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Устройство защиты от вредных выделений (шума светового излучения и аэрозолей) в пределах допустимых концентраций для оснащения полуавтоматов и машин термической резки металлов с программным управлением..pdf

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Те х н о л о г и я
и технологические
машины
??? 621.8:504.6
???????
?????? ??????????
(???? ??. ?.?. ???????)
OTKIDACH
Leonid Georgievich
(Moscow, Russian Federation,
Bauman Moscow State
Technical University)
?????????? ?????? ?? ???????
????????? (????, ?????????
????????? ? ?????????) ? ????????
?????????? ????????????
??? ????????? ?????????????
? ????? ??????????? ?????
???????? ? ???????????
???????????
?.?. ???????
? ?????????????????? ???????? ???????????? ?? ???????????????
????????? ??????????? ?????????????????????? (20...0,2 ?/???) ??????
?????????? ?????????????? ????? ???????? ? ????????? ?????? 1...100 ?? ?
????????? ???????????????? ??????????? (???????????) 0,25 ??. ??????
???????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ????????
??? ????? ???????????-??????? ???????? ? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????, ????????? ??????? ? ??????? ????????. ? ????????? ????? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ????????????? ???????-??????????????
???????????? (???????????????, ????????, ??????????-????????, ????????????? ??????????????? ? ?????? ??????? ?????????) ? ????????????????????? ?????????????? ?? ??????????. ??? ???????? ?????????????? ????? ?????????????? ????? ????? ??????? ?????????.
? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????: ??????? ???, ???????? ?????????, ????????? ????????? ? ?????? ????????, ???????????? ???????? ?? ??????????
????????????, ?????????????????? ????? ?, ? ?????, ?? ?????????????????, ??? ??????????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????, ??? ? ?? ????????
??????? ???????? ????????????????? ?????????. ?????????? ???????????
????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?????????, ???????????????? ??? ?????????
46
2014. № 1
??????????????
?? ??????? ? ????????????? ??????????? ?????.
???????????? ?????? ?????????????????????? ?????? ??????????-??????, ??????????? ??????????
????????????? ??????? ?????????, ?? ????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ???? ?????????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ????????? ?? ??????? ?
????????????? ??????????? ?????, ??????????? ?
???????????? ? ????? ?????????????. ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?? ????????
??????? ????????? ? ????????? ? ????????? ??????????? ??????????????, ?????????????? ??????????? ???????.
????????? ?????????? ????? ???? ????????????? ? ??????????, ? ?????????, ? ????????
??????????????? ?????-??????????, ??? ???????
????????? ???????? ? ????????????????? ??????????? ????, ??? ??? ?????????? ?????????. ???
???? ?? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ??????.
???????? ?????: ???????? ??????????, ?????? ??????????? ?????, ??????????, ????????????????????? ?????, ???????? ?????????,
????????, ???????.
Equipment for protecting
against harmful emissions
(noise, light radiation,
and aerosols) within
allowable concentrations
for program-controlled
semi-automatic machines
for thermal cutting
of metals
L.G. Otkidach
Engineering industries apply high-performance
(0.2 ... 20 m/min) plasma arc cutting of metals within
the thickness range from 1 to 100 mm with a positioning
accuracy of the instrument (plasma torch) of 0.25 mm
for blanking operations. This procedure is most suitable for cutting corrosion-resistant metals with a
heavy percentage of alloying elements, as well as tita-
2014. № 1
nium alloys, and non-ferrous metals. Currently, there
is no alternative technology with comparable technical
and economic parameters to water-jet, laser, oxygen-fluxing, supersonic thermosetting, and other processing techniques in the metal-working industry. All
cutting processes are accompanied by a variety of
harmful emissions. The paper deals with the most
pressing environmental problems of plasma treatment
such as background noise, light emission, release of
aerosols, and melt ejection, which adversely affect
creative activity, labor productivity, and, in general,
vital activity of plant operators and other personnel in
the working area. A design of the device protecting
from harmful emissions that will be installed on
semi-automatic thermal cutting machines is proposed.
A model of the gas-hydrodynamic plasma torch-metal
path as a source of harmful emissions is developed.
The circuit analysis of this model made it possible to
design and fabricate an independent protective device
to be mounted on semi-automatic thermal cutting machines both in service and newly designed. The implementation of the device resulted in reducing harmful
emissions compared to maximum allowable concentrations established by sanitary regulations. This device can be recommended for application in water-jet
etching, where the level of sound pressure and gas and
dust emissions is significantly higher than in plasma
processing. In this case, the main machine does not
require any modifications.
