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346
DOI�.15393/j9.art.2016.3841
???�1.161.1.09?1917/1992?
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olberd@mail.ru
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?????????. ? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ?.�.�????? 1916�???� ??????? ??? ?????????? ????????.
????????????? ?�???? ?????????? ? ????? ?????? ????????? ? ???
???????????? ???????? �??????? ?????????? 1917�???�. ????????????
???????? ?????? ????????? ??? ????????? 1916�?? ?�???????? ???????
?�?????????? ???????????? ??? ????? ?�???? ????????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????. ??????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????
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?????? ????????? ???????? ??????? �??????�, ????????? ??? ??????
?�???????????????? ?�?????????????? ????????. �??????� ??????�
??? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ???????
????????????, ???????? ???????? ??????? ?�?????????? ?????, ??????????? ???????, ????????? ?�?????? ?�?????????? ??? ?�???????.
??? ???????? ????? ?? ?????????? ?�????? ??? ??????????? ????????????
???????? ????????. ?�???? ?????? ?????????, ??????????? ??????,
?????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????-????????????
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???????? ???????????????? ?? ??????? ??????????, ??????? ???????????????? �??????? ???????????�, ??????????????, ????????????,
?�???? ???????� ??????????? ?�????? ???????? ????????? ????? ?�???
?�??????.
???????? ?????: ?.�.�????, ????? ? ?????? 1916�???, ??????? ? ???????????, ???????????? ????????????, �??????�, ??????????
?
???????? ??????� ??????????? ????? ???????? ?????, ?????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ??????
????? ???????, ?? ?�? ????????????, ? ??????? ?? ?????
??? ??? ????? ?? ???????? ????????? ????? ?????? ?� ???
�???????? ?????? ??? ??c???�
347
???????? ????????? ? ???????????� ??????????? ??????,
??? ??? ????? ?????????????? ? ?? ???????? ???????.
???????? �???????? ??????� ? ??????? ???? ??? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ? ?????? ????????? ??????????
??????????� ?????? ????? ???????? ??????, ????????????
? ?????????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????????????
???????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ? ??????????? ?????????. ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????
?�???????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????????
??��?I�?., ?????? ?????????? ? ????????? ???. ???, ?????????? ?????????? 2011�??? ???? ????????? ??????????
?????? ??????? �??????粻[11], ?? ?????????? ??????????
2012, 2013 ? 2014�???? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ????
???:牜???? ?????粻(1912)燵7], �?? ??????粻(1913)燵12], ?�????
????????????? ? ???????????? ????????????, ??????????
?�?? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?????燵4].
1916�?? ??? ??????� ????? ???????????? ? ???????????
????????. �???????? ??????? ?????? ??????� 1916�??.
????? ???????, ???????, ??????????? ????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ??? ??????, ??????? ??? ?????? ? ??? ????????
?? ?????? ??????????? ?? ????? ??????????� ????????,
????????????? ????,� ???? ??????? ??? ? ????? ??????.
????? ??? ???? ?????粻[9, 411]. ? 1916�??? ?????????? ? ????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? �????????
???�, �????? ???????�, �?? ?????�, �??????????????�,
�????�, ? ????? �??�, �?????? ?????????????�, �??????�,
�???�, �????? ??????�, �??? ?????�.
?????? ????, ? ???????, ? 1913?1915�???? ????? ?�????????????? ????????? ???? ???????????? ??? ???????, ??
1916�?? ??????? ????? ??????????????? ??????????. ?�???
??? ??????? ??????? ????? 100�????????????� ??? ?? ???????????? ??????????????? ? ??????????? ???????????
???????. ? ??????? ??????? ? ????????? 1916�??? ?? ?????
???????? ? ???????? ?????? ? ???????: �?????? ??? ??????� ��?? ????? ????? ?? ????????? ???� ?????? ? ?????,
???????? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???,
1917?1923�??? ???????????? ????? ?????? (? ?????????)
348
?. ?. ??????????
????????? ?????? ??????: ????? ??? ????? ???? ???� ??????? ??? ??????.
