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403
DOI�.15393/j9.art.2016.3941
???�1.161.1.09?1917/1992?
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?????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
(????????????, ?????????? ?????????)
mvnikulina@mail.ru
?????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????�*
?????????. ?�????? ??????????????? ???????? ????? ?�?????????
?.�????????. ???????????? ?????????????? ?�????????????? ?????
?????? ?牜??????????? ????????� ????????. ????????????? ????????
????? ??? ??????????: ?????????????, ???????????????? ?�????????????????????? ??????, ???????, ???????, ?????, ?????, ????????, ??????.
???? ????????? ?? �??????? ?????� ?????????? ?.�????????, ?? ????? ??????? ????????????, �?????????????� ????? ????????? ???? ???
????? ????? ??? ??????? ???????? ????. ??? ???????? ?�?????, ??-??
??????? ?�??????? ?.�??????? ???? ?�? ?? ???? ?????????? ?????
?�????, ???????? ????????? ?? ?�????? ??????, ??????? ????? ??????? ????????? ?�????? ????????. ?�????????????? ???????? ?.�???????? ????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ???????, ???????????
?????????? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ?�?????????? ?? ????????
???????????? ?? ??? ??? ???? ??????? ???????. ???????? ???????????? ??? ??????? ????????????? ????? ????????????? ???? ???????????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ??? ?? ?????? ?????.
???????? ?????: ?.�???????, ????, ???????? ????????, ????????
?????????, ?????, ???????, ???????, ??????, ??????, ?????????????
?
�24�??? ?�?????? �?????? ???????????� ?????????
?????? ?.�????????? ��?????? ?????�, ????? ???????
????????? ????????????? ???????????? �????????� ??????
????????? ?? ????, ????? ?�?????? ?????????? ?�???????????? ????? ?????? (??.: [18, 295]).
?�?? ?? ????? ?.�??????? ??????-?????? ?????? ?�???????? ?????????? ?�???????? ?�???? �?????? ?????�. ??
??????? ?? ???????? ?????? ?�???????????, ????? ????????
???? ?�????? ???????????? ??????� ?? ???????? ?? ??????.
?????? ????? ????? ??? ???????????? ???????? ?????, ????????????, ??????, ?�???? ???????????-??????????? ??????.
????????? ????? ?�????? ?????? ???? ????????????????
????????? ?????????? ?.�????????. ?�????????????? ??,
404
?.??.??????????
????????, ??????????? ?????????, ?? ??? ??????, ????? ?????? ?牜???????????� ???????? ????????燵14, 162].
?????????????? ??????? ???????????? ?.�???????? ????
????? ??????????????? ?�???? ?�?? ?????????? (??????
?.�????????, ?.�?????????, ?.�??????), ????????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ?�???? (?????? ?.�????????, ?.�????????), ???????? ?????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ???????
?????: ?????????? ?�???????? ??????????????? ???????
?�??????????? (?????? ?.�?????????, ?.�??????, ?.�????????), ??????????? ?????? (?????? ?.�????????, ?.�??????), ???????? ????????? (?????? ?.�???????????), ???????
? 2005�??? ????? ?????? ?�??????????? ?????????? ??????� ?????????? ?.�.�????????? �????????????? ?????
?.�.�????????: ????? ?�??????? ????????粻[11].
?�????????????? ?�?????? ??????? ??????? �????? ???????� ????? ???????????? ????????, ?????? ?????, ??????
?�?????????. ????????????? ?????????? ?�????? ?????????:
??????????, ?????????. ?????????? ????????, ?�???? ???????, ?????? ??????????? ??????� �?????????????? ?????????� (??., ????.: [12]), ?�?????� ???? ?? ???????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ?�?????????: 玃latonov?s position in this
tradition is pecular: his mature works, such as Cevengur, are neither
fully utopian nor fully anti-utopian� ???????? ??????????
?.�?????? �? ??? ??????? ??????粻[5] ????????????? ????????? ???????????????, ???, ?????? ???????,� ???????????????� ????????? ?.�????????.