Keywords: protective device, thermal cutting
machines, plasma torch, gas-hydrodynamic path,
light emission, aerosols, liquid melt.
?????????? ????????? ???????????????
?????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????????, ???????? ? ??????? ???????? ?, ? ????????? ????,
???????? ???????? ? ??????????? ???????.
??????? ?????? ???? ???????? ?? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ? ??????????. ????? ??????? ???????
????, ???? ?? ????????? ??? ??????????? ?? ???????? ????????, ?? ????? ??????. ?????? ??????????? ??????-????????????? ????????????, ?????????? ? ????? ?????? ? ?? ???????,
???????, ??? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ????????? ?????????
?????? ? ????????? 1...20 000 ??. ??????? ??-
47
???????? ?????? ??????? ?????????
???? ????????????????? ?????????????, ???
????????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ??
?????? ?????, ?? ? ????? ??????????? ???????
??????? ?? ???? ???????? ????????. ???????
?????????? ????????? ???????? ???? ????????????? ???????. ?????? ?????? ????????, ??
2/3 ????????? ?? ????, ????????? ?? ??????
??????? (1...20 ??), ??????? ????? ????????? ??
??????? ???????, ? ??? ?????, ?? ??????? ?????????? ????????. ???????? ??????? ???????????
????????? ????????? ?????? ???? ???????? ???????????? ????:
????????? ????:
???????, ??
???? ...................................................... 3?4
???? ...................................................... 4?6
???? ...................................................... 5?12
????? ????:
??????? ?????? ..................................... 60?90
?????? ................................................... 20?30
???????? ???? ..................................... 30?60
??????? ?????? ..................................... 5?8
??????? ??????? ................................. 3?4
?? ????????? ????????????? ??????? ???????????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ???????
??????????? ???????? ??????? ? ??????????????? ????????? ? ???? ????????? ??????????????? (???. 1): ?????????? ??????? ???????????
(I), ??????? ????? ??????????? ? ???? ?????????? ???????????; ??????? (??????????) ????? ??
???????? ??????? ????? ?????? ???????????
? ??????? ??????? ??????? (II); ???? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ? ?????? ??????????????
??????? (III); ???? ????????????? ???????????
?????????-??????? ???? (IV); ???? ?????? ???????????? ????? ? ???????? ?? ?????? ?? ???????
???? (V), ? ????? ???? ?????????????? ??????
? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????.
???????????????? ??????? ?????????????
???????????????? ???????? ??????????, ???
??? ???????????? ????????? (????????) ??????????? ?????? ? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ????????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ?? ???????? ? ???????????????? ?????, ???????? ???????? ????????
????? ????????? 120...130 ???. ??? ?????????
???????????? ????????? ????- ? ????????????
??? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ? ?????? ???
48
???. 1. ?????? ????????? ???????????????
???????? ?????????? ?????:
1 ? ???????????????? ??? (??????);
2 ? ????????????? ??? (??????);
3 ? ?????????????? ??????; 4 ? ??????? ??????;
5 ? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????
???????; 6 ? ????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ????
?????????? ?????. ???????? ???????????? ???? ???????, ???????? ????????? ?????????
??????????????? ????????????? ?? ?????????
??????? ?????????? ?????. ???? I ????????????
?????????? ??????? ??????????? (???????-???????? ????????). ? ??????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ????? ????? ?????????
V = 5...10 ??3 ? ???????? ??????????? ???????????
??? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????
????????? ????? ? ???????? 80...100 ??:
f? =
S
,
LV
??? f? ? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????, ??; S ? ??????? ????????? ?????????,
?? 2 ; L ? ??????????? ????? ?????, ?; V ?
????? ????????? ???????????, ?3.
???? II ? ??????? ????? (? ??????????? ????????? ? 2 ; T2) ? ?????????? ????? ??????
?????? ????? ? ??????? ??????? ????????????
???????. ?????????? ???????????? ??????????, ? ????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????????
2014. № 1
??????????????
????? ? ???? ???? ?????????? ????????????
?????? ?? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ?????????.
???? III ? ???????, ? ??????? ????? ????,
???????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????
? ??????????? (?3; T3), ?????? ? ??????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ???????. ? ?????????? ?????
