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Нагрузки действующие на бульдозер при транспортировке грунта..pdf

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Ве
ник ХНАДУ, вып. 65–66, 2014
231
ɍȾɄ 621.869
ɇȺȽɊɍɁɄɂ, ȾȿɃɋɌȼɍɘɓɂȿ ɇȺ ȻɍɅɖȾɈɁȿɊ ɉɊɂ ɌɊȺɇɋɉɈɊɌɂɊɈȼɄȿ
ȽɊɍɇɌȺ
ɇ.ȼ. Ɋɨɡɟɧɮɟɥɶɞ, ɫɬ. ɩɪɟɩ., ɘ.Ⱥ. Ⱦɨɥɹ, ɫɬɭɞ.,
ɏɚɪɶɤɨɜɫɤɢɣ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɚɜɬɨɦɨɛɢɥɶɧɨ-ɞɨɪɨɠɧɵɣ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ
А
а и .
.
,
.
,
Кл
евые л ва:
.
,
,
,
,
,
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ɇȺȼȺɇɌȺɀȿɇɇə, ɓɈ ȾȱɘɌɖ ɇȺ ȻɍɅɖȾɈɁȿɊ ɉɊɂ ɌɊȺɇɋɉɈɊɌɍȼȺɇɇȱ
ʈɊɍɇɌɍ
ɇ.ȼ. Ɋɨɡɟɧɮɟɥɶɞ, ɫɬ. ɜɢɤɥ., ɘ.Ⱥ. Ⱦɨɥɹ, ɫɬɭɞ.,
ɏɚɪɤɿɜɫɶɤɢɣ ɧɚɰɿɨɧɚɥɶɧɢɣ ɚɜɬɨɦɨɛɿɥɶɧɨ-ɞɨɪɨɠɧɿɣ ɭɧɿɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ
А
а і .
.
-
,
,
є
Кл
ві л ва:
є ,
,
ґ
.
-
.
,
,
,
,
.
LOADS ACTING ON A BULLDOZER AT SOIL TRANSPORTATON
N. Rozenfeld, Senior Lecturer, Yu. Dolya, student,
Kharkiv National Automobile and Highway University
Abstract. The range of the bulldozer blade movement resulting from the digging face variation have
been determined. The magnitude of the blade shifts under irregularities of the face has been determined, values of the chips along the digging face and lengthwise have been calculated. The values of
the soil cutting force along the digging face and the points of application of equal cutting force have
been calculated.
Key words: bulldozer, digging face variation, y-coordinates, trim, roll, digging force.
ȼɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ
ɋɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɩɪɨɱɧɨɣ, ɞɨɥɝɨɜɟɱɧɨɣ ɢ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɢ ɛɭɥɶɞɨɡɟɪɚ ɬɪɟɛɭɟɬ ɡɧɚɧɢɣ
ɨ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɚɯ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɦ ɩɨɞɜɟɪɝɚɟɬɫɹ ɦɚɲɢɧɚ.
Ʉɚɤ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɨ, ɜ ɪɚɛɨɬɚɯ, ɩɨɫɜɹɳɟɧɧɵɯ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɸ ɫɨɩɪɨɬɢɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɪɟɡɚɧɢɸ ɢ ɤɨɩɚɧɢɸ
ɝɪɭɧɬɨɜ, ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬɫɹ, ɱɬɨ ɦɚɲɢɧɚ ɞɜɢɠɟɬɫɹ ɩɨ ɚɛɫɨɥɸɬɧɨ ɪɨɜɧɨɣ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ.
Ɋɟɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɡɚɛɨɣ ɧɟ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɷɬɨɦɭ ɞɨɩɭɳɟɧɢɸ. Ɍɨɥɳɢɧɚ ɫɪɟɡɚɟɦɨɣ ɫɬɪɭɠɤɢ
ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɧɟɪɨɜɧɨɫɬɹɦɢ ɡɚɛɨɹ ɢ ɩɟɪɟɦɟ-
ɳɟɧɢɹɦɢ ɧɨɠɚ ɛɭɥɶɞɨɡɟɪɚ, ɜɵɡɜɚɧɧɵɦɢ ɷɬɢɦɢ ɧɟɪɨɜɧɨɫɬɹɦɢ. ȼɨɩɪɨɫ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ ɧɟɪɨɜɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɡɚɛɨɹ ɧɚ ɬɨɥɳɢɧɭ ɫɪɟɡɚɟɦɨɣ ɫɬɪɭɠɤɢ
ɜɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɟ ɥɢɧɟɣɧɵɯ ɢ ɭɝɥɨɜɵɯ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɳɟɧɢɣ
ɛɭɥɶɞɨɡɟɪɚ ɢ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɣ ɬɨɥɳɢɧɵ ɫɬɪɭɠɤɢ
ɩɨ ɲɢɪɢɧɟ ɧɨɠɚ ɛɭɥɶɞɨɡɟɪɚ ɧɟ ɢɡɭɱɟɧ.
