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Оборудование для укладки и распределения бетонной смеси при формовании железобетонных изделий..pdf

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4/2010
ВЕСТНИК
МГСУ
ɈȻɈɊɍȾɈȼȺɇɂȿ ȾɅə ɍɄɅȺȾɄɂ ɂ ɊȺɋɉɊȿȾȿɅȿɇɂə
ȻȿɌɈɇɇɈɃ ɋɆȿɋɂ ɉɊɂ ɎɈɊɆɈȼȺɇɂɂ ɀȿɅȿɁɈȻȿɌɈɇɇɕɏ
ɂɁȾȿɅɂɃ
THE EQUIPMENT FOR CONCRETE PLACEMENT AND
DISTRIBUTION DURING CASTING OF REINFORCED CONCRETE
PRODUCTS
ȿ.ɋ. Ɋɨɦɚɧɨɜɚ, ɉ.Ⱦ. Ʉɚɩɵɪɢɧ
E.S. Romanova, P.D. Kapyrin
ɆȽɋɍ
ȼ ɫɬɚɬɶɟ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɨɛɨɪɭɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɞɥɹ ɭɤɥɚɞɤɢ ɢ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɛɟɬɨɧɧɨɣ
ɫɦɟɫɢ ɩɪɢ ɮɨɪɦɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɀȻɂ. Ɂɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɭɞɟɥɟɧɨ ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɸ ɞɜɭɯ ɛɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤɨɜ: ɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɭɚɥɶɧɨ ɜɵɩɭɫɤɚɟɦɨɦɭ ɢ ɫɟɪɢɣɧɨɦɭ ɋɆɀ-528, ɨɛɨɡɧɚɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɚ ɢ ɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɤɢ.
The current article was dedicated to the equipment for concrete placement and distribution during casting of reinforced concrete products. Great attention was paid to the comparison of two concrete-laying machines: individually produced and serial “SMJ-528”. Advantages and disadvantages were emphasized.
Ɏɨɪɦɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɠɟɥɟɡɨɛɟɬɨɧɧɵɯ ɢɡɞɟɥɢɣ, ɭɤɥɚɞɤɚ ɛɟɬɨɧɧɨɣ ɫɦɟɫɢ ɜ ɮɨɪɦɵ ɢ ɟɟ ɭɩɥɨɬɧɟɧɢɟ, ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɨɞɧɢɦ ɢɡ ɝɥɚɜɧɟɣɲɢɯ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɜ ɡɚɜɨɞɨɜ, ɢ ɜ ɬɨɠɟ
ɜɪɟɦɹ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɬɪɭɞɨɟɦɤɢɦ ɢ ɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦ.
Ɉɬ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɮɨɪɦɨɜɨɱɧɨɝɨ ɨɛɨɪɭɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɭɪɨɜɧɹ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɢ ɚɜɬɨɦɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɮɨɪɦɨɜɨɱɧɵɯ ɪɚɛɨɬ, ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɬɨɱɧɨɫɬɢ ɢɡɝɨɬɨɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɢ ɢ ɟɟ ɡɚɜɨɞɫɤɨɣ ɝɨɬɨɜɧɨɫɬɢ, ɪɚɫɯɨɞɚ ɰɟɦɟɧɬɚ ɜ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɟɦɨɣ ɫɦɟɫɢ, ɩɪɢɧɹɬɵɯ ɪɟɠɢɦɨɜ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɨɛɨɪɭɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ ɡɚɜɢɫɹɬ ɫɟɛɟɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɫɛɨɪɧɨɝɨ ɠɟɥɟɡɨɛɟɬɨɧɚ, ɟɝɨ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɢ, ɜ ɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɦ ɫɱɟɬɟ, ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɜɨɡɜɨɞɢɦɨɝɨ ɫɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɢɹ.
ɉɪɟɞɩɪɢɹɬɢɹ ɫɬɪɚɧɵ ɨɫɧɚɳɟɧɵ ɫɟɪɢɣɧɨ ɜɵɩɭɫɤɚɟɦɵɦɢ ɛɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤɚɦɢ, ɛɟɬɨɧɨɪɚɡɞɚɬɱɢɤɚɦɢ, ɜɢɛɪɨɩɥɨɳɚɞɤɚɦɢ, ɤɚɫɫɟɬɧɵɦɢ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚɦɢ, ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɦɢ
ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚɦɢ ɫ ɜɢɛɪɨɜɤɥɚɞɵɲɚɦɢ, ɜɢɛɪɨɩɪɨɬɹɠɧɵɦɢ ɭɫɬɪɨɣɫɬɜɚɦɢ ɢ ɬ.ɞ. Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɦɨɠɧɨ ɝɨɜɨɪɢɬɶ ɨ ɧɚɥɢɱɢɢ ɛɨɥɶɲɨɝɨ ɩɚɪɤɚ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɨɝɨ ɨɛɨɪɭɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɨɛɫɥɭɠɢɜɚɸɳɟɝɨ ɩɨɫɬ ɮɨɪɦɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢɡɞɟɥɢɣ. Ɍɟɦ ɧɟ ɦɟɧɟɟ, ɫɪɨɤɢ ɷɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɚɰɢɢ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ
ɟɝɨ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ 20 ɢ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɥɟɬ. ȼɵɫɨɤɚɹ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ ɢɡɧɨɫɚ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɦɚɲɢɧ ɢ ɨɛɨɪɭɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɹɬɢɹɯ ɩɨ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɭ ɀȻɂ ɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɨ ɜɥɢɹɟɬ ɧɚ ɪɚɛɨɬɭ ɦɚɲɢɧ ɢ
ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɡɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɦɨɳɧɨɫɬɟɣ.
ȼ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɧɚ ɡɚɜɨɞɚɯ ɩɨ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɭ ɀȻɂ ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦ ɷɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ ɭɫɬɚɪɟɜɲɢɟ ɮɢɡɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɢ ɦɨɪɚɥɶɧɨ ɫɟɪɢɣɧɵɟ ɛɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤɢ, ɫɩɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɟ ɜ
70-80-ɟ ɝɨɞɚ, ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɋɆɀ-528 (ɪɢɫ. 1). [2].
ȼ ɫɨɫɬɚɜ ɛɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤɚ (ɪɢɫ. 2) ɜɯɨɞɹɬ: ɫɚɦɨɯɨɞɧɚɹ ɪɚɦɚ ɩɨɪɬɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɬɢɩɚ,
ɛɭɧɤɟɪ ɫ ɥɟɧɬɨɱɧɵɦ ɩɢɬɚɬɟɥɟɦ, ɜɨɪɨɧɤɚ, ɡɚɝɥɚɠɢɜɚɸɳɟɟ ɭɫɬɪɨɣɫɬɜɨ, ɩɧɟɜɦɨɨɛɨɪɭɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɢ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɨɛɨɪɭɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ. Ȼɭɧɤɟɪ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧ ɧɚ ɬɟɥɟɠɤɭ, ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɳɚɬɶɫɹ ɜ ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɨɦ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɢ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɪɟɥɶɫɨɜɨɝɨ ɩɭɬɢ ɛɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤɚ.
153
ВЕСТНИК
МГСУ
4/2010
ȼɨɪɨɧɤɚ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɩɪɢɜɨɞ ɩɨɞɴɟɦɚ ɢ ɨɩɭɫɤɚɧɢɹ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɩɪɢɜɨɞ ɩɨɜɨɪɨɬɚ ɜɨɤɪɭɝ ɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɨɫɢ. Ȼɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤ ɩɟɪɟɞɜɢɝɚɟɬɫɹ ɫ ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ ɞɜɭɯ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɨɜ, ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɯ ɫ ɛɨɤɨɜɵɯ ɫɬɨɪɨɧ ɩɨɪɬɚɥɚ.