????????? ??????? ????, ???????????????
? ????? ??????? ??????????????? ????.
???? IV ? ???????, ?? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ? ??????????? ???????? ?????????
?=? / (4 I ),
(1)
??? c ? ???????? ????? ? ????????? ?????, ?/?;
I ? ????? ????????? ??? ??????? ???????????? ???????, ?.
??????? ?????, ???????????? ?? ??????????? ??????????? (1) ??? ??????????????? ????? ??????? ???????? 5...30 ?? ? ???????? ????????? 1/4 ????? ?????, ?????????? 1 296...240 ??
? ?????? ??????????? ? ??????????????????
?????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?? ??????? ????.
? ?????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ???????
???? ????????????? ?? ???????? ?, ????????? ??
???????????? ????????? ????????, ???????
?????? ???? ? ???????????? ???????? ??????????
??????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?? ????????????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????.
? ???? V ?? ?????? ????? ?? ??????? ????
?????????? ?????????????? ????????????
??????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ??
????????????? ? ???????????? ? ???????
???? ???????? ? ?????????? ? ?????????. ???
???? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????????????? ????. ??????
?? ????????? ? ???, ??? ???? ?? ??????
????????????? ???????????????? ?????
??????????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ??????
? ?????, ?????????? ? ???????? ??????, ????
??????????? ??????? ????????? ????????????
????????????? ????? ?? ???? ???????? ?? ?????????????? ? ?????????????? ???????????
???????????????? ????? ? ??????????????
??????????? ?????????? ??????, ????????????? ?????????? ?????. ??? ????? ??? ??????????
? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ?????????
???? (???. 2) ? ???????????? ???????? (??????-
2014. № 1
???. 2. ??????????? ??????????? ????
???) ? ? ?????????????? ??????? ??????? (????????).
?????? ?????? ?????? ???? ? ???????????
??? ????????????? ??????? ????????? ????????????? ???? 2112 ????? «????? ? ????» (?????). ??? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ?? ?????????? 1 ? ?? ??????????? (????????? ???? ???????????? ?????????
??????) ? ?????????????? ?????????, ??????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????, ?. ?. ? ??????????? ?????????????
??????????????? ???????? ?????, ?????????
?? ?????? ?????-??????. ????????????? ?????
?????????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ??? ????????? «????????» ????? ? ?????????????? ??????????????, ??????????? ??????? ???? ??????? ???????? 100 ??. ???????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????????? 0,15 ???. ??? ????
??????? ???? ??? ?????????? ???????? ????
? ?????????????? ??????? ???????? 94 ???; ????????? ??????????? ???? ? ?????? ?????????? ???? ??????????? ?? ???? ????????? ?????? 63...31 500 ??.
?????? ????????? ? ???????? ??????? ?????????
P = K?Av 8 / ? 05 ,
(? ? ???????? ????????, ??; ? ? ????????????
??????????, ???????????? ????????????????;
? ? ????????? ?????????? ?????, ??/?3; ? ?
?????????? ??????? ?????, ?; v ? ???????? ????????? ?????, ?/?; ?0 ? ???????? ????? ? ?????????? ?????, ??????????? ????????? ????-
49
???????? ?????? ??????? ?????????
???? ?????? ?? ???????? ?????????, ?/?) ??????????, ??? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????
? ??????? ?? ??????????, ?? ??????????? ???????? ????? ? ???????? ?????????? ? ??????
????????, ? ????? ???????? ????????? ????????
??????????? ??????????, ??? ??? ???????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????. ?????????? ??????????? ???????
????? ????????, ? ?????????, ?? ???? ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ???? ??? ???????
???????? ?????? ???????????? ?????, ??????
??? ???????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??????
??????????? ? ???????? ????? ??-?? ??????????????? ?????? ??????????.
? ??????? 1 ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ???? ??? ?????????? ????????? ????????, ?? ???????????? ??????????? ????? (???????????-??????? ?????, ??????? ???????). ?????? ?? ???????? ?????? ??
??????????, ??? ??? ?????? ?? ???????? ????
??????? ??????????????, ? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????, ??? ????? ???????? ? ????????????.
?????? ????????? ???? ???????, ??? ??
???? ?? ?????????????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????, ??????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ????
(??) ?? ?????? ?????? ????. ??????????
???? ??????? ??????? ?????? ? ???????? ???????
????????????? ??????? ??? ?????? (250...500 ??)