Ⱥɧɚɥɢɡ ɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɰɢɣ
ɇɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ, ɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɟ ɧɚ ɛɭɥɶɞɨɡɟɪɧɨɟ
ɨɛɨɪɭɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɪɢ ɤɨɩɚɧɢɢ ɝɪɭɧɬɚ ɜ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ,
ɤɨɝɞɚ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɶ ɡɚɛɨɹ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɪɨɜɧɨɣ
232
Ве
ɩɥɨɫɤɨɫɬɶɸ, ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɵ ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨ ɯɨɪɨɲɨ. Ɋɚɛɨɬɵ Ⱥ.Ɇ. ɏɨɥɨɞɨɜɚ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɸɬ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɬɶ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ ɩɪɢ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɟ
ɨɬɜɚɥɚ ɫ ɠɟɫɬɤɢɦ ɩɪɟɩɹɬɫɬɜɢɟɦ, ɩɪɢ ɡɚɝɥɭɛɥɟɧɢɢ ɨɬɜɚɥɚ ɜ ɝɪɭɧɬ [1]. Ɋɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɚɧɚ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤɚ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɚ ɞɨɥɝɨɜɟɱɧɨɫɬɢ ɦɟɬɚɥɥɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɢ ɪɚɛɨɱɟɝɨ ɨɛɨɪɭɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɁɌɆ
ɩɪɢ ɞɜɭɯɱɚɫɬɨɬɧɨɦ ɧɚɝɪɭɠɟɧɢɢ [2]. ȼ ɫɬɚɬɶɟ
[3] ɩɨɤɚɡɚɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɩɪɢ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨɦ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɢ
ɪɚɛɨɱɟɝɨ ɨɪɝɚɧɚ ɁɌɆ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɚ ɢ ɬɨɱɤɚ ɩɪɢɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɭɫɢɥɢɹ ɪɟɡɚɧɢɹ ɝɪɭɧɬɚ ɛɭɞɭɬ ɦɟɧɹɬɶɫɹ. ȼɨɩɪɨɫ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ ɧɟɪɨɜɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɡɚɛɨɹ ɧɚ
ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɭ ɭɫɢɥɢɹ ɪɟɡɚɧɢɹ ɝɪɭɧɬɚ ɩɪɢ ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɢɪɨɜɤɟ ɩɪɢɡɦɵ ɜɨɥɨɱɟɧɢɹ ɞɨ ɫɢɯ ɩɨɪ ɧɟ
ɪɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɟɧ.
ɂɡɦɟɪɟɧɢɟ ɨɪɞɢɧɚɬ ɡɚɛɨɹ
ɐɟɥɶ ɢ ɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚ ɡɚɞɚɱɢ
ɇɚ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɟ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɶ ɡɚɛɨɹ ɧɟ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ
ɚɛɫɨɥɸɬɧɨ ɪɨɜɧɨɣ. ɇɟɪɨɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɡɚɛɨɹ ɜɵɡɵɜɚɸɬ ɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɢ ɭɝɥɨɜɵɟ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɳɟɧɢɹ
ɦɚɲɢɧɵ. ɗɬɢ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɳɟɧɢɹ ɭɫɭɝɭɛɥɹɸɬɫɹ
ɬɟɦ, ɱɬɨ ɧɨɠ ɛɭɥɶɞɨɡɟɪɚ ɜɵɞɜɢɧɭɬ ɞɚɥɟɤɨ
ɜɩɟɪɟɞ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɬɨɱɟɤ ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɚ ɨɩɨɪɧɵɯ ɤɚɬɤɨɜ ɛɭɥɶɞɨɡɟɪɚ. Ⱦɥɢɧɚ ɨɬɜɚɥɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ
ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɩɪɟɜɵɲɚɟɬ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɭ ɤɨɥɟɢ
ɬɪɚɤɬɨɪɚ. ȼɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɟ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɩɪɢ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɢ
ɛɭɥɶɞɨɡɟɪɚ ɩɨ ɪɟɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɧɟɪɨɜɧɨɫɬɹɦ ɡɚɛɨɹ
ɨɬɜɚɥ ɫɨɜɟɪɲɚɟɬ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɢ ɭɝɥɨɜɵɟ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɳɟɧɢɹ. ɗɬɢ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɳɟɧɢɹ ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɫɤɚɡɚɬɶɫɹ ɧɚ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɟ ɭɫɢɥɢɹ
ɪɟɡɚɧɢɹ ɝɪɭɧɬɚ ɢ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɢ ɬɨɱɤɢ ɩɪɢɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɪɚɜɧɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɣ ɫɢɥɵ ɪɟɡɚɧɢɹ.