Ɋɢɫ.1. Ɉɛɳɢɣ ɜɢɞ ɛɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤɚ ɋɆɀ-528
Ɋɢɫ. 2. Ɉɛɳɢɣ ɜɢɞ ɛɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤɚ ɋɆɀ-528
1 - ɩɨɞɜɟɫɤɚ ɤɚɛɟɥɹ; 2 - ɩɢɬɚɬɟɥɶ; 4 - ɛɭɧɤɟɪ; 5 - ɩɭɥɶɬ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ; 6 - ɤɪɟɫɥɨ ɦɚɲɢɧɢɫɬɚ; 6, 10 - ɩɪɢɜɨɞɵ ɩɟɪɟɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹ; 7 - ɜɨɪɨɧɤɚ; 8 - ɡɚɝɥɚɠɢɜɚɸɳɟɟ ɭɫɬɪɨɣɫɬɜɨ; 9 ɪɚɦɚ-ɩɨɪɬɚɥ.
154
4/2010
ВЕСТНИК
МГСУ
Ɂɚɝɥɚɠɢɜɚɸɳɟɟ ɭɫɬɪɨɣɫɬɜɨ ɩɪɟɞɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɨ ɞɥɹ ɩɪɟɞɜɚɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɡɚɝɥɚɠɢɜɚɧɢɹ
ɜɟɪɯɧɟɣ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ ɮɨɪɦɭɟɦɨɝɨ ɢɡɞɟɥɢɹ. Ɉɧɨ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɫɨɛɨɣ ɡɚɝɥɚɠɢɜɚɸɳɢɣ
ɛɪɭɫ, ɫɨɜɟɪɲɚɸɳɢɣ ɜɨɡɜɪɚɬɧɨ-ɩɨɫɬɭɩɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɳɟɧɢɹ ɫ ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɚ ɫ
ɤɪɢɜɨɲɢɩɧɨ-ɲɚɬɭɧɧɵɦ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɦ. Ȼɪɭɫ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɩɪɢɜɨɞ ɩɨɞɴɟɦɚ. [8]
Ɍɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɚ
1. Ɍɢɩ ɛɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤɚ - ɨɞɧɨɛɭɧɤɟɪɧɵɣ, ɫ ɡɚɝɥɚɠɢɜɚɸɳɢɦ ɛɪɭɫɨɦ
2. ȿɦɤɨɫɬɶ ɛɭɧɤɟɪɚ, ɤɭɛ.ɦ
-2
3. Ɋɚɡɦɟɪ ɩɨ ɨɫɹɦ ɪɟɥɶɫɨɜ ɛɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤɚ, ɦɦ
- 4500
4. Ɉɛɳɚɹ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɧɚɹ ɦɨɳɧɨɫɬɶ, ɤȼɬ
- 20,16
5. Ƚɚɛɚɪɢɬɧɵɟ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɵ, ɦɦ
Ⱦɥɢɧɚ, ɦɦ
- 4100
ɒɢɪɢɧɚ, ɦɦ
- 6300
ȼɵɫɨɬɚ, ɦɦ
- 3190
6. Ɇɚɫɫɚ, ɤɝ
- 8100
ɂɡɝɨɬɨɜɢɬɟɥɶ ɈɈɈ «ɋɬɪɨɦɦɚɲɢɧɚ-ɓɢɬ», ɝ. ɋɚɦɚɪɚ.
Ȼɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤɭ ɋɆɀ-528 ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɚ ɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɚɰɢɹ, ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɧɚɹ ɧɚ ɭɩɪɨɳɟɧɢɟ ɤɢɧɟɦɚɬɢɤɢ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ, ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɢɟ ɷɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɧɚɞɟɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɦɚɲɢɧɵ,
ɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɟ ɦɟɬɚɥɥɨɟɦɤɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɷɧɟɪɝɨɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɟɧɢɹ.
Ɏɨɪɦɨɜɨɱɧɨɟ ɨɛɨɪɭɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɡɚɜɨɞɚɯ ɀȻɂ ɷɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɢ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɯ
ɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɚɯ, ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɣ ɜɥɚɠɧɨɫɬɢ, ɡɚɩɵɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɚ ɢ
ɚɛɪɚɡɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɛɟɬɨɧɧɨɣ ɫɦɟɫɢ, ɱɬɨ ɫɧɢɠɚɟɬ ɞɨɥɝɨɜɟɱɧɨɫɬɶ ɢ ɧɚɞɟɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɟɝɨ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ.
Ⱦɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɢɣ ɩɪɨɝɪɟɫɫ ɜ ɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɮɨɪɦɨɜɨɱɧɨɝɨ ɨɛɨɪɭɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ,
ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɢ ɧɨɜɵɯ ɟɝɨ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɞɨɥɠɟɧ ɨɩɢɪɚɬɶɫɹ ɧɚ ɧɚɭɱɧɵɟ ɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɮɨɪɦɨɜɚɧɢɹ. ɉɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ ɦɢɪɨɜɵɦ ɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɚɦ ɢ ɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹɦ ɤ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɦɭ ɨɛɨɪɭɞɨɜɚɧɢɸ, ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶ ɩɟɪɟɞɨɜɵɟ ɷɧɟɪɝɨɫɛɟɪɟɝɚɸɳɢɟ,
ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɵɟ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɬɶ ɩɨɫɬɟɩɟɧɧɵɣ
ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞ ɤ ɩɨɫɬɢɧɞɭɫɬɪɢɚɥɶɧɨɦɭ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɭ, ɝɞɟ ɝɥɚɜɧɨɟ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɭɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɭ,
ɚ ɞɨɥɹ ɮɢɡɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɬɪɭɞɚ ɫɨɤɪɚɳɚɟɬɫɹ.
Ɍɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹɦ, ɩɪɟɞɴɹɜɥɹɟɦɵɦ ɤ ɨɛɨɪɭɞɨɜɚɧɢɸ ɞɥɹ ɭɤɥɚɞɤɢ ɢ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ
ɛɟɬɨɧɧɨɣ ɫɦɟɫɢ, ɜ ɛɨɥɶɲɟɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɟɦɵɣ ɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɭɚɥɶɧɨ ɜɵɩɭɫɤɚɟɦɵɣ ɛɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤ.
Ɋɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɢɦ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɸ Ƚ-ɩɨɪɬɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɛɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤɚ (ɪɢɫ. 3), ɩɪɟɞɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɞɥɹ ɩɨɫɬɚ ɮɨɪɦɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɠɟɥɟɡɨɛɟɬɨɧɧɵɯ ɢɡɞɟɥɢɣ ɲɢɪɢɧɨɣ ɞɨ 3600ɦɦ. [1]
Ɍɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɚ:
1. Ɍɢɩ ɛɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤɚ - ɨɞɧɨɛɭɧɤɟɪɧɵɣ, ɫ ɡɚɝɥɚɠɢɜɚɸɳɢɦ ɪɨɥɢɤɨɦ,
ɫ Ƚ-ɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɦ ɩɨɪɬɚɥɨɦ
2. ȿɦɤɨɫɬɶ ɛɭɧɤɟɪɚ, ɤɭɛ.ɦ
-2
3. Ɋɚɡɦɟɪ ɩɨ ɨɫɹɦ ɪɟɥɶɫɨɜ ɛɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤɚ, ɦɦ
- 5300
4. Ɉɛɳɚɹ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɧɚɹ ɦɨɳɧɨɫɬɶ, ɤȼɬ
- 15,55
5. Ƚɚɛɚɪɢɬɧɵɟ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɵ, ɦɦ
Ⱦɥɢɧɚ, ɦɦ
- 5900
ɒɢɪɢɧɚ, ɦɦ
- 4245
ȼɵɫɨɬɚ, ɦɦ
- 3850
6. Ɇɚɫɫɚ, ɤɝ
- 7100
155
ВЕСТНИК
МГСУ
4/2010
358*
210*
240
1800*
450
110
1950*
Ɍ1- 6
2600*
3850
3580*
Ɍ1- 6
925
2800
50
50
1400
150
300*
33
5300
3100*
1800*
2270
120
46 172
330
570
1200*
300
335
61
550
91 6 7 00
34
118
240
925
430
220
1080
810
1850
185
2300
2700
550
Ɋɢɫ.3 Ɉɛɳɢɣ ɜɢɞ Ƚ-ɩɨɪɬɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɛɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤɚ ɫ ɡɚɝɥɚɠɢɜɚɸɳɢɦ ɪɨɥɢɤɨɦ
Ȼɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤ ɫɨɫɬɨɢɬ ɢɡ ɪɚɦɵ (ɩɨɪɬɚɥɚ), ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɚ ɢɡ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɛɨɪɨɱɧɵɯ ɟɞɢɧɢɰ. ɇɚ ɪɚɦɟ ɫɦɨɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɵ ɜɫɟ ɭɡɥɵ ɦɚɲɢɧɵ. ȼ ɬɨɪɰɟɜɵɯ ɛɚɥɤɚɯ ɪɚɦɵ ɫɦɨɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɵ ɜɟɞɭɳɢɟ ɢ ɜɟɞɨɦɵɟ ɤɨɥɟɫɚ. ȼɪɚɳɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɧɵɦ ɤɨɥɟɫɚɦ ɩɟɪɟɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɰɟɩɧɭɸ ɩɟɪɟɞɚɱɭ ɨɬ ɦɨɬɨɪ-ɪɟɞɭɤɬɨɪɚ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɵ ɧɚ ɤɨɧɫɨɥɶɧɵɯ ɜɚɥɚɯ ɜɟɞɭɳɢɯ
ɤɨɥɟɫ. ɉɥɨɳɚɞɤɢ ɪɚɦɵ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɩɟɪɢɥɚ. ɇɚ ɩɭɬɹɯ ɪɚɦɵ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɚ ɤɚɪɟɬɤɚ ɫ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɨɦ
ɯɨɞɚ. ɇɚ ɤɚɪɟɬɤɟ ɫɦɨɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧ ɛɭɧɤɟɪ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɫɟɤɬɨɪɧɵɣ ɡɚɬɜɨɪ, ɭɩɪɚɜɥɹɟɦɵɣ
ɝɢɞɪɨɰɢɥɢɧɞɪɨɦ. ɋ ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ ɫɟɤɬɨɪɧɨɝɨ ɡɚɬɜɨɪɚ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɜɵɝɪɭɡɤɚ ɫɦɟɫɢ.
Ʉɚɪɟɬɤɚ ɫ ɛɭɧɤɟɪɨɦ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɳɚɟɬɫɹ ɜɞɨɥɶ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɤɢ ɪɚɦɵ. ɉɨɫɥɟ ɜɵɝɪɭɡɤɢ ɛɟɬɨɧɧɨɣ
ɫɦɟɫɢ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɟɟ ɪɚɡɪɚɜɧɢɜɚɧɢɟ ɫ ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ ɪɨɥɢɤɚ ɡɚɝɥɚɠɢɜɚɸɳɟɝɨ, ɫɦɨɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɧɚ ɞɜɭɯ ɤɪɨɧɲɬɟɣɧɚɯ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɩɪɢɜɚɪɟɧɵ ɤ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɤɟ ɪɚɦɵ. ɉɨɞɴɟɦ ɢ ɨɩɭɫɤɚɧɢɟ ɪɨɥɢɤɚ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɝɢɞɪɨɰɢɥɢɧɞɪɨɦ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɲɚɪɧɢɪɧɨ ɫɨɟɞɢɧɟɧ ɫ ɤɪɨɧɲɬɟɣɧɚɦɢ. ɍɩɨɪ
ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɟɬ ɝɢɞɪɨɰɢɥɢɧɞɪ, ɤɨɝɞɚ ɪɨɥɢɤ ɨɩɭɳɟɧ ɧɚ ɮɨɪɦɭɟɦɨɟ ɢɡɞɟɥɢɟ.
156
4/2010
ВЕСТНИК
МГСУ
Ⱦɥɹ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ ɨɬ ɪɨɥɢɤɚ ɧɚ ɛɨɪɬɚ ɮɨɪɦɵ ɧɚ ɛɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤɟ ɢɦɟɟɬɫɹ
ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɜɟɫ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɪɵɱɚɝɢ, ɨɬɤɥɨɧɹɸɳɢɟ ɡɜɟɡɞɨɱɤɢ ɢ ɰɟɩɢ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɸɬ ɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɭ ɧɚ ɛɨɪɬɚ. ɉɪɨɬɢɜɨɜɟɫɵ ɡɚɤɪɵɬɵ ɤɨɠɭɯɨɦ. ɓɢɬɤɢ, ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɧɵɟ ɧɚ
ɬɨɪɰɟɜɵɯ ɛɚɥɤɚɯ ɪɚɦɵ, ɩɪɟɞɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɵ ɞɥɹ ɡɚɳɢɬɵ ɨɬ ɩɨɩɚɞɚɧɢɹ ɩɨɞ ɤɨɥɟɫɚ ɩɨɫɬɨɪɨɧɧɢɯ ɩɪɟɞɦɟɬɨɜ. Ⱦɥɹ ɩɪɟɞɭɩɪɟɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɟɡɞɚ ɛɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤɚ ɧɚ ɨɛɫɥɭɠɢɜɚɸɳɢɣ
ɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɥ, ɧɚ ɧɟɦ ɢɦɟɸɬɫɹ ɭɡɥɵ ɚɜɚɪɢɣɧɨɝɨ ɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɚ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɩɪɢ ɩɨɦɨɳɢ ɤɪɨɧɲɬɟɣɧɨɜ ɫɦɨɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɵ ɧɚ ɪɚɦɟ ɛɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤɚ. ɍɡɥɵ ɚɜɚɪɢɣɧɨɝɨ ɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɚ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɲɬɚɧɝɢ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɩɪɢ ɧɚɟɡɞɟ ɛɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤɚ ɧɚ ɩɪɟɩɹɬɫɬɜɢɹ ɨɬɤɥɨɧɹɸɬɫɹ ɢ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɬ
ɧɚ ɤɨɧɟɱɧɵɣ ɜɵɤɥɸɱɚɬɟɥɶ ɚɜɚɪɢɣɧɨɝɨ ɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɚ. ɍɡɟɥ ɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɝɨ ɜɵɤɥɸɱɚɬɟɥɹ ɫɦɨɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧ ɧɚ ɪɚɦɟ ɛɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤɚ, ɨɧ ɨɬɤɥɸɱɚɟɬ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɚ ɯɨɞɚ ɛɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤɚ ɩɪɢ
ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɢ ɢɥɢ ɤɪɚɣɧɢɯ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɯ. ɍɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɪɚɛɨɬɨɣ ɛɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤɚ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɨɩɟɪɚɬɨɪɨɦ ɫ ɩɭɥɶɬɚ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ, ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɭ ɩɨɫɬɚ ɮɨɪɦɨɜɚɧɢɹ.