?? ???????????? ??-??????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ?�????. ???, ?.�????????? ? �???????
??????? ?????????� ????????????? ?�????? ?????, ??????
?????, ?????? ??????燵1], ? ??.�????? ????????, ??? �?? ????
?? ??????????? ?????????????? ????, ?? ??? ??????? ??
??????? ?? ?????????, ??????????? ? ????? ??????????
????????? ???粻[5, 431]. ??? ???????????? ??????-????? ? ???????? ???? ? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ???????
?????????? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????, ?????????????? ?? ??????????? ??�???.
????? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ??????????????
??? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????, ??????? ????
?�??? ?????? ???????? ??? ????????? ? ???????? ???????
?????????????, ?? ??????? ? ?????????? ?�???????????????? ????????? ?????. ???????? ??, ? ??? �?????????????
??? ???????????� ?????? (?? ????????? ?.�?????)燵14, 323]
???????? ??????? ?????? ? ???????? ? ?????. ??, ?? ????????????? ???????? ?.�??????????, � ???????? ?????
??????? ?????? ????????? ? ???? ?????. ????? ????? ?? ?????
???? ????????, ?? ??? ??????? ?????????????? ?�????????
?????????? ????????�. ??? ?? ???????, ??????? ????? ?????????, ? ?????? ?????, ??????? ???? �? ??????????, ? ????????,
?? ????? ?�????????, ? ??????????? ? ????????. ? ????? ?????????? ??????????, ?? ????? ????????????, ? ??? ???
???????? ?? ??????, ? ????????粻[13, 118].
? ?????? ??I�??? ???????? ????????? ??????????????
????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????
????? ???????? ??�???, ??? ????????? ? ???????????? ????????? ? ?????????. ?????? ? 1910-? ???? ?�????????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????????, ??? ?????????? ? ??????????? ??????????, ??????????????? ???????, ??? ? ??????? ???????? ? ????????
???????? ??????. ? 1916�??? ?�???? ???????? ????? ??????,
??? �????�, ? ? ?????? ?????????????:牜??????? ? ??????�,
�???, ??????!�, �????????�, �???????�, �? ??????�, �????? ???????????�, �?? ???????? ??????? ???????????�,
�???????? ?????? ??? ??c???�
349
�????? ????????�. ??????????? ?????? ??????, ?????
?????? ?????????? �.�.�????. ????? ? ??????????粻(1934),
?????????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? �????????????? ? ???? (?????? ?.�??????.� ?.�.), ????? ??? ???????
? ??????? ??? ?????. ?�??? ?????????? ??????? ???????????
?????, ???????, ????? ????? ???????? ?? ???????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ? ??? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ????????????? ??????, ??? ??????? ??????????? ?????????????
????? ??????????粻[10, 245]. (???? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????
?????? ????? ???????, ??????????? ?????????? ?.�??????, ??? ????? ???????? ??? ????????? ??????? ???????????.)
?? ???????? ????????????? 1916�???, ?????????????, ???
??????? ?.�.�?????, ?????? ????????????: ?????????? ?????
?????????????, ?????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?????, ?????????, ???????? ? ???????????? ??????:牜???????? ? ????�,
�???? ???????�, �??????�, �?????�, �?????? ??????�,
�????�, �??�, �? ??????? ???????�. ? ????? ???? ???????
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????????? ????????? ???????? �?????? ???????� �???????? ?????�, �???? ???????????�, �?????�, �???�. ? ????
???? ???? ??????? ????????? ?????: �????�, �????????
?????�, �??????? ???�, �????�. ????, ??? ? ? ????? (�??????????????�, �?? ?????�), ????? ????????????, ?????????? ????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ????????: �?????�,
�?? ?? ?????, ???? ??????�, �????�, �???????? ?????�,
�????�, �?????????� ? ??????. ?????? 1916�?? ??????
???????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ? ????????? ??????
