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«Живой мертвец» и «Двойник» или еще раз о фантастике Достоевского (из наблюдений переводчика)..pdf

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170
DOI 10.15393/j9.art.2016.3766
??? 821.161.1.09??18??
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(??????-?????, ?????????)
alexgon80@hotmail.com
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????????╗ ????? ????? ?? ?????? ?ал?????? ?????╗, ?? ?а? л????????╗,
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???????? ?????: ??????????, ????????????, л????? ???????╗, л????н
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?
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?а???????) ?а???? ???? ???????? ?а??? ?? л???????????╗
????????. ?а????????? ??????? л????? ???????╗ ?????
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??????? ?? ??????, ???-?? ????????, ??????, ??? ??????????.
?а? ???? ??????а? ??? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ??????а? ???
л????? ???????╗ ?ал???????╗, ??? ??? ??? ?а?????????? ???????????? 171
???????????: ?а?????, ??? ????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????, ??? ????? ?????????? ?а???????? ??? ????????????? ????????, ?а???? ???????, ?????????? ???????????
????? ???? ?а?????????, ?а?????? ???????????? ?????, ?а????????? ?????????? 40-? ????? XIXа????. ??? ?????? ????????
??????????? ?????????? ?а???????????, ?????????????
????????????? ??????.
***
???????? л?????????а? ???????????╗ ?? ????, ?? ?? ?????????. ??? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????? ?а????????
?????????? ?.??.?????????????. ????????? ?? ?????, ????
???????? ??? ?? ???? ????????? ???????? ?а?????????
??????????. ?????? ??????, ??????? ??????? ???????? ??
????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? (?а?? ?????? ????????) ???????????? ?а??????????????? ?????????? ?.??.???????????, ??? ?.??.????????а[7]. ?а????? ?????? ?? ????????????
????????????? ?????? ???????? л????? ??? ?????╗ (1839) ?а???
????????????? ?? л???????????? ?а?????????╗ (1866) ?а????????? ?? ???????????? ????? ?????? ???? ????? ???????
?а????????????? ?????????? ?а????????????. ??????? ?????
???????? ???????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ??????????
????????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ?а???????????????,
???????????, ?? л????? ????????╗, ??????????? ?????????
?а??????? ???????????? ????????????а? л?????? ????╗ (1845).
??????, ??? ????? ?? ???? ???? ?????????, ??? ?.??.???????????а[13]. ?? ?????? ????????????? ???? л?????? ????????╗
??? ??? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? (л?????? ????╗,
л???????╗, 1846), ??? ?а??? ???????? (л?????╗, 1879). ?а?????
??????? ????? ?? ?????? ????????????, ?? ?, ??? ???????, ?????????????? ?а???? ????????. ?????????? ?????????, ????????,
?? ???????????? ?.?????????? ??????????? ????, ??н?????????
???????? ?а???????????? ??????? (????????? л???? ?а?????╗).
??? ???? ????????? ?????? ?.??.???????а[11, 5?18, 124?133,
231?243], ??? ????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????
?????????? л?????? ?????╗ ?ал????? ?????????╗ ?а????
?????????? ?????????? ?а??????????? л???????????????
??????????╗.
172
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??, ??? ??? ???????? ??????????, ??????????? ???? ????????, ?? ??????, ???????, ??? ????????????? ?? ????????
???????? ?? л???????╗ л????? ??????? ?а?????? ????╗.
????? ?? ???? ??????? ?а???????, ????????? ?а?????? ???????
????????????, ?????? ????????? ?? ??????? ??????????. ???
?????????: ??? ???????????, ??? ????????, ???????? ?? ????.
?? ????? ????????? ?????? л???????╗, ?а??????: л?????
??????? ?а???????╗.
***
?.??.???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????: л????????? ????????? ?????????? ???
???????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?є?????, ??? ?? ???
??? ?????????? ???????????????. ???????? ?????????а?
????????, ??? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ????? ????????, ???
??????, ?????????, ???????? ?а???????????. ?? ?????????
?а???? ?? ????????? ?????? ?????????, ?? ??? ?? ????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????????а<?> ?? ??????