ɇɨɜɢɡɧɨɣ ɜ ɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɟɦɨɦ ɛɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤɟ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɯ
ɩɪɢɜɨɞɨɜ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ, ɤɢɧɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɫɯɟɦɵ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵ ɧɢɠɟ
(ɪɢɫ. 4).
ɉɟɪɟɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɪɬɚɥɚ
ɉɟɪɟɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɤɚɪɟɬɤɢ ɫ ɛɭɧɤɟɪɨɦ
ɆɊ
ɆɊ
ɆɊ
Ɂɚɝɥɚɠɢɜɚɸɳɟɝɨ ɪɨɥɢɤɚ
ɆɊ
1
4
7
6
Ɋɢɫ. 4 Ʉɢɧɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɫɯɟɦɵ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ ɛɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤɚ
1 – ɦɨɬɨɪ-ɪɟɞɭɤɬɨɪ; 2 – ɡɜɟɡɞɨɱɤɚ; 3 – ɰɟɩɶ; 4 – ɩɨɞɲɢɩɧɢɤɢ; 5 – ɤɨɥɟɫɚ ɤɚɪɟɬɤɢ, ɩɨɪɬɚɥɚ; 6 – ɪɟɦɟɧɧɚɹ ɩɟɪɟɞɚɱɚ; 7 – ɡɚɝɥɚɠɢɜɚɸɳɢɣ ɪɨɥɢɤ.
Ⱦɥɹ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɡɚɞɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɱɢɫɥɚ ɨɛɨɪɨɬɨɜ ɢɫɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚ ɩɨɪɬɚɥɚ
ɢ ɤɚɪɟɬɤɢ ɪɟɤɨɦɟɧɞɭɟɬɫɹ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶ ɫɚɦɨɬɨɪɦɨɡɹɳɢɣɫɹ ɱɟɪɜɹɱɧɵɣ ɨɞɧɨɫɬɭɩɟɧɱɚ-
157
ВЕСТНИК
МГСУ
4/2010
ɬɵɣ ɦɨɬɨɪ-ɪɟɞɭɤɬɨɪ ɢ ɰɟɩɧɭɸ ɩɟɪɟɞɚɱɭ, ɚ ɞɥɹ ɡɚɝɥɚɠɢɜɚɸɳɟɝɨ ɪɨɥɢɤɚ ɬɨɬ ɠɟ ɦɨɬɨɪɪɟɞɭɤɬɨɪ ɢ ɪɟɦɟɧɧɭɸ ɩɟɪɟɞɚɱɭ.
ȼɵɛɨɪ ɦɨɬɨɪ-ɪɟɞɭɤɬɨɪɚ ɫɨɫɬɨɢɬ ɜ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɢ ɟɝɨ ɬɢɩɨɪɚɡɦɟɪɚ ɩɨ ɬɚɛɥɢɰɚɦ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤ ɤɚɬɚɥɨɝɚ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɹ.
Ɇɨɬɨɪ-ɪɟɞɭɤɬɨɪɵ ɷɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ ɜ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɢ ɪɟɠɢɦɚɯ, ɱɬɨ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɬɶ ɩɪɢ ɢɯ ɜɵɛɨɪɟ, ɩɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɢɫɯɨɞɧɵɦɢ ɞɚɧɧɵɦɢ ɞɥɹ ɜɵɛɨɪɚ ɦɨɬɨɪɪɟɞɭɤɬɨɪɚ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ:
– ɪɚɫɱɺɬɧɵɣ ɤɪɭɬɹɳɢɣ ɦɨɦɟɧɬ Ɇ2Ɋ, ɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟɦɵɣ ɜɵɯɨɞɧɵɦ ɜɚɥɨɦ ɦɨɬɨɪɪɟɞɭɤɬɨɪɚ ɢ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɣ ɧɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɨ ɩɪɨɬɟɤɚɸɳɟɦɭ (ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɜɲɟɦɭɫɹ) ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɭ
ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚ, ɇ·ɦ;
– ɪɚɫɱɺɬɧɚɹ ɱɚɫɬɨɬɚ ɜɪɚɳɟɧɢɹ ɜɵɯɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɜɚɥɚ, n2Ɋ, ɦɢɧ-1;
– ɪɚɫɱɟɬɧɚɹ ɪɚɞɢɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɤɨɧɫɨɥɶɧɚɹ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɚ FRɚP ɧɚ ɜɵɯɨɞɧɨɦ ɜɚɥɭ ɦɨɬɨɪɪɟɞɭɤɬɨɪɚ, ɇ;
– ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ ɜɧɟɲɧɟɣ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ;
– ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɭɬɨɱɧɨɣ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ, ɱɚɫ;
– ɱɚɫɬɨɬɚ ɩɭɫɤɨɜ ɜ ɱɚɫ;
– ɬɢɩ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɟɦɨɝɨ ɫɦɚɡɨɱɧɨɝɨ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɚ;
– ɧɚɥɢɱɢɟ ɭɩɪɭɝɢɯ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ (ɦɭɮɬɵ, ɪɟɦɧɢ ɢ ɞɪ.) ɧɚ ɜɵɯɨɞɧɨɦ ɜɚɥɭ ɦɨɬɨɪɪɟɞɭɤɬɨɪɚ;
– ɧɚɥɢɱɢɟ ɪɟɜɟɪɫɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɪɟɠɢɦɚ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ;
– ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɚ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ, ɋ;
Ɍɚɤɠɟ ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɭɱɟɫɬɶ ɬɪɟɛɭɟɦɵɟ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɦɨɬɨɪ-ɪɟɞɭɤɬɨɪɚ:
-ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɦɨɬɨɪ-ɪɟɞɭɤɬɨɪɚ ɜ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟ;
-ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɟ ɢɫɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟ ɩɨ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɭ ɦɨɧɬɚɠɚ:
ɚ) ɧɚ ɥɚɩɚɯ;
ɛ) ɧɚ ɮɥɚɧɰɟ.
-ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɢɫɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɹ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɹ:
– ɜɢɞ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɹ (ɚɫɢɧɯɪɨɧɧɵɣ, ɫɢɧɯɪɨɧɧɵɣ, ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨɝɨ ɬɨɤɚ);
– ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɟ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɹ, ȼ;
– ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ ɡɚɳɢɬɵ (ȽɈɋɌ 17494-87);
– ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɟɣ (ɨɞɧɨ_, ɞɜɭɯ_, ɬɪɟɯ_ ɢɥɢ ɱɟɬɵɪɟɯɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɧɨɣ);
– ɧɚɥɢɱɢɟ ɜɫɬɪɨɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɬɨɪɦɨɡɚ;
– ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬ ɢɫɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɹ (ɨɛɳɟɩɪɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɵɣ, ɜɡɪɵɜɨɡɚɳɢɳɟɧɧɵɣ). [4]
Ɋɢɫ. 5. ɉɪɢɦɟɪ ɱɟɪɜɹɱɧɨɝɨ ɨɞɧɨɫɬɭɩɟɧɱɚɬɵɣ ɦɨɬɨɪ-ɪɟɞɭɤɬɨɪ MU-110-80-18 ɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ, ɝɚɛɚɪɢɬɧɵɟ ɢ ɩɨɫɚɞɨɱɧɵɟ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɵ.