ɐɟɥɹɦɢ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ:
– ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɵ ɧɟɪɨɜɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɨɝɨ
ɡɚɛɨɹ;
– ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɨɬɜɚɥɚ ɛɭɥɶɞɨɡɟɪɚ
ɩɪɢ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɢ ɩɨ ɧɟɪɨɜɧɨɫɬɹɦ ɡɚɛɨɹ;
– ɪɚɫɱɟɬ ɬɨɥɳɢɧɵ ɫɪɟɡɚɟɦɨɝɨ ɝɪɭɧɬɚ ɩɨ ɲɢɪɢɧɟ ɨɬɜɚɥɚ ɢ ɞɥɢɧɟ ɡɚɛɨɹ;
– ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɭɫɢɥɢɹ ɪɟɡɚɧɢɹ
ɝɪɭɧɬɚ ɩɨ ɲɢɪɢɧɟ ɨɬɜɚɥɚ ɢ ɞɥɢɧɟ ɡɚɛɨɹ;
– ɪɚɫɱɟɬ ɬɨɱɤɢ ɩɪɢɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɪɚɜɧɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɣ ɭɫɢɥɢɹ ɪɟɡɚɧɢɹ ɤ ɨɬɜɚɥɭ.
Ɋɚɫɱɟɬɵ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɢɫɶ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɤ ɛɭɥɶɞɨɡɟɪɭ ȾɁ-42 ɧɚ ɛɚɡɟ ɬɪɚɤɬɨɪɚ ȾɌ-75 ɫ ɷɥɚɫɬɢɱɧɨɣ ɩɨɞɜɟɫɤɨɣ.
ɉɪɢɧɹɬɵɟ ɞɨɩɭɳɟɧɢɹ
ɉɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɥɨɫɶ, ɱɬɨ ɨɩɨɪɧɵɟ ɤɚɬɤɢ ɬɪɚɤɬɨɪɚ
ɫɨɜɟɪɲɚɸɬ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɳɟɧɢɹ. Ɍɪɚɤɬɨɪ ɞɜɢɠɟɬɫɹ ɫ ɦɚɥɨɣ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɶɸ, ɢ
ɱɚɫɬɨɬɚ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɧɟɪɨɜɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɡɚɛɨɹ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɧɢɠɟ ɱɚɫɬɨɬɵ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɤɨɥɟɛɚɧɢɣ ɬɪɚɤɬɨɪɚ ɧɚ ɩɨɞɜɟɫɤɟ.
ник ХНАДУ, вып. 65–66, 2014
Ⱦɥɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɵ ɭɫɢɥɢɹ ɪɟɡɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɢ
ɩɟɪɟɦɟɳɟɧɢɢ ɩɪɢɡɦɵ ɜɨɥɨɱɟɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɤɚɮɟɞɪɟ
ȻȾɆ ɏɇȺȾɍ ɛɵɥɨ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɨ ɢɡɦɟɪɟɧɢɟ
ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧ ɨɪɞɢɧɚɬ ɛɭɥɶɞɨɡɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɡɚɛɨɹ. Ɉɪɞɢɧɚɬɵ ɢɡɦɟɪɹɥɢɫɶ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɧɚɬɹɧɭɬɨɣ
ɧɢɬɢ ɫ ɲɚɝɨɦ 0,25 ɦ ɩɨ ɩɚɪɚɥɥɟɥɶɧɵɦ
ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɦ, ɨɬɫɬɨɹɳɢɦ ɨɞɧɨ ɨɬ ɞɪɭɝɨɝɨ
ɬɚɤɠɟ ɧɚ 0,25 ɦ. Ⱦɥɢɧɚ ɦɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɥɚ 20 ɦ. Ɋɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɢɡɦɟɪɟɧɢɹ ɤɨɪɪɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɥɢɫɶ ɞɥɹ ɭɱɟɬɚ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɵ ɩɪɨɜɢɫɚɧɢɹ
ɧɢɬɢ ɩɨɞ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦ ɜɟɫɨɦ. Ⱦɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɚɹ
ɨɛɪɚɛɨɬɤɚ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɨɜ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɚɫɶ ɫ ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ ɩɚɤɟɬɚ MATLAB.
