 1712. Vol.?413.
59.Ibid.
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й ??????????? ? ??????? ? ???????
??????? ?????
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?а????????????? ????????????.
??????? ?а??????????? ??????? ???????
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??? ????????? ??????, ?????? ?????? ??????????? ????????
21. Goody?J.?The Domestication of the Savage Mind. Cambridge: Cambridge University
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??? ???????? ??а?????? ?а?а??????? ??а???? ????????????? ?????. ?????? ????????, ??? ?????? ??а??????? ???????? ?а?????????????; ?????????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ???????, ??а????????а??????? ??????????? ??а?????? ????; ???
?????? ?????? ????? ?а????????? ?а???????╗.
22. ??? ??????? ????? ??а?????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ?а????????????? ?а?????? ????: Foucault?M.?The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the
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112
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??????? ?????
?а???? ???????? ????? ?а????? ????????, ??????? ?? ???????? ??а???????????? ?а???? ??? ????????????. ?????, ?а???????, ?????? ?????? (1516?1565) ????????? ???????, ?? ???????? ?а???????? ??????? ??????, ??? ?????????? ??????????????
???? ?????. ?? ???????? ?а???? ???? ?, ?а????? ?????? ???????, ????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ???????.
?????? ????????? ???? ??????? ????????? ?а?????? ??????????? ?а??????????, ????????? ?а???????. ?????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ??? ???????? ??? ????, ??? ?? ????????
л??????????????? ??????????????╗, ??? ??????? ??? ???????
??? ???? ??? ?????? ????????? ?????23. ??а????????? ???????
?????? ???????????? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ?а???????
л????? ???????╗, ?????????? ?????. ?а??????????? ??????
????????, ??? ??? ??????? ?а???????? ???????? ????? ???, ???
??????????, л??? ?а????????, ?????????? ????? ?????, ?????? ????? ????? ???? ?????, ?????? ??? ?а???????????, ?а???
??? ?????? ?а??????? ???????, ?а??????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?а??????, ??????? ????, ???? ?а?????? ??а????? ?????╗24.
?а?????? ????? ????? ????? ??????????????? ??????? ????
????????? ?????, ????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ??а?????????, ????????????? ?а???????????? ??????? ??? ??а?а???????? ??????? ?а??????? ?????????, ?а?а???????? ???????. ????
?????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ????? ??????, ??а?????? ????? ?????????? ??????, ??? ?????, ?а????? ?????? ????????? ????. ??????????? ????? ?????23. Ashworth?W.?B., Jr. Natural History and the Emblematic World View // Reappraisals of
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????, ??а????? ??????, ???????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????? ????????
??????????? ?а???? ????????. ????? ????? ????????????? ???? ???? ?а???, ???
?????? ?????? ?а??????? ????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?а??? ?????? ??????? ??а?????????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ???????. ????? ??????? ???????,
??? ???????? ???????, ???? ???? ????? ??а?????? ??, ??? ?? ????????, ??а?а???
???????? ??? ???????? ??а???? ??????; ?????? ????????? c ??? ???????????? ??????????; ??? ?? ?????? ??? ????????? ?а??? ????????; ?а?????? ??????? ????????? ?а???? ???? ??????? ??? ??????? ????????; ?а????? ?????? ?????????
?????, ??????? ?а???? ????? ???? ??а????????, ??????????, ??????????, ???????, ???????? ?а??? ??????. ?????? ?????????? ??? ??? ??а??????, ??? ??? ??а??????? ???????????? ???????? ??? ?????????, ??а??????, ??? ?????? ?а???????
????а?? ????? ????????. ????, ??? ??????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ??а????????? ????????? ?а??? ??? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?а????????, ?????????? ?а??????????? ????????, ???? ?????????? ????? ???????? ???????????╗.
24. Ibid. P.?316.
??1(31) ? 2013 113
??????? ?ал??????? ?????????╗
????????????? ??????, ??????????????? ?????? ??????? (???
?а?????? ??????), ?????????? ??а????????? ?а?????????????, ??????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ???? ?а?????????? ????????????? ????????, ??????? ??? ????? ????, ??? ????? ???????
л?????????????? ???????╗ ?а??? ?????. ???а??????? ??????,
л????????? ?а??????? ??а?????????? ?а??????, ?????????? ???
????? ?????????; ??? ??????????? ?а?а???????? ??????. ??? ?????? ?а?????? ???? ??????, ??? ???????????????? ????????╗25.
?а 1623а???? ??????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??а?????
????? ????????????? ????????; ??а?а1676а???? ???? ??? ???????? ?????? ??а???????????? ?????, ????? ???? ???????? ???
??а????????????26.
???а?????????? ???????, ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? XVIIа????: л????????? ?????????. ??а????????? ????? ?а??????????, ?????? ??? ?а?????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ?а????? ?????? ?????╗27. ?а???????? ????????
????? ????????? ?????????????? ?а??????????????? ???????
?????? ??????? ????????? ??а??????? ?????? peep-box28 ?а???????????, ??? ???????? ?????????? ?а?????? ????????????.
??????? ?????:
Peep-box ?а??? ???????????, ??????? ????????? ????????? ??????
??? ??а????????????? ?????????? ????? ??????, ??? ??? ?????????? ?а????????????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ????????????.
?????????? ?а????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????
?а????????? ??????, ?????????? ?????? ??? ???? ??а??????
??????? ?а??? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ???????. ??????? ????? ??????????. ???? ?????????? ????? ??????? ?????? ????
??а????????, ??а???? ??а???????? ??а?????????? ?????? ??????????
??? ???????29.