158
4/2010
ВЕСТНИК
МГСУ
ɉɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɶ ɩɟɪɟɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɤɚɪɟɬɤɢ ɜ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɟ ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɜ
ɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɯ 0,8…0,16 ɦ/ɫ, ɚ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɶ ɩɟɪɟɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɪɬɚɥɚ ɜ ɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɯ 0,12…0,2 ɦ/ɫ,
ɨɛɳɟɟ ɩɟɪɟɞɚɬɨɱɧɨɟ ɱɢɫɥɨ iɨɛɳ=
Z ɞɜɬɚɯ
Z ɤɬɚɯ
(1) ɩɨɥɭɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɞɨɜɨɥɶɧɨ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɦ, ɢ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɨ-
ɜɚɬɶ ɟɝɨ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɨɣ ɦɨɬɨɪ-ɪɟɞɭɤɬɨɪɚ ɧɟ ɭɞɚɫɬɫɹ, ɜ ɞɚɧɧɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶ ɩɪɢɜɨɞ ɫ ɰɟɩɧɨɣ ɩɟɪɟɞɚɱɟɣ, ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ iɰɟɩǜ= iɨɛɳ/iɞɜ (2).
Ɋɟɦɟɧɧɚɹ ɩɟɪɟɞɚɱɚ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɚ ɡɚɝɥɚɠɢɜɚɸɳɟɝɨ ɪɨɥɢɤɚ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɩɨɥɭɱɢɬɶ ɬɪɟɛɭɟɦɨɟ ɱɢɫɥɨ ɨɛɨɪɨɬɨɜ ɪɚɛɨɱɟɝɨ ɨɪɝɚɧɚ ɢ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɬɶ ɩɥɚɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɯɨɞɚ.
Ɇɨɳɧɨɫɬɶ (ȼɬ), ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɭɸ ɞɥɹ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɳɟɧɢɹ ɤɚɪɟɬɤɢ, ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɦ ɩɨ ɮɨɪɦɭɥɟ:
N=Wv/ɡ, ȼɬ (3)
W=(Gɛɟɬ + Gɤɚɪ)(2ɦ1+ɦd)ɜ/D, H (4)
ɝɞɟ
W – ɫɨɩɪɨɬɢɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɵɜɚɧɢɸ, ɇ;
v – ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɶ ɩɟɪɟɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɤɚɪɟɬɤɢ, ɦ/ɫ;
ɡ – ɄɉȾ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɚ;
Gɛɟɬ – ɜɟɫ ɛɟɬɨɧɧɨɣ ɫɦɟɫɢ ɜ ɛɭɧɤɟɪɟ, ɇ;
Gɤɚɪ – ɜɟɫ ɤɚɪɟɬɤɢ ɫ ɛɭɧɤɟɪɨɦ, ɇ;
D – ɞɢɚɦɟɬɪ ɤɨɥɟɫɚ ɤɚɪɟɬɤɢ, ɦ;
d – ɞɢɚɦɟɬɪ ɰɚɩɮɵ ɩɨɞɲɢɩɧɢɤɚ, ɦ;
ɦ – ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɣ ɤɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬ ɬɪɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɩɨɞɲɢɩɧɢɤɚɯ ɤɚɱɟɧɢɹ;
ɦ1 – ɤɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬ ɬɪɟɧɢɹ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɵɜɚɧɢɹ ɤɨɥɟɫ ɩɨ ɪɟɥɶɫɚɦ;
ɜ – ɤɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬ, ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɸɳɢɣ ɬɪɟɧɢɟ ɪɟɛɨɪɞ ɨ ɪɟɥɶɫɵ.
Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɹ ɦɨɳɧɨɫɬɶ, ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɭɸ ɞɥɹ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɳɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɪɬɚɥɚ, ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɪɚɫɫɱɢɬɵɜɚɬɶ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɸɳɢɟ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ ɧɚ ɯɨɞɨɜɵɟ ɤɨɥɟɫɚ ɩɪɢ ɩɭɫɤɟ ɝɪɭɠɟɧɨɝɨ ɛɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤɚ (ɪɢɫ.6), ɩɪɢ ɩɭɫɤɟ ɩɨɪɨɠɧɟɝɨ ɛɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤɚ (ɪɢɫ.7).
G ɬ+Gɫ
Gɛ
RAmin
x
LK/2
Rȼmax
Gɬ
Gɛ
RAmin
Rȼmax
x
LK/2
LK
LK
Ɋɢɫ. 6
Ɋɢɫ.7
1.
ɉɭɫɤ ɝɪɭɠɟɧɨɝɨ ɛɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤɚ ɪɢɫ. 6
Gɬ, Gɫ, Gɛ , ɇ – ɜɟɫ ɬɟɥɟɠɤɢ (ɤɚɪɟɬɤɢ), ɫɦɟɫɢ, ɛɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤɚ; LK-ɞɥɢɧɚ ɤɨɥɟɢ, ɦɦ,
ɬɨɝɞɚ
R B max
0,5 LK Gɛ ( LK x)(GɌ Gɋ )
,ɇ
LK
(5)
2.
ɉɭɫɤ ɩɨɪɨɠɧɟɝɨ ɛɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤɚ ɪɢɫ.7
Gɬ, Gɫ, Gɛ , ɇ – ɜɟɫ ɬɟɥɟɠɤɢ (ɤɚɪɟɬɤɢ), ɫɦɟɫɢ, ɛɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤɚ; LK-ɞɥɢɧɚ ɤɨɥɟɢ, ɦɦ,
ɬɨɝɞɚ
R B max
0,5 LK Gɛ ( LK x)GɌ
,ɇ
LK
(6)
159
ВЕСТНИК
МГСУ
4/2010
0,5 LK Gɛ xGɌ
,ɇ
LK
R Ⱥ max
(7)
Ⱦɢɚɦɟɬɪ ɨɞɧɨɪɟɛɨɪɞɧɵɯ ɯɨɞɨɜɵɯ ɤɨɥɟɫ D (ɦɦ) ɢ ɬɢɩ ɪɟɥɶɫɚ ɜɵɛɢɪɚɸɬ, ɢɫɯɨɞɹ ɢɡ
ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ ɧɚ ɤɨɥɟɫɨ Ɋɤɦɚɯ ɢ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɢ ɩɟɪɟɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɛɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤɚ ɩɨ ɤɚɬɚɥɨɝɭ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɹ.
Ɋɤɦɚɯ=
RB max
,ɇ
2
(8)
Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɦ ɦɨɳɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɢ ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɢ ɩɪɨɛɭɤɫɨɜɤɢ. Ɇɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɨ ɞɨɩɭɫɬɢɦɵɣ
ɤɪɭɬɹɳɢɣ ɦɨɦɟɧɬ ɧɚ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɧɨɦ ɤɨɥɟɫɟ Ɇɦɚɯ (ɇɦ), ɩɪɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɦ ɧɟ ɛɭɞɟɬ ɩɪɨɛɭɤɫɨɜɤɢ,
ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɦ ɢɡ ɭɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɹ
M max
Fc
D R A min fd
, ɦ,
2
2 2
(9)
Fc - ɫɢɥɚ ɫɰɟɩɥɟɧɢɹ, ɇ;
D – ɞɢɚɦɟɬɪ ɤɨɥɟɫɚ, ɦ;
f – ɤɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬ ɬɪɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɩɨɞɲɢɩɧɢɤɚɯ ɤɨɥɟɫɚ;
d – ɞɢɚɦɟɬɪ ɩɨɞɲɢɩɧɢɤɚ, ɦ.