ɋ ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ ɫɩɥɚɣɧ-ɢɧɬɟɪɩɨɥɹɰɢɢ ɛɵɥɢ ɜɵɱɢɫɥɟɧɵ ɩɪɨɦɟɠɭɬɨɱɧɵɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɨɪɞɢɧɚɬ ɫ
ɲɚɝɨɦ 0,05 ɦ ɤɚɤ ɩɨ ɞɥɢɧɟ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɩɨ ɲɢɪɢɧɟ
ɡɚɛɨɹ. ȼɢɞ ɡɚɛɨɹ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧ ɜ ɜɢɞɟ 3Dɝɪɚɮɢɤɚ ɧɚ ɪɢɫ. 1.
Ɋɢɫ. 1. Ɂɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɨɪɞɢɧɚɬ ɡɚɛɨɹ
ȼɟɥɢɱɢɧɚ ɨɪɞɢɧɚɬ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɨɩɨɪɧɨɣ
ɩɥɨɫɤɨɫɬɢ ɦɟɧɹɥɚɫɶ ɨɬ 0,024 ɦ (ɭɝɥɭɛɥɟɧɢɟ)
ɞɨ 0,334 ɦ (ɜɨɡɜɵɲɟɧɢɟ).
Ɋɚɫɱɟɬ ɨɪɞɢɧɚɬ ɧɨɠɚ ɨɬɜɚɥɚ
ɉɪɢ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɵɯ ɞɨɩɭɳɟɧɢɹɯ ɨɪɞɢɧɚɬɚ ɨɫɢ ɛɚɥɚɧɫɢɪɧɨɣ ɬɟɥɟɠɤɢ ɛɚɡɨɜɨɝɨ ɬɪɚɤɬɨɪɚ ɛɭɞɟɬ
ɪɚɜɧɚ ɩɨɥɭɫɭɦɦɟ ɨɪɞɢɧɚɬ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ ɡɚɛɨɹ
ɩɨɞ ɨɩɨɪɧɵɦɢ ɤɚɬɤɚɦɢ. Ɉɪɞɢɧɚɬɚ ɨɫɢ ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɨɣ ɛɚɥɤɢ ɪɚɜɧɹɥɚɫɶ ɩɨɥɭɫɭɦɦɟ ɨɪɞɢɧɚɬ
ɨɫɟɣ ɛɚɥɚɧɫɢɪɧɵɯ ɬɟɥɟɠɟɤ.
ɍɝɨɥ ɧɚɤɥɨɧɚ ɬɪɚɤɬɨɪɚ ɜ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɶɧɨɦ
ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɢ (ɞɢɮɮɟɪɟɧɬ) ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɥɫɹ ɤɚɤ
ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɪɚɡɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɪɞɢɧɚɬ ɩɟɪɟɞɧɟɣ ɢ ɡɚɞɧɟɣ ɨɫɟɣ ɛɚɥɚɧɫɢɪɨɜ ɤ ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɸ ɦɟɠɞɭ
ɨɫɹɦɢ ɛɚɥɚɧɫɢɪɨɜ. ɍɝɨɥ ɧɚɤɥɨɧɚ ɬɪɚɤɬɨɪɚ ɜ
ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɨɦ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɢ (ɤɪɟɧ) ɜɵɱɢɫɥɹɥɫɹ
ɤɚɤ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɪɚɡɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɪɞɢɧɚɬ ɥɟɜɨɣ ɢ ɩɪɚɜɨɣ ɨɫɟɣ ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɨɣ ɛɚɥɤɢ ɤ ɤɨɥɟɟ ɬɪɚɤɬɨɪɚ.
