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Влияние степени сжатия на политропу сжатия быстроходного дизеля..pdf

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ǝǟǐǚǎǧǑ ǩǙǑǜǏǑǞǔǣǑǝǖǔǑ ǟǝǞnjǙǚǎǖǔ,
ǝǔǝǞǑǘǧ ǔ ǟǝǞǜǚǕǝǞǎnj
ȁDzǸ 621.443
ǻ. ǯ. DZȎțȖț,
ȘȎțȒ. Ƞȓȣț. țȎȡȘ, ȒȜȤȓțȠ,
DZȁǺǾȂ ȖȚȓțȖ ȎȒȚȖȞȎșȎ ǿ. Ǽ. ǺȎȘȎȞȜȐȎ;
Ƕ. ǽ. ǿȓȒȡțȜȐ,
ȖțȔȓțȓȞ,
ǿǽȏ «DZǮǿȁ Ȁǿ»
ȼɅɂəɇɂȿ ɋɌȿɉȿɇɂ ɋɀȺɌɂə ɇȺ ɉɈɅɂɌɊɈɉɍ ɋɀȺɌɂə
ȻɕɋɌɊɈɏɈȾɇɈȽɈ ȾɂɁȿɅə
INFLUENCE OF EXTENT OF COMPRESSION ON THE POLYTROPE OF
COMPRESSION OF THE HIGH-SPEED DIESEL
ȼ ɫɬɚɬɶɟ ɨɩɢɫɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɣ ɝɟɨɦɟɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ ɧɚ ɩɨɥɢɬɪɨɩɭ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ. ɋɨɡɞɚɧɵ ɦɨɬɨɪɧɵɟ ɫɬɟɧɞɵ ɫ ɞɢɡɟɥɟɦ 4ɑɇ 8,8/9,4 ɫ ɝɟɨɦɟɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶɸ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ 38 ɢ ɫ ɞɢɡɟɥɟɦ 6ɑɇ 7,75/8,6 ɫɨ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶɸ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ 50. ɉɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɚ ɚɩɩɪɨɤɫɢɦɚɰɢɹ ɥɢɧɟɣɧɨɣ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ, ɫɜɹɡɵɜɚɸɳɟɣ ɩɨɥɢɬɪɨɩɭ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ ɫ ɝɟɨɦɟɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶɸ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ. ɉɨɤɚɡɚɧɨ, ɱɬɨ
ɩɪɢ ɝɟɨɦɟɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ ɨɤɨɥɨ 64 ɟɞɢɧɢɰ ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɟɬɫɹ ɢɡɨɬɟɪɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɫɠɚɬɢɟ. Ɉɬɦɟɱɟɧɨ,
ɱɬɨ ɩɪɢ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɢ ɞɢɡɟɥɟɣ ɫ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶɸ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɚ ɬɟɩɥɨɜɚɹ ɡɚɳɢɬɚ ɚɥɸɦɢɧɢɟɜɨɝɨ
ɩɨɪɲɧɹ.
In the article pilot studies of influence of the raised geometrical extent of compression on a compression
polytrope are described. Motor stands with the diesel 4ChN 8,8/9,4 with geometrical extent of compression 38 and
with the diesel 6ChN 7,75/8,6 with extent of compression 50 are created. Approximation of the linear dependence
connecting a polytrope of compression with geometrical extent of compression is offered. It is shown that at geometrical extent of compression about 64 units of isothermal compression is reached. It is noted when creating
diesels with raised extent of compression thermal protection of the aluminum piston is necessary.
Ʉɥɸɱɟɜɵɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ: ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ, ɩɨɥɢɬɪɨɩɚ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ, ɢɧɞɢɤɚɬɨɪɧɚɹ ɞɢɚɝɪɚɦɦɚ, ɩɨɪɲɟɧɶ, ɬɟɩɥɨɨɛɦɟɧ, ɱɚɫɬɨɬɚ ɜɪɚɳɟɧɢɹ.
Key words: extent of compression, compression polytrope, indicator chart, piston, heat exchange, rotation
frequency.
ɗ
ɎɎȿɄɌɂȼɇɈɋɌɖ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɞɢɡɟɥɹ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬ ɨɬ ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɨɜ ɪɚɛɨɱɟɝɨ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚ, ɜ ɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ ɝɟɨɦɟɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ. ɉɪɢ ɫɠɚɬɢɢ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɬɟɩɥɨɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɞɟɬɚɥɟɣ ɤɚɦɟɪɵ ɫɝɨɪɚɧɢɹ, ɩɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɭɸ ɪɨɥɶ ɢɝɪɚɟɬ ɩɨɥɢɬɪɨɩɚ
Выпуск 2
ɫɠɚɬɢɹ.
Ɍɟɨɪɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɹ ɩɨɥɢɬɪɨɩɵ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ ɨɱɟɧɶ ɫɥɨɠɧɚ. ɇɚ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɭ ɩɨɥɢɬɪɨɩɵ ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɸɬ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɨ ɬɚɤɢɯ ɧɟɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɵɯ ɢ ɪɚɡɧɨɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɯ, ɤɚɤ: ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ
ɫɠɚɬɢɹ, ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥ ɩɨɪɲɧɹ, ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥ ɜɫɬɚɜɤɢ ɩɨɞ ɩɟɪɜɨɟ ɩɨɪɲɧɟɜɨɟ ɤɨɥɶɰɨ, ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɝɟɪɦɟɬɢɱɧɨɫɬɢ ɪɚɛɨɱɟɝɨ ɨɛɴɟɦɚ ɰɢɥɢɧɞɪɚ, ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥ ɤɪɵɲɤɢ ɰɢɥɢɧɞɪɚ, ɤɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬ ɬɟɩɥɨɨɬɞɚɱɢ ɜ ɫɬɟɧɤɢ,
ɱɚɫɬɨɬɚ ɜɪɚɳɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɧɚɞɞɭɜɚ. ɋɜɹɡɚɬɶ ɷɬɢ ɪɚɡɧɨɪɨɞɧɵɟ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɟ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɵ ɜ ɟɞɢɧɭɸ
ɚɧɚɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɜɟɫɶɦɚ ɧɟ ɩɪɨɫɬɨ. ɉɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɧɚ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɟ, ɤɚɤ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɨ, ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬ
ɷɦɩɢɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɮɨɪɦɭɥɵ.
Ɉɛɳɟɩɪɢɧɹɬɨ ɫɱɢɬɚɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɨɩɬɢɦɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ ɞɥɹ ɞɢɡɟɥɟɣ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɜ ɞɢɚɩɚɡɨɧɟ ɨɬ 13 ɞɨ 18. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɚɹ ɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɹ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɚɜɬɨɦɨɛɢɥɶɧɵɯ ɞɢɡɟɥɟɣ ɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬ
ɧɟɭɤɥɨɧɧɵɣ ɪɨɫɬ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ, ɯɨɬɹ ɢ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɢɦɢ ɬɟɦɩɚɦɢ. ɇɚɱɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɬɨɱɤɨɣ ɨɬɫɱɟɬɚ ɦɨɠɧɨ
27
ɫɱɢɬɚɬɶ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ 16,3 ɭ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɹ 1ɑ 30/46,3 ɦɨɳɧɨɫɬɶɸ 22 ɤȼɬ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɜ 1900 ɝ. ɜ
Ⱥɭɝɫɛɭɪɝɟ (Ƚɟɪɦɚɧɢɹ). ɉɨ ɞɚɧɧɵɦ ɮɢɪɦɵ MAN, ɤ 2014 ɝ. ɛɭɞɭɬ ɡɚɩɭɳɟɧɵ ɜ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ ɚɜɬɨɦɨɛɢɥɶɧɵɟ ɞɢɡɟɥɢ ɫɨ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶɸ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ 25. ȼ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɷɬɢɦ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɪɚɛɨɱɟɝɨ
ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚ ɩɪɢ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɵɯ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɹɯ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɫɱɢɬɚɬɶ ɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɦ.
Ⱦɥɹ ɷɬɢɯ ɰɟɥɟɣ ɜ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɨɛɪɚɡɰɚ ɛɵɥ ɜɵɛɪɚɧ ɜɢɯɪɟɤɚɦɟɪɧɵɣ ɞɢɡɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɶ 4ɑɇ 7,6/8,4 ɫɨ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶɸ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ 23. ɇɚ ɟɝɨ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɛɵɥ ɫɨɡɞɚɧ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɣ
ɫɬɟɧɞ ɫ ɝɢɞɪɚɜɥɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɧɚɝɪɭɠɚɸɳɢɦ ɭɫɬɪɨɣɫɬɜɨɦ (ɪɢɫ. 1).
Выпуск 2
Ɋɢɫ. 1. ɗɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɫɬɟɧɞ ɫ ɜɢɯɪɟɤɚɦɟɪɧɵɦ ɞɢɡɟɥɶɧɵɦ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɟɦ 4ɑɇ 7,6/8,4
28
ɉɟɪɟɞ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɨɣ ɧɚ ɫɬɟɧɞ ɛɚɡɨɜɵɣ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɶ 4ɑɇ 7,6/8,4 ɛɵɥ ɩɟɪɟɨɛɨɪɭɞɨɜɚɧ ɩɨɞ ɝɟɨɦɟɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ ɜ 38 ɟɞɢɧɢɰ. Ⱦɥɹ ɷɬɢɯ ɰɟɥɟɣ ɜ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɟ ɩɟɪɟɨɛɨɪɭɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɡɚɡɨɪ ɦɟɠɞɭ
ɞɧɢɳɟɦ ɩɨɪɲɧɹ ɢ ɝɨɥɨɜɤɨɣ ɛɥɨɤɚ ɫ 0,80–0,90 ɦɦ ɛɵɥ ɞɨɜɟɞɟɧ ɞɨ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ 0,25–0,30 ɦɦ. ȼɨ ɢɡɛɟɠɚɧɢɟ
ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɚ ɩɨɪɲɧɹ ɫ ɤɥɚɩɚɧɚɦɢ ɛɵɥɚ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɚ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹ ɩɨɪɲɧɹ, ɝɨɥɨɜɤɢ ɛɥɨɤɚ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɩɪɢɲɥɨɫɶ
ɩɨɥɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɭɛɪɚɬɶ ɮɚɡɭ ɩɟɪɟɤɪɵɬɢɹ ɤɥɚɩɚɧɨɜ. Ʉɪɨɦɟ ɷɬɨɝɨ, ɜ ɲɬɚɬɧɨɦ ɬɨɩɥɢɜɧɨɦ ɧɚɫɨɫɟ ɜɵɫɨɤɨɝɨ
ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɛɵɥɚ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɟɧɚ ɡɚɦɟɧɚ ɩɥɭɧɠɟɪɧɨɣ ɩɚɪɵ ɫ ɞɢɚɦɟɬɪɚ 8 ɦɦ ɞɨ ɞɢɚɦɟɬɪɚ 10 ɦɦ.
ɉɟɪɜɵɟ ɩɨɩɵɬɤɢ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɶ ɡɚɩɭɫɤ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɹ ɫɨ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶɸ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ 38 ɧɚɱɢɧɚɥɢɫɶ ɫ ɛɨɥɶɲɨɣ ɨɫɬɨɪɨɠɧɨɫɬɶɸ. ȼɩɪɵɫɤ ɬɨɩɥɢɜɚ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɥɫɹ, ɧɚɱɢɧɚɹ ɫ 30° ɩɨɫɥɟ ȼɆɌ, ɫ ɩɨɫɬɟɩɟɧɧɵɦ
ɩɪɢɛɥɢɠɟɧɢɟɦ ɭɝɥɚ ɨɩɟɪɟɠɟɧɢɹ ɜɩɪɵɫɤɚ ɬɨɩɥɢɜɚ ɤ ȼɆɌ. ɍɠɟ ɧɚ ɭɝɥɟ ɜɩɪɵɫɤɚ 16° ɩɤɜ ɩɨɫɥɟ ȼɆɌ
ɡɚɩɭɫɤ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɹ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɥɫɹ ɫɬɚɛɢɥɶɧɨ, ɚ ɧɚ ɨɬɦɟɬɤɟ 6–8° ɩɨɫɥɟ ȼɆɌ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨ ɡɚɪɚɛɨɬɚɥ.
