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45
DOI 10.15393/j9.art.2016.3722
??? 821.161.1.09??17??
??????????????????????
???????????? ???????? ??.а?.??.?????????
(??????, ?????????? ?????????)
jesaulov@yandex.ru
??? ?.??.?????????? л????╗:
????? ?????????*
?????????. ? ?????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ????? ?????????
??????? ??? (?а?????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? XVIIIа?.).
?????? ?? ??????????? ???????????? ??????, ??? ???????????????
????????, ? ????? ?? ????????? ????????????? ??????? ?????????
(? ??????????????) ?????????? ? ??????????, ? ?????? ???????????????? ??????????? ? ????????????????? ????????? ??? л????╗, ???????
??????????????? ?? ????????????? ??????????? ???? ? ????? (???????????). ???????? ?? ????????????? ?????????, ????????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ??????? ? ????????????? ????????? ????? л??╗ ????
? л?╗ ????????, ??????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ? ??????. ???? ???????????? ?а?????????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ??????
? ?? ?????????? ???????, ??????? ?????????????? ? ????????????? ???
??????????????, ??? ?а?????????? ?????????????? ????????????? л?╗
?а??????аIX, ?????? ???? ?????????? ???????????: л?а? ????!╗, ?? ????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????а?????????,
???????????? ??????, ??????? ??????????????? ?а?????????????????
????????. ??????? ???, ???????????? ? ????????? ??????, ???????? ???
????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????, ??? ? ????? ?? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????.
???????? ?????: ?????????, ??????, ?????????????, ?.??.?????????,
???????????? ????????, ???????
?
?? л????╗ ????? ?????? ???????? ? ??????? ??????? ??????????. ??????????, ??? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ????????????1, ?а??? ????? ? ? л?????????
???????????? ???????╗ [2]. ?а?????? ????????? ?????? ??
???????? ????????? ?????? ???????????????? ??? ???????; ????????, ???????? ?? ????? ??????????????? ?? ????? ????????
??????? ????? ????????????, ??????? ?? ????????? ??????????,
?? ????? ????????????????? ?а????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ??? ???????.
46
?. ?. ???????
?? ??????, ??????? ???????? ?.??????, ???????? ?? ??????????? ????????? ?.??.??????? ? ?.????????, ????????????
??? л?? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ? ?? ??? ????╗ ???? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ???? 18а???, ?? ????????а? 9а???,
?? ? ?????? л? ??????? ?????????? XVIIIа?. ??? ??????? ????????????, ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ????????╗а[8,а126].
?????? ???????? ?????, ??? ? ??? ???????? ???????? ?????
??? ?????????? ?????? ????????. ???? ??? ?? ?????? (? ??
???????) ?а???, ???, ?? ?????? ??????, ??? л??? ????? ???????????╗2. ?????? ???? ???? ???????? ??????? ???? ???????????? ?????????3, ???????????, ??? ????? л????╗ ????
?????? ?? ????????????? ??4, ? ???????: л???????-????,
????????i??? ???????????а<?> ????а<?> ??? ???????? ???
????а(6,а414). ??????????? ????????? ????? ? ??, ??? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ? ?????, ????? ?? ???????????? л?????? ?????????i? ??? ????? ?? ???????i? ???
???╗а(3, 594): ?? ?????? ? ????????? ?? ??????? ???????????.
??? ????? ?????????????? ???????-?????????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????? ??????????????
?????????? ??????а(??.а?? ???? ????).
? ??? ????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ????? ?????????????
??? ???????? ?.??????, л? ????? ????????????? ????????
?????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????
???? ? ???? ? ????? ??????????????????? ?????? ???????,
?????, ??? ???? ???????? ?а????????, ?????? ?????????
???????? ? ???? ? ??? ????????? ?? ????????? ?а????????????
? ??????????? ???????. ????? ???????????? ??? ??????????, ??? ??? ??????? ???????? ??? ????? ????????? ??????,
???????????? ??? ????????????? ? ????????╗а[8, 127]5. ???????? ?? ????? ????????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????