ɋɢɥɚ ɫɰɟɩɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɥɟɫɚ ɫ ɪɟɥɶɫɨɦ ɧɚ ɨɩɨɪɟ Ⱥ ɞɥɹ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɦɨɣ
ɫɯɟɦɵ ɧɚɝɪɭɠɟɧɢɹ:
ɝɞɟ
F c=
R A min
M , H,
2
(10)
ɝɞɟ ɰ – ɤɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬ ɫɰɟɩɥɟɧɢɹ ɤɨɥɟɫɚ ɫ ɪɟɥɶɫɨɦ.
Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɦ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɨ ɞɨɩɭɫɬɢɦɵɣ ɧɨɦɢɧɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɦɨɦɟɧɬ
M ɇ max
Ɇ ɦɚɯ
, ɇɦ
k ɫɪ.ɩ
(11)
Ɇɨɳɧɨɫɬɶ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɹ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɦ ɩɨ ɮɨɪɦɭɥɟ
N
M H max Z K max
KM
, ȼɬ,
(12)
ɳɤ ɦɚɯ – ɭɝɥɨɜɚɹ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɶ ɤɨɥɟɫɚ,
ɳɤ ɦɚɯ=2vmax/D, c-1,
(13)
ɡɦ – ɄɉȾ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚ ɩɟɪɟɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹ.
ɉɪɢ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɟ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚ ɩɟɪɟɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɪɬɚɥɚ ɛɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤɚ ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɬɶ ɬɚɤɢɟ ɟɝɨ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ: ɧɚɥɢɱɢɟ ɞɜɭɯ ɪɚɡɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɨɜ ɢ ɫɦɟɳɟɧɢɟ ɬɟɥɟɠɤɢ ɫ
ɛɭɧɤɟɪɨɦ ɨɬ ɫɪɟɞɧɟɣ ɥɢɧɢɢ ɤɨɥɟɢ ɛɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤɚ.
ɉɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɜɟɠɟɭɥɨɠɟɧɧɨɣ ɛɟɬɨɧɧɨɣ ɫɦɟɫɢ ɡɚɝɥɚɠɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɪɨɥɢɤɨɦ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ
ɜɪɚɳɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɚɜɫɬɪɟɱɭ ɡɚɬɢɪɚɟɦɨɣ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɢ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɢ ɛɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤɚ.
ɋɢɥɚ ɫɨɩɪɨɬɢɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɜɪɚɳɟɧɢɹ ɪɨɥɢɤɚ:
P=Gɪfɫɩ.ɜɪ. , ɇ,
(14)
ɝɞɟ Gɪ- ɜɟɫ ɪɨɥɢɤɚ, ɇ;
fɫɩ.ɜɪ – ɤɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬ ɫɨɩɪɨɬɢɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɜɪɚɳɟɧɢɸ ɪɨɥɢɤɚ.
ɉɪɢ ɞɢɚɦɟɬɪɟ ɪɨɥɢɤɚ D ɦɦ, ɤɪɭɬɹɳɢɣ ɦɨɦɟɧɬ:
Ɇ=Ɋ(D/2), ɇɦ
(15)
Ɇɨɳɧɨɫɬɶ, ɬɪɟɛɭɟɦɚɹ ɞɥɹ ɜɪɚɳɟɧɢɹ ɪɨɥɢɤɚ:
N1=Mɳ ɜɪ.ɪ./1000ǜɡ, ɤȼɬ,
(16)
ɝɞɟ
160
ВЕСТНИК
4/2010
ɝɞɟ ɳ ɜɪ.ɪ. - ɭɝɥɨɜɚɹ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɶ ɜɪɚɳɟɧɢɹ ɪɨɥɢɤɚ, ɳɜɪ.ɪ.
Sɩ ɪ.
30
МГСУ
, c-1;
ɡ – ɄɉȾ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɚ;
nɪ - ɱɚɫɬɨɬɚ ɜɪɚɳɟɧɢɹ ɪɨɥɢɤɚ, ɨɛ/ɫ.
Ɇɨɳɧɨɫɬɶ, ɬɪɟɛɭɟɦɚɹ ɞɥɹ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɳɟɧɢɹ ɪɚɛɨɱɟɝɨ ɨɪɝɚɧɚ ɛɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤɚ ɩɪɢ
ɟɝɨ ɩɨɫɬɭɩɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɦ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɢ:
N2=Ɋv/1000ǜɡ2, ɤȼɬ
(17)
ɝɞɟ v – ɪɚɛɨɱɚɹ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɶ ɩɟɪɟɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɛɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤɚ, ɦ/ɫ,
ɡ2 – ɄɉȾ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɚ.
Nɨɛɳ= N1+ N2
(18)
ɍɫɩɟɲɧɨ ɤɨɧɤɭɪɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɫ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɩɪɢɜɨɞɚɦɢ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɝɢɞɪɨɩɪɢɜɨɞɵ. ɋ ɭɱɟɬɨɦ
ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɟɦɨɝɨ ɛɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤɚ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɝɢɞɪɨɩɪɢɜɨɞɚ ɞɥɹ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɫɟɤɬɨɪɧɨɝɨ ɡɚɬɜɨɪɚ ɢ ɡɚɝɥɚɠɢɜɚɸɳɟɝɨ ɪɨɥɢɤɚ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɦ
ɪɟɲɟɧɢɟɦ. ɇɚ ɪɢɫɭɧɤɟ 8 ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɚ ɝɢɞɪɚɜɥɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɫɯɟɦɚ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ.
ɉɪɢɜɨɞɚ ɫɟɤɬɨɪɧɨɝɨ
ɡɚɬɜɨɪɚ ɛɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤɚ
6
ɉɪɢɜɨɞɚ ɩɨɞɴɟɦɚ
ɡɚɝɥɚɠɢɜɚɸɳɟɝɨ ɪɨɥɢɤɚ
5
ɐ1
ɐ2
4
3
Ɋ4
Ɋ4
2
Ɋ1
ɇ
1
Ɍ
Ɋ
Ɇ
Ɋɢɫ. 8. Ƚɢɞɪɚɜɥɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɫɯɟɦɚ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɫɟɤɬɨɪɧɨɝɨ ɡɚɬɜɨɪɚ ɢ ɡɚɝɥɚɠɢɜɚɸɳɟɝɨ ɪɨɥɢɤɚ
1 – ɧɚɫɨɫɧɚɹ ɫɬɚɧɰɢɹ; 2- ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟɥɶ; 3 – ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟɥɶ; 4 – ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɟɥɶ; 5 –
ɝɢɞɪɨɰɢɥɢɧɞɪ; 6 – ɝɢɞɪɨɰɢɥɢɧɞɪ
161
ВЕСТНИК
МГСУ
4/2010
Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɵɟ ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɵ ɝɢɞɪɨɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɟɣ (ɝɢɞɪɨɦɨɬɨɪɨɜ ɢ ɝɢɞɪɨɰɢɥɢɧɞɪɨɜ) ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɬ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɡɚɞɚɧɧɵɯ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɨɤ ɢ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɟɣ ɧɚ ɪɚɛɨɱɢɯ ɨɪɝɚɧɚɯ. [6]
Ƚɢɞɪɨɩɪɢɜɨɞ ɫɟɤɬɨɪɧɨɝɨ ɡɚɬɜɨɪɚ (ɪɢɫ.9) ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɩɨɪɰɢɨɧɧɨ ɜɵɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɬɶ
ɫɦɟɫɶ, ɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɭɹ ɲɢɪɢɧɭ ɪɚɡɝɪɭɡɨɱɧɨɣ ɳɟɥɢ, ɩɨɜɵɲɚɹ ɬɟɦ ɫɚɦɵɦ ɬɨɱɧɨɫɬɶ ɮɨɪɦɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɧɟ ɞɨɩɭɫɤɚɹ ɩɟɪɟɪɚɫɯɨɞ ɛɟɬɨɧɧɨɣ ɫɦɟɫɢ.