ɉɟɪɜɵɟ ɠɟ ɡɚɩɭɫɤɢ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɥɢ ɧɢɡɤɢɣ ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɲɭɦɚ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɹ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɦɚɥɨ ɨɬɥɢɱɚɥɫɹ ɨɬ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ
ɲɭɦɚ ɛɟɧɡɢɧɨɜɵɯ ɦɨɬɨɪɨɜ. ɇɨ ɩɨɹɜɢɥɢɫɶ ɢ ɩɟɪɜɵɟ ɫɥɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ, ɢɡ-ɡɚ ɜɵɫɨɤɨɝɨ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ
ɞɨ 6 Ɇɉɚ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɶ ɛɵɥɨ ɬɪɭɞɧɨ ɡɚɩɭɫɬɢɬɶ ɲɬɚɬɧɵɦ 12-ɜɨɥɶɬɧɵɦ ɫɬɚɪɬɟɪɨɦ (1,9 Ʉȼɬ). ɉɨɫɥɟ
ɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɚ 12-ɜɨɥɶɬɧɨɝɨ ɫɬɚɪɬɟɪɚ ɧɚ ɪɟɠɢɦ 24 ɜɨɥɶɬ ɡɚɩɭɫɤ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɹ ɫɬɚɥ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɬɶɫɹ ɛɟɡ
ɫɜɟɱɟɣ ɧɚɤɚɥɢɜɚɧɢɹ. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɩɪɢ ɜɵɯɨɞɟ ɧɚ ɜɵɫɨɤɢɟ ɨɛɨɪɨɬɵ ɢ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɭ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɶ ɧɚɱɢɧɚɥ ɩɟɪɟɝɪɟɜɚɬɶɫɹ, ɟɝɨ ɲɬɚɬɧɚɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ ɨɯɥɚɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɧɟ ɫɩɪɚɜɥɹɥɚɫɶ ɢ ɧɚɱɢɧɚɥɚ ɡɚɤɢɩɚɬɶ. ɉɟɪɟɛɨɪɤɚ
ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɹ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɥɚ, ɱɬɨ ɩɪɢɱɢɧɨɣ ɩɟɪɟɝɪɟɜɚ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɜɫɟ ɜɢɞɵ ɜɵɟɦɨɤ ɧɚ ɩɨɪɲɧɟ ɢ ɝɨɥɨɜɤɟ —
ɝɚɡɵ, ɩɟɪɟɫɟɤɚɹ ɲɬɚɬɧɭɸ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɭ ɡɚɤɪɭɱɢɜɚɧɢɹ ɝɚɡɨɜ ɧɚ ɩɨɪɲɧɟ (ɤɚɦɟɪɚ ɫɝɨɪɚɧɢɹ «Ʉɨɦɦɟɬ3»), ɩɟɪɟɬɟɤɚɸɬ ɜ ɭɝɥɭɛɥɟɧɢɹ ɫɟɞɟɥ ɤɥɚɩɚɧɨɜ ɝɨɥɨɜɤɢ ɛɥɨɤɚ, ɜɵɟɦɤɢ ɩɨɞ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɩɟɪɟɤɪɵɜɚɸɬ
ɫɨɢɡɦɟɪɢɦɵɟ ɫ ɧɢɦɢ ɩɨ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɟ ɜɢɯɪɟɜɵɟ ɤɚɦɟɪɵ ɧɚ ɩɨɪɲɧɟ. ȼɵɪɚɜɧɢɜɚɧɢɟ ɬɚɪɟɥɨɤ ɤɥɚɩɚɧɨɜ ɫ
ɩɥɨɫɤɨɫɬɶɸ ɪɚɡɴɟɦɚ ɝɨɥɨɜɤɢ ɛɥɨɤɚ ɥɢɲɶ ɱɚɫɬɢɱɧɨ ɭɫɬɪɚɧɹɥɨ ɨɛɳɭɸ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɭ. ɉɟɪɟɝɪɟɜ ɩɨɪɲɧɹ
ɫɨɯɪɚɧɹɥɫɹ ɢ ɫ ɨɞɧɨɣ ɜɵɟɦɤɨɣ ɧɚ ɩɨɪɲɧɟ (ɪɢɫ. 3, ɚ). Ƚɚɡɵ ɩɟɪɟɝɪɟɜɚɥɢ ɬɭ ɟɝɨ ɱɚɫɬɶ, ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ
ɩɪɢɦɵɤɚɥɚ ɤ ɫɨɟɞɢɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɦɭ ɤɚɧɚɥɭ, ɢ ɞɨ ɬɚɤɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ, ɱɬɨ ɨɝɧɟɜɚɹ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɶ ɞɨɧɵɲɤɚ
ɩɨɪɲɧɹ ɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɬɚɥɚ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɵɣ ɧɚɤɥɨɧ ɜ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɭ ɫɨɟɞɢɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɤɚɧɚɥɚ ɜɜɢɞɭ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ
ɩɥɚɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɞɟɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ.