Ве
ник ХНАДУ, вып. 65–66, 2014
ɗɬɢ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɢɥɢ ɜɵɱɢɫɥɢɬɶ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɨɬɜɚɥɚ ɜ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ ɨɪɞɢɧɚɬɵ
ɬɪɚɤɬɨɪɚ ɢ ɟɝɨ ɞɢɮɮɟɪɟɧɬ ɢ ɤɪɟɧ. ɉɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ
ɨɬɜɚɥɚ ɜɵɱɢɫɥɹɥɨɫɶ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɨɪɞɢɧɚɬɵ ɨɫɟɣ
ɬɨɥɤɚɸɳɢɯ ɛɪɭɫɶɟɜ ɢ ɭɝɥɵ ɧɚɤɥɨɧɚ ɬɪɚɤɬɨɪɚ,
ɟɝɨ ɞɢɮɮɟɪɟɧɬɚ ɢ ɤɪɟɧɚ. Ʉɚɤ ɜɢɞɧɨ ɢɡ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɝɪɚɮɢɤɚ (ɪɢɫ. 2), ɧɨɠ ɨɬɜɚɥɚ
ɩɪɢ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɢ ɩɨ ɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɦɭ ɡɚɛɨɸ ɦɨɠɟɬ
ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɶɫɹ ɧɚ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɨɣ ɜɵɫɨɬɟ ɢ ɢɦɟɬɶ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɣ ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɵɣ ɧɚɤɥɨɧ.
Ɋɢɫ. 2. ɉɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɧɨɠɚ ɩɪɢ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɢ ɩɨ
ɧɟɪɨɜɧɨɫɬɹɦ ɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɡɚɛɨɹ
ɇɚ ɬɟɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɯ ɡɚɛɨɹ, ɝɞɟ ɨɪɞɢɧɚɬɚ ɧɨɠɚ
ɛɨɥɶɲɟ ɨɪɞɢɧɚɬɵ ɡɚɛɨɹ, ɧɨɠ ɩɪɨɯɨɞɢɬ ɧɚɞ
ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɝɪɭɧɬɚ, ɪɟɡɚɧɢɟ ɝɪɭɧɬɚ ɧɟ
ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ. ȼ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ, ɤɨɝɞɚ ɨɪɞɢɧɚɬɚ
ɬɨɱɤɢ ɧɚ ɧɨɠɟ ɧɢɠɟ ɨɪɞɢɧɚɬɵ ɡɚɛɨɹ, ɝɪɭɧɬ
ɫɪɟɡɚɟɬɫɹ.
ɇɚ ɪɢɫ. 3 ɩɨɤɚɡɚɧɨ ɡɚɝɥɭɛɥɟɧɢɟ ɨɬɜɚɥɚ ɩɪɢ
ɩɟɪɟɦɟɳɟɧɢɢ ɛɭɥɶɞɨɡɟɪɚ ɩɨ ɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ ɡɚɛɨɹ.
233
ɜɪɟɦɹ ɤɚɤ ɥɟɜɚɹ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɨɬɜɚɥɚ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɥɚɫɶ
ɜɵɲɟ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ ɝɪɭɧɬɚ ɡɚɛɨɹ.
ɂɡ ɪɢɫ. 3 ɜɢɞɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɜ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɟ ɩɪɨɦɟɠɭɬɤɢ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɨɬɜɚɥ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɥɫɹ ɧɚɞ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɡɚɛɨɹ ɢ ɪɟɡɚɧɢɟ ɝɪɭɧɬɚ ɧɟ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɥɨ. ȼ ɞɪɭɝɢɟ ɦɨɦɟɧɬɵ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ
ɨɪɞɢɧɚɬɵ ɧɨɠɚ ɨɬɜɚɥɚ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɥɢɫɶ ɧɢɠɟ
ɩɟɪɜɨɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ ɡɚɛɨɹ. Ɋɟɡɚɧɢɟ ɢɦɟɥɨ ɦɟɫɬɨ. Ɋɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɭɫɢɥɢɹ ɪɟɡɚɧɢɹ
ɝɪɭɧɬɚ ɩɨ ɞɥɢɧɟ ɡɚɛɨɹ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɧɨ ɧɚ ɪɢɫ. 4.
Ɋɢɫ. 4. ɂɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɵ ɭɫɢɥɢɹ ɪɟɡɚɧɢɹ
ɩɨ ɞɥɢɧɟ ɡɚɛɨɹ
Ʉɨɝɞɚ ɜɫɟ ɬɨɱɤɢ ɧɨɠɚ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɥɢɫɶ ɧɚɞ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɝɪɭɧɬɚ, ɭɫɢɥɢɟ ɪɟɡɚɧɢɹ ɝɪɭɧɬɚ
ɪɚɜɧɹɥɨɫɶ ɧɭɥɸ. Ɇɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ
ɭɫɢɥɢɹ ɪɟɡɚɧɢɹ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɨ 15,2 ɤɇ. Ɂɚɦɟɬɢɦ,
ɱɬɨ ɧɨɠ ɩɟɪɜɨɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɨ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɥɫɹ ɧɚ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ
ɝɭɫɟɧɢɰ ɬɪɚɤɬɨɪɚ, ɧɟ ɛɵɥ ɡɚɝɥɭɛɥɟɧ ɜ ɝɪɭɧɬ.
