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??? 82-531
??????? ?????. ???. 9. 2013. ???. 2
?.??.????????
????? ????? ????? ?а?? ???? ?а???????? ????? ??????
??? ????? ????? ????? (1802?1880) ???? ???????? ?????????????? ????????,
?а?? ?????????? ???? ?? ????? ????????? ???????????? ?а????? ?????????????????.
?????? ??? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ?а ???????? ????? ??????. ?????? ???
???????????? ?????????????? ??? ????????, ????????? ?а????????? ????????? ????????????. ?? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ???????? ??? ???????, ??? ???????
??????? ???? ?ал???????? ?????????????? ????? ??????╗. [1, ?.?352].
?????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ?а ?????????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????, ????? ???? ??????? ?а ??????? ???????????????????, ??????
??????? ?а ???????? ????????, ??????? ?а ?????????, ???????? ??????, ?а ??????
??????? ??????, ??????? ?????? ???????? ??????. ????? ?? ?????? ??? ?????????
???????????? ??????? ???????. ?? ???????????? ?? ????? ?? ??????? ???????
????, ????????????? ?? ??????. ??? ??? ???? ???????????, ????????? ?а???????????? ??????????? ???????? ?а??? ??????????? ?а?????????????????????. ?а??
???????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?а?????????????: ?? ????????? ???????? ??????? л???╗, л????╗, л?????╗ ??? ???????? ????????????? ????? ??????
?а???????? ????, ?????????????? ???????????? ???????, ????? ?????????????????
???????? ?а????????. ?????? ?????, ??????, ?? ??? ???????? ???????? ??????????????? ?????????. ??????? ??????????? ???? ????????, ?????, ????? ?а ?????
??????????? ????????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ??????? ???????, ?????????????
?а ???????? ???????? ?????????. ?? ???????, ??? ??????? ????? ??????????????
??????, ??? ??? ??, ??? ??? ??????? ????????? ?????????, ????????? ??????????? ??????? ???? ????????? self-reliance, ??? ??????????????, ??????? ?а????????
????? ?а ????????? ?а ????????. ??????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ????
????????? ????? ??? ??????? ????????????????? [2; 3].
????? ????? ????? ????????? ???? ?? ?????? ??????, ??а?????????? ????? ??
???????? ???????????? ?????????? ?а??????????. ?? ???? ??????????? ?а?????????
???????, ???????, ??????, ?? ???????? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????????????, ??а ???????????? ???????????? ???????, ????????? ???????? ???????????????? ?????? ?????. ?а ????? ?????? ?????? л???????╗ (Hobomok, 1824), ????????
???????? ?????????? ?а ??????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????,
????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????а? ?????????? ??????? ??? л???????????? ??????╗. ?а??? ??? ???????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ????? ??????а? ?????? ???????? ??? ?????????????? ???????????? ?а??????
??????? ??????. ?????? ?? ????????????? ?а???? ????? ??? ????? л???c?????,
??? ?????? ???????? ?????????╗ (The Rebels; or, Boston before the Revolution, 1825).
??????? ??????? ??????????а ? ?-? ?????. ????, ?????????, ?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????; e-mail: elvira@overlink.ru, elvira.osipova@mail.ru
й ?.??.????????, 2013
63
?????????, ??? ?а???? ???? ???????? ?а????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?? ??
????а? л??????? ????????, ??? ????? ???????╗. ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????, ???? ?а?? ???? ??? ?????? ????????????? ??????, ????? ????????? ????????? ??? ?????????-??????????. ?а????? ????? ????? ????? ???? ?????
??а??????.
?????? ???????????? ?????? ????? ?? ???????????? ???? ?? ?????, ??????,
???????? ??????, ?а???????????? ?????????? ?а??????? ??а??????? ???????. ????
????? ????? л???????╗ (Philothea, 1836) ??? ????????? ?????. ???????? ??? ?????????? ?а ??????? ??????, ??????, ?? ?????? ???????????? ?????????????????
?????? ????????, ??????? ????????? ?? ????? ???????????? ?а ???????????
?????????? л?????? ?????????? ????????? XIX ????╗ [4, p.?123]. ????????? ????????????????? ????? ?? ???????, ????????, ??????, ??? ??? ??????? ????????
?????? ??????????????????, ?а ????? ????, ????? ????? ????? ?а ??? ????? ???
???? ????????? ??????????? ????????????, ??? ?? ?????????????? ????????????
?? ???????????? ????? ?????????.