Ɍɪɟɛɨɜɚɥɚɫɶ ɤɚɦɟɪɚ ɫɝɨɪɚɧɢɹ, ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ ɛɵɥɚ ɛɵ ɫɜɨɛɨɞɧɚ ɨɬ ɜɵɲɟɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɯ ɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɤɨɜ,
ɢ ɬɚɤɚɹ ɤɚɦɟɪɚ ɫɝɨɪɚɧɢɹ ɛɵɥɚ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɚ ɜ ɪɚɦɤɚɯ ɩɚɬɟɧɬɚ [4] ɩɨ ɡɚɹɜɤɟ ʋ 2010141695/06 (059823). ȿɟ
ɜɧɟɲɧɢɣ ɜɢɞ ɢɡɨɛɪɚɠɟɧ ɧɚ ɪɢɫ. 2.
Ɋɢɫ. 2. Ɇɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɚɹ ɜɢɯɪɟɜɚɹ ɤɚɦɟɪɚ ɫɝɨɪɚɧɢɹ ɫɨ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶɸ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ 38
Ƚɥɚɜɧɨɣ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɣ ɤɚɦɟɪɵ ɫɝɨɪɚɧɢɹ, ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɬɚɧɝɟɧɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɩɟɪɟɩɭɫɤɧɨɣ ɝɚɡɨɜɵɣ ɤɚɧɚɥ ɫ ɭɝɥɨɦ ɪɚɡɜɨɪɨɬɚ ɜ 45° (ɜ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɭ ɜɵɩɭɫɤɧɨɝɨ ɤɥɚɩɚɧɚ),
ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɸɳɢɣ ɩɟɪɟɩɭɫɤɚɧɢɟ ɩɨɬɨɤɚ ɝɚɡɨɜ ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɭɸ ɤɚɦɟɪɭ ɫɝɨɪɚɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɫɩɢɪɚɥɢ — ɧɚɱɢɧɚɹ
ɡɚɤɪɭɱɢɜɚɬɶ ɩɨɬɨɤ ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɣ ɤɚɦɟɪɟ ɫɝɨɪɚɧɢɹ ɫ ɩɪɢɫɬɟɧɨɱɧɨɣ ɡɨɧɵ ɪɚɛɨɱɟɝɨ ɰɢɥɢɧɞɪɚ. Ɍɚɤɢɦ
ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɧɚ ɫɬɚɞɢɢ ɞɨɝɨɪɚɧɢɹ ɝɚɡ, ɜɵɯɨɞɹɳɢɣ ɢɡ ɜɢɯɪɟɜɨɣ ɤɚɦɟɪɵ ɫɝɨɪɚɧɢɹ, ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɟɬ ɜɬɨɪɢɱɧɵɣ ɜɢɯɪɶ, ɨɯɜɚɬɵɜɚɸɳɢɣ ɭɠɟ ɜɟɫɶ ɪɚɛɨɱɢɣ ɨɛɴɟɦ ɰɢɥɢɧɞɪɚ, ɫ ɩɨɞɫɚɫɵɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɜ ɡɨɧɭ ɝɨɪɟɧɢɹ
ɫɜɟɠɢɯ ɩɨɪɰɢɣ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɚ ɫ ɩɟɪɢɮɟɪɢɢ ɰɢɥɢɧɞɪɚ. ɉɨ ɨɤɨɧɱɚɧɢɢ ɪɚɫɲɢɪɟɧɢɹ ɜɢɯɪɶ, ɧɟ ɦɟɧɹɹ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɜɪɚɳɟɧɢɹ, ɩɨɤɢɞɚɟɬ ɤɚɦɟɪɭ ɫɝɨɪɚɧɢɹ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɜɵɩɭɫɤɧɨɣ ɤɥɚɩɚɧ. ɋɯɟɦɚ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɜɢɯɪɟɜɨɣ
ɤɚɦɟɪɵ ɧɨɜɨɝɨ ɨɛɪɚɡɰɚ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɧɚ ɧɚ ɪɢɫ. 3, ɛ.
Выпуск 2
29
ɚ
ɛ
Ɋɢɫ. 3. ɋɯɟɦɚ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɣ ɤɚɦɟɪɵ ɫɝɨɪɚɧɢɹ ɜɢɯɪɟɤɚɦɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɞɢɡɟɥɹ:
ɚ — ɤɚɦɟɪɚ ɫɝɨɪɚɧɢɹ «Ʉɨɦɦɟɬ-3», ɛ — ɜɢɯɪɟɜɚɹ ɤɚɦɟɪɚ ɧɨɜɨɝɨ ɨɛɪɚɡɰɚ
ȼ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɩɨɞɨɛɧɨɝɨ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɢ ɤɚɦɟɪɵ ɫɝɨɪɚɧɢɹ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɶ ɩɟɪɟɫɬɚɥ ɩɟɪɟɝɪɟɜɚɬɶɫɹ, ɟɝɨ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɨɛɨɪɨɬɵ ɜɵɪɨɫɥɢ ɫ 4800 ɞɨ 7500 ɨɛ/ɦɢɧ. ɋɪɟɞɧɟɟ ɢɧɞɢɤɚɬɨɪɧɨɟ
ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɰɢɤɥɚ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɥɨɫɶ ɫ 1,0 ɞɨ 1,25 Ɇɉɚ.
ɇɚ ɩɟɪɜɨɦ ɷɬɚɩɟ ɯɨɞɚ ɪɚɛɨɬ ɛɵɥɨ ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɩɪɢ ɝɟɨɦɟɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ İ = 38
ɮɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɫɝɨɪɚɧɢɹ ɝɚɡɨɜ ɧɚ ɪɟɠɢɦɟ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɦɨɳɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɨ 12,8 Ɇɉɚ, ɚ ɧɚ ɪɟɠɢɦɟ ɯɨɥɨɫɬɨɝɨ ɯɨɞɚ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɤɨɧɰɟ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ ɨɫɬɚɜɚɥɨɫɶ ɧɚ
ɭɪɨɜɧɟ 7,6 Ɇɉɚ. ȼ ɬɨ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɤɚɤ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɤɨɧɰɟ ɬɚɤɬɚ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ Ɋɫ, ɜɵɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɟ ɩɨ ɤɥɚɫɫɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɮɨɪɦɭɥɟ, ɞɨɥɠɧɨ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶ 14,6 Ɇɉɚ:
(1)
ɝɞɟ
Ɋɚ — ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɚ ɧɚ ɜɯɨɞɟ ɜ ɞɢɡɟɥɶ 0,1 Ɇɩɚ;
İ — ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ;
n1 — ɫɪɟɞɧɹɹ ɩɨɥɢɬɪɨɩɚ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ, 1,37.