?.�?????????? ??????? ?�????????? ???????? ?????????
?�??????? ?.�???????? �????? ?????????????粻[6,�].
?????????� ??? ????????????? ??????????, ???????? ?�????????? (????? ?????) ??????????? ??? ??????, ???? ?????;
?????? ???. ?????? ??????????? ??? �?????� ?.�?????? (??
??.爉auvais �?????, ??????�), ??????????????? ????????
???????????. ?.�??????? ?? ????? ?????????, ?????? ??? ??
??????? ??????? ????????, ??? ???? ????? ?�????????? ????????? ??? ????. ??? ????? ???? ?? ??????????? ?????????
?????? ??? ???????, ???????, ????? ?????, ?�?????? ?????????
????????????????. ????????? ??? ??? ?�??????? ?�????
????????. ????????? ???????????? ?�????????????? ??????
?????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????
405
??? ???? ??????, ?????? ??? ???????? ?�???????, ??, ???????,� ?�???????????? ???????? ????? ??????, ?�? ???????,
????????, ?�? ???????????. ????? ????? ?�?? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ?�???? ?????????. ???????????? ?.�???????? ???????? �????????� ?? ?????????
????????????????, ???? ??? ?????? ????? ?????????????????
?�??????, ?????????????? ??????? ?????????-?????????
?�????????-??????????. ?????????? ???????? ????? ?????????, ?????????? �????? ??????????????, ???????-?????????????? ?????????? ????????? ?�????????????粻[19,�],�
?? ??????????? ???? ???????? ??????, ???? ?? ?? ???????
??????? ??????????????.
?.�??????? ???? ????? ??????? ???? ??? ?? ?????????
????? ?????? ??? ???????: ?�??????? ??? ??????????. ????????? ???????????? ????? ????? ?????????? ?��????????? ???????, ???, ????????, ?牜?????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????� 1933�???: �? ????????? ???
???? ???? ???????? ?????????: ??????????� ?????, ???????? ???????????� ?????, ????? ???????� ???????; ?????
?�??????� ???????; ?14�?????? ????????� ?????; ???????
?�????????� ???????; ????????? ??????� ???????; ??????????? ???????� ?????� ?????? ????????????? ????? ??
???????? ???????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ????? ?�???
??????, ?? ?? ??????, ????? ??????????????? ??????? ????????????. ????????, ??????? �???????� ??????? ????????
???????. ?牜?????????�, ?????????????, ????? ??????????
????? ???????? ???????-?????????????? ????????? (???????? ??????? ??????????, ????????? ???????????????
???????? ?????, ???????? ????? ?�.�.). ????????? ?�??????????????? ??????? 1920-?� 1930-?�????, �???????�,
?? ?????????? ???????, ???-???? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ?�????? ??????.
?????????? ???? ?.�???????? ??????????? ????? ?? ??????????? (1920-?, 1930-?, 1940-?�?.). ?.�.�???????? ??????????
?�?????, ????????, ????????: ???????????, �???????????�,
�?????????� ???????燵9,�8?179]. ???????????? ??????????
???????? ????? ???????, ???? ????????????? ?�? ??? ????????
????????????. ???????? ?? ??, ??? ???????????? ?????????
406
?.??.??????????
???????? ???????? ?�18�??? ?�????????? ?�?????? �??????? ????� ???????? �????????�, ??????? ???????, ???
?.�??????? ?????????, ?????? ?????, ??? ????. ????????????
??????? ?????????????, ???????? ??? ??? ????? (?�22�.
?�?????????), ????????? �?????? ???????�, ???? ?.�???????
????? ????? ?�????: ????????, ?? ?????? 1926?1927�????.
?? ??????? ??????????? ??????? �????? ????�, ????????
?????????? ?? ????????????? �?????? ???????�, ?�????
?????????? ?�??? ????? ????????????? 1922?1926�????.