? л???????╗ ??? ???????????? ?? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ?а ?????
?? ????? ?????? ??????? ???? л????????? ???? ?а??????╗ (A Few Days in Athens,
1822), ????? ???????? ?????? ?а??? ??????? ???????????? ??? ?????????, ?????????, ?????????? ????????? ????? [5, p.?71]. ???? ??????? ????, ????? ???????? ??
?а?????????? ???? ?????. ?????????? ???? ?а????? ????????????? ??????, ??????
??? ?????????? ?а??????????? ?????????, ??????? ?????? ?????? ?а??????????????? ??????. ????? ???????? ???? ????????. ???????????? ??????? ??? ?? ??????
?а?????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????, ????? л??????? ?а???????╗
??????? ???????, ??а?а???????????????? ????? ??????? ?а???????? 1830-? ?????.
?????????????, ??? ?а ?? ??????, ??????????? ???????????? ?а ?????????????
л????????╗, ??????????? ???????????? ????????, ????????? ??????????? ?а????
?????????????? ?????????????????? [4, p.?123]. ?а ?? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ?????? л???????╗ ??????? л?????????????????????╗. ?? ????????? ????? ?а 1975а ???? ??? ????? ?????????а ? л???????,
??? ?????? ?????? ???????. ????? ?а?????????????? ??????????????????╗.
???????? ?????? ?????????? ?аV ???? ?? ?.??. ?а??????. ????? ??? ??????а? ???????????? ???????? (????????, ??????, ?????, ??????, ???????) ?а???????????
????????? (???????, ???????, ???????). ???????, ?????? ???????? ??????????,
???????????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ???????. ??? ??? ????? ?????? ????? л?????? ??????? ?????????????╗, ?а??????? ???? ??????? л??????????? ????? ???????
?????? ??а????? ??????, ?????????? ?а??????╗ [6, ?.?145]. ?? л????????? ?????╗
(????? ???????????? ????? ???? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? 1845а????) ?????????? ????? ????а ? ?? ???? ??????? ??а ???? ????????? ???????. ??????????
????? ?????????????, ???? ?а?????????? ?????? ?????? ??, ???????? ????? ??????
??????????? ?а ????????? ?а ????????? ??а ??????? ?а ????????. ?а ??????? ??????
??а????? л?????????? ???-?????╗ ????? ?? ??????? ?? ?????, ??а?? ??????? ????
?????? [7, p.?1198?99]. ??? ????? ????? ?????????? ?а?????? ????? ? ?а?????, ??????? ?а??? ?????????.
???????? ??????????????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?а??????? ?а?? ??????????. ?????? ????? ????????? ???? ??????? ?а ??????? ?????????? ???????, ??
??? ??? ???????? ??????? ???????????: ??? ?????? ?????????? ?а????????? ?а????64
??. ???????? ??????? ????? ????????. ??? ?????, ??? ??????? ??????? ?а??????,
???????? ???? ?????, ????????? ?????????, ?а ?????????? ???, ??? ?????? ?????????? ?а ?????????. ????????? ???????? ?? ?а ?????? ????????. ?а ????? ??????
?????? ??????? ??????, ?а?????????????? ??????? ???????? ?? (?а??????? ??????
???? ??????) ????? ?????? ????, ??????? ???????? ?? ??а?????????? ?????. ???????
?????? ?а???????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ???????????, ??? ??????? ??????? ?????
?????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?? ????? ????????????.
?????? ??????? ???????????? ?????. ?? ???? ?а ?????????, ????? ???????,
?????? ???????, ?а?????? ????? ??? ?????? ???, ??? ????????????? ???????, л???????
?? ????╗. ?? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ?????:
?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?а ???????а ? ?????? ?а ????
????????. ????????????? ?а ?????? ??????????? ?а ????????????? (?????? ?а ????,
?????, ????????? ?????). л?????? ????, ??????? ??????? ???????? ?а?????? ???????, ?????? ???????????? ???? ????? ??????? ?а????????? ?? ??????? ??????╗
[8, p.?208]. ?????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???????, ???????????? ?????? ????.
?????? ????? ?а ??????а ? ?????? ??????????. ??? ?????????? ?а ???? ?? ??????????? ????????? ?а ?????????? ?а ??????, ??? ??? ????????? ??????? ?а ??? ??
???????? ??????. ?????????, ??????? ?а ?????? ????? ???????????????? ??????:
?????????? ?а ?????????? ?а ??????????, ???????? ?а ?????????, ????????????