Выпуск 2
Ɋɚɫɱɟɬɧɨɟ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɤɨɧɰɚ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ ɛɚɡɢɪɨɜɚɥɨɫɶ ɧɚ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɦ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɟ ɩɨɥɢɬɪɨɩɵ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ,
ɤɨɬɨɪɨɟ ɞɥɹ ɞɢɡɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɟɣ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɨ ɫɱɢɬɚɬɶ 1,34–1,42 [3]. Ɉɱɟɜɢɞɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɬɟɨɪɢɟɣ ɢ
ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɨɣ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ, ɩɨɱɬɢ ɞɜɭɤɪɚɬɧɨɟ ɪɚɫɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɟ, ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɨɬɟɱɟɤ ɪɚɛɨɱɟɝɨ ɬɟɥɚ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɡɚɡɨɪɵ ɜ ɩɨɪɲɧɟɜɵɯ ɤɨɥɶɰɚɯ ɧɟ ɛɵɥɨ ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɨ — ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɤɚɪɬɟɪɧɵɯ
ɝɚɡɨɜ ɨɫɬɚɜɚɥɫɹ ɧɚ ɧɟɢɡɦɟɧɧɨɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ. ɂɧɞɢɤɚɬɨɪɧɵɟ ɠɟ ɞɢɚɝɪɚɦɦɵ, ɫɧɹɬɵɟ ɧɚ ɦɨɬɨɪɧɨɦ ɫɬɟɧɞɟ
ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɧɨ-ɚɩɩɚɪɚɬɧɵɦ ɞɢɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɨɦ «Ⱦɢɡɟɥɶ-Ⱥɞɦɢɪɚɥ 12Ɇ», ɩɨ ɢɧɞɢɰɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɸ
ɪɚɛɨɱɟɝɨ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɥɢɫɶ ɧɚ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɪɟɠɢɦɚɯ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɟɣ, ɢ ɜɫɟ ɨɧɢ ɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɥɢ ɧɚ
ɛɨɥɟɟ ɧɢɡɤɨɟ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɤɨɧɰɟ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ, ɱɟɦ ɜɵɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɟ ɩɨ ɤɥɚɫɫɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɮɨɪɦɭɥɟ (1). ɇɚ ɪɢɫ. 4 ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɚ ɢɧɞɢɤɚɬɨɪɧɚɹ ɞɢɚɝɪɚɦɦɚ ɢ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɬɨɩɥɢɜɚ ɩɟɪɟɞ ɮɨɪɫɭɧɤɨɣ ɩɪɢ 1177 ɨɛ/ɦɢɧ, ɡɚɩɢɫɚɧɧɵɟ
ɩɪɢ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɣ ɜɢɯɪɟɜɨɣ ɤɚɦɟɪɵ ɫɝɨɪɚɧɢɹ ɫɨ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶɸ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ 38 ɟɞɢɧɢɰ.
30
Ɋɢɫ. 4. ɂɧɞɢɤɚɬɨɪɧɚɹ ɞɢɚɝɪɚɦɦɚ ɢ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɬɨɩɥɢɜɚ ɩɟɪɟɞ ɮɨɪɫɭɧɤɨɣ
ȼ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɟɫɥɢ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɶ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɥɢɬɪɨɩɵ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ ɪɚɜɧɵɦ 1,21, ɬɨ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɤɨɧɰɟ ɬɚɤɬɚ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ ɛɭɞɟɬ ɪɚɜɧɨ 81,5 ɤɝ/ɫɦ2, ɱɬɨ ɜɢɞɧɨ ɧɚ ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɨɣ ɢɧɞɢɤɚɬɨɪɧɨɣ ɞɢɚɝɪɚɦɦɟ.
ɉɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɵɟ ɜ ɯɨɞɟ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɩɟɪɜɨɝɨ ɦɚɤɟɬɧɨɝɨ ɨɛɪɚɡɰɚ ɧɢɡɤɢɟ
ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɵ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɪɚɛɨɱɟɝɨ ɬɟɥɚ ɜ ɤɨɧɰɟ ɬɚɤɬɚ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɥɢ ɩɟɪɟɣɬɢ ɧɚ ɟɳɟ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɜɵɫɨɤɢɣ
ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ. Ȼɵɥɚ ɜɵɞɜɢɧɭɬɚ ɝɢɩɨɬɟɡɚ, ɱɬɨ ɫ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ, ɩɪɢ ɩɪɨɱɢɯ ɪɚɜɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ, ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶ ɩɨɥɢɬɪɨɩɵ ɫɧɢɠɚɟɬɫɹ. Ⱦɥɹ ɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɷɬɨɣ ɝɢɩɨɬɟɡɵ ɛɵɥ
ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧ ɜɬɨɪɨɣ ɞɢɡɟɥɶ, ɝɟɨɦɟɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨ ɛɵɥɚ ɟɳɟ ɜɵɲɟ ɢ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɚ
50 ɟɞɢɧɢɰ. Ɉɛɴɟɤɬɨɦ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɬɚɥ ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɧɵɣ ɞɢɡɟɥɶ 6ɑɇ 7,75/8,6 ɮɢɪɦɵ «Ɏɨɥɶɰɜɚɝɟɧ»
(ɫɟɪɢɹ «ȺȺȼ») ɫ ɪɚɛɨɱɢɦ ɨɛɴɟɦɨɦ ɜ 2,4 ɥ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɛɵɥ ɩɟɪɟɨɛɨɪɭɞɨɜɚɧ ɩɨɞ ɚɧɚɥɨɝɢɱɧɭɸ, ɤɚɤ ɢ ɜ
ɩɟɪɜɨɦ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɟ, ɜɢɯɪɟɜɭɸ ɤɚɦɟɪɭ ɫɝɨɪɚɧɢɹ (ɪɢɫ. 5). Ⱦɥɹ ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɬɟɩɥɨɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɤɥɚɩɚɧɨɜ ɱɭɝɭɧɧɵɟ ɫɟɞɥɚ ɛɵɥɢ ɡɚɦɟɧɟɧɵ ɧɚ ɛɪɨɧɡɨɜɵɟ (ɫɦ. ɪɢɫ. 5).