??????, ??????? ?????????? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ?????????
???? ???? ?? ????????? ?а????????? ??????????╗а[7, 206].
?? ??????? ????????? л?????? ????????╗ ?ал????????╗
?? ??????????, ?????? ?? ?????????????? ?????, ???????
???? ?? ?????????? ????????? ????? ?????????, ?????????????, ??????, ????? ?????? ???????.
?????? ????? ?????: ??? ??? ??????????, ??? ?а??? ???????н
?????, ?????????? ?? ???????? ????? ???? ?? ????, ?а?????????
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??????? ?????????????? ???????, ?а?? ?????????????? ?????????1. ?? ????????? ???????? ??? ?а????????-?????????,
?а????????-????????, ?а????????-??????? (л??????? ?????╗),
??? ????????? ?? ????????? ??? ??????????, ?а????? ?? ??????????? ??? ????????? ?а????????? ??????????, ??????, ??
??-?????????. л????? ???????╗ ????????? ????????????
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????????: л??? ?? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??? ??????????????? ?????, ?? ???????? ?? ???? ?????, ?????????????
?????????, ?? ???? ???????? ?? ??????????, ?? ?????????
?а????, ?? ?????????? ?????????? ?????-???? ????????; ???
??? ??????????????? ????????? ?а?????? ??????, ?а??????,
л????? ???????╗ ?ал???????╗, ??? ??? ??? ?а?????????? ???????????? 173
??-????????, ?????????? ?????????, ?а?????? ?????????
???? ????????╗2. ????? ?????????? ?? ??? ???? ??? ??????????,
??? ?????? ???????? ????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ????
??????????????? ?????3. ?ал????? ????????╗ ????????????
?????????????? ???????: ??????? ???????, ????????, ????
?, ???? ?????????, ????? ???? ?????? ???????; ?? ?????
???????, ???? ??? ??????? ?а??????? ???, ??? ?а??? (?а?? ??????) ???????. ??? ???????? ???????? ????????? ?????????????
?????? л???????? ??????╗, ?? ????????? ?????? ??????????. ?????, ?а????? ?????, ?? ??????, ??? ??? ??? ?????? ???,
?? ?а??? ????? ??????????????? ?????? ???? ?????? ???? ???
??????????. ????? ???? ????????? ?ал????????╗, ??? ????????? ?????????-???????? ?? ????? ??????, ?? ?????? ???
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???????? ?????, ????? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ????????
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?а???????? ???????????? ???????? ?а????? ???????, ?а???????
??????????? ???????? ?????????4.
?????? ????? ?????: ?а? л????? ????????╗ ?а? л????????╗
??????????а/ ???????? ????? ??????????? ?а????????? ?????,
?????????? ??????? ????? ?а????? ????????? ?????????
??????, ?????????? ??????? ?????, ????????? ?а????????
??????5. ??? ?????????? ?? ???????? ??????? ??????????,
??????????? ??????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????????????
?ал???????????? ?????????╗6 ?а??????? ?????????????? ???
?????? ?ал??????????╗ ?ал??????? ????╗7. ??????? ???????,
??? ?????????? ???????????? ?а??????? ??????? ??????????
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???????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????. ???????????? ?????? ??? ?а????????????? ??????? ?????
??????? ?а???????????, ???? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ?а?????? ?а?????? ????? ?? 1-?? ??????? 1846а????:
л?? ??? ??????? ????? ???????????? ????? (?????????
?а??????), ????????? ?а???, ??? ?а???????? ????????, ?а??
?. ?. ????????
174
????????, ?? ???? ??? ?а???????, ?а???????? ?? ??????, ????????? ?????, ?????? ?? ????? ????? ????? ?а?????? ?? ??? ??????
??? ?╗8. ????? ?? ?? ????? ????????????? ????? ???????
?.??.??????? ?ал??????????????? ??????????╗ ??????????9.
?????? ????? ?????: ??????????? ???? ?а?????????? ?????.
?? ??, ??? ????? ???????? л?????? ?????╗ ????? ?????? ?а????? ????? ?????? ?????????, ???????? ???????? ??????10.