?а?????????, ?????? ?????? ?а?????????? (???? ?????????? л?????-?-????╗). ??????????? ?????? ??????? ?а?? ????? л???????????╗ ?а?????????, ??? ?????????
????? ???????. ?а????? ??а??? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ???? ?????????????
?а?????? ?????????: л??, ??? ??? ??????? ??????? ???????, ??? ??????????????
?????? ???????????. ? ?а???????? ???????? ????? ?? ??, ??? ?? ?????? ????? ?????? ?а???? ?????. ?? ?????? ???? ?????????? ?а?????? ????, ? ???? ???? ??????????а? ?а???? ????╗ [8, p.?32].
??????? ????? ??????????? ??? ????? ?????? ????????, ??????????? ?а??????. ???????????? ?а ??????????: л?????? ????????? ?????, ??????? ????????? ????????? ????, ????????????? ??????? ?а ???????????? ????╗ [8, p.?48]. ?????
???????????????? ??????? ??? ?? ???????, ?а??? ????? ?????????????? ??? ?????.
л??, ??? ?? ????????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????????? ??? ??????? ???????, ???? ?????
???? ???????????? ?а????? ??????????????, ????? ?????????? ?????????????╗
[8, p.?50]. ??? ??? ??????. ???, ??? ?????? ?????? ????????? ?а ???? ???????????,
?а?????? ????? ??????? ?а???????: л???????, ??????????? ???? ????????, ??????
?? ??????? ???? ?? ???????, ?? ????????? ????????а? ???????? ?????? (a giddy
pilot)╗ [8, p.?151]. ??? ?? ?? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????? ?? ????????? ???????????!
?????? ?а?????? ????? ?????????? ?а??????? ????????, ?а????????????? ??????????????? ?????????????????: л????? ?? ????????? ?????? ????? ?а????? ????,
??? ??? ?? ????? ????? ???????? ?а ??? ??????? ????????????╗ [8, p.?156]. ????????? ????????????????????? ???? ?????? ????????? ????????? ???????????????????. ?? ???? ?????? ?а???????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????, ??а???????
????? ??? ?а??? ????? ???, ???????, ?????? ?????? ???????. ?????, ??????????
???????????? ????????? ?а?????????, ?а????????? ??????? ???????? ??????, ???????????? ?????????? ?а???? ?????????: ?? ??????? ?а?????????? ?а???????, ??????? ?а ?????? ??????. л?????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????
65
?а???????. ??????? ??? ?? ???????? ????? ??????, ??? ????? ????? ?????. <?>
???? ??? ???? ???: ?????????, ?????????? ?а????? ??????????, ?а?????? ??????, ???????????? ?а??????????????????? ?????╗ [8, p.?114?115]. ?????? ?????????? ?а??????? ???????, ????? ????? ?????а? ?????? ????????а? ?????????? ?а???, ???
???? ????????? ??????????? ????? ????????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ??????????.
???????? ?? ????????а? ?а???, ??? л??????, ??????? ?? ???? ????? ??????????, ?????????? ?????╗ [8, p.?112].
? л???????╗ ?????????? ????, ??????????? ????????, ?????, ???????, ?????
????? ?????, ????????, ???????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ????? л???????╗.
??????? ????? ?????????? ?а ????? ??????? ????????а ? ?а ???????????? ?????,
?а??? ????????? ?????. ?? ??????? ????????? ????????????? ?????: ??? ???????-???????, ???????? ??????, ????????, ???????, ????????, ???????. ???? ???
????? ??????? ??????? ?а ???? ?????????????? ??????????????, ??????? ??????????????? ????????? ?а?????? ?а???????? ?? ?а?????????.
????? ????????? ?а????????? ????, ??????? ????????? ???????????????????,
?а ????? ????????? ??, ?? ????? ?????????? ?а ?? ??????. ?????, ?а ???? ??????
л????? ??а ???-?????╗ (1843, 1845), ??? ???????????? ???? ????????? ?а ??????????????????, ??а ??? ??? ?????? ???????????????? ????????. ?????????? ??????? ??а?????? XIII, ????????????? 24а?????? 1844а????. л?? ???? ???????????,
??? ????? ????????????????? ?а?? ??? ????? ??????????????????. ?? ???? ??????
??????, ????? ?????????? ????????. <?> ??? ???????? ????????? ?? ????? ??????, ????????? ?а?? ???????????? ??????????. ???? ??????? ????????????? ??