? ?????????????? (31 500 ??) ??????. ????? ??
??????? ???? ??? ????????? ???? (?????? ??????????????? ???????? ???????) ??????????
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 1 5 . . . 2 0 ? ? ? ? ?????????? ??
111...122 ???, ?. ?. ?????? ?? ????????? ??. ????????? ???????? ?? 3...7 ??? ???????????
? ?????? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????
? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ? ????? ???? «??????» ? ?????????? ?????????
????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????. ????? ????? ???????? ???????
????? ??????? ?? ???????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????.
???, ??? ????? ?????? ? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ?? ??????? 4 000 ??, ??? ????? ???????????-???????
??????? 1
?????????? ????????? ???? (????? ?????????????? ?????)
???????
?? ???. 2
1
3
4
1
3
4
8
9
10
1
2
3
5
6
7
??????
????? ???????
????, ???
??????? ???? ? ???????? ? ????????????? ??????? ??? ??????? (??), ???
250
500
1 000
2 000
4 000
6 000
16 000
31 500
????? ?18?10?
114
111
113
85,5
?
?
91,5
97,5
97
98
102
102
103
104,5
103,5
106
104,5
106
107,5
106
110,5
109,5
105,5
112
114
111
102
?????? ??59
120
117
117
120
119
117
82
80,5
?
77
79
79,5
84,5
82,5
85
84
85,5
86
100
97
97
98
98
97
100
111
112
112
111
111
114
113
115,6
115
116
115
113
109
109
110
111,5
109
109
103
104
107
104
103
96
95
100
96
97
101
??????????? ?16
122
119
120
115
117
120
90
89
90
?
?
89
97
90
102
?
100
100
105
102
102
?
100
101
113
108
108
107
102
107
119
114
112
111
109
114
110
108
108
106
105
106
109
105
105
100
100
106
110
104
105
100
103
105
78
76
74
85
110
????? ?? ???? 12 1003?76
85
50
86
83
80
2014. № 1
??????????????
????? ?????????? ???? ?? ??????? ??????????
??? ????????????? ????????. ????? ???????,
??? ???????? ??????? ?????????, ????????
??????? ????????, ?????????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????. ?????? ???
???? ??????? ?????????, ??? ???????? ????????? ? ??????????? ????????????????? ?????????? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ??????????
?? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ???????, ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????,
? ??? ????? «????????» ?????. ??????? ????????????? ??????????????? ??????????????, ??????????? ? ???? ?????? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ???????????.
????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????????
??????? ?? ??????? ? ? ????????????? ????????? ????? ESAB, Messer Griesheim, Linde
? ??., ?????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ??? ??????????? ?????,
????????? ???????????? ???????????????
?????? (?????????-???????????) ??? ????????? ????????? ??????? ??? ????? ???? ??
??????? 60...80 ??. ??? ???? ??? ? ????????
????????? ????????? ?? 90%, ????????? ???????? ? ????????? ? ?? 80...90%. ?????? ? ???
????????? ????? ????????, ????????? ? ??????????? ????, ????????? ?????????????????? ?? 20...50%, ???????? ????? (???? ??????,
?????????? ?????) ? ?????????? ?? 50% ?????
?????? ?????? ???????????. ?????????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????? ??? ????? ???
????? ???? ?????????? 30 ??. ????? ???? ?????? ?????? ???? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ????
????? ??????????? ????? ? ???????? ????????,
??? ????????? ????????? ?????? ? 1,5 ????.
????????????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ?? ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ??
??????? ?????????. ???????????????, ????????, ?? ??????? «????????» ???????? ??????
???????????? ????????? ? ????????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ??????? ????????? ?????????.
? ?????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????, ?????????? ????????? ??-
2014. № 1
??? ??????? ????? «?? ????», ???????? ???????? ???? ???????????? ??????? ?????????????
? ????????? ??????? (3...8 ??) ????????????
??????? ???? ??????????? ?????. ????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ~ 30% ??????? ????????? ?? ??????? ?????? ??????
?????. ??????? ?? ?? ????? ~ 70% ????? ??????
????? ??????????? ? ??????? ??????? ???????
???????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????????, ??????????????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ??????
«??????», «????????», «??????», «???-1?»,
«??????» ? ??. (???. 3).
?????????? ????? ??????????? ?? ????????
????????, ????????? ??????? ??????????????
????????? ?????? ? ????????????????????