??????????? ??????? ???? ??????? ????????? ?????????????:
????????? ?�?????? ?�??????? ???????? (�??????????
???????�, �?????? ???????�, �?????? ????�, �???�, �?????? ???�, �??????? ????�, �???????? ?�????�, �???�,
�??? ??????????�), ?�???? ?�?????????? ???????? (�?????? ????�, �??????�, �?????? ?????�, �????�). ?? ??????
?.�.�????????, �??????? ????? ???????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ?�???????? ???� ???????, ?????????????, ??????????. ???? ?�???? ????????? ?????? 1920-??�???
?? ???????? ?? ?????? ??? ?????????, ?? ?�?? ?????, ???????, ?? ?�??????? ????? ???? ?? ???????????????� ?????????,
????????, ???????????? ????????? ???????, ??????? ??????? ?�??????? ?�?????? ??? ??? ???? ?????????? ??????粻[17,�2]. ???????? ??????????? ???????? ???? ?????
????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ???????, ?�? ????? ??????
?? ???????????? ????: ??????????? ?????, ?????????????
?�????????? ????????, ??????????? ?????????? ?�????????,
???????. ?�??? ????? ?.�.�????燵16] ?�.�.�?????? ????????? ?? ??, ??? ???? ?????????, ?????????? ?�???????????, ??????? ?????? ???? ????????? ?�??????????? ?????:
�????????? ?�????????????? ???�?> ??? ???????????
?�??????????? ??? ?????? ?????????????? ???? ????? ??????粻[1,�]. ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????
?????????????? ???? ?????????-?????????? ?�????????????????. ???, ?.�.�??????????, ?????????? ???????????
??????????? ????????? ?�????????? ?.�????????, ????????, ??-??????, ????? ????????? ?�???????? ?????????????
???????????? ????????, ??-??????, ????????? ?????????
?????????? ?�?????????? ?? ??? ???????? ????, ???????
?????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????
407
??????????? ?�?? ?�?????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????燵4].
?.�??????? ??????? �? ???????????�. ???? ??????
?�????-?? ??????? ?????????? ??? ?�???? ????????. ???????????? ????????, ??? ???????? ????? �????� ?�????? ????????????????? ?????, ?�? ????????? ?�?????????????
?????????? ????? ????, ??????? ????????? ????? ?????
?�???? ????? ??????????????? ??????. ??????? ?????????
?�???????? ????? ????? ??????????: ?�????? 1920-?�????.
?.�??????? ??????? ???? ??????????? ?????????????? ???.
?�???????? �?????粻(1921), �??????????粻(1921), �?????
?????粻(1922), �?????????? ???????????粻(1922), �??????
??????粻(1922), �?????? ?�????? ?????????? ?????粻(1923),
�????? ????????? (??????? ?�????????)粻(1926), �????????????? ????? ??? ??????????? ????????????粻(1927) ??
??????? ????? ?????-??????????, ??????? ???????? (??????,
???????, ??????????, ????????, ?????, ?????????, ???????????), ?�?????? ????? ?????????? ???? ???????????????
??????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ????????. ?????????? ??????
????? ??????? �?????? ?????粻(1927), ?�????? ??? ???????,
?? ?????? ?.�????????, �????? ??????????? ????????
?�??????? ?????????????? ????????粻[2,�]. ?.�.�???????? ???????, ??? ??????? ????? �????? ?????? ?�?????
???????? ?????????? (??????????? ?.�???????)�?> ??? ????????????, ??? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ?�?????? ?????:
??????? ??????????? ??? ????? ???????????? ??????????
?????????粻[8,�]. ??????? ?? ???? ???????????? ??? ?????
????????, ????????? ?? ??????? 1920-?�???? (�?????????
?????�, �???? ??????�, �?????????? ???????�, �?????
???????�) ????? ?�27?1928�???.
?�?????? ?? ????????? ?�??????? ?.�???????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????, ????????????? ??????????