?????? ???? ??? (????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????????) ???????, ??? л????? ???????╗ ??????????? ???????,
??????? ??? ??????? ???????? ????? ???? ????????? ?????????-????????. ????????? ??? ????????? ?а????????? ???н
????, ??? ?????????? ?????? ????? ???????????? ?а?????????
????????. ????? ????? ???????????? ?а?? ?????? ?????????
??????, ?а?? ??????????? ?? ????, ???????????? ?? ????????,
???????, ???????????, ????????? (??? ????? ?????????????
??????? ?????, ????? ???? ?????? ?? ???????????):
л????? ???????╗ (1844)
л???????╗ (1846)
??? ????а? ?????, ?а?????.. ?????!
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??????? ?а?? ????? ?????? ????????
л????? ???????╗ ?ал???????╗, ??? ??? ??? ?а?????????? ???????????? 175
?????? ?? ?????, ?, ???????, ??????
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?????, ??-????<???>, ???-??????
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??? ?? ????, ?а????? ?????? ?? ?????,а? ?а??????????, ????? ?????
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?????????: ?????? ???, ?а???????
?????? ?а???????????? (416?418,
438) (?????? ???.а? ?.??.).
?. ?. ????????
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?а?? ?????????? ???? ????? ????????. ?? ?????????? ?а????? ???????. ?????, ???????????, ????????, ??i?????, ??????????11
(?????? ???.а? ?.??.).
?а????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ???????, ???????
????. ?а???????, ???? ????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ??????
?? ?????? ??????????????? ????????, ??????? ???????
л????? ???????╗ ?ал???????╗, ??? ??? ??? ?а?????????? ???????????? 177
????????????? ????? ???????; ??? ??????, ??????, ?????
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???????????? ?а?????? ??????, ??? ?????????????.
??? ???????? ?????????, ?? ????????? ????? ????????????
????? л????? ?????????╗ ?ал?????????╗. ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ?а????????????? ???????????? ???????? (??????? ??????? ???????????). ??????? ????????????
?????????? ???????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ???????
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??????????? л?????? ????????╗, ???????? ????? ?????? ????????? ????? ????? ????????, ?????? ????? ????? ???, ???????
??????????? ???? ??? ???????? л?????? ?????╗: л?? ??? ???
??????? ??????????? ???????? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ????????!.. ??! ?? ??? ??? ??? ????? ???????? ?? ????? ?а?? ?????????? ????? ?? ???????; ?? ?а??????? ?????????; ?????? ??
?????? ?? ????????! ????, ?????? ?, ???-?????? ??????????.
?а???? ?? ???????? ?а???????? ???????? ??? ?а??????? ????????????╗ (442)12. ??? ??? ???????? ???????? ??????????
?ал????????╗13, ?а???????? ????????? ?? ??? ?? ?????? ???
??????? ?а?????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?????.
???????????? ?????????? ????? ?а?????????????? ?????:
???????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?????????-????????, ?а???????? ??????? ????????
????? ?????????? ?????? ?а?????????? ???????? ?????????????????.
??????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????, ????? л?????????????????╗ ????? ????? ?????????????, ?а?????? ???????????, ??? ??? ?? ????? ??? ??????????. ??????????? л?????? ????????╗ ?????? ??????????? ?а???? ??? ?????? ????????????? (?а?? ??????) ?а???????? ???????? ???????? ???
????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ????????????.
***
??? ???? ??????????, ???????? ????????? ?ал?????????╗.
??????????? ?????? ????????? л????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????╗. ???????? ?ал?????? ????????╗. ???? ????????
?. ?. ????????
178
???????? ?? ????????????? ?? ??????? ????, ?? ?????? ???
???????? ????? ????? ??????? ???????? ?ал??????????????╗
?? л??????? ?? ????????╗ (???????, ??????? ?а???? ???????
?? ????????? ????). л?????????? ??????????╗ ??? ??????????? ?ал????? ????????╗: л?а??????? ?????: ?? ?????, ?? ?а??
??? ??? ????? ?а?????? ?? ?????а? ?????? ?? ??????: ?а??????? ???????????; ??, ??????????, ????? ????? ????, ??