л???? ??????????????????? ?????? ???????╗ ?ал?????????????????? ??????? ??????╗а[8, 130], ????????????? ????????
? ??????, ??? ? ????????? л???????????? ??????? ???? ???????? ???????????? ?????????????╗а[8, 130]. ????? ??? ???
?.????????, ??? ??? л???????????? ??????? ????╗, ???????????? ? ?????? ???????????? ???, ?? ???????? ???????-?????? ???????? ????????? ????????: л????????? ???????
???????? ???????? ???????? ?????????: ??????? ????????????? ?а????????. ??? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????-?????????????? ??????????? ?а?????????????????
??? ?. ?. ????????? л????╗: ????? ?????????
47
???????? ????????????? ????, ??????? ? ?????????? ?а?????????. <?> ???????? ????????? ? ???????, ????????????????????????? ? ???????????-????????? ?????? ????????????, ??? ???? ?а???? ????? ???а? ? ???? ????????╗а[15,
242?243]. ?????? ? ??????????? ?а??????? ??? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ???????????, ? ???? ??????? ?????????? ????? ??? ???????????? ?????????. ???, ??? ?????????????, ????????????? ???????????? ?????, ?????????? ? ???? ?????????, ?? ?????? ???????? ????????????
??????? ????? ???????????? ??? ??????????????? ??????.
??????? ???? ???????????? ?? ?????? ?а???????????? ??????????? ??????.
?????? ????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????????? (?????????) ??????????????? (??? ???????????????) ?????.
??????? ???????, ??? ?а????????????, ??? ????? ????????
?????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ????????? ????? л??╗ (?????) ?ал?╗а(?????????), ?????????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ????? (?????????? ???
??????). ???? ?? ???????? ????? ????????? ??????? ????????????????????? ???????? (?????? ????????? ??? ??????????
?????????, ?????? ??????????????? ? ???? ???????6), ??
?????????? ????????? ???? ?? ?????????? ??????? ??????,
?????? ? ???? ??????? ??????7. ?????? ?а??? л????╗ (??????????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ?а???????????
????)а? ??????????? ?????. ? ?????? ?????? (? ??????? ??
????????????? л?? ?????? ????? ??????????╗, ??? ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????????? ????? ???????
????????????? ?????????? ? ????????????? ?????? ? ????
? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????????
? ??????????? л??????? ?????╗ ??????????) ? ????????????
??? ???????????? ?????????? ???? ????? ???????????? ??????????. ???? ?? ????? ??????????.
???? ?? ?????????????? ?? ?????????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ????? ???. ?? ?????? ?.????????,
л?????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ?? ??????????? ???????????????: ??? ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ?? 5а ????? ? ?????
48
?. ?. ???????
?????????????? ??????а? ????????? ??????, ???????????
?????????? ?? ??????? ????. ??? ?? ???????????? ????? ?????????: ??????а? ????а(????), ??????а? ????????а(???)╗а[15,
243]. ?? ????? ?? ???? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????? ???? ????????????. ?????????
? ?????, ??? ?????? ??????????? л??╗ ?ал?╗ (? ????? ?? ???????????) ?????? ???????????? ???????????? ?а??????
???????.
л??╗ ??????? ? ?????? (????????, ?? ???? ? ????? ??????
??????:ал?, ??, ?????????????? ???????????╗а(1, 195); ??????
(?????????: л????╗, л??????╗, л????╗, л??????╗); ???????
(????? ???, ? ??? ? ????? л??╗, ??? ???? ????????? ??????
???????????? ????? ???????? ?а???????????? ????? л??╗:
л?? ????, ?? ???, ?? ?????? ?????!╗а(1, 197); ?????? ????
??????????? ????????? ? ?????? ???? ???, ? ??? ??????? ??????????????? ???? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????????? л?╗ ? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????: л? ????а?