??????: �?????????�, �?????�, ��??????? ????????�,
�?????�, �??????�, �??????????? ??????�, 玁EL MEZZO
DEL CAMIN DI NOSTRA VITA�, �??????�, �??? ???????????�, �?????�.
1916�?? ???????? ???, ??? ?????? ???????? ??? ????? ???????? ??? ??? ?�??????????? ??????? ????????� �??????? ????? ??????�. ?????? ???? ????? ????????? ??? ????,
??? ? 1947�??? ?? ?????? ????????? ???? ????? ????????
?????? ????????????? 1916�??? �???????� (�?? ???? ??????? ?�?????�). ??? ???????? ???????????? ?????????????
?�????????? ?????????� 玁EL MEZZO DEL CAMIN DI
350
?. ?. ??????????
NOSTRA VITA� (?????? ?????? �??????????? ???????�
?????). ?? ????????? ?.�.�????????? ?????????????? ????
????????? ? ??????????燵8, 435] ??? (?????? ?牜??????????�)
????????? ???? ?? ?? ????? ???????, ????? ?? ?????????
??????? ??????-?????.
?????????? ????????? ? ?????????????? ??????? ?????
?????? ?????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????? ? ???????? ???????? ??? ????? ????????????? 1916�???. ???? ?????, ?????????? ?? ????????, ????????????? ???????? ????????
?�?????????, ????????????? ? ????? ??????? ? ??? ?????.
???, ?.�.�??????, ? ???????, ??????????, ??? �? ??????,�?>
?????????? ???????? ????? ??????� (� ?? ??????, ? ???????????�, 1916)3. ??? ?��????????? ???????? ?.�?????
(?�?? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ????? ?????? ??????),
?�16�??? ? ???????? ????? ????????? ???????? �???????
????? ??????�, ?????????, ? ??????? ?? ??????, ?????? ?????, ?�?? ????????? ?????????????. ????? ??, �?????
????? ?????? ?? ????????�, ? ???? ???????? ? ????? ??????
????, ???????? ?????????? ?�??????? ?????? ????????
??????????? ???, ????????????, ??? ?��????????: �?? ??????
?????? ????? ????�.
????????, ??????? ? ??????????? ????????????? ?????
???????? ?????? ?????? ????????????? �???????粻(1901)
(�?? ? ??????? ? ????�), ?�?????? ????, ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ??? ??? ?? �????????
???????�, ????????? ???????? ? ???, ??? ?????? ??? ?? ??????,
?牜?????? ? ??????? ?????� �?? ???? ??????? ? ??????粻(1916)
?????????????? ?????? ??? ??, ??? ????? ? ?????? ???????
???????. ?? ???????? ?????? ??????????????? ?????????????
�?????? ?????粻(1905): �?????? ? ????� ? ?????粻(1905)�
� ??? ??????? ????? ?????粻(1916), �?????? ?????????
???????�/� ?????? ????????? ????粻(1905)� �????? ? ??????? ??????�/�???? ???????? ? ???????粻(1916)�(1, 291).
�???? ? ???????粻? ???????????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ??????? ?????????? �?????? ?????�, ???????
?�?????? ??????? ?????: ?? ???????? ?牜?????? ???????�
?�?????????? ???????? �????????? ?�?> ???????? ???????? ?????粻(IV, 98)5. ?? ???? �???? ? ???????� ?�??????
�???????? ?????? ??? ??c???�
351
????????????? 1901�??? ????????????? �?????????? ??????�,
?�?????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ?????, ?? ? ???????????�
????? ???:
??? ???? ??????? ? ??????,
????? ??? ??????? ? ???,
??? ?????? ?????? ????? ????�(2, 142).
??????? ???????? ?? ??????????? �????? ????� ???????????? ?????, ?�?????? ????? ? ?????, ???????? ??????
????, ??????????? ?? ????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ?????:
??? ?????? ???, ? ???, ????????
???????????, ??????? ??? ????????,
??? ? ?????? ????, ????? ???????? ???
???????????? ????? ?????? ?????.