??????, ??? ???????, ?а?????????? ???? ?????????╗ (418).
???????? ?? ??????? л??????????????╗: л?а?? ?????? ?????,
?? ???? ?а?????? ?? ??????? ?????????: ?? ?????, ?? ???????,
?? ?????????, ?? ????????, ?? ???????, ?? ??????????╗14.
??? ?а???????? ?ал?????? ?????╗ ??????? ????? ??????????
?????, ???????, ?а????? ?????? ???????, ??????????? ??????
???????? (?????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ?????
????, ??? ?? ?????????):
л????? ???????╗
л??????? ?? ????????╗
л??, ?? ??? ??? ??????????! ???
???? ???????? ???-?????? ????????,
????????, ?????????????! ?а?? ???
???????????15 ?? ????? ????????!
??? ?? ???????? ?? ?? ??????! ??,
?? ??? ??? ??????! ??????? ?а???????? ?????????????а? ?а??? ??????
????????? ?а?????? ?а??????; ?????
??, ????????? ?? ??????, ???-????
?????? ????? ?? ?????????? ?? ???
??? ??????? ??????????? ????????
???? ?????? ?? ????? ????????!..╗
(442) (?????? ???.а? ?.а?.)
???? ?? ??????????i??? ???????
???????? ???i? ????, ??????? ???
?????????? ?? ?????, ?а????? ??????
????????. ???? ?а???i?, ??????? ???
?а???????? ?? ????????, ?а????? ?????? ???? ??????, ?? ?а?? ???? ?????????. ?? ????, ????????, ?а???i?,
??????? ???? ?а???? ???????? ????????? ?????? ?а?????? ????? ?а??????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????. ?? ???? ???? ????:
???? ????? ??? ?????????? ????????,
???? ????? ?а???? ??? ?а???? <?>а?????? ??, ????? ?а?? ?????? ??????????, ?? ???? ??????? ??????????,
?????? ?а?????? ???? ????????: ????? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ????? ?????????? ???? ???????????? ?а ??
????????? ???? ??????? 16 (??????
???.а? ?.а?.)
л????????????а? ??????╗, ??? л?а?????? ????? ????????????╗,
??? л?а??????????? ??????? ?????? (??????) ???????????
????????????╗: ?а?????? ?????? ??????????? ???? ????????????
???????????? ??? ??????????, ??? ???????, ??? ?????.
л????? ???????╗ ?ал???????╗, ??? ??? ??? ?а?????????? ???????????? 179
??????????
1
2
3
4
5
6
????????? ?? ???? ??.: [12, 15] ? ?????.
???????????. ????? ??????? // ???????????. ??????? ????. ?.: ?????,
2007. ?.?416. ????? ????? ?????????? ?? ????? ??????? ? ?????????
???????? ? ??????? ???????.
??? ?????????? ????? ?.??.?????????? ?? ?????? л????????╗: л??????????? ???????? ??????? ? ??? ????? ????????????? ?????, ???????
?? ????? ???? ????????? ?? ???????, ?? ???????????, ?? ?????????,
?? ??????, ?? ???????????. ??? ????? ?? ????? ????? ?????????
????????? ???????? ????????, ?????? ??? ??????? ?? ???????? ?
?????????????? ????????? ??????????????? <?> ???????????, ???
????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????????, ?????????? ? ????? ????????????
??????????, ????? ????? ???? ??????????? ? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????╗ [2, 81?82].
?.??.???????? ????? ?? ????? ??????: л???????????? ???????????
?а?????????????? ?????????, ??? ?????????? ??????????, ??????
??????? ? ?????? ?? ???????????? ?????? ????????????, ? ??? ?????а?
?а?????????????, ?? ?????? ???????????, ?? ???????????? ? ???????
???????? ????????? ? ????????. ???????? ???? ???????? ? ?????
?а???? ?????????????? ?????. ??????? ????? ?????? ????????? ??
? ?????????????? ????? (??? ?????????????? ??? ????????), ? ? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????? 40-? ????? ?I???. ??????????????
??? ??????? ? ?? ?????????????? ????????? ?????????, ? ????????
???????????? ????? ????????????? ???????.