?а????а? ? ?????а? ? ????!╗а(1, 201)); ????????? (?? ???? ?????? ??????: л??╗, л????╗, л?????╗); ????? (??????: л????╗,
л?????╗); ?????? (?????????: л?????╗, л?????╗, л?????╗,
л?????╗); ??????? (????? ?????????: л??╗, л??????╗, л????╗,
л??╗); ??????? (????? ?????? ????, ?? ?а????? ?????а? л??╗);
?а???????а? ??????? ?а???????????? ??? ?? ???? ???а? ??????????? л??╗ ??????????? ?????; ?? ?а??????? ?????? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ???????????? ? ???????: л????╗,
л?????╗, л?????╗, л????╗, ? ? ???????????? л??╗ ???????????? ??????: л?????╗, л????╗, л????╗. ??? ?????, ?????????????? ????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ???????
??? ??????????????, ??????? ??????????? ? ??????????
??????.
л?╗ ??????????? ? ?????? ?? ????? ??????; ???? ? ??????
?????? ???????????? ?????? (л????╗, л?╗, л?╗); ? ???????а?
???? ??? (л???╗, л???╗, л?╗, л???╗, л?╗); ? ???????а? ??????
(л???╗, л???╗, л????╗, л???╗, л?╗, л?╗, л???╗, л?╗, л????╗);
?а???????а? ?????????? ?????? ??? (? ??? ?????? ??? ? ?????
л?╗; ??????????, ??? ?????? ? ????, ???????, ?????? ?? ??????
?????????? ???????? ??????? ? л??╗, ?? ? ??????? ??????????
???????: л?а? ????╗); ? ??????? ?????? л?╗ ??????????? ?????
??? ?. ?. ????????? л????╗: ????? ?????????
49
??? (л?╗, л?╗, л????╗, л???╗, л???╗, л?╗); ? ???????????? л?╗
??????????? ?????? (л?╗, л????╗).
????? ???????, ???? ??? ? ????? ????? ???? ?? ????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????????? л??╗ ? ?????? ??????? ???
(? ?????? ???? ?? ???, ??? ??? ??????????????, л?╗ ??????
???????????), ??????? ????????? ????????????? л?╗ ? ?????????????? ??????? (??? ???? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ?????
????????????????? (????)??????????? ?????????????ал?╗). ???
?? ?????? ??????? л?╗ ?ал??╗ ??????????? ?а?????? ??????,
??????? ????? ?? ???? ?????????, ???? ?? ???????? ?????
????????? ????????? ?????????????? ? ????????????? (??????, ????? ?? ?? ?? ??? ??????????). ??????? ??? ???????, ???
??????????? л??╗ ????????? ????? ???? ???????? ? ? ??????
?????? (л???? ?? ?????????а? ????╗а(1,а196)), ?????? ???????????? л??╗ ?????? ????????????, ????? ?????, ??? ? ? ?????????
??????: л?? ??????? ????????? ??????????╗а(1,а203) (??????
? ?????????? ?????? ????? ? ????? ???.а? ?.??.).
??????? ????? ???????? ????????, ??? ????? ????????????????? ??? ?????? ???? ??????? (????)??????????? ???????????
???????? (л?╗) ? ??????? ?????? (?????? ?? ???????? ??????:
л?а????а? ? ????, ? ?????а? ? ????!╗а? ????? ??????????????
? ???? ?? ?? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????),
???-???? ??? ?????? ??????????? ?? ???????????? (??????????????? ????????????), ? ??????????? ? ????????? ????????????: л?????? ??????????а? ??????????,а/а? ???? ?????
?а???? ?? ????╗а(1, 202).
??????? ??????а? ???? ??? ?? ?????????? ? ????????? ?????????? ?а????? л??????????╗а? ????? ?? ? ???? ???? ???????????.
???? ?? ??????, ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?а????? ??????
?????????? ?? ?а??????? ???????? ????? ??? ?а?????. ?????
??????? ? ?? ????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ? ?????? ? ???????????? ???? ??????????? л??╗: л???? ????????
?,а?????????!╗а(1, 202), ??????????????? ? ??????? ??????? ??
?????????? ?????? (???????а? ?а?????? ??????а? ?? ??????