??????? ?????? ??? ???????6
? ? ?????, ? ? ?????? ????????? ????? ????????????, ??????? ???????? ?�????? ??????? ????????????? ????????.
????????? ?????? ????????????? ?牜???????? ????? ??????粻? �??, ????? ???????? ???!粻? ???? ????????????? ??
???????????? ????????? ??????, ??????????? ?�??????????
??????????? ?? ?????? ??? ???????, ? ?????????? ?????????,
?? ????, ?????????? ??????? �??????? ??????? ????�.
�?????� ??????? ????? ?????????? ????? ? ??????? ???????????? ?????????????� � ???????? ????????�, ??????????? ????? ?�??????, ?????? 1916�??? ? ??????? ???????? ???????? ��??????? ????????, ??????�. ????? �??????????? ???????� ??????????? ???????? ??? ????????? ??
??????? ? �?????????� ?�??? ???? ?牜??????????�, ?��???????? ????????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ??? ????. ?�????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ???? ?�???????,
???????? ??????? ???????????? ?????: �???? ????�,
�???�, �???�, �??? ? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????�, �???
??????? ????�. ?�???????? ?????? ?????????? ??????: �???? ?????, ????? ????,�/�????? ??????粻(2, 133). ??? ????
???????-????????? �??????�, ?�???? ??????? ??????????
??????????? ?�????????? ????????? �????� (????? ????????) ? �?????� (????? ??????????? ?????), ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ?�???????.
?. ?. ??????????
352
???????? ??? ???? ? ????? ???????? �???????� (�?????????? ?????�) ?牜????????� (�???? ? ??????????�) ???
?????? ?????? ????? ??????? ?�??????????-?????????
??????? ?�??????????? ???????, ??? �?????? ?????� (�????�)�(1, 74). ????????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ?????
?�????????, ??????? ?�??? ?????????? ???????, ????????
?? ???????? ?????????????? ????, ??? ?????? �?????? ????�
????????? �??? ?????� ?牜?????? ????? ?????� (�??????
?? ????�)�(1, 267):
???? ????: ????? ??????
????? ????????? ????
???? ??????? ??????,
? ????� ?? ??? ?????!�(2, 133)
?????? ????????, ?? ?????? ??????, ???????? ??????: �??????? ?,�/�?? ??? ????, ????????,�/�? ??? ? ??
????粻(2, 133). ?? �?????????� ???? ????? ??? ?????????????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ?�???? ?????? ????. ??? ????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ??? ????????? ?? ???? ??????????? ?????????. ? ????????? ????
????? ?????? ?? 12�??????? 1940�???: �????? ?????????
?? ?????? ?????: ???? ???? ???????????: ?�???????, ???
???? ????????� (VI, 476).
? ?????????? ????? ????? ?????? � ?????� (�????? ?????, ?�????? ???????????�) ??? ??????????? ???????????
?�??? ????? ????? ???? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ???????????? ????????????: �??
?�??? ?????? ??? ? ??????? ?�?? ???!粻(2, 313). ????? ?????
????? ????????????? ??????????? ????? ??? ????? ?�?????????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ???? �?????????�, ???????
?????????? ????????, ????? ????? ??????: �?? ?�????? ??,
??? ?????? ?�???�. ??? ???? ??????????? ?�????????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ??, ??? ??????? ?�????????? �?????�,
?? ???? ????????? ?�??? ????? ?�?? ??????? ????????????,
??? ??????? ????????????? ? ???? ?? ???? �????? ???�
?�??????. ??? ???? �?????�, ??? ? ????????, ??????? ???
???? ??? ?????? � ??????? ???????�, ??? ????? ?????? ????
?�????????. �?????? ???????� ?�???????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ???, ?????????
�???????? ?????? ??? ??c???�
353
?????????? ??????? ???????? ? ?????????? ??????, ?? ????
????????????? ??????? ????????? ????, ??????? ???????
??????? ????.
?? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? �?????� ?�????????. ?????????????, ?�???? ?? ?????? ?????? �????????