????????? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ???????
???????????? ? ??????? ?? ?? ?????? ????? ???????? ????????? ?????????. ??, ??? ??????? ????????? ? ???????? ???????? ?????????????
????? 40-? ?????, ? ?? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????????
????????? ???????????????, ????????? ????????? ??????????????
?????? ? ?????? ?????? (???????? ????????? ????????? ? ?????? ??????) ?? ?????? (??????, ?????????, ????????? ???? ? ????? ??????).
???????? ???????? ?????????-???????? ? ?????????? ???????????
???????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ???????
??????╗ [5, 86?87]. ??? ?? ???? ??.: [6].
?????????? ?.??.?????????? ?????: л??????? ???????????? ? ?????
???????, ????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ????????.
??? ????? ????? ???? ?? ????? ?? ??????????.
????????-????????? ???????? ?????? ???? ?????? ??, ????? ??
????, ? ???? ?? ??????, ?? ????????.
??? ?????????? ??????, ????? ? ???????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ?????: ????? ??? ??? ? ?? ??????, ???? ???????? ? ???
????? ????????????? ?????????╗ [14, 57].
??? ????????? ?.??.???????, ??????? ?????????? ????? ???? ?????
?а??????????? ??????: л? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?VII??VIII???., ? ?????? ??
??? ??? ?а???????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ?????????????????? ???????????. ??????? ?? ?????????????
180
7
8
9
?. ?. ????????
?????????? ??????? ??????????, ????? ???????????? ?????? ? 30??. ?I???.
??????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ?????, ????? ????, ??? ???????,
?????? ??????, ???????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????? ?VIII??.
???? ???????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????????. ????? ?? ???????????? ??????? (? ??????? ???????????? ?а????????? ?? ?????????
???????????) ? ?I???. ???????? ?????????? ? ??????-??????????????
????????????, ?????? ??? ?????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ? ??????
????????? ?????? ? ?????? ???????? ????., ?а???? ????? ??????
?????????? ????????????, ??????, ?.???????????, ?.??????????,
?.????????????, ?.???????? ????? ???????? ??? ???????? ? ??????
??????? ??????? ??????????╗ [8, 16?17].
? ?????? ? ?.??.?????? ?? 15-?? ???? 1880 ???? ???????????, ???????? ??? ??? ?? ???????, ?????????? ????????? ???????????????
????? ????? ? ??? ?? ????? ????????, ? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????
??????? ? XX ???? [10]: л????? ??? ?????????????? ??????, ?? ????
?????????????? ? ????????? ????? ?????? ? ???????. ??????????????
?????? ?? ???? ????????????? ? ????????, ??? ?? ?????? ????? ???????? ???. ??????, ?????? ??? ????? ??? ????? ?????????, ???????
л??????? ????╗ ? ???? ????????? ???????????????. ? ?? ??????,
??? ??????? ????????????? ???? ???????, ? ?????? ?????????? ? ???
??????????????, ? ????? ???, ? ????? ???????, ?? ???? ?????? ??, ??
?? ??????, ??? ??????: ????? ?? ??? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????, ???
????????????? ?? ???? ?? ???, ??????? ?????????????? ? ?????? ?????,
???? ? ?????????? ???????????? ????? (NB. ????????? ?а?????? ???).
??? ??? ?????????!╗ (?????? ?.??.?????????????. ? ?.??.) (?????????????.??. ?????? ???????? ?????????: ? 30??. ?.: ?????, 1972?1990.
?.?30. ??.?1. ?. 192).
??? ??. ??? 28. ??. 1. ?. 118.
л(? 1830-????. ? ?.??.) ???????? ?????????????????? ? ??????????????
???????? ??????????????? ?????????????. ??????, ? ????????????
(1831) ??????? ???????? ??????-??????????????? ??????? ???????????????. ??????????, ????????????? ??????????????? ? ?????????
???????? ????????????? ? ???????????? ???????, ???????? ??
??????? ? ? ???????? ?????. ?????????????? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ??????????? ????, ???????????? ???????, ???????????, ??????-????????????? ???????????. ?? ????????
???? ????????? ?????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ?????????????
