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Начальная остойчивость легких амфибийных судов на воздушной подушке с гибким ограждением баллонетного типа..pdf

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Судостроение, судоремонт и эксплуатация флота
??? 629.5.015.141:629.57
?. ?. ?????, ?. ?. ????????, ?. ?. ???????, ?. ?. ?????????
НАЧАЛЬНАЯ ОСТОЙЧИВОСТЬ ЛЕГКИХ АМФИБИЙНЫХ СУДОВ
НА ВОЗДУШНОЙ ПОДУШКЕ
С ГИБКИМ ОГРАЖДЕНИЕМ БАЛЛОНЕТНОГО ТИПА
????????? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ?? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ????????????? ?????????, ?????????? ???? ?? ?????????? ??? ????????????
???????? ??????????????. ? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ?? ?????????
??????? (????) ? ?????? ??????????? (??) ???????????? ???? ???????????? ????????????
?????? ????????????, ?????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ? ????????????? ???????????. ??????
???????? ?? ????????? ??????? ????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ????????????. ????????, ??? ??? ?????????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??? ???????
????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ??? ????????? ???????? ???????????????? ?????? ????? ????? ????????????? ????????. ?????? ??? ????????? ??? ????????? ????? ?????:
??????? ?? ????? ???????? ?????; ?? ??????????? ????????? ????? ????? ???????? ??
? ???????????? ???? ??? ????????? ???????. ??????????????? ??????? ??????, ??? ?????
????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ????? 1. ???????? ????????? ??????? ??? ???????????
?????????? ????????????????? ???????. ????????? ???????????????? ?????? ??????????
???????????? ?????? ??????, ????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ???. ?? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????????? ??????? ?? ?????????????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ????? ? ?????????????? ?????????? ????? ?????????. ??? ?????? ????????????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????
???? ? ?? ???????????? ???? ??????? «????» (?????????? ? ???????????? ????????
??? «? ?????»). ?????? ???????, ??? ????? ??????? ????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ? ????????????? ??????????? ????, ??? ???????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ????????? ???????.
???????? ?????: ?????????? ?????, ?????????, ????????? ???????, ?????? ??????????, ????????? ????????????, ???????????????? ??????, ????? ???????.
????????
???????????? ??????????? ????? ? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?????????, ? ????????? ?????? ??????? ???????????? [1, 2] ?????????? ????????????? ? ????? ???????? ??? ???????. ?????? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ?? ????????? ??????? (???) ???????? ?? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ????? ? ??????????? ?????????????????? ???????
?? ??? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ????? [2]. ????? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ????? ??? ? ????????? ??????????????? ?????????????????? ???????.
? ????? ????????? ?????? [3?5], ??? ???????? ?????????? ???? ?? ????????? ???????
(????) ??? ???????? ? ???????? ????? ?? ???????? ?????????????. ?????????? ????? ?????
? ???????? ????????? ?? ?? [4] ???????? ??????? ? ??? ????????????? ????????????, ??????
????? ??????? ????? ??? ?????????? ? ???????????? ??????.
????????????? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ???
???????? ? ????????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ??? ??????? ?? ??????
?????? ? ????????????? ??????????? ? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ???? ?? ??????? ???
?? [6] (???. 1).
?? ???. 1 ???????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ???? ? ??? ??? ??? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? (??) ? ???????????? ? ???????? ?????? ??? ????????????????? ???????.
rm =
J x ??? ? J x ??
V
,
??? J? ??? ? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? (?????????????? ??????????
(???) ??? ??????? ?? ???????) ???????????? ??? ?, ???????????????? ????????? ???????; J? ?? ?
?????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ?? ???????; V ? ????????????? ?????.
59
ISSN 2073-1574. Вестник АГТУ. Сер.: Морская техника и технология. 2015. ? 1
m
1
2
????
rm
??????????????
??????????
C0
h??
???
???. 1. ????? ????????? ??? ? ?????? ??????? ?? ????
? ???????????? ????? ???????? ??????? ?? ??: 1 ? ??????? ??????; 2 ? ?????? ??????????
?????? ????? ????? ?????????
L??? = L?? = 1, V = [(???? + ???)h??]/2;
3
3
J??? = B???1 ; J?? = B?? 1 ,
12
12
???????
rm1 =
3
( B???
? ???3 )
,
[( ???? + ??? )h?? ] 6
?????? ???????, ??? ???????????????? ?????? ? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ?????