????? ?????? (?????, ?????), ? ????? ???????????? ??????????? ????? ????? ????????????
? ????????. ???????????? ? ???????? ?????
????-????????????? ? ??????? ?????????????? ??????? ???????????? ? ?????? ?????????
?????????? ??? ?????-???? ??????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ? ????? ???-
???. 3. ?????????????? ????? ?????????
??????????:
1 ? ?????????????? ????????? (???? ???????);
2 ? ??????????; 3 ? ?????? ? ????????? ??????
??????????? ?????; 4 ? ???????? ??????????;
5 ? ?????????? ???? ? ??????
51
???????? ?????? ??????? ?????????
??????? ~ 20 ??? ? 100%-??? ????????????????? ?????????????? ?????????. ? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ????? ?????-
???????? ?????, ??? ??ґ????? ?? ????? (85...95%)
???????????? ? ??????? ?? ??? ?????. ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ???????-
??????? 2
???????? ????????? ????????, ??, ??? ?????????? ????? ???????????????? ? ???????????-??????? ?????? ?? ? ????? ?????????
????????? ?????????? (?????? ????????? ? ???? ???????? ????? ????????? ??????, ??????? ?? 0,2 ?)
???????? ????????, ??, ? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????????????????????
?????????, ??
??????? ?????????? ????????????
?????????
????????
????, ???
31
63
125
250
500
1 000
2 000
4 000
8 000
????????? «????????» ????? ????
??? ????????? ??????????
52
50
48
49
59
67
69
73
75
84
?????????? ????????????
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
85
??? ???????????
82
83
84
82
81
78
73
65
64
82
????? ??.3, ??? 340 ?, ?????????? 180 ?, ??????? ??????? 20 ??, ??????? ????????? 300 ?2
????? ??? ????????? ??????????
96
85
90
85
88
96
102
108
110
115
????? ? ???????? ???????????
60
75
86
92
90
96
76
78
80
94
????? 45?17?3, ??? 300 ?, ?????????? 185 ?, ??????? ??????? 20 ??, ??????????????????? ???
????? ??? ????????? ??????????
83
83
84
83
81
86
84
87
92
103
????? ? ???????? ???????????
84
82
85
90
86
83
84
81
83
86
?????????? ????? ?? 1009?73
110
99
92
86
83
80
78
76
74
85
?????????? ????? ?? 3223?85
107
95
87
82
78
75
73
72
69
80
??????? 3
3
?????????? ??????? ???????, ??/? , ? ???? ???????? ????? ????????? ?????? ? ? ????????? ???????? ???????????????? ????
??? ?????????? ????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ? ????? ????????? ????????? ??????????
???????????? ??????????????? ?????
?????????????????? ?????
?????????????????
?????
?????? ????????
4
21/1*
119/3
4/2
87/17
???????? ????????
0,01
011/0,002
0,3/0,014
0,01/0,008
0/0,003
????????
0,2
0,03/0,15
0,1/0,003
0,16/0,04
0,27/0,27
??????
0,05
0,15/0,01
0,57/0,01
0,03/0,025
?
????????
2,0
?
?
?
0,3/0,26
????
0,1
0,4/0,66
0,68/0,51
0,53/0,1
?
????? ????????
20
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
????? ?????
2,0
10/8
10/9
12/10
19/52
????????????
????????
????
???, ??/?
3
__________
*??? ?????????? ????????? ??????????/ ? ???????????.
52
2014. № 1
??????????????
???? 1 200 ?? ? ??????????? ?? ??????? ??????????????? ???????, ?. ?. ????????? ????????. ?????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????, ?. ?. ???????????
????????? ?? ??? ??????????? ? ????? ??????????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????, ?????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?? ??????????????? ????????? ????? (????????, ????????
?????? ? ??.), ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? (?????????? ???????, ????????????), ??????????????? ??? ?????? ? ????????? ????? ? ?????????? ??????????????
(???????) ?????????? ? ????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ????????????????
?????????. ?????????? ?????????, ??????????? ?????????-?????????????????? ????????
?????? ?? ???????, ?? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ???? ????????,
????????? ? ????. 2, 3. ????? ??? ??????
?????????? ????? ? ????????????? ????????
??????????? ? ?????? ??????????? ?? ???. 4.
???. 4. ?????????? ?????? «??????» (????-2.5)
? ???????? ??????????? ???????????, ??????????