25. Ibid. P.?318.
26. ??а??????? ?????????? ?а????? ???????? ??.: Slaughter?M.?Universal Language and
Scientific Taxonomy in the Seventeenth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University
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27. Alpers?S.?The Art of Describing. P.?85.
28. Peep-box ?а??? ??????????? ??????????? ?а?????? ??????? ?аXV ???X VI а??., ??????????????? ????? ???? ?а??????????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ?????; ??????? ?????? ????????? л????╗. ?а????. ???.
29. Ibid. P.?163.
114
й ??????????? ? ??????? ? ???????
??????? ?????
Peep-box ?а??? ?????? ????? ????, ??? ????????? ?а????? XVIIа????.
????? ??? ???? ??????????? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ????? ??????, ???????????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ???
??????????, ????? ????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ??а????? ?????????? ????????, ?????????????? ?а?????????. ?а????? ????? ????? ????????? ????????????? ????????, ???????????? ????? ???? ?а??????
?а?а????? ?а?????, ?а???????????? ???? ???????????. ??, ????????? ???????????? ???? ????????, ???????????? ????????????? ?а????????, ??? ????????? л??????╗, ?????????? ??????
??????, ??а?????? ?а??? ?????????? ????????????? ?а????????
?а??????????? ????????????? ????. ????? ????? ??? ??????
?а??????????, ??? ?????? ????? ????? ???? ?????? ????????
?а???????, ??????? ??? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ????
???? ?????????? ?а??????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????
?????. ??????? ??????????, ??? л???????????╗ ?????? ????
?а??? ????? ??? ????????? ??? ??? ?????? ?а????? ????? ????????? ??????????? ?а?????????? ?а?????: ???? ??? ??? ???????
???? ??????????? ?а????????? ???????????30. ????????? ?????????????? ????????? ???????? ?а?????, ??????? ??? ?а?????? ???????, ???? ????? ??а?????????? ??????????? ??????? ??а?????
?а????????? ????????? ?а???????????31. ??а??? ????????? ????,
????????, ????????????? ???????? ??? ???? ???, ??? ??? ???
??????????? ????? ?????? ??????????????? ???? ?????????????
??? ????????? ??а???????????? ????????????? ?а????????, ??????? ????? ????? ?а??? ?????.
???? ??а????? ????? ??а?????? ???????????? ????????????,
????????? ?а?????????? ??????, ????????? ?а1726а???? ?а???? ??????? ?а?????????????????? ????????? ??а????? ???? ????, ?а??????? ??????????, ??? ??? ?????? ??????????? ????????. ????
??????????? ???? ???????? ?????????. ?????? ??????????, ???
????? ????????????? ??а?????????????? ???????? ??а???????
30. Findlen?P.?Jokes of Nature and Jokes of Knowledge: The Playfulness of Scientific
Discourse in Early-modern Europe. // Renaissan Quarterly. 1990. Vol.?43. P.?292???331,
310: л?????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ????? ??а???? ???????? ???????????? ?????╗.
31.????? ??????????? ??а??????? ?а????? ??.: Greenblatt?S.?Renaissance SelfFashioning: From More to Shakespeare. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1980;
Daston?L., Parks?K.?Hermaphrodites in Renaissance France // Critical Matrix. 1985.
Vol.?1. ??а??????? ????????? ??????? ?а?????? ??. Levine?L.?Men in Women?s
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??????? ?ал??????? ?????????╗
????? ?а???????? ??а???? ?а????? ????; ????? ????, ?а??? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ???????.
?? ??????????? ???? ????????????? ???????????????? ??????,
??? ??????? ???????????, ???????????? ?????????? ????????,
????? ???????? ??а????. ?а???? ?????? ??????? ???????????
??а???????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ???? ?а???????? ????????. ???? ?а???? ???????? ???????-?????? ???? ??????, ??????? ??? ??? ??????? ???????????, ??? ???? ??????? ?????????????. ?????, ???????-??????? ??? ?????? ?????? I, ?а???????
??????? ???? ??????? ??????????, ????? ?????? ??а?????? ?а????? ????????? ???????. ??????? ?????? ?а?????? ?а?????????
????????; ????????? ???????? ?а???????? ??а?а?????? ????????????? ????? ???????. ???а??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?а????
???? ???? ?????????????? ??????: ?? ??????????? ?? ??? ????,
????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?а??????? ????????
??? ????. ??? ??????? ??? ????????? лCunicularii╗ ???? ??а?????? ???????????? ????????? ???? ???????, ??а?а???????, ???????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ?а?????? ?????
??????????? ??????, ???????????? ??????????? ???????. ????? ??а???????? ????????? ???? cuniculus (??????) ?аcunnus (??????), ?????? ?????????? ?а???? ?????? ??а???? ?????????????? ???
???????? ???????? ????? л??????? ????!╗. ???а?????????????
????????? ??????? ???????, ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ?а????? ????????, ??????????? ???? ???????? ??????, ?а???? ???? ?а???? ???? ????? ?а????????? ?????? ??????32.
???????????? ??????? ??????? ??а????? ???? ????? ??а???????????? ???? ????????. ??????? ??????????? ??????????????
????????? л??????? ???????????╗ ??? ??? ????? ?????? ?????
??а?????????? ?????????; ??? ?а???? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ?.??????????, ??? ?????? ??????? ????, ?а??????, ?????????? ??а????????????, ????????? ?????, ????????? ?а?????? ??????. ?а???? ???????????? ????? ?а??????? ?????? ???? ?а????,
?а?? ????????? ????33. ???????????? ????? ??????? ??а?????? ???????????? ????????, ???????????????, ?????????? ?ал???????
??????╗. ?
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