??????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ?? ? ??????? ??????????? ???. ????? ???????, ???
?????????? ?????? ??? ??? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ??? ?? ???????????????? ?????? ????? ????? ????????????? ????????.
??????????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ???? ???????????? ????
?????? ?? ???? ???????????, ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ???? ? ?? ????????????
????. ?????? ????????? ??? ????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????:
? ??????? ????? ???????? ????? (? ???????????????? ?????? ???? ???????? ?????
?????? ??? ????? ??? ????????????? ???????? ? ???????);
? ?? ??????????? ????????? ????? ??? ????????? ??????? ?? ??;
? ??????????????? ??????? ??????, ??? ????? ????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ????? 1.
?????????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ???. 2.
?????? ???? ????????-?????? ???? ???????? ? ???? ?? ??????? (??????) h??. ??????
????????? ??????????? ?? ??? ????????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ?????? ?1. ?????? ??? ??????? ? ???????? ??????? R1, ??????? ?1 ? ??????? ???????? [7]:
??? = 2 2h?? R1 ? h??2 ,
???????????? ? ??????????? ?? ??????? h??:
???? = ?1 + 4 2h?? R1 ? h??2 .
????????????? ??????? L = 1 ???????????? ? ??????? ???????????
V1 = h?? · B1 + S??,
???
S?? ? R1 (6h?? R1 + h??2 ) 3 ? h?? (2 R13 ? 5 R12 h?? + 4 R1 h?2? ? h?3? )
??????? ????????? ???????? [7] ??????????? ????? ????? (??????????? 3 %).
60
Судостроение, судоремонт и эксплуатация флота
M0
h0
a??
G
??????????????
zg
R1
r0m
??????????
zc
S??
h??
C0
B??
B???
???. 2. ????? ??? ?????? ????????? ???????????? ???? ? ?? ???????????? ????
? ???????????? ? ???????? (1), ?????????? ????????? ???????????????? ?????? ?????
????? ????????? ?????????:
rm 0 =
( B1 + 2 2h?? R1 ? h??2 )3 ? B13
3 ?
12 ? B1h?? + R1 (6h?? R1 + h??2 ) / 3 ? h?? (2 R13 ? 5 R12 h?? + 4 R1h??2 ? h??
)
?
?
.
(2)
???????????????? ?????? ???? ??????????? ????????? ?? ?????????????, ??????? ???????? ?? ? ????????????? ????, ???? ?? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ???
??? h?? (?????? ? ?????? ??????? ?? ???????).
?????????:
R1 = R1 h?? ; B1 = B1 / h?? ; rm 0 = r m0 / h?? ,
????????? ??????? (2):
rm 0 =
( B1 + 2 2 R1 ? 1)3 ? B13
.
(3)
12 ? B1 + R1 (6 R1 + 1) / 3 ? (2 R13 ? 5 R12 + 4 R1 ? 1) ?
?
?
????????, ??? ????????? ???????????????? ?????? ????? ????? ???? ??? R1 = 0,5 , ? ???????? ????? ??????????????? R1 = 1 . ???????? ????????? ????? ????? ??????????????? ???????????, ????????????? ?? ???. 2, ? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ??????
h0 = rm0 + zc ? zg,
??? zc ? ????????? ?????? ????????; zg ? ????????? ?????? ??????? ?????.
????????????? ???????? h0 ????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????? rm0 ? zg, ?????????
???????? zc ?? ???????? ??????????? ?????? zg, ??????? ??????????? ????? ???????, ??? ????????????? (? ??????? ????????? ????????????) ????????? ?????? ??????? ????? ???????????? ???
rm0 > zg .
????? ???????, ????????? (3) ????????? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ???????
zg, ?????? ??????? ??????? ????? R1, ?????? ????? ???? ? ??????? ??????? ??? ?? h??, ????????
?????? ???????? ??????? ? ??, ? ???. ??. ??? ????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? B?? ? R1 ???????? ??????? ?????? rm 0 = const (???. 3).
61
ISSN 2073-1574. Вестник АГТУ. Сер.: Морская техника и технология. 2015. ? 1
R1
3.0
2.4
1.8
1.2
0.6
30
40
50
60
70
B ??
???. 3. ??????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????????????? ??????? rm 0
?? ?????????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????? R1
? ?????????????? ?????????? ????? ????????? B??
? ???????? ??????? ???? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ????