?????????? ?????????????? ???????? л?╗, ?? ? ??? ?? ?????
??????????????? ??????). ? ???? ?? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??
л??╗ ??? ????????? (? ?????? ??????, ??? л?╗а? ?????? ???? ????
?? ??? ????????), ?ал??╗ ??? ?????? ???? (? ????????? ??????):
50
?. ?. ???????
л? ????? ????? ?????? ? ???????????,а/ ?????! ?? ????????i?
????╗а(1, 203).
??????? ????????????? ????? ??????, ???, ???????????
?????? ??????? ??????, ?.??????? ????????: ??? л?????????
??????????? ?????? ???╗; л?????????????? ?????? ??????
?????а? ?????? ????? ??????????? ????? ?????????, ??????????? ?????????? ????? ?а??????╗а[15, 244]. ?? ??? ???????? ??? л?????????╗ ?????? ?.а??????? ?? ???????, ???
????? л?? ?? ???????????, ??? ? ?????????? ????: ???????????
?????????????? (?????? ???.а? ?.??.) ????? (?????? ???? ????? ??????????) ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????
??????? (?????? ? ?????, ?????????? ??; ??? ????????? ? ??????????; ??????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ????, ????)╗а[15, 244]. ???????????????? ?? ??? л?????????? ????? ?а??????╗ ?????????????? ????????? ???????:
л?????? IV (IX)а? ??????? ??? ????? ????, ??? ????????
??????????????????, ??? ?????????? ????? ?а????; ???????,
?????? V (X) ????????? ??? ???? (sic!а? ?.??.) ??? ???????????
?????????????? ??????? ????????: ?? ???????а? ?????? ????? ??? ??????????╗а[15, 244]. ????????????, ???, ???????????
? л??????????╗, ?????????? ???????????? (????????????) ?????
????????????? ???????????? ?.????????? ???????????????
????????????. ????? ??? ?а?????? ?????????, ??? ???? ???? ???
? ? ???????? ??????????????? ????????? ???? (? ?? ??????
???? ????????? ?????), ????????? ??????? ????????????
?????????? ???????а[3]: ???? ?????? ????????, ????????????
? ??? л????????╗, ? ??????? ???????? ? ?.а?????, ??????????
????, ??? ???????????? ? ???? л???? ??????╗ ??????????,
????? ?????????? ???????????. ? ????? л??????????╗ ??????
??????? ?? ????? ?????? л?╗ ??????? л??????????╗, ???????
????? л??????? ??????╗, ???? ? ????? л?╗ ??? ??????????? ????????????? ????????.
?? ?? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????
????????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??
?????? ? ??????? ???????, ?? ? ? ????? ? ???????. ???, ??????
?????? ?.??????? л?????????╗ ?? ??????? ???? ?????????
???????: л? ??????аI ????????? ???а? ???????????? ????????????, ??????? ? ????????, ???????????, ????????????,
??? ?. ?. ????????? л????╗: ????? ?????????
51
??????????╗а[15, 243]. ??????, ??? ?? ??? ??????, ?????????
? ???????????? ????? ??? (?? ??? ????? ????????? ????????
? ? ????? ??????, ? ? л??????????? ?? ??????????╗),а? ????
???? ?? ?????? ?а????, ?? ?????? ? ???????????? ????, ? ??????,
? ? ?????? ??????. ???? ?? л???????╗ ? ?????? (?? ???????????? ???????????? ????? ?? л???????????╗), ????? ?????? ???
?????? ??????, ????? ?? ???????????????, ??? ?????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ????? ????????????, ??????? ?? ??
??????? ??????? ????????????а[6]; [4,а577?582].
?????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ????? ??????????? ???????? (? ??? ????? ???? ??????? ???????????????) ???????????? ???????? ?.????????, ???????? ??????????,
??????? ?????? ? ??????? ?????? ???; ???????, ??? ???????
?а?????? ???? ??????? (л??????? ??? ????? ????╗)а? ??? ??????,
??? ???????, л?????????╗. ?? ??? ?? ?????? ??? ?????????