ɋ ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ ɝɢɞɪɨɰɢɥɢɧɞɪɨɜ ɭɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɨɥɭɱɢɬɶ ɩɪɹɦɨɥɢɧɟɣɧɨɟ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɛɟɡ ɤɢɧɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɪɟɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɣ.
ɉɪɢ ɜɵɛɨɪɟ ɛɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤɚ ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ
ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɬɶ ɬɨ, ɱɬɨ ɩɨɥɟɡɧɵɣ ɨɛɴɟɦ ɛɭɧɤɟɪɚ ɩɪɢ
ɩɟɪɢɨɞɢɱɟɫɤɨɦ ɡɚɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɢ ɞɨɥɠɟɧ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶ ɧɟ
ɦɟɧɟɟ 1,2 ɨɛɴɟɦɚ ɢɡɞɟɥɢɹ:
Vɩ.ɨɛ. = 1,2 Vɢɡɞ , ɦ3
(19)
Ɋɢɫ. 9. ɋɯɟɦɚ ɫɟɤɬɨɪɧɨɝɨ ɡɚɬɜɨɪɚ
ɉɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɛɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤɚ ɩɪɢ ɡɚɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɢ ɮɨɪɦɵ ɫɦɟɫɶɸ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɩɨ ɮɨɪɦɭɥɟ:
Gɛ=60ǜVɢɡɞ.ǜzɢɡɞ.ǜɄɪǜɄɜ / tɰ , ɦ3/ɱ,
(20)
ɝɞɟ Vɢɡɞ.- ɨɛɴɟɦ ɢɡɞɟɥɢɹ, ɦ3,
zɢɡɞ – ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɨɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨ ɮɨɪɦɭɟɦɵɯ ɢɡɞɟɥɢɣ, ɲɬ.;
Ʉɪ – ɤɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬ ɪɚɡɪɵɯɥɟɧɢɹ ɫɦɟɫɢ;
Ʉɜ - ɤɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɦɚɲɢɧɵ ɩɨ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ, Ʉɜ =0,85…0,95;
tɰ – ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɰɢɤɥɚ ɭɤɥɚɞɤɢ ɫɦɟɫɢ ɮɨɪɦɭ, ɦɢɧ. [3]
ɗɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɚɰɢɹ ɪɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɛɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤɚ (ɪɢɫ. 10) ɢɦɟɟɬ ɪɹɞ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɟɣ. ɇɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɵ, ɜɥɢɹɸɳɢɟ ɧɚ ɟɝɨ ɪɚɛɨɬɭ ɷɬɨ, ɩɪɟɠɞɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ ɚɛɪɚɡɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ
ɛɟɬɨɧɧɨɣ ɫɦɟɫɢ ɢ ɟɟ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɯɜɚɬɵɜɚɬɶɫɹ. ɉɪɢ ɡɚɝɪɭɡɤɟ ɛɭɧɤɟɪɚ ɛɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤɚ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɫɥɟɞɢɬɶ, ɱɬɨɛɵ ɛɭɧɤɟɪ ɛɵɥ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧ ɬɨɱɧɨ ɩɨɞ ɡɚɝɪɭɡɨɱɧɨɣ ɬɟɱɤɨɣ,
ɚ ɟɝɨ ɡɚɬɜɨɪ ɩɥɨɬɧɨ ɩɟɪɟɤɪɵɜɚɥ ɪɚɡɝɪɭɡɨɱɧɨɟ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɟ. Ȼɟɬɨɧɧɭɸ ɫɦɟɫɶ, ɫɥɭɱɚɣɧɨ
ɩɨɩɚɜɲɭɸ ɧɚ ɦɟɬɚɥɥɨɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɢ ɢ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɵ, ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ, ɧɟɦɟɞɥɟɧɧɨ ɭɞɚɥɹɬɶ. ȼ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɟ ɷɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɚɰɢɢ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɪɟɝɭɥɹɪɧɨ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɬɶ ɩɨ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɢ ɟɠɟɫɦɟɧɧɨɟ ɨɛɫɥɭɠɢɜɚɧɢɟ.
Ɋɢɫ. 10. Ɉɛɳɢɣ ɜɢɞ ɛɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤɚ
162
4/2010
ВЕСТНИК
МГСУ
Ȼɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤ ɞɨɥɠɟɧ ɢɡɝɨɬɚɜɥɢɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɩɨ ɪɚɛɨɱɢɦ ɱɟɪɬɟɠɚɦ, ɭɬɜɟɪɠɞɟɧɧɵɦ ɜ
ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɧɨɦ ɩɨɪɹɞɤɟ.
Ʉɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹ ɛɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤɚ ɞɨɥɠɧɚ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɬɶ:
- ɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɲɢɪɢɧɵ ɭɤɥɚɞɤɢ ɛɟɬɨɧɧɨɣ ɫɦɟɫɢ ɜ ɦɟɧɶɲɭɸ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɭ ɧɟ ɦɟɧɟɟ
ɱɟɦ ɧɚ 25%;
- ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɢ ɪɚɡɪɚɜɧɢɜɚɧɢɟ ɛɟɬɨɧɧɨɣ ɫɦɟɫɢ ɜ ɮɨɪɦɟ;
- ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɢɡɝɨɬɨɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɢɡɞɟɥɢɣ ɪɚɡɧɨɣ ɬɨɥɳɢɧɵ;
- ɛɟɫɩɟɪɟɛɨɣɧɭɸ ɪɚɛɨɬɭ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚ ɩɪɢ ɜɵɞɚɱɟ ɛɟɬɨɧɧɨɣ ɫɦɟɫɢ, ɤɚɤ ɥɟɝɤɨɣ, ɬɚɤ ɢ
ɬɹɠɟɥɨɣ.
ɋɪɚɜɧɢɜɚɹ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɢ ɪɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɟɧɧɵɯ ɛɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤɨɜ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɫɞɟɥɚɬɶ ɜɵɜɨɞ,
ɱɬɨ ɩɪɢ ɮɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɨɞɢɧɚɤɨɜɨɦ ɧɚɛɨɪɟ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ ɢ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɢ ɨɞɧɢɯ ɢ ɬɟɯ ɠɟ
ɮɭɧɤɰɢɣ, ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɣ ɚɝɪɟɝɚɬ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɦɚɫɫɭ ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜ. ɂɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɪɟɤɨɦɟɧɞɭɟɦɵɯ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɨɜ ɪɚɛɨɱɢɯ ɨɪɝɚɧɨɜ, ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɫɨɤɪɚɬɢɬɶ ɨɛɳɭɸ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɧɭɸ ɦɨɳɧɨɫɬɶ, ɭɩɪɨɫɬɢɬɶ ɤɢɧɟɦɚɬɢɤɭ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ, ɩɨɜɵɫɢɬɶ ɧɚɞɟɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ, ɭɦɟɧɶɲɢɬɶ ɦɟɬɚɥɥɨɟɦɤɨɫɬɶ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɢ.