??????????, ?????????? ??? ??????, ???????? ???????????? ?????????╗а[11, 8]. ?? ??, ??? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ????????,
???????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ????: л????????????
???? ?? ?????? ? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????? ? ???????? ???????????, ?????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ? ??????; ????
???????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ? ??????????
?????, ??? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???
???????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ???????????, ?? ??????????
? ????????? ????????? ?????, ? ??????? ?? ??????? ??? ?????????
????????, ???????? ?????? ?????????? (???????? ????????? ???????
? ? ?????????????, ? ? ??????????)╗ [1, 275?276].
л????? ???????╗ ?ал???????╗, ??? ??? ??? ?а?????????? ???????????? 181
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
????? ???, ????????, ?.??.??????????? [4, 55?56] ? ?.??.?????? [3, 538].
?????????????.??. ?????? ???????? ?????????: ???????????? ??????.
????????????: ???-?? ??????, 1995. ?.?1. ?.?139?140, 144?145, 149, 150, 198.
????, ???????, ??????? ????????? ???????? л????????╗, ??????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?????. ???? ? ???, ??? ? л????? ????????╗ ????????
???????? ?????????? ??? ???? ??? ???????? ????????. ?? ??? ??????
?.??.???????????? ? ????? ????? [9].
? ? ????? л??????╗ ??????: л??? (???????????? ????. ? ?.??.) ????? ?? ????? ??? ?????, ? ??????? ? ????? ???????? ????, ????????
????????, ????, ???????, ????????? ?????????????, ? ??????? ??
?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????╗ (????????.??. ???н
????? ?????????: ? 9 ?. ?.: ??????? ?????, 1994. ?. 3: ???????. ?. 134).
?????????????.??. ?????? ???????? ?????????: ???????????? ??????.
????????????: ???-?? ??????, 2005. ?. VI. ?. 9.
????? л???????????╗ ??????????? ????? ?????????? ? ???? ????? ??????????? ? л????????? ? ????????????╗, ??? ???? ????????? ???????
?? ?? ?????, ??? ????? ?????? ?????????????: л?? ???? ??? ?а????
?????! ?????? ?????? ????? ???? (???? ???????? ?? ????????????
?????? ??????? ???? ?? ??????), ?????? ????? ????, ????? ??????
??? ???? ??????? ??? ???? ??????????? (?????? ???. ? ?.??.), ?? ????,
????? ?? ???????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??, ??? ??? ?????? ??????? ? ??
?? ??? ?? ??????? ??????, ?? ?????? ??, ??? ??? ?????? ??????? ??????
??????? ????????, ?? ???? ? ??, ?? ???? ?????? ??????? ??????????
?????? ????, ? ?? ???? ?? ????? ???????? ?? ????? ????? ??????, ???
???? ?? ????? ???? ???? ???????????. ???? ??????, ?????? ?? ????????,
???? ?????? ???? ???????? ??????? ? ????????╗ (?????????????.??.
?????? ???????? ?????????: ???????????? ??????. ?.?IV. ????????????:
???-?? ??????, 2000. ?.?298). ??????????, ????? ??????????? ?????
??????? ?????? ? ???????? ??????????? ????.
??? ??. ?. 36.
?????? ??????????
1. ???? ???????. ?????????? ??? ???????? ??? ??????????? ???????????:
?????? ??? ? ?????????? ?.??.????????????? // Contributi italiani al XIII
Congresso Internazionale degli Slavisti (Ljubljana, 15?21аagosto 2003).а?
?????????, Firenze University Press, 2014.а? Pp.а261?282.
2. ??????????.??. ???? ???????? ? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? // ?????????? ? ?????. ? ???????: ???????, 1987. ? ?. 80?91.
3. ???????.??. ?????????? // ?????????????.??. ?????? ????. ? ?.:
???????: ?????, 2015. ? ?. 515?791.
4. ????????????.??. ????? ?.??.????????????? л?????? ????╗. ? ?.: ?????????????? ??????????, 1988. ? 208 ?.
5. ?????????.??. ??????? ?????? ????????????: ????????? ? ???????.а? ?.:
???, 1985. ? 209 ?.