?а?? ???? ?? ??? л????╗? ?????? ???????????. ??????????
???????, ??????????? л?╗, ???????, ??????????? ???-???? ? ????
??????? ???????????? ????????, ???????????? ?????? ????
?????????????? ????????????? ?? ????????? л??????????╗.
?а?????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????? ? ????????? ?? ??????
???????????? л?а? ????!╗, ?? ??????????? ????????? л?╗ ??
?? ????? ???? ?????, ??????? ?а?????????????, ?? ?????? ??????,
??????? ????????????? ????????.
????????? ????? ? ???? ?? ?????????? ???????????? ?????
?а???????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ?????????, ?? ???????
??????? ?? ?????? ???????????????? ????????. ????????????
??????? ?.????????? ????????? л???????? ???????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ????????????? ??????
???????? ?????╗а[10, 354]8. ???????? ???????? ????? ?? ?????
???????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????, ?а?????????? ???? ?????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????. ?????? ??, ??????? ? ??,
??? ?.??.????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ????????????
?????? ? ?????? ? ?? ?????? ????????, ?а????? ??, ??? ?? ???????????? ???? ???????????????? ?????, ?? ?? ??????? ?а??????????? ??????? ????????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????? ?????????. ? ???????????? ?? ??????? ??????? 1868?1878а????? ???? ??????????:
л????? ?? ?????????? ?????????, ?? ????? ????? ????? ????
????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?????, ?? ????????? ???? ????????
52
?. ?. ???????
??? ??????????i?, ???? ???? ?????????, ?????? ?????????????????? ?? ????????i?, ?????? ???? ?????? ??? ?????, ????
? ?????, ????? ???? ??? ? ?????????? ??????. ???? ?? ???
????? ????? ???????i? ?????????? ???????? ?? ???????
????????; ???????, ??? ??а????? ????? ????????, ???????
????а? a g?d╗9. ?? ?????? ??????, ????? ?? ???????????????
(???-???? ??? ????? ????????? ????????? ????), ?? ? ???????????? ?????? ???? ????, ???? ???? ???? ?а?????? ?????????????? ?????????, ?? ??? ?? ??????? ???? XVIIIа???? ???????? ?а???? ?????: л?а? ????!╗. ??????? ???? ? ????????
???????????? ????? ???? ?? ???????? ?????, ??? ????? ????
???? ? ?????? ?????? ? ????????? ????????. ?????? ???????
???????? ?? ??, ??? ? ?????? ??????? ????????? ?????????
1864?1883а????? (л? ?????????, ?????????? ? ?????????,
?а?????????? ? ????????╗), ??????????? ????? ? ????? ?????
????????????? ?????? ??? ????: л?? ?? ????? ???????
?????? ??????? ?? ??????i? ???????i? ????? ???? ?? ?????
???? ? ?? ????? ?????????. ???? ?????????? ??? ??????i?
???? ????????????? ???, ?? ??????????????? ???????, ?а?????? ??? ?????????? ? ???? ???????? ??????а(a god); ?????????, ?????????, ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ????╗а(1,а202)10.
??? ?????, ? ? ?????? ????? ?? ?? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ? ???, ????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ????? ????
? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????????????, ??????? ? ???????? ????????? ????????? 1864?1883 ?а1868?1878а????? ???????????? ?????? ???????? (? ????????????? ?????????????!11). ??????? ?? ???????? ? ?????? ???????????? ??? ????????, ???? ?? ??????????? ?????-?????? ????? ????????????
???????? ???????????? ?????? ??????, ??? ??????????? ??
? ?????? ?????????. ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ??????
??????? ???????? ?? ????????? ????????, ???????????
?а??????? ??????? ????????????.
???? ?????? ? XVIIIа????, ??? ????????, ??????? ???????????
????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ????
????????? ???????? ????????? ? ?? л??????╗, ? ?????????
?????, ?? ? ????? ?????? ????? ???????????? ??? ?? ??????