??????????? ?а ??????????????? ???????? ?а ?????????? (is non-conformist) ?а ??
?????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ???? ?????????? (dissent), ??? ???????? ???????????????????. <?> ?????????????????? ????? ??????? ?а?????????? (luxuriate
in the beautiful), ?а?? ?????? ?????????????. ??? ?????????? ??? ?????? ???????,
????????? ?а????? ?а??????????? ????. ????? ???????? ????????, ?а????? ????? ??
????? ??, ????? ???????????? ??? ???? ????? ??????, ?? ???????: ?? ????? ??????,
??????? ?а??????????╗ [9, p.?125, 127].
?? ????????????? ?????????????, ????? ????? ????? ??????????? ??????
????????, ??а??? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????? ????????????. ? ?ал??????? ??а????????╗ ??? ????? ?? ???? ??? ???????? ? ?а?? ?? ????? ???????? ??????????????????? ?? ??????? ???, ??? ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ????, ????? ?а?????????? ??????
?? ????? ??????. л?? ????? ???????? ????????, ??а??? ?????? ???????????. ??,
?а??? ??? ???????, ????? ??????? ????? ???????? ????????, ??? ???????? ????, ??
????????? ?а???????? ????????????. ?? ????? ????? ???????????, ???????????
?????╗. ?а????? ??? ?????????? ????? ????????????? ???? ?а???-?? ?????? ?а????????????, ??????? ?? ???? ?а????????? ????. л????а? ???????? ?а?? ???????
?????а? ??????????? ?????? ??????, ???????? ?? ????????????, ??????? ???????????? ??????, ??а?????? ?а??? ??????? ?а???, ??? ?а??????? ???? ????? ?????????????
?????╗ [9, p.?128]. ???????, ????? ?а????? ??????????????????? ?? ?????? ?????.
? л??????? ??а???-?????╗ ????? ????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ?? ???????????? ?а??????????? ????????? ?а??????? ?? ?????? ???????. ??
?????, ??? ??? ???????? ?????????? ??????????,а? л??????, ??????? ?а????? ????????? ??????а? ?а?????╗ (lie still in the spiritual sunshine, and grow) [9, p.?128]. ?????
????? ????? ???????? ???? ??а???? ???????? ??? ???. ???? ?????? ?а???, ??? ?????
66
????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????????.
???? ?? ???????????? ??? ?а 1833а ????, ??? ?? л???????╗, ???????????? ????????? л? ?????? ???????????, ???? ??????? ???????????╗ (An Appeal in Favor
of that Class of Americans Called Africans). ???? ??????? ?а ?????? ?? ???????????
?а ?????? ????? ????????? ?а ???? ?????????????? ???????? ????????, ?????
??????, ??????? ???????, ?????? ?????????? [10]. ??????? ???? ?а????????????
????????????? ?????? ?а?????? ????? ?? ?????? л?????? ???????????? ????????╗
(1841?1849), ??????? ??? ???????? ?????? ?а?????. ?????? ???? ???????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ???????, ?а??? ?????????? ?а????????????? ?????? ?????. ????
??а????? ??????????а? ????? ??????? ???????? л?????? ??а????? ???????-??????╗.
? ????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ?а????? ????? ????? ????? л????? ?.???????. ????????? ?????╗ (Isaak T.?Hopper. A True life╗, 1853).
?а????? ??? ????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????? ??? ???, ??? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ????? л????????????? ?????????????╗. ????? ?????????? ?а????????????? ?????? ???????, ???????, ??????? ?а??????????? ?а??????????? ?????? ?????. ??????, ??????? ?? ??????????? ?а???????, ????????? ????? л????????
?? ?????????╗ (Tales of Oppression). ????? ???????????? ????? ???????, ??????, ??
?????, ?????? ??? ?????????, ??????? ??? ??????? ?? ???? ??????. ?а????????????? ?а????? ????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ?????, ??????????? ?а?????? XIX ????, ?а????????? ??????, ???????? ?? ?????? ??? ????????????? ???, ??а?а??? ???????? ??????. ?а??????????? ?а????? ?? ?????? ?????
?????????? ?а????? ?а????????. л????????? ?????????????????? ???????????,а? ????? ???,а? ?????????? ???? ???????????? ???, ?а?????????? ?а???????? ??????????? ???? ?а??????, ??????? ?? ?а?????? ?????? ????? ?а????????? ?? ????? ?????