?????� (?? ?????? ???????) ???? ?????????? (?? ?????? ???????), ??? ?????? �?????? ???�. ????? ????? ??????????????
????? ??????�/ ???? ?????. ��????? ????, ?????? ??????
????� ? ????????? ????????????? ????????: � ?????? ??????�
? ????? ?? ??, ??? �?? ?????? ???????�. ? ???????????? ???????? �???????? ?�??????� ?????? ?? ?????????? ?????
??????粻[6, 575].
�????????? ????� ??? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ?????
???????? ????????????? ?��???????????? �????? ?????�,
??? ???????? ??????????? ????????? �??? ?????????,�/�?????, ?????, ?????�, ????????????? �???? ?? ???? ???????�.
?????????? ????? ? ??? ??????? ????-????????, ?�??????
?? ??????????, ????????, ??? ??, ??? ?????, ??? ??? �?????
??????�/�???????? ???????? ?????????�. ????? ?????
???????????? ????????? ?�??? ?????? ????????? ???????????????, ???????? ????????????? ??????? ??????? ????? ????????????: �?????? ??? ?�???�/�,�??? ?�???? ??????
???? ??? ?�??!粻(2, 163). ??? ? ????? ????? ????? ?????????
??? ?????? ?????????? ?????????, ?????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????, ????????? ??????????, ??????? ????????
????????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ? ???????? ???? ??????????
?????. ?????? ???? ?�????????? ?????? ???????? ??????
??????: � ???????: ??? ???, ?�??????�/�?????? ????? ????
????? ? ???? ??????粻(�?????�, 1909)�(2, 71).
???, �??????� ?????? ?�?????????????? ??????? ??????????? ?�??????????? ????????????????? ???????: ????
???????? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ????????? ? ???????????
???????, ??????? ???????????? ??????, ??????????? ?????? (?? ?????? ?�? ???????). ????? ???? ??????? �?????????? ????? ??????? ? ??? ???????????�, ??? �??? ???????? ??????????粻[2, 229]. ?????? ????? ???????? ???????
??? �??????????? ??????????�, ?????????? ??????????
354
?. ?. ??????????
????????, ??? ? ????? ????????? ??? ?�????????? ????????? ?????-???????, ?? ??????? �????????????�.
??????????????? ????? ?????? ?? �?????????? ???�, ??
?????? ???????? ??? �?????? ????� ????????? ? ??? ????????? ?????? ??????? ??? �?????粻? ???????? ? ????? ??????? ??? ?????? 1916�??. ?�??? ???? ???????? ????? ?????????????, ???, ?? ?????? ?.�.�??????, ????????????? ????????????? �???????, ????????????? ????�. ????? ???
????????????? �? ??????粻? ?�???????? ?????????????
?�???????? �??-??????�, ?�?????? ????? ???????????
�???????????� ????????????? ????:
?????? ? ???? ???-??????,�
? ?? ???????????, ??????,
??? ???? ? ???? ?? ????????
? ????� ????????? ??????�(2, 134).
???? ????? ???? ????????? ?�???????? �????�, ???????????????? ???????? ?????????, ?????? ?????? ?? ???????
???? ???????? ??? ???????? ???????????? ????????, ? ??????? ?????????? ???????, ????????? ?�????? ?�????????????? ??????. ????? ?????? ????????? ????????????????
???????? ????? ????? ? ?????????????? ???? ??? ???????,
?????? ??????? ??????, ?????????? ????????? ????????????
? ???? ????? ?????? ?牜????????�.
? ????? ?????????? ???? ?? ????? ??????? ?????????
????????� ??????? �???????? ???�, ?�?????? ??????? ???????? �??-???????�, ???????????? ????????? ???? �???? ????????????� ?�????? ?�?? �???????�, ???????
�???????? ???�. ???? ?????????, ??? ?�????????? ? ???????? �?????粻(1914), ???????????? ?????????? �???????????�
????????? ???????? ? ???????? ?�??? ??????????? ?????????