Ɋɢɫ. 5. Ƚɨɥɨɜɤɚ ɰɢɥɢɧɞɪɨɜ ɞɢɡɟɥɹ 6ɑɇ 7,75/8,6 ɮɢɪɦɵ «Ɏɨɥɶɰɜɚɝɟɧ»
ɫɨ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶɸ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ 50 ɟɞɢɧɢɰ
ɇɚ ɪɢɫ. 6 ɩɨɤɚɡɚɧɚ ɢɧɞɢɤɚɬɨɪɧɚɹ ɞɢɚɝɪɚɦɦɚ ɞɢɡɟɥɹ 6ɑɇ 7,75/8,6 ɫ ɜɢɯɪɟɜɨɣ ɤɚɦɟɪɨɣ ɫɝɨɪɚɧɢɹ ɫɨ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶɸ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ 50 ɟɞɢɧɢɰ. ɂɧɞɢɤɚɬɨɪɧɵɟ ɞɢɚɝɪɚɦɦɵ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɥɢ ɱɪɟɡɜɵɱɚɣɧɨ
ɧɢɡɤɢɟ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɤɨɧɰɚ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ ɩɨ ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɸ ɫ ɤɥɚɫɫɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɮɨɪɦɭɥɨɣ (1).
Выпуск 2
31
Ɋɢɫ. 6. ɂɧɞɢɤɚɬɨɪɧɚɹ ɞɢɚɝɪɚɦɦɚ ɞɢɡɟɥɹ 6ɑɇ 7,75/8,6 ɫ ɜɢɯɪɟɜɨɣ ɤɚɦɟɪɨɣ ɫɝɨɪɚɧɢɹ
ɫɨ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶɸ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ 50 ɟɞɢɧɢɰ
ɉɨ ɢɬɨɝɚɦ ɨɛɪɚɛɨɬɤɢ ɢɧɞɢɤɚɬɨɪɧɵɯ ɞɢɚɝɪɚɦɦ ɫɪɟɞɧɢɣ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶ ɩɨɥɢɬɪɨɩɵ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɥ ɜ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɦ 1,12.
ɉɪɢɱɢɧɚ ɚɧɨɦɚɥɶɧɨ ɧɢɡɤɨɝɨ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɪɚɛɨɱɟɝɨ ɬɟɥɚ ɜ ɤɨɧɰɟ ɬɚɤɬɚ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ ɩɪɢ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɵɯ
ɫɬɟɩɟɧɹɯ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ ɡɚɤɥɸɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɫɨɜɨɤɭɩɧɨɫɬɢ ɬɚɤɢɯ ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɨɜ, ɤɚɤ ɜɵɫɨɤɚɹ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɚ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ
ɫɨɜɦɟɫɬɧɨ ɫ ɜɵɫɨɤɨɣ ɬɟɩɥɨɩɪɨɜɨɞɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɝɨɥɨɜɤɢ ɰɢɥɢɧɞɪɨɜ ɢ ɩɨɪɲɧɹ ɢɡ ɚɥɸɦɢɧɢɟɜɵɯ ɫɩɥɚɜɨɜ,
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɸ ɬɟɩɥɨɩɨɬɟɪɶ ɨɬ ɝɚɡɚ ɜ ɫɬɟɧɤɢ ɤɚɦɟɪɵ ɫɝɨɪɚɧɢɹ.
Ⱦɥɹ ɥɭɱɲɟɝɨ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚ ɬɟɩɥɨɨɬɞɚɱɢ ɜ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɭ ɨɯɥɚɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɢɦ ɢɫɬɢɧɧɭɸ
(ɩɟɪɟɦɟɧɧɭɸ) ɩɨɥɢɬɪɨɩɭ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ ɧɚ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɟ ɨɬ 60° ɩɤɜ ɞɨ ȼɆɌ ɞɨ 20° ɩɤɜ ɞɨ ȼɆɌ. ɇɚ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɧɨɦ
ɭɱɚɫɬɤɟ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɚ ɩɨɥɢɬɪɨɩɵ ɫɚɦɚɹ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɚɹ. ɂɫɬɢɧɧɨɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɥɢɬɪɨɩɵ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ n ɧɚɯɨɞɢɦ
ɩɨ ɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɨɣ ɮɨɪɦɭɥɟ:
(2)
Выпуск 2
ɇɚ ɪɢɫ. 7 ɩɨɤɚɡɚɧɵ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɜɵɱɢɫɥɟɧɢɣ ɢɫɬɢɧɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɢɬɪɨɩɵ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ ɩɨ ɢɧɞɢɤɚɬɨɪɧɵɦ
ɞɢɚɝɪɚɦɦɚɦ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɞɢɡɟɥɟɣ, ɝɞɟ ɩɟɪɜɚɹ ɰɢɮɪɚ ɨɡɧɚɱɚɟɬ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ, ɚ ɜ ɫɤɨɛɤɚɯ — ɨɛɨɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɹ.