??????????, ???????? ????????????. ?????????? ?????
�???????????� ????????, ??????? ???????????? ???????? ??? ??????????. ?????? ???????? ??????? �?????????? ???????粻(1927)� �????? ?????????�. ?????? ?? ????
�?????� ?????? ??????? ??????? ????? (??????? �???????�), �??????? ??????� (??????? �????�), ?????? ??????
408
?.??.??????????
�????????? ??????�. ????? ????, ?�???? ??????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ?�????????? ????????: ?????? ???????, ?�? ???????, ?? ?????? ??????, ???????
?? ???? ???? ????????? ?�??????? ??????? ?.�????????3.
?�? ?????, ????? ????????? ?????????? ???? ??????? ???????? ???????? ?�????? ????????????????? ?????? ??? ??????
?�???????????, ???????? ?????????? ?�???????????? ????? ??????? ??????????� ???????, ???? ????? ??? �????????�
????, ????????, ?????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ????????????????. ??? ?�??? ????? ??????? ???? ???
??????, ?? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?.�????????, ??? ?�??????, ?�??? ???????, ??????? ???????? ?�???? ??????.
????? �??????????? ????????� ???????? ???????? ??? ???????? �???????? ??????�, ?? ??????? ???????? ?????
�???????粻(1926?1928), ????????????? ??????? ????????
??????????? �??????� ??????? ?????? ???????? 1930-?�?.
(�???????�, �????�, �????????? ????�, �??? ?�?????�,
�???�) ?????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??? ????????
??????? ?????? ????????� �????????? ??????粻(1934?1936).
?????? ?�??? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ?.�????????: ?????? ?????????,
??????????, ?????????, ?????.
???????????? ????? ????? ??????? (?????????, ??????????? ??????, ???????????? ??????? ?�???? ?????, ????????????????? ?? ???????????????? ???????? ?�???),
?�???? ?????????? ?�???????????? ?? ???????? ?????????
????????? ?.�????????, ?�???? ???????, ???????????? ?????????????? ?�????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????
(??????, ????????????????? ??????, ???????), ?�?????� ?????????? ?????, ??? ??? ???? ?????????? ????????? ??????????, ???????? ???? ????????????? ??????????, ?????????
?????? ???????????????? ?????? ?�??????? ????????
??????? ???????????? ??????????.
???????? ????????? ????? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ???????
�????粻(1930), ?�?????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????: ???????, ???????, ??????, ?�???? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ?�?????????. ??????? �????????? ????粻(1931) ????????????? ????????? ???????????????
?????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????
409
????????? ?.�????????: �????? ???????� ????? ????? ???????????? ????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ??? ??????????,
?,�?????, ??? ??????????? (????????� �?? ?? ??????�,
�??????? ??? ??????�).
?? ???????? 1930-?�???? ?????? ??????? �????� ?????
???????????? ??? ????? ????????. ??????????? ?????????
???????, ?????? ????????? ??????? ???? ?.�?????, ??????????? ??? ??????? ?.�???????? ???? ??????????. ??????? ??????? �??????? ????????� ?????? ??????? ?.�????????: �?? ???? ?? ?????? ????????, ???????? ????? ??????
?�?????? ??? ?�????, ??? ?. ?????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ??? ??????? ????????? ??????�
(???. ??: [15, 283?284]). ?�???? ??????? ?????? ?????????
?????? ???????????? ??? ????? ?????????? ???????, ??? ?????
???????? ?�?????????? ???????? �??????????? ?????粻(1929).
?????? ??????? ??? ?�???????? ??????????????: �?????????? ?????� (?? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ????? ?????????
????????� �??? ?�?????� <1931>), ??????? �??????�
(?????? ???????� �???????�), ?????? �??????????
??????� ?牜??????????? ?? ?????????? ?�????? ?�37�???�,
????? ?�?????????. ??????????? ?�????? ???????? ???????? ??? ?????????????? ?�??????, ?�??????� ??? ?�??????????????? ?????� ???????? ????????? ?? ?? ????, ???