? ?? ???????????? ???? ??????? «????» (?????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ??? «? ?????» [8]).
??? ????? ????? ?????? ?1 = 3,1 ?, ?????? ??????? R1 = 0,12 ?, ???????? ? ?? ? 0,98 ???
(h?? = 0,1 ? ???. ??.). ????????????? ???????? ?????????? B1 = 31; R1 = 1,4, ?? ??????????? ????
???????? ?? ??????? ??????? rm 0 = 30. ???????? ? ????????? ????????, ???????
rm0 = rm 0 h?? = 30 ? 0,1 ? = 3,0 ?.
??????????
????? ???????, ??? ????, ?????????????? ???????? ?????? ? ????????, ????? ???????
????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ? zg < 3,0 ?. ?????????? ????? ???????
????? ????? ????????? ?? ?????? zg ? 1,4 ?, ????????? ???????????????? ?????? ????????
h0 ? 1,4 ?, ??? ????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ????????? ???????.
?????? ????????????? ??????? ????? ??????? ????? ???? ???????? ??? ???????????? ???????????? ?? ??????? ????? ?????.
?????? ??????????
1. ???????? ?. ?. ??????????? ?????????????? ????? ? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? /
?. ?. ????????, ?. ?. ?????????, ?. ?. ??????????, ?. ?. ?????. ?.: ????????????, 1974. 324 ?.
2. ??????? ?. ?. ???? ?? ????????? ??????? ????????? ???? / ?. ?. ???????. ?.: ????????????,
1983. 216 ?.
3. ??????? ?. ?. ?????????????? ?????????? ????? / ?. ?. ???????. ?.: ????????????, 1978. 279 ?.
4. ???? ?. ?. ????????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????? ?? ????????? ??????? /
?. ?. ????, ?. ?. ?????????, ?. ?. ????????, ?. ?. ??????????, ?. ?. ???????? // ?????? ? ?????????
???????????? ???????. ???????. ????????. ??-? ??. ?. ?. ???????, 1982. ?. 41?48.
5. Yun L. Theory and design air cushion craft / L.Yun, A. Bliault. London: Arnold Publ., 2000. 647 p.
6. ???????-????-??????? ?. ?. ??????? ? ???????? ??????? / ?. ?. ???????-????-??????? // ?????? ??????????, ???????????? ? ??????. ?.: ??????????, 1960. 576 ?.
7. ????????? ?. ?. ?????????? ?? ?????????? ??? ????????? ? ???????? ?????? / ?. ?. ?????????, ?. ?. ?????????. ?.: ?????, 1980. 975 ?.
8. URL: www.nsitek.ru (???? ?????????: 10.07.2014).
?????? ????????? ? ???????? 11.12.2014,
? ????????????? ???????? ? 24.02.2015
62
Судостроение, судоремонт и эксплуатация флота
ИНФОРМАЦИЯ ОБ АВТОРАХ
Фам Фу Тхань ? Россия, 603950, Нижний Новгород; Нижегородский государственный
технический университет им. Р. Е. Алексеева; аспирант кафедры «Кораблестроение
и авиационная техника»; ship@nntu.nnov.ru.
Крыжанов Арсений Михайлович ? Россия, 603003, Нижний Новгород; ООО «Судостроительная компания «Аэроход»; инженер-исследователь; AKbober@mail.ru.
Бремзен Евгений Михайлович ? Россия, 603022, Нижний Новгород; ЗАО «Н Ситек»,
конструкторская группа; инженер-конструктор; alex@nsitek.ru.
Двойченко Юрий Александрович ? Россия, 603950, Нижний Новгород; Нижегородский государственный технический университет им. Р. Е. Алексеева; канд. техн. наук,
доцент; доцент кафедры «Кораблестроение и авиационная техника»; edbas@sandy.ru.