??????? ?????????????. ?? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ???? ????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????????, ?? ??????? ????? ?? ??????? ????????? ? ?? ???????? ?????????.
�?????? ???�, ????????? ?? ????? �????-????????�,
???????? ? ???????, ?? ??????? ????? ?�?????????????,
?????? ????? ?�???, ????????? ?????????? ?�??????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? (?? ???????? ??? ???
????) ??? ?�??????-????????????, ??? ? ? ?????? ???????
�???????? ?????? ??? ??c???�
355
????????. ?? ????????? ????????????? ????? ??????? ?�??????, ???? ???? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????????: ?? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?�??????????? �??�
?�?? ?? ????????? ??? ????? �?? ????????????�.
? ????????? ???????? �??????粻(1916) ????? ??????????
??????????? ??????????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????
?????????? ????? ?�???? ?????????: ????????-???????,
???????? ? ????? ?????????? ?????. ???, ?�??????????
??????????? ???????, �????? ??????? ??????, ??? ?????
???? ????? ?? ????????? ???????�, ??????? ????????? ???????? ?? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????????� ???? ?�???????? ???, ? ��?????? ??????? ??? ??????? ???????????
???? ???????粻(IV, 146). ????? ?�???? ????????? ??????
??????? ??????????? ????????? ?????, ????????? ??????
?????????? ??????? ???????? ?????, ????????? ????? ?????????? ?????. ????????????? ??? ????????? ?�???? ???????? ???????????, ?????????? ? ??????????? ?????? �??????� ??? ???????? ??????????? ????? ????????? ????????.
?????? ?�?? ???????? ?????????, ??? ??????? ????????????? ???????? ???????????????? ?? ??????? ??????????,
??????? ???????????????? �??????? ???????????粻[3, 68],
??????????????, ????????????, ?�???? ???????� ??????????? ????????? ?????, ??? ????? ?�??? ? ???????, ???
?????????? ?????? ????????.
??? ??????????? ?�???????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ????????????? �??
???????? ??????? ???????????� ? �????�, ??????? ?? ???????????? ????????????? ?�????? ???????????? ????????,
???????? ?�????? 1920-? ?????. ?牜??? ???????? ???????
???????????� ?????? ????????? ??????, ?????????? ? ????????, ????? ??????????????? ?�???????????? ???????
?????????? ????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????? �???????-??????????�, ?????????? ?? ????????? ????? ????????? ????: �?? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ??????�/� ?? ????
?? ????????? ??????粻(2, 125). ?牜??????� ??????? ?????????
?????? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ??? ?????????????
???????� ???????? ???????????? ???????? ? �???????
????� ?????? ???????????, ????????? ???????? ? �??????
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?. ?. ??????????
???????� ????????? ??????. ????? ???????? ???? ????? ?�???????????? �?????????? ???粻(1917), ?�?????? ???????
�?????? ??????� ?????????????? ?????????? ?????? ???
??????? ????, ?�???? ??????????? ???????? ???????� ???????? ???????? ????????????? ??????. ? ???????? 1917�???
???????? ??????? ??????: �???? ?????????� ?.燰I. <?>�????? ???? ?? ?????, ???????????? ???????? ???????, ????????? ??, ???????????? ??????� ? ?????? ????? ???????
???????!� ?�?????, ???????粻(VI, 432). ????? ???? ????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????
???????? ?????, ????????? ???????? ??? ??????? ?????
?????? ??�???.
????? ???????, 1916�?? ??????? ????????? ??????????????? ????????? ??????. ?? �??????? ????? ??????� ?�??????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????
??? ????????? (�??????? ??????????? ??????�), ?�?????????? ??????? ?? ????? ?? ??? ????????????: ?�???????
�???粻(1924), ? �???? ?????????粻(1927?1930), ?牜???????????? ????????粻(1937). ? ?????? ???? ????????? ????? ?????? ???? �??????�, ?? ??????? ??-???????, ?? ????? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ???? ? ???????
?????? ????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????. ?? ????
?�?????? ?�???????????? ??????????? ?????????????????