6. ?????????.??. ??? ?????? ? ???????????. ????? ??????????.а? ?.:
??????, 2013. ? 455аc.
7. ?????????.??. ???????? ????????? ? ??????????? // ??????? ??????????.а? 1974. ? ? 3. ? ?. 203?206.
182
?. ?. ????????
8. ????????.??. ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????. ? ????????????: ??????, 2002. ? 124 ?.
9. ?????????????.??. ?????? ?? ??????? ?????????. ? ?.: ???-?? ?????
?????????? ????????, 2004. ? 464 ?.
10. ?????????. ???????? ? ?????????????? ??????????. ? ?.: ??? ???????????????? ?????, 1999. ? 144 ?.
11. ????????.??. ??????? л?????????????? ???????╗. ? ???.: ???-??
??????, 2013. ? 448 ?.
12. ???????.??. ???????????. ?????????????. ? ???.: ??????, 2013. ? 287 ?.
13. ????????????.??. ? ????????? ????????? ??????? ? ????????? ???????? ???????????? // ????????????: ????????? ? ????????????. ? ?.:
?????, 1980. ? T. 4. ? ?. 7?26.
14. ???????????.??. ?? ? ??????. ??????? ? ???????????. ? ?.: ?????????
????????, 1957. ? 260 ?.
Alejandro Ariel Gonzalez
University of Buenos Aires,
University of San Martin
(Buenos Aires, Argentina)
alexgon80@hotmail.com
?THE LIVING CORPSE? AND ?THE DOUBLE?,
OR ONCE AGAIN ABOUT THE FANTASTIKA
OF DOSTOEVSKY
(Based on the Observations of the Translator)
Abstract. From the experience perspective of translation experience and obн
servations, the author of this article proposes returning to the topic ?Odoevн
skyа? Dostoevsky?, which is not the most studied one in Russian and Western
criticism. The article briefly reviews some articles and comments made by
Russian critics about the artistic dialogue between V.?F.?Odoevsky and Fyodor
Dostoevsky. By focusing on the story ?The Living Corpse? and the short novel?
?The Double?, the author finds a number of linguistic, thematic and compoн
sitional references, which allow us to raise again the issue of the influence of
Odoevsky?s works on young Dostoevsky. The role and purpose of the fantastic
poetics in the worldview of these writers, ?аspecific approach to the topic of
the double and the use of colloquial language by the narrator and the main
characters are the subject of analysis. The author made a supposition that the
traces of ?The Living Corpse? may be found not only in ?Poor Folk?, but also
in ?The Double?, in which main characters? psychology and actions are comparн
able. Attention is also paid to the structure of both works. In the end the auн
thor speculates on the relationship between the truth and writing, or on the
aspiration of Dostoevsky?s characters to know themselves through writing.
Keywords: the fantastika, the topic of the double, ?The Living Corpse?, ?The
Double?, characters? psychology
л????? ???????╗ ?ал???????╗, ??? ??? ??? ?а?????????? ???????????? 183
References
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Contribution to the 13th International Congress of Slavists]. Florence, Firenze
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Idea of Man in the Early Works of Dostoevsky]. Literatura i vremyaа[Literature and Time]. Kishinev, Shtiintsa Publ., 1987, pp.а80?91.
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Fantastic Literature]. ?oscow, Dom intellektual?noy knigi Publ., 1999. 144аp.
11. Tur?yan?M.?A. Russkiy лfantasticheskiy realizm╗а[Russian ?Fantastic Realism?].
St.аPetersburg, Rostok Publ., 2013. 448аp.
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Amfora Publ., 2013. 287аp.
13. Fridlender?G.?M., O nekotorykh ocherednykh zadachakh i problemakh
izucheniya Dostoevskogoа[About Some Current Tasks and Problems of
Dostoevsky Studies]. Dostoevskiy: Materialy i issledovaniyaа[Dostoevsky:
Materials and Researches]. Leningrad, Nauka Publ., 1980, vol.?4, pp.?7?26.
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about Dostoevsky]. ?oscow, Sovetskiy pisatel? Publ., 1957. 260аp.
???? ??????????? ?а????????:а06.06.2016
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