F. F. Than, A. M. Kryzhanov, E. M. Bremzen, Yu. A. Dvoichenko
INITIAL STABILITY
OF LIGHT AMPHIBIOUS HOVERCRAFTS
WITH FLEXIBLE BALLONET ENCLOSURE
Abstract. The known methods of calculation of stability of hovercrafts tend to be cumbersome
and poorly accurate and due to this, their use for practical calculations is complicated. The proposed method of calculation of amphibious hovercraft with flexible ballonet enclosure assumes the
use of the classical theory of stability, based on the Euler?s hypothesis about coextensive inclinations. The results are based on the known method of accounting for the effect of free surface of liquid on stability. It is shown that with the excess of width of constructive waterline over the width
of the free surface in the cavity under the air bubble the metacentric radius will have a positive
value. There was adopted a number of assumptions in the calculation scheme of the vessel: the ballonet with flexible enclosure have a circular shape, an air gap between the ballonet with flexible
enclosure and the surface of the water after the air outflow is not considered. The plane elastic
problem, where the length of the vessel in the longitudinal direction equals to 1, is analyzed. The
calculation formulas are derived to define the initial metacentric radius. Though the direct analysis
of the obtained dependences is very complex, the latter were converted into dimensionless form.
On the basis of the carried out calculations, the graph of the dependence of the initial metacentric
radius on the relative radius of the ballonets of the lower tier and the relative distance between the
ballonets is designed. An example of using the results to estimate the initial stability of the real amphibious hovercraft with a flexible ballonet enclosure "Gulf" (developed and produced in JSC
"N Sitek") is presented. The analysis demonstrated that the center of gravity of the vessel may occupy a high position, but structurally it is usually much lower, which contributes to the confrontation of the dynamic inclining moment.
Key words: amphibious vessel, ballonet, air bubble, flexible enclosure, initial stability, metacentric height, center of gravity.
REFERENCES
1. Kolyzaev B. A., Kosorukov A. I., Litvinenko V. A., Popov G. I. Osobennosti proektirovaniia sudov
s novymi printsipami podderzhaniia [Peculiarities of designing the vessels with new principles of support]. Leningrad, Sudostroenie Publ., 1974. 324 p.
2. Smirnov S. A. Suda na vozdushnoi podushke skegovogo tipa [Sidewall crafts]. Leningrad, Sudostroenie
Publ., 1983. 216 p.
3. Vaganov A. M. Proektirovanie skorostnykh sudov [Designing of high speed vessels]. Leningrad, Sudostroenie Publ., 1978. 279 p.
4. Zuev V. A., Dvoichenko Iu. A., Mokhon'ko S. G., Perelygina G. M., Savateev A. V. Nekotorye voprosy proektirovaniia ledokol'nykh pristavok na vozdushnoi podushke [Some issues of designing ice-breaking hover-crafts]. Teoriia
i prochnost' ledokol'nogo korablia. Gor'kovskii politekhnicheskii universitet im. A. A. Zhdanova, 1982. P. 41?48.
63
ISSN 2073-1574. Вестник АГТУ. Сер.: Морская техника и технология. 2015. ? 1
5. Yun L., Bliault A. Theory and design air cushion craft. London, Arnold Publ., 2000. 647 p.
6. Semenov-Tian'-Shanskii V. V. Statika i dinamika korablia [Static and dynamic of the vessel]. Teoriia plavuchesti, ostoichivosti i spuska. Leningrad, Sudpromgiz, 1960. 576 p.
7. Bronshtein I. N., Semendiaev K. A. Spravochnik po matematike dlia inzhenerov i uchashchikhsia vtuzov
[Reference on mathematics for engineers and students of technical universities]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1980. 975 p.
8. Available at: www.nsitek.ru (accessed: 10.07.2014).
The article submitted to the editors 11.12.2014,
in the final version ? 24.02.2015
INFORMATION ABOUT THE AUTHORS
Fam Fu Than ? Russia, 603950, Nizhniy Novgorod; Nizhniy Novgorod State Technical University named after R. E. Alekseev; Postgraduate Student of the Department "Shipbuilding
and Aviation Technology"; ship@nntu.nnov.ru.
Kryzhanov Arseniy Mikhailovich ? Russia, 603003, Nizhniy Novgorod; Ltd Shipbuilding
Company "Aerohod"; Research Engineer; AKbober@mail.ru.
Bremzen Evgeniy Mikhailovich ? Russia, 603022, Nizhniy Novgorod; Ltd "N Sitek", designing group; Design Engineer; alex@nsitek.ru.
Dvoichenko Yuriy Aleksandrovich ? Russia, 603950, Nizhniy Novgorod; Nizhniy Novgorod
State Technical University named after R. E. Alekseeva; Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Assistant Professor; Assistant Professor of the Department "Shipbuilding and Aviation Technology"; edbas@sandy.ru.
64
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