Ƚɨɜɨɪɹ ɨ ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɚɯ ɝɢɞɪɨɩɪɢɜɨɞɚ, ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɨɬɦɟɬɢɬɶ ɩɪɨɫɬɨɬɭ ɚɜɬɨɦɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɝɢɞɪɨɮɢɰɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ, ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɚɜɬɨɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɢɯ ɪɟɠɢɦɨɜ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɩɨ ɡɚɞɚɧɧɨɣ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɟ. ɋɟɪɶɟɡɧɵɦ ɞɨɫɬɨɢɧɫɬɜɨɦ ɝɢɞɪɨɩɪɢɜɨɞɚ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɫɚɦɨɫɦɚɡɵɜɚɧɢɟ, ɬɚɤ ɤɚɤ ɩɪɢ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɦ ɨɛɫɥɭɠɢɜɚɧɢɢ ɧɚ ɫɦɚɡɤɭ ɭɯɨɞɢɬ ɞɨ 50% ɜɫɟɝɨ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ ɨɛɫɥɭɠɢɜɚɧɢɹ ɦɚɲɢɧɵ.
Ɉɤɨɧɱɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɜɵɛɨɪ ɬɢɩɚ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɚ ɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɢ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɛɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤɚ ɩɨ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɚɦ ɬɟɯɧɢɤɨ-ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɨɜ ɫ ɭɱɟɬɨɦ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɦɚɲɢɧɵ.
ɉɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɵ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɨɛɨɪɭɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɞɥɹ ɭɤɥɚɞɤɢ ɛɟɬɨɧɧɨɣ ɫɦɟɫɢ ɫɜɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɤ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹɦ ɬɚɤɢɯ ɡɚɞɚɱ, ɤɚɤ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɟ ɷɧɟɪɝɨɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɦɟɬɚɥɥɨɟɦɤɨɫɬɢ, ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɜ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɢ ɛɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤɨɜ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɵɯ ɩɨɜɵɫɢɬɶ ɡɚɜɨɞɫɤɭɸ
ɝɨɬɨɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɢɡɞɟɥɢɣ, ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɚɜɬɨɦɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɮɨɪɦɨɜɨɱɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɫɬɚ, ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɢɟ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɝɢɛɤɨɫɬɢ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɛɟɬɨɧɨɭɤɥɚɞɱɢɤɨɜ ɧɚ ɥɢɧɢɹɯ ɩɨ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɭ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɀȻɂ.
Ʌɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɚ
1. http://www.17-71.com/ ɗɧɟɪɝɨɫɛɟɪɟɝɚɸɳɢɟ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɢ ɨɛɨɪɭɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɞɥɹ ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɢɧɞɭɫɬɪɢɢ.
2. http://www.strommash.ru/ ɝ. ɋɚɦɚɪɚ; ɉɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ ɨɛɨɪɭɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ
ɥɢɧɢɣ ɞɥɹ ɞɨɪɨɠɧɨɣ, ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ, ɭɝɨɥɶɧɨɣ, ɝɨɪɧɨɪɭɞɧɨɣ, ɯɢɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɢ ɧɟɮɬɟɞɨɛɵɜɚɸɳɟɣ ɨɬɪɚɫɥɢ. Ʉɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɧɵɟ ɥɢɧɢɢ ɩɟɪɟɪɚɛɨɬɤɢ ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɝɨɪɧɵɯ ɩɨɪɨɞ.
3. Ⱥ.Ⱥ. Ȼɨɪɳɟɜɫɤɢɣ, Ⱥ.ɋ. ɂɥɶɢɧ; Ɇɟɯɚɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɨɛɨɪɭɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɞɥɹ
ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɨɜ ɢ ɢɡɞɟɥɢɣ. ɍɱɟɛɧɢɤ ɞɥɹ ɜɭɡɨɜ ɩɨ ɫɩɟɰ.
«ɉɪ-ɜɨ ɫɬɪɨɢɬ. ɢɡɞ. ɢ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɣ».- Ɇ: ɂɡɞɚɬɟɥɶɫɤɢɣ ɞɨɦ Ⱥɥɶɹɧɫ, 2009. – 368ɫ.: ɢɥ.
4. Ƚ.Ⱦ. Ɏɟɞɨɪɨɜ, Ⱥ.ɇ. ɂɜɚɧɨɜ, Ⱥ.Ƚ. ɋɚɜɱɟɧɤɨ; Ɇɟɯɚɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɨɛɨɪɭɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɹɬɢɣ ɜɹɠɭɳɢɯ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɨɜ ɢ ɢɡɞɟɥɢɣ ɢɡ ɧɢɯ, ɤɭɪɫ. ɩɪɨɟɤɬ. - ɏ.: ȼɵɫɲ. ɲɤ. ɂɡɞ-ɜɨ ɩɪɢ
ɏɚɪɶɤ. ɭɧ-ɬɟ 1986, 240 ɫ.: ɢɥ.
5. Ʌ.Ⱥ. Ⱥɧɞɪɢɟɧɤɨ, Ȼ.Ⱥ. Ȼɚɣɤɨɜ, ɢ ɞɪ. Ⱦɟɬɚɥɢ ɦɚɲɢɧ. ɍɱɟɛɧɢɤ ɞɥɹ ɜɭɡɨɜ-Ɇ.: ɂɡɞ-ɜɨ
ɆȽɌɍ ɢɦ. ɇ.ɗ.Ȼɚɭɦɚɧɚ, 2002, 544ɫ.: ɢɥ.
6. Ɇ.Ⱥ. ɋɬɟɩɚɧɨɜ, Ⱦ.ɘ. Ƚɭɫɬɨɜ; ɉɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɨɛɴɟɦɧɨɝɨ ɝɢɞɪɨɩɪɢɜɨɞɚ ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɦɚɲɢɧ ɢ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɨɛɨɪɭɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ: ɍɱɟɛɧɨɟ ɩɨɫɨɛɢɟ - Ɇ.: ɆȽɋɍ, 2009.-72 ɫ.
7.
ɇɌɐ «Ɋɟɞɭɤɬɨɪ», Ʉɚɬɚɥɨɝɢ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɢ, http://www.reduktorntc.ru/
163
ВЕСТНИК
МГСУ
4/2010
8. Ɉɬɪɚɫɥɟɜɨɣ ɤɚɬɚɥɨɝ. Ɇɚɲɢɧɵ ɢ ɨɛɨɪɭɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɞɥɹ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɫɛɨɪɧɨɝɨ ɠɟɥɟɡɨɛɟɬɨɧɚ. 1988.
Spisok literatury:
1. http://www.17-71.com/
2. http://www.strommash.ru/
3. A.A. Borshevskii, A.S. Ilin; Mehanicheskoe oborudovanie dlya proizvodstva stroitelnih
materialov i izdelii. Uchebnik dlya vuzov po spec. “Pr-vo stroit. izd. i konstrukcii”. – M.:
Izd. dom Alyans, 2009 – 368 s.: il.
4. G.D. Fedorov, A.N. Ivanov, A.G. Savchenko; Mehanicheskoe oborudovanie predpriyatii
vyagushih materialov i izdelii iz nih, kurs. proekt. – H.: Vissh. Sh. Izd. pri Hark. un-te 1986,
240 s.: il.
5. L.A. Andrienko, B.A. Baikov i dr. Detali mashin. . Uchebnik dlya vuzov - M.: Izd. MGTU
im. Baumana, 2002, 544 c.: il.
6. M.A. Stepanov, D.U. Gustov; Proektirovanie obemnogo gidroprivoda stroitelnih mashin i
mehanicheskogo oborudovania: Uchebnoe posobie – M.: MGSU, 2009 – 72 s.
7. http://www.reduktorntc.ru/
8. Otraslevoi katalog. Mashini i oborudovanie dlya proizvodstva sbornogo jelezobetona.
1988
Ɋɟɰɟɧɡɟɧɬ: ɤ.ɬ.ɧ., ɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɨɪ ɋɬɟɩɚɧɨɜ Ɇ.Ⱥ.
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