??????????? ?????, ??? ????????? (? ??????????) ???? ??????????? ????? ????? ??? �????? ???? ? ?????????? ????�,
?? �??????� ??????� ??? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????, ????????
???????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?????, ??????????? ???????,
????????? ? ???????, ?�?? ????? ????????? ???????? ?�???????. ???????? ?????? ?? ???????????, ?????? ?????, ???????? �?????? ?????�, �?????? ?????�, ??? ????? ?? ??????????? ?�???????????? ? ?????? ??????????? ????
????????????.
???????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????
????????????? ?? ??????? ?�?? ????????????? ? ??????????? ????????????. ???? ????? ????? ???� ??? ? ??? ?????
�?????????? ????粻? ?�????????? ??? ????? ??????????:
�???????? ?????? ??? ??c???�
357
�??? ??????? ??????�/�???? ?????? ????? ???粻(2, 176),
?��????? ????????????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ��?????????? ???� ??? �??????? ? ?????粻(2, 175). ????? ??? ???? ???????? ????????????? �????????? ???粻(1919), ??????? ??? ?????????? �???� ? �?
????? ??????� ????? ?? ??? ?????????? ?�????????. �????????? ????� ??? ???????????? �?????? ?????粻? ?? ??????,
??????????? ?�?????? ????? ?????, ??? ?????????? ??????????? ?????, ?? ???????????? ??????? ????.
? ???????????? ? ??????????? ????????????? ????????????????? ????? ?.�.�???? ?????????????? �?????? ??????? ??????, ? ?????? ?�?? ?�????? ??????? ????????�
????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ?????? ?�??? ???? ?�????????. ??? ???????? ?�????? ??????? ????????? ?�?????????? ??? ????? ?????, ????? ????? ??????????? ?????
????????? ???????????? ???? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ?�????????? ?????� ????????????? ??? ???????????? ???????? ?�?????????? ??????? ????????????
????????? ??????? ???????? ????????.
??????????
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�???????? ?????? ??? ??c???�
359
Olga A. Berdnikova
Voronezh State University
(Voronezh, Russian Federation)
olberd@mail.ru
?...ON THE EVE OF THE DESTRUCTION
OF THAT RUSSIA?: THE YEAR 1916
IN THE ARTISTIC CONSCIOUSNESS OF I.燗.燘UNIN
Abstract. The article examines the poetic and prosaic works of I.燗.燘unin
which were written in 1916, the period of his artistic maturity. Poetry and prose
are interpreted in terms of the writer?s presentiments of the ?Russian cataclysm
of 1917?, outlined in his literary works. Bunin?s Christian intuition allowed
him to understand the year of 1916 in the context of the history and metahistory
at the same time, as the eve and the outcome of the apocalyptic tension of
Russian life. The Dantesque motif of the ?half of mortal life? conceptually
significant for the poet, and developed later in an ideological aspect as well as
in the poetological paradigm, is presented for the first time in the article. Bunin
declared ?love and joy of being? as an immutable basis of his attitude, independent
on time, with its historic upheavals. This article substantially clarifies the basics
of the idea of the artistic memory thanks to the introduction of the concept of
?adamism? which is very significant for Bunin in anthropological and poetological
aspects. ?Adamism? by Bunin is a product of the poet?s feeling to resuscitate a
paradisaical attitude, giving a person happiness and the unity of being, biding
the past, the present and the future and engaging him into eternity. It makes
the poet avoid Modernism, and become a successor of the Christian spiritual
tradition. In his prose the characters named Adam become a symbol of human
moral and family degradation. The writer was aware that the tragedy of human
existence is predetermined by an existential, rather than social, ?sense of
homelessness?, aloofness, loneliness, and, what is more important, by the
absence of genuine love for God and people in a person?s heart.
Keywords: I.燗.燘unin, prose and poetry of 1916, history and metahistory,
Christian anthropology, ?adamism?, poetology
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???? ??????????? ? ????????:�.08.2016
?.�.�?????????, 2016
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