?��??????? 1930-?�???? (�???????�, �?????? ??????????�,
��?????? ???????� ?�?.). ??????????? ?? ???? ????? ???????? 1920-?�???? ?.�??????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????. ?�??? ????? ?.�?????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? �???????� ?�????. ???? ?????? ?? ???????
???? ??????????? ?�????. ???? ????? ?�??????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ?.�???????? 1930-?�????:
???????????? �???????� ?????? ??????, ???? ?? ????????
???? ?�????????? ??????? �????????粻(1930); ????? ???????
�???粻(1934?1935) ????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?�??????????????? ?????, ??????? ????? ?????? ????
????? ??????? ???? ?????? ?????????5. ?? ?????? ?.�.�????????, ?�????????????? ??????????? ???????? ��??????
???????� ???????? ?�???? �????????? ??????粻[7,�], ????
?? ???????? ??? ????? ????????.
410
?.??.??????????
?????????? ?????? ?�????????? ????? ???????? ?.�???????? ?�???? ????????. ???????? ?????????? ?????? ????????
?????: ??????? ???????????? ?�???????. ??? ????, ????????,
?�??????? �??? ?�?????�, ??????? ?.�??????? ?????????
?�?????? �????? ?????????????� ??? ?????????? ?�39�???
?�?????? �???????? ??????????� ?�37�??? ???????,
???????, ??????? ????????? �??? ????????粻? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ?.�???????? ?? ????????? ???????????. ??
�????? ???????� ?? ??????, ?�???? ?? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????, ?? ???? ??? ?.�??????, ?�?????? ???????? ????????? ?牜??????????? ??????????????�
?? ?????? ???????? 1930-?�???? ?.�??????? ??????????
?�??????????-??????????? ???????� ????????? ?????????????? ???????? ?�??????? �??????????? ??????�. ?????
?????? �?????????? ????????� ??? ?�? ????? ?�???, ?�??
????? ?�?-?? ??????, ??????? ???????? ???????, ?�?-?? ???????????? ??? ???????? ?�40�???. ??? ???????? ???????????, ??? ???????????-??????????? ?????? ???????? ???
????? ??? ?????, ??? ??? ???? ????? �?????????????????
?�???? ??????�, �????????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?? ?????
????????????????? ???????�
?? ????? ????? ???????? ??? ??????? ???????????????,
?????????? ????? ???????? ??? ?�???? ????????. ??????????
????? ????? ?????, ??????????????? ???????? ??????-????
?????? ?�???? ????? ???????, ?????????????? ?? ???????
???? ??????????? ???????? ??????????????? ?? ???????????
??????????? ??????? ?????� ?????. ??????????? ?????????-?????????, ??? ????????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????????
???????? ??????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ?�?????? ?????????. ?�42�??? ????? ??????? �????????????? ????�,
??????????? ?�?????????????, ?? ?????? ????????????
??????????? ????????9. ?�43�??? ?.�??????? ???????
??????? �??????????�, ??? ????????? ????????, ??? ??????
????????, ??????????? ??? ????? ?????, ???? ???????,
??????, ??????. ??? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ???????? (??
??????? ?? ?????, ??????? ?????? ?? ????????), ??? ??????????.
?????? ????? ????????? ???? ??????, ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????, ??????? ??????? ?????????
??? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ???????.
?????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????
411
?�???????? ???? ????? ?.�??????? ?????????? ?�??????
?????: ????? ???????? ??? ????? ?�??????? ??????? ?�????????? ??????. ?? ?�????? ????? ???????????? ?????? ?�??????? ??? ?????, ?? ??????, ?? ???? ??????????? ?????????????, ????????????????? ?? ???? ??????, ??????? ??????????
??????????? ?????????? ??? ????? ?�????????. ?????? ????
?? ?????? ?�??????. ?????? ?�??????? ??? ????? ????? ????
???????, ?�?????? ?�????? ???? ??????????? ????????????