?????? ?? ??????????? ???? (???, ?????? ???, ?????? ??????????? ?????) ??????-???? ?? ???????? л?????╗. ????????
??? ?. ?. ????????? л????╗: ????? ?????????
53
????, ??????? ? ?????? ???????? ???, ???? ???? ????????????? ? ????????? (?????? ? л????????? ????????╗, ??? ???
??????????? ????). ???????? ?а??, ??? ???? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ?????????? ? ????? ??????? ?????? (? ????), ?? ??????????? ?????? ??? ????????? ?????
???????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? (??????? ?????? ???? ???????????? ?????). ?????, ??????????,
?????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ???????? л?????╗ ??? ?????? ?????, ??????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ????????,
?????а? ????????? ???????????? ???? ???????? (???? ??
???????????? ? ???????? ???????????? ??? ?? ??????? ?????,
???, ????????, ?а?????????????? ????? ?.???????? л??????,
??? ???????????? ????╗), ?? ????? ?? ??????????-?????????
?????. ? ???????????? ?? ??? ??? ?а???? ????, ??? ?????а?
?????????? ???????, ?? ?????????? ??????? ???? ???????????.
??? ??? ????????? ???????? (???, ????????, ? ???????
? ?????????????? ?????? ?????????) ????????????? ????????
????? ?????????????????? л? ?????╗ ? ?????????? л? ???!╗,
????? ????????? ? ??? ???? ????????????? ????????? л????╗
?ал????╗ ? ?????? ???? ????? ?????????? ?а??????? ??????
XVIIIа???? ??????. ????????? ????????: ??????????? ????????? ????? ?????? (?????? ????????????? ???????? л?╗
??? ????? ????) ? ????? ????? ?? ???? ???????, ???? ?? ????
??? ? ?????-???? ???????? л????╗ ??? ???? ???????????????
?????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???? ??. ?? ????? ????????, ??? ? ?????? ??? ?????? ???????? ???? ????? ?????????
???? ??? ???????? ? ???????? ????? ???????????? ??????
????????? ???????? ?? ?????????: л????? ???? ????, ?????
?????????╗а (л??????? ????? ???????????╗)а (3, 420)?
?а????а? ? 1808а????а? ?а????????? ????????????? ???? ????????? ??? ??? ? л?????? ????????╗, ?? ???? л??????╗ ??!
???, ? ?????? ?????? ???? ???? ???? ? ???????????? ????????????? ? ?????? л?╗ ??????????? ????????? ????????,
?а??????? (??? ? ? ?????? ???? ? ????), ???? ???? ??????
?а????????? ?? ????????? ? ?????? ?? ??????. ? ????? ?????
???? ?????? ??? ????, ? ??????? ? ???? ???? ? ???, ?? ??????
?? ????? ?? л?????╗ ????????? ???????.
?????? ???????????а? ? ????? ? ??????? ?????? ???????,а? ??? ????? ????, ?????????????? ? ??????? ??????,
54
?. ?. ???????
??????, ??????? ????????, ?????? ??? ?а??????. ??? ?????????????? (? ??????????? ?? ?????? ??? ??? ?? ???????) ??????????,
? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?? ??????, ????? ??????????? ? л??????????? ?? ??????????╗ ???? ???????????
?а???????????? ????? ?????? ??????????? (??? ???? ?????????,
?а???????????, ? ?????????? ? ???, ??? ????????????, ? ?????
?а?????????? ?????????????, ??????, ???, ????????, ?.??.?????????, ?ал?????????? ???? ??? ? ????????╗, ? ?????????? л?а?????
?????????????? ???????????╗а[2,а150]). ???? ?? ??????а? ?а?????????а? ????????, ? ????? ?????????? ?????????? (???????????)
?????? ????? ???? (? ??? л????╗!) ??? ???? ??????????? ???????,
????? ?????-??а? ? ??????? ???????? л?????╗а? ?????? ?????
?????????, ???????? ?? ?????????????? ?????? ??? ?а???????а?
? ??????!а? ????? ???????? ?? ?????.