????????? ? ???????? ???????????
????; ? ???????? ???????????????? ?? ???
????????? ??????? ??????.
2. ?? ??????????? ????????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????? ??????????
????? ? ??????? ??????????-??????, ??????????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ????????????? ????-????????? ???? ?? ???????????????? ????
(I?V) ? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ?????
?, ??????????????, ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????????????????
???????? ??? ???????????? ?????????.
3. ???????????, ??? ? ????????? ? ???????? ????? ????????????? ??????????? (?????????) ?????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ??????? ????? ????????????????? ?????????, ???????????? ???????
90 ??, ???????????????? ???, ????????????
?????????? ??????, ???????? ?????????????,
??? ??? ????????? ???????? 130...90 ?? ?? ??????? ????? ?????????, ????????? ?? ???? ?????
?? 1...10 ?, ? ??????????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ?????.
4. ??????????, ??? ?????????? ?????????
???????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????, ? ?????????, ????????? ?????
??????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ???????????, ????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ? ?????????
???????? ?????????? ????????? ?? 3...15 ??.
????? ?? ??????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ? ??? ???? ????? ????????? ?????????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ????????.
5. ???????????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ??
???????? ??????? ????????? ?? ?????? ???
? ???????? ?????????? ????? ????????.
??????????
??????
1. ??????? ?????????? ????? ??? ???????????? ??????????????? ??????? (?????????
?????????? ????????????, ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ???? ? ??.) ???????? ??????????
??????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????: ????,
????????? ????????? ? ?????????, ???????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ?? 3223?85 ??????????? ?? ???????? ????-
2014. № 1
[1] ????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ???. ??????????? ????????.
??????, ??????????????, 1973. 448 ?.
[2] ??????????? ?.?. ????????????????? ??????????????? ??? ????????? ??????? ?????. ??????, ?????, 1971. 230 ?.
[3] ??????? ?.?., ???. ?????? ?????????? ????????????????. ? 2 ??. ??. 2: ????????? ??? ?????? ?????????. ??????, ?????? ?????, 1991. 358 ?.
[4] ?????? ?.?., ???. ?????????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ?????. ??????, ??????????????, 1976. 447 ?.
[5] Youjun Zhn. Anallysis of Flow Field and Noise Radiated
from Axial Fan. International Congress on Acoustics. 2008. 837 p.
[6] Sum K.S., Pan J. Effects of the inclination of a rigid wall
on the free vibration characteristics of acoustic modes in a
53
???????? ?????? ??????? ?????????
trapezoidal cavity. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America,
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[7] Schmidt W. Delphinluftschiff mit Wellantrieb ? Wirkung
elastischer Wellerblдtter. Technisch-цkonomische Informationen der
zivilen Luftfahrt, 1974, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 240?242.
[8] Kanev N. Sound decay in a rectangular room with specular
and diffuse reflecting surfaces. Proceedings of Forum Acusticum,
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[9] ???? ?. ?., ???. ?????? ? ????? ?? ????????????.
??????????. ??????, ??????????????, 1985. 399 c.
[10] ???????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. ??????? ????????? ????? ?? ??????? ???? ??? ?????????? ?????.
??. ??????????????. ??????, 1980, ???. ??V, ?. 52?59.
[11] ????????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ???????????? ?????????????? ?????????-??????? ????? ???????? ? ??????? ??????
? ?????. ??. ??????????????, ???. ??V. ??????, 1980, ?. 60?68.
[12] ??????? ?.?. ??????????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ?????. ????????? ????????????, 1993, ? 3, ?. 23?25.
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2006, vol. 119, issue 4, pp. 2201?2210.
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?????? ????????? ? ???????? 08.06.2013
?????????? ?? ??????
??????? ?????? ?????????? (??????) ? ???????? ??????????? ????, ?????? ??????? «?????? ??????????????? ?????». ???? ??. ?.?. ??????? (105005, ??????, ?????????? ?????????, 2-? ?????????? ??., ?. 5, ???. 1, e-mail:
lgotk@mail.ru).
Information about the author
OTKIDACH Leonid Georgievich (Moscow) ? Cand. Sc. (Eng.), Associate Professor of «Fundamentals of Machine Design»
Department. Bauman Moscow State Technical University (BMSTU, building 1, 2-nd Baumanskaya str., 5, 105005, Moscow, Russian
Federation, e-mail: lgotk@mail.ru).
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