Ɍɚɤɨɟ ɭɫɢɥɢɟ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɥɨ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɡɚ ɫɱɟɬ ɧɟɪɨɜɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ ɡɚɛɨɹ.
ȼɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɟ ɧɟɨɞɢɧɚɤɨɜɨɣ ɬɨɥɳɢɧɵ ɫɬɪɭɠɤɢ
ɩɨ ɲɢɪɢɧɟ ɨɬɜɚɥɚ ɬɨɱɤɚ ɩɪɢɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɪɚɜɧɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɣ ɭɫɢɥɢɹ ɪɟɡɚɧɢɹ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɳɚɥɚɫɶ
ɩɨ ɨɬɜɚɥɭ. Ɍɨɥɤɚɸɳɢɟ ɛɪɭɫɶɹ ɧɚɝɪɭɠɟɧɵ
ɧɟɨɞɢɧɚɤɨɜɨ. Ɋɟɠɢɦ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɬɨɥɤɚɸɳɢɯ
ɛɪɭɫɶɟɜ ɭɫɭɝɭɛɥɹɟɬɫɹ. ɇɚ ɪɢɫ. 5 ɩɨɤɚɡɚɧɨ, ɤɚɤ
ɩɟɪɟɦɟɳɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɨ ɲɢɪɢɧɟ ɨɬɜɚɥɚ ɪɚɜɧɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɳɚɹ ɫɢɥ ɪɟɡɚɧɢɹ ɝɪɭɧɬɚ.
Ɋɢɫ. 3. ȼɟɥɢɱɢɧɚ ɡɚɝɥɭɛɥɟɧɢɹ ɧɨɠɚ (ɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɨɬɜɚɥɚ – ɧɨɠ ɧɚ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ
ɨɩɨɪɧɨɣ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ ɝɭɫɟɧɢɰ)
ɂɡ ɪɢɫ. 4 ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ, ɱɬɨ ɭɫɢɥɢɟ ɪɟɡɚɧɢɹ ɝɪɭɧɬɚ
ɜ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ, ɤɨɝɞɚ ɩɟɪɜɨɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɨ ɨɬɜɚɥ ɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɥɫɹ ɧɚ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ ɨɩɨɪɧɨɣ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ
ɝɭɫɟɧɢɰ, ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɥɨ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɭɦɚ ɧɚ ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɢ
10 ɦ ɨɬ ɧɚɱɚɥɚ ɡɚɛɨɹ.
Ⱦɨ ɧɚɱɚɥɚ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɨɬɜɚɥ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɥɫɹ ɧɚ
ɭɪɨɜɧɟ ɨɩɨɪɧɨɣ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ ɝɭɫɟɧɢɰ. ɂɡ
ɝɪɚɮɢɤɚ ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ, ɱɬɨ ɛɨɥɶɲɭɸ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɩɭɬɢ
ɦɚɲɢɧɵ ɨɬɜɚɥ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɥɫɹ ɧɚɞ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɶɸ
ɝɪɭɧɬɚ. Ɂɚ ɫɱɟɬ ɤɪɟɧɚ ɬɪɚɤɬɨɪɚ ɡɚɝɥɭɛɥɟɧɢɟ
ɧɨɠɚ ɩɨ ɲɢɪɢɧɟ ɨɬɜɚɥɚ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɚɟɬɫɹ. ȼ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɦɨɦɟɧɬɵ ɩɪɚɜɚɹ ɱɚɫɬɶ
ɨɬɜɚɥɚ ɡɚɝɥɭɛɥɹɥɚɫɶ ɜ ɝɪɭɧɬ ɧɚ 0,186 ɦ, ɜ ɬɨ
Ɋɚɫɱɟɬ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɶ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɭ
ɢɧɬɟɧɫɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɚɧɢɹ ɫɨɩɪɨɬɢɜɥɟɧɢɹ
ɪɟɡɚɧɢɹ, ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ ɜ ɧɚɲɟɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɚ
3,87 ɤɇ/ɦ. ɗɬɚ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɚ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɭ ɧɚ ɪɚɛɨɱɢɣ ɨɪɝɚɧ
ɦɚɲɢɧɵ. ɂ ɨɧɚ ɨɤɚɡɚɥɚɫɶ ɛɨɥɶɲɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ
ɢɧɬɟɧɫɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɚɧɢɹ ɫɨɩɪɨɬɢɜɥɟɧɢɣ,
ɤɨɬɨɪɨɟ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɦɟɫɬɨ ɩɪɢ ɡɚɝɥɭɛɥɟɧɢɢ ɨɬɜɚɥɚ
Ве
234
ɝɢɞɪɨɰɢɥɢɧɞɪɚɦɢ ɢ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɢ ɬɪɚɤɬɨɪɚ ɩɨ
ɪɨɜɧɨɣ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ. ɗɬɨ ɨɡɧɚɱɚɟɬ, ɱɬɨ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɭ ɧɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɨɤ
ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɬɶ ɫ ɭɱɟɬɨɦ ɧɟɪɨɜɧɨɫɬɟɣ
ɡɚɛɨɹ.