?????. ?? ??? ??-??? ????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ???? ????, ?а????
??? ????????????? ?а??????? ?? ????. ??, ????????????????? ?????? ??????, ??а???
?а??????а? ??? ?? ???????╗ [11, p.?vii]. ?????? ???????, ??? ?а???? ??????? ??????? ????? ???? ?а ?????????? ?а ??????? ??????????. ????? ????????? ????? ???????????????? л????????????╗, ???????? ???????? ???? ????? ??????. (???? ????
?а1837а????.) ????? ????????, ??? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????????
??? ????????????? ?????? ?, ?а??????? ?? ?????? ?? ?а?????? ?????????, ?? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ????? [11].
?????????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?а ????? ??? ??????, ????? ?????????
л????? ??????? ??????????╗ (Freedman?s Book, 1865), ?а??????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????, ????? ????????????? ????????? ?а??? ???????, ? ?а????? ?????????
?????? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ?а?????????????? ???. ??? ?а1835а???? ???????????? ???????? ?????, ?а ??????? ?? ?????????? ?????????, ?????????????
????????????. ??????????? ????? ??? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ?а ???? ????
?а ?????? лA Romance of the Republic╗ (1867), ?а ??????? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ????? ?а?????????, ???????? ?? ?????, ?а?? ????????-????????? ????
?а ?????, ???? ??а ??????? ????????? ???????????????????? ???????? ?????????
?????????????? ?????????? ?????. ?а ???? ?????? ????????????? ????? ???????
????? ??????????а? ?? ????? ??? ????????????? ???? ?????????? ??????. ????? ????, ??? ???????? ??????? ??????, ????? л???????? ????????? ????? ???????
67
?а ?????????????? ?????? ???????╗ [12, p.?514?515]. ????????? ???????? ?????????, ????? ????? ????? ????? ?а ???????? ??????? ??????? ????????????? ??
????????? ?????? ?а?????????? ?????? ?, ??? ????? ????????? ????? ?????????
??????????? ?????, ????????? ???? ??????????? ???????.
? ??? ?? ??????? ???????? ????? ??? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ?а??
????????????, ?а???????? ??????? ?а???????????????? ????????, ?а????? ?а????????? ?а????????? ????, ??????? ?а1830?1840-? ???? ???????? ?? ?????? ????????,
??а????????? ?а?????? ???????. ??? ????, ??????? ??????????????? ?? ???? ??????? ???????, ?????????? ?а?????? ????? ????? ????? ?а?????????????????????
??????????а? ????? ???????, ???????? ??????, ???????? ??????, ?????? ??????.
??????????
1.??? ??????, ???????. ?а????? ?????? //а???????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ???????: ?а3а?. /а??? ???. ?.????????? [? ??.] ?.: ????????, 1977. ?.?1. 603а?.
2.??????? ?.??. ?????????????????? //а??????? ?????????? ???: ?а5а?. ?.: ???? ???, ????????, 1999. ?.?2: ?????????? ????? ??????????. ?.?182?210.
3.??????? ?.??. ????? ????? ???????. ???????? ?а?????. ?.: ???-?? ???????. ??-??, 1991. 137а?.
4.Clifford, Deborah Pickman. Crusader for Freedom. A Life of Lydia Maria Child. Boston: Beacon Press,
1992. 396а?.
5.Osborne W. Lydia Maria Child. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1980. 196а?.
6.????? ??? ???. ???????? ?а???????????? ?????: ?а2а?. ?.: ????????, 1967. ?.?1: ??????? ?????
??????. 424а?.
7.Poe E.?A., Lydia M. Child //аPoe E.?A., Lydia M. Essays and Reviews. New York: The Library of America,
1984. 1544аp.
8.Child L.?M. Philothea. Boston: Burnam; New York: CS Francis, 1845.
9.Child L.??. Letters from New York. Second Series. New York: Francis & Co., 1845. 287а?.
10.Karcher C. Introduction //аChild L.?M.?Hobomok, and Other Writings on Indians. New Brunswick; New
Jersey: Ruthgers University Press, 1986. 368а?.
11.Child L.?M. Isaac T.?Hopper. A True Life. London: S.?Low, Son & Co., 1853. 495а?.
12.Karcher C. The First Woman in the Republic. A Cultural Biography of Lydia Maria Child. Durham:
Duke University Press, 1994. 832а?.
?????? ????????? ? ???????? 15 ?????? 2013 ?.
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