???? ????? ? л???? ????? ????????╗, ??? ??? ?????, ?? ????????????? ? ???? ????? ??? ? ??? л????╗, ????? ?????????????? ?????? ? ? ??????, ? ? ????????? ???????????? ? ????, ??
????????? ???????? ???? ????? ??????, ???? ?????????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ?????? (??????? ??????, ??? ??? ???
? ????????? ?????????? л???????????╗: л? ????!╗) ? ???????????а? ?? ?????? ???????а? ? ??? ?? ????? ??????, ??????
??? ??? ????? ???????? ?????????? ???? ??? ?? ?????? ????
?????? ????????, ???? ? ? ????? ???????? ?????а? ? ????? ?????? ?????? (л???? ?? ?????????а? ????!╗а(1, 196)), ???????????? ????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ???????????????????
л???????????? ????????????╗а(??.:а[13]). ?????? ? ?????? ??????
??? л????????????╗ ?????? ?? ???????????, ?а?????? ?а??????
???????????? ? ????????????? ????????????? ????????????.
?????????? ????????, ??? л????????????????╗ ????? ???????????????? ?????? ? ????? ?????????? ???????? (??? ??? ???????, ??? ????????, ??????? ? ?????????? ? ????????????????
?????????, ???????? ?? ???? л???????╗ ??????????? ???????
? ??????? ??????) ??? ?????? ????? ?є?????, ??? ????? ??????????, ????????????? ??????????, ??? ??????? ????? ????????????, ????????? ? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? (???? ?? ? ??
??????????? ??????).
??????????? ? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????, ??????????? ????????, ??? ?? ?????? ????????? ??????????? л?╗ (л????╗),
?? ? ?????? (л????╗) ? ????????? ?? ?????? ???????????????
??? ?. ?. ????????? л????╗: ????? ?????????
55
??????????? ?????? ?а???????????? ????? (??????????): л????
???? ???? ? ????╗ (?а???? ??????????????? ???????12 ????????? ????? ????? ???????????? ????????? ?????). ???????, ???????? ?? ???????? ????? л?????╗ ?ал?????╗, ? ??? ?а??????
?????? ???????, ?????? ?????? ????????? ????????? л????╗
?ал????╗, ??? ? ??????????, ???????? ??? ?????,а? ?а?????????? ?????????????? ? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????????
???????? л???? ?????╗, ? ?????? ??????? ????????? ? л????╗,
?ал????╗.
??? ?? ?? л?????╗, ??????????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ???? ??? ????, ?? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????? ???? ????????? ?а?????????? ?????????? ??????а?
????????? ??.а???????. ? л????????? ???????????? ???????╗
??? ??????????????? ??????? л?????????? ? ?????????????╗
????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????, ??? ?????? ????????
?????????? ?? ?????? ?????????, ?? ? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ????????. ?? ???????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ?.??.???????????, ???????????????? ?а????? ?????? ????????????,
???????? ?? ???????? ???????? ???? ?? ???? ??????, ???????????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ???????????? ???.
???? ? ???, ??? л???╗ (?) ?ал?????╗а? ???????, ??????? ???????? ? ????????? ??? ??????.
?????, ??? ???????????? ?.??.??????????, ??????? ????????????
????????????? ??.а??????, л? ????????? ???????????? ????????а<?> ?????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????, ?а?????? ???? ????? ??? ??? ???????? XVIIIа???? (????? ???????
??????? ??? ??? ? ?????? ?????????.а? ?.а?.), ? ????? ??????
????????? ????????? ???????╗а[12, 21?22]. ?а??? ?????????
???????????, ??????? ???????? ???????????????? ?????????????,
??? ??? ???????????? ??? ????: ???? ???????? (л????????? ??????╗) ??? ???? ?????. ????????? ????? л????????????????
????????????? ?????╗ ? ???????? л???????? ??????? ?????,
??????????????? ????????╗а[12, 24]. ?.??.?????????? ????????,
??? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ?а?? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????? ????? ???????????? л??