ник ХНАДУ, вып. 65–66, 2014
ɭɫɢɥɢɟ ɧɚ ɧɨɠɟ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɬɪɢ ɩɢɤɚ, ɧɨ ɨɧɨ
ɭɠɟ ɢɡɦɟɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɨɬ 0 ɞɨ 20 ɤɇ.
ȼɵɜɨɞɵ
Ⱦɜɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɛɭɥɶɞɨɡɟɪɚ ɩɨ ɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɦɭ ɡɚɛɨɸ
ɫɨɩɪɨɜɨɠɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɡɚɦɟɬɧɵɦɢ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɚɦɢ
ɞɢɮɮɟɪɟɧɬɚ (ɜ ɧɚɲɟɦ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ –
ɨɬ – 2,28 ɞɨ + 2,21) ɢ ɤɪɟɧɚ (ɨɬ – 7,18 ɞɨ
+1,64).
ɉɨɞ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɦ ɧɟɪɨɜɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɡɚɛɨɹ ɥɢɧɟɣɧɵɟ ɢ ɭɝɥɨɜɵɟ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɳɟɧɢɹ ɛɭɥɶɞɨɡɟɪɚ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɹɬ ɤ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɸ ɭɫɢɥɢɹ ɪɟɡɚɧɢɹ ɝɪɭɧɬɚ,
ɤɨɬɨɪɨɟ ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɟɬ 0,31 ɤɇ ɩɪɢ ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɢ
ɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɡɚɝɥɭɛɥɟɧɢɹ ɨɬɜɚɥɚ ɢ 20 ɤɇ ɩɪɢ
ɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɡɚɝɥɭɛɥɟɧɢɢ ɨɬɜɚɥɚ ɧɚ 2 ɫɦ.
Ɋɢɫ. 5. ɂɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ ɨɬ ɩɪɚɜɨɝɨ
ɤɨɧɰɚ ɨɬɜɚɥɚ ɞɨ ɬɨɱɤɢ ɩɪɢɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ
ɪɚɜɧɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɣ ɫɢɥɵ ɪɟɡɚɧɢɹ ɝɪɭɧɬɚ
Ɍɨɱɤɚ ɩɪɢɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɭɫɢɥɢɹ ɪɟɡɚɧɢɹ ɫɦɟɳɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɨ ɜɫɟɣ ɲɢɪɢɧɟ ɨɬɜɚɥɚ ɨɬ ɩɪɚɜɨɝɨ ɤɪɚɹ ɤ
ɥɟɜɨɦɭ. ɋɪɟɞɧɟɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɷɬɨɣ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɵ ɧɟ
ɫɨɜɩɚɞɚɟɬ ɫ ɫɟɪɟɞɢɧɨɣ ɨɬɜɚɥɚ. ɗɬɨ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬ
ɤ ɧɟɨɞɢɧɚɤɨɜɨɦɭ ɧɚɝɪɭɠɟɧɢɸ ɥɟɜɨɝɨ ɢ ɩɪɚɜɨɝɨ ɬɨɥɤɚɸɳɢɯ ɛɪɭɫɨɜ.
Ɋɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶ ɞɥɹ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɚ
ɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɨɤ ɢ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɟɣ ɧɚɞɟɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɛɭɥɶɞɨɡɟɪɚ.
Ʌɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɚ
1.
Ɋɢɫ. 6. ɋɭɦɦɚɪɧɨɟ ɭɫɢɥɢɟ ɪɟɡɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɢ ɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɡɚɝɥɭɛɥɟɧɢɢ ɨɬɜɚɥɚ ɧɚ 2 ɫɦ
2.
ɏɨɥɨɞɨɜ Ⱥ.Ɇ. Ɉɫɧɨɜɵ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɢ ɡɟɦɥɟɪɨɣɧɨ-ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɧɵɯ ɦɚɲɢɧ / Ⱥ.Ɇ. ɏɨɥɨɞɨɜ. – Ɇ.: Ɇɚɲɢɧɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɟ, 1968. –
156 ɫ.
ɇɢɱɤɟ ȼ.ȼ. ɇɚɞɟɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɢɰɟɩɧɨɝɨ ɢ
ɧɚɜɟɫɧɨɝɨ ɨɛɨɪɭɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɬɪɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ /
ȼ.ȼ. ɇɢɱɤɟ. – ɏ.: ȼɢɳɚ ɲɤ. ɂɡɞ-ɜɨ ɩɪɢ
ɏɚɪɶɤ. ɭɧ-ɬɟ, 1985. – 152 ɫ.
Ɋɨɡɟɧɮɟɥɶɞ Ɇ.ȼ. ɇɟɨɞɧɨɪɿɞɧɿɫɬɶ ɦɿɰɧɿɫɧɢɯ ɜɥɚɫɬɢɜɨɫɬɟɣ ʉɪɭɧɬɭ ɹɤ ɩɪɢɱɢɧɚ
ɜɢɧɢɤɧɟɧɧɹ ɜɬɨɦɧɢɯ ɧɚɩɪɭɠɟɧɶ /
Ɇ.ȼ. Ɋɨɡɟɧɮɟɥɶɞ // ɋɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ, ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ, ɦɚɲɢɧɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɟ: ɫɛ.
ɧɚɭɱ. ɬɪ. – 2012. – ȼɵɩ.70. – ɋ. 41–44.
Ⱥɧɚɥɨɝɢɱɧɵɟ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɛɵɥɢ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɵ
ɩɪɢ ɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɡɚɝɥɭɛɥɟɧɢɢ ɧɨɠɚ ɛɭɥɶɞɨɡɟɪɚ
ɧɚ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɭ 2 ɢ 4 ɫɦ. ȼ ɷɬɢɯ ɫɥɭɱɚɹɯ ɜɪɟɦɹ
ɪɟɡɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɚ ɭɫɢɥɢɹ ɪɟɡɚɧɢɹ ɛɵɥɢ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɛɨɥɶɲɟ. Ȼɨɥɶɲɢɟ ɭɫɢɥɢɹ ɪɟɡɚɧɢɹ
ɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɠɞɚɸɬ ɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɵɣ ɮɚɤɬ, ɱɬɨ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɳɟɧɢɟ ɝɪɭɧɬɚ ɨɬɜɚɥɨɦ ɛɭɥɶɞɨɡɟɪɚ, ɤɚɤ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɨ, ɫɨɩɪɨɜɨɠɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɶɸ ɜɵɝɥɭɛɥɹɬɶ ɢ ɡɚɝɥɭɛɥɹɬɶ ɨɬɜɚɥ, ɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ
ɬɪɟɛɭɟɦɨɟ ɭɫɢɥɢɟ ɪɟɡɚɧɢɹ ɝɪɭɧɬɚ ɩɪɟɜɵɲɚɟɬ
ɬɹɝɨɜɵɟ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɦɚɲɢɧɵ.
Ɋɟɰɟɧɡɟɧɬ: ɂ.Ƚ.
ɞ.ɬ.ɧ., ɏɇȺȾɍ.
Ɍɚɤ, ɩɪɢ ɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɡɚɝɥɭɛɥɟɧɢɢ ɨɬɜɚɥɚ ɧɚ
2 ɫɦ (ɪɢɫ. 6) ɧɚ ɬɨɦ ɠɟ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɟ ɞɥɢɧɨɣ 20 ɦ
ɋɬɚɬɶɹ ɩɨɫɬɭɩɢɥɚ ɜ ɪɟɞɚɤɰɢɸ 17 ɚɩɪɟɥɹ
2014 ɝ.
3.
Ʉɢɪɢɱɟɧɤɨ,
ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɨɪ,
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