??????. ??? ??????????? ????, ??????????? ????????? ??
�???????� ?????? ?�?? ?�? ???????? ?? ????????, ??????
�???????????� ?�???? ??????? ??????????. ?.�????? ???????, ??? ??????????? ��??????????? ?????, ????????
?�??????????? ??????? ?????? ????? ????, ?? ?????-?? ?????
?? ???????? ????? ??????: ?�?????? ?? ????? ????, ?�??
????? ???????? ?�????????. ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????, ?? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????
?????????? ??????????????粻[3,�1]. ??????????? ???? ????
??????? ?? ????? ?? ????????, ??????? ??????? ????? ?.�???????? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ??? ???????, ??????
?? ???????????? ???????: �???? ?�30?1940-?�??? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????, ?????????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ????????????粻[13,�5].
?????????? ???? ?.�????????, ??? ???????? ???????????,
?????????????? ?????? ????????? ???????????? ?�???????? ???????????10 ????? ????????????????? ?�?????? ?�??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????????? ????????, ?? ?�???????????
???????? ?????????. ???? ??? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?.�????????, �??????????� ????? ??? ?�????????.
???????? ??????????, ???????????? ????? ?�???? ???? ????
? ?????? ??????, ????? ??, ?�?????? ??????? ?? ??? ?? ????????? ? ????????, ????? ? ??? ??????????? ??????. ?????
?�?????, ???????????? ?�???? ???????????? ??????,
?.�??????? �????????? ????� ?�??????? ?�???? ??????,
?? ?????????? ??????? ?�?????????? ????????? ????????
�?????????� ?�??? ???????, �???????? ?? ???????�, ????????? ?�???? ?????. ???????? ???????????? ?�?????????
?.�???????? ??? ??????? ????????????? ????? ????????????? ???? ???????????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ????????
??? ?? ?????? ?????.
?.??.??????????
412
??????????
*�??????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ?�????
?????? �???? ?????????????????? ?�??????????????? ????????????
??????? ??????????? XIX?XX�?.� (?�.1126).
1
�?????? ????????? ?�??? ???????? ??????????: ??? ?????? ??????,
?????, ??? ??????????, ?? ???????? ????????? ????????????, ??? ?�???????????????� (David燤. Bethea. The Shape of Apocalypse in Modern
Russian Fiction. Princeton University Press, 1989. P.�8. ???. ??:燵20,�]).
2
?????? ????????: ???????????? ?????????????: ????????? ?�????????. ?.:�?????????? ????????, 1994. ?.�8.
3
?? ?????? ?.�.�?????????, ?????????? ?�??????? ??????? ?.�???????? ???????? ???????燵11,�].
4
????????? ??.:燵3,�3].
5
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?.??.??????????
414
Marina V.燴avarkina
Petrozavodsk State University
(Petrozavodsk, Russian Federation)
mvnikulina@mail.ru
ANDREI PLATONOV IN SEARCH OF THE GENRE
Abstract. The article studies the problem of genre in the literary works of
A.燩latonov. The viewpoint on the author?s manner of thinking as ?genre
busting? that is very popular in Platonov Studies is argued here. The article
analyzes the main genres of his creative work: verses, a爌ublicistic and literarycritical article, a爏tory, a short novel, a爊ovel, a爌lay, a爏cript, a爁airy tale. The
diversity of genres used by the author represents a certain way of self-expression
chosen by the author strategically. As it is shown in the article, because of the
problems with censorship A.燩latonov modified the same ideas trying to
introduce them in different genres for the purpose of applying to his readers.
In the artistic heritage of A.燩latonov it is possible to detect a爂enre system that
allows us to outline the periods of his creative work, according to his genre
preferences at a particular point in time. Genre diversity in the presence of a
certain range of recurrent ideas confirms the viewpoint of the writer?s works
as one text.
Keywords: A.燩latonov, genre, genre thinking, genre strategy, novel, short
story, story, article, fairy tale, poem
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