32
Ɋɢɫ. 7. Ɋɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɜɵɱɢɫɥɟɧɢɣ ɢɫɬɢɧɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɢɬɪɨɩɵ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ
ɩɨ ɢɧɞɢɤɚɬɨɪɧɵɦ ɞɢɚɝɪɚɦɦɚɦ
Ʉɚɤ ɜɢɞɧɨ ɢɡ ɪɢɫɭɧɤɚ, ɜ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɟ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɪɚɜɧɨɦɟɪɧɨɟ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɥɢɬɪɨɩɵ
ɫɠɚɬɢɹ, ɩɪɢɱɟɦ ɢɧɬɟɧɫɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɨɩɨɪɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɚ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ. Ɋɟɠɢɦɵ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ
ɫɪɚɜɧɢɜɚɟɦɵɯ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɟɣ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɵ ɜ ɬɚɛɥ. 1.
Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 1
Ɋɟɠɢɦɵ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɟɣ
Ɉɛɨɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɹ
12ɑɇ 18/20
4ɑɇ 8,8/9,4
4ɑɇ 8,8/9,4
6ɑɇ 7,75/8,6
ɋɬɟɩɟɧɶ
ɫɠɚɬɢɹ
13,5
19
38
50
ɑɚɫɬɨɬɚ
ɜɪɚɳɟɧɢɹ, ɨɛ/ɦɢɧ
1240
1690
1109
1112
ɋɪɟɞɧɟɟ ɢɧɞɢɤɚɬɨɪɧɨɟ
ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ, Ɇɉɚ
8,0
6,8
6,0
3,2
ɂɧɬɟɧɫɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɥɢɬɪɨɩɵ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɭɝɥɨɦ ɧɚɤɥɨɧɚ ɤɪɢɜɨɣ V, ɜɵɱɢɫɥɹɟɦɨɣ ɩɨ ɮɨɪɦɭɥɟ
.
(3)
ɑɟɦ ɛɨɥɶɲɟ ɝɟɨɦɟɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ, ɬɟɦ ɛɨɥɶɲɟ ɭɝɨɥ ɧɚɤɥɨɧɚ ɩɨɥɢɬɪɨɩɵ ɢ, ɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ, ɛɨɥɶɲɟ ɢɧɬɟɧɫɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɟɟ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɹ V. Ɉɬɦɟɱɟɧɧɚɹ ɡɚɤɨɧɨɦɟɪɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɨɫɥɟɠɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ
ɫɪɟɞɢ ɞɢɡɟɥɟɣ ɫɨ ɲɬɚɬɧɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶɸ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ İ = 13,5 (ɫɭɞɨɜɨɣ ɞɢɡɟɥɶ 12ɑɇ 18/20) ɢ İ = 19 (ɚɜɬɨɦɨɛɢɥɶɧɵɣ ɞɢɡɟɥɶ «ɂɜɟɤɨ» 4ɑɇ 8,8/9,4). Ⱥɧɚɥɨɝɢɱɧɭɸ ɡɚɤɨɧɨɦɟɪɧɨɫɬɶ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɡɚɦɟɬɢɬɶ ɢ ɫɪɟɞɢ
ɞɢɡɟɥɟɣ ɫ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶɸ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ: İ = 38 (ɚɜɬɨɦɨɛɢɥɶɧɵɣ ɞɢɡɟɥɶ 4ɑɇ 8,8/9,4) ɢ İ = 50 (ɚɜɬɨɦɨɛɢɥɶɧɵɣ ɞɢɡɟɥɶ 6ɑɇ 7,75/8,6). ȼɫɟ ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɧɵɟ ɞɢɡɟɥɢ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɚɥɸɦɢɧɢɟɜɵɟ ɩɨɪɲɧɢ.
ɇɚ ɪɢɫ. 8 ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɜɵɱɢɫɥɟɧɢɹ ɢɧɬɟɧɫɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɥɢɬɪɨɩɵ V ɢ
ɫɪɟɞɧɟɣ ɩɨɥɢɬɪɨɩɵ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ n1, ɪɚɫɫɱɢɬɚɧɧɨɣ ɩɨ ɮɨɪɦɭɥɟ (1).
Выпуск 2
33
Ɋɢɫ. 8. Ɋɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɜɵɱɢɫɥɟɧɢɹ ɢɧɬɟɧɫɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɥɢɬɪɨɩɵ V
ɢ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɣ ɩɨɥɢɬɪɨɩɵ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ
ɇɚ ɷɬɨɦ ɪɢɫɭɧɤɟ ɯɨɪɨɲɨ ɜɢɞɧɚ ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɧɚɹ ɜɵɲɟ ɡɚɤɨɧɨɦɟɪɧɨɫɬɶ, ɚ ɢɦɟɧɧɨ ɫ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɝɟɨɦɟɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɢɧɬɟɧɫɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɢɫɬɢɧɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɢɬɪɨɩɵ
ɫɠɚɬɢɹ ɢ ɨɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɚɟɬɫɹ ɫɪɟɞɧɹɹ ɩɨɥɢɬɪɨɩɚ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ. Ɉɬɦɟɱɟɧɧɚɹ ɡɚɤɨɧɨɦɟɪɧɨɫɬɶ ɯɨɪɨɲɨ ɚɩɩɪɨɤɫɢɦɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɥɢɧɟɣɧɨɣ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɟɣ:
.
(4)
ɂɡ ɮɨɪɦɭɥɵ ɜɢɞɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɩɪɢ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ 64:1 ɫɪɟɞɧɢɣ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶ ɩɨɥɢɬɪɨɩɵ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ
ɪɚɜɟɧ 1,0, ɬɨ ɟɫɬɶ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɢɡɨɬɟɪɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɭ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɭ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ. ɂɡɨɬɟɪɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫ, ɫ
ɨɞɧɨɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ, ɫɧɢɠɚɟɬ ɧɚɫɨɫɧɵɟ ɩɨɬɟɪɢ, ɫ ɞɪɭɝɨɣ — ɩɪɟɩɹɬɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɪɨɫɬɭ ɬɟɪɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɄɉȾ. ɋ
ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɚ ɝɚɡɨɜ ɜ ɤɨɧɰɟ ɬɚɤɬɚ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ ɯɨɬɹ ɢ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ, ɧɨ, ɫ
ɞɪɭɝɨɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ, ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬ ɤ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɢɧɬɟɧɫɢɜɧɨɣ ɬɟɩɥɨɨɬɞɚɱɟ ɨɬ ɝɚɡɨɜ ɜ ɫɬɟɧɤɢ ɰɢɥɢɧɞɪɚ.
Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ ɩɪɨɩɨɪɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨ ɫɧɢɠɚɟɬ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶ ɩɨɥɢɬɪɨɩɵ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ. ɉɨ ɷɬɨɣ ɩɪɢɱɢɧɟ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɚɥɸɦɢɧɢɟɜɵɯ ɧɟɨɯɥɚɠɞɚɟɦɵɯ ɩɨɪɲɧɟɣ (ɛɟɡ ɬɟɩɥɨɜɨɣ
ɡɚɳɢɬɵ ɞɧɢɳɚ) ɫ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶɸ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ ɧɟɠɟɥɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɢ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɭɟɬɫɹ ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞ ɧɚ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɧɵɟ ɢɥɢ ɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɩɨɪɲɧɢ ɫ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɧɨɣ ɬɟɩɥɨɩɪɨɜɨɞɧɨɫɬɶɸ.
ȼɵɜɨɞɵ
Ⱦɥɹ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɣ ɝɟɨɦɟɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ ɧɚ ɩɨɥɢɬɪɨɩɭ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɵ ɦɨɬɨɪɧɵɟ ɫɬɟɧɞɵ ɫ ɞɢɡɟɥɟɦ 4ɑɇ 8,8/9,4 ɫ ɝɟɨɦɟɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶɸ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ 38 ɢ ɫ ɞɢɡɟɥɟɦ 6ɑɇ 7,75/8,6 ɫɨ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶɸ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ 50. Ɉɬɦɟɱɟɧɧɵɟ ɞɢɡɟɥɢ ɢɦɟɥɢ ɜɢɯɪɟɤɚɦɟɪɧɨɟ ɫɦɟɫɟɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɢ ɚɥɸɦɢɧɢɟɜɵɟ ɧɟɨɯɥɚɠɞɚɟɦɵɟ ɩɨɪɲɧɢ. Ɋɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɯ
ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɸɬ ɫɞɟɥɚɬɶ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɜɵɜɨɞɵ:
1) ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɚ ɚɩɩɪɨɤɫɢɦɚɰɢɹ ɥɢɧɟɣɧɨɣ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ, ɫɜɹɡɵɜɚɸɳɟɣ ɩɨɥɢɬɪɨɩɭ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ ɫ
ɝɟɨɦɟɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶɸ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ;
2) ɷɤɫɬɪɚɩɨɥɹɰɢɹ ɤɪɢɜɨɣ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɣ ɩɨɥɢɬɪɨɩɵ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ ɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬ, ɱɬɨ ɩɪɢ ɝɟɨɦɟɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ 64 ɟɞɢɧɢɰɵ ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɟɬɫɹ ɢɡɨɬɟɪɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɫɠɚɬɢɟ;
3) ɩɪɢ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɢ ɞɢɡɟɥɟɣ ɫ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶɸ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɚ ɬɟɩɥɨɜɚɹ ɡɚɳɢɬɚ ɚɥɸɦɢɧɢɟɜɨɝɨ ɩɨɪɲɧɹ ɢɥɢ ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞ ɧɚ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɧɵɟ ɢɥɢ ɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɩɨɪɲɧɢ ɫ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɧɨɣ ɬɟɩɥɨɩɪɨɜɨɞɧɨɫɬɶɸ.
Выпуск 2
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
34
1. Ⱦɟɩɩ Ƚ. Ɏ. Ɉɩɵɬɵ ɫ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɹɦɢ Ⱦɢɡɟɥɹ ɧɚ ɡɚɜɨɞɟ Ʌ. ɇɨɛɟɥɶ / Ƚ. Ɏ. Ⱦɟɩɩ // Ɉɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɨɬɬɢɫɤɢ ɢɡ ɠɭɪɧɚɥɚ «ȼɟɫɬɧɢɤ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɨɜ». — ɋɉɛ., 1901. — 33 ɫ.
2. Ɋɭɫɢɧɨɜ Ɋ. ȼ. Ɉ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚɯ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɬɟɩɥɨɜɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚ ɛɵɫɬɪɨɯɨɞɧɵɯ ɞɢɡɟɥɟɣ / Ɋ. ȼ. Ɋɭɫɢɧɨɜ, ɂ. Ɇ. Ƚɟɪɚɫɢɦɨɜ [ɢ ɞɪ.] // Ⱦɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɟɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɟ. — 2006. — ʋ 2. — ɋ. 3–6.
3. Ȼɚɣɤɨɜ Ȼ. ɉ. Ⱦɢɡɟɥɢ: ɫɩɪɚɜ. / Ȼ. ɉ. Ȼɚɣɤɨɜ, ȼ. Ⱥ. ȼɚɧɲɟɣɞɬ [ɢ ɞɪ.]. — 1977. — 480 ɫ.
4. Ɋɟɲɟɧɢɟ ɨ ɜɵɞɚɱɟ ɩɚɬ. ɧɚ ɢɡɨɛɪɟɬɟɧɢɟ ɩɨ ɡɚɹɜɤɟ 2010141695/06(059823). ɋɩɨɫɨɛ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɞɢɡɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɹ ɫɨ ɫɜɟɪɯɜɵɫɨɤɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶɸ ɫɠɚɬɢɹ / ɋɟɞɭɧɨɜ ɂ. ɉ. Ɂɚɹɜɥ.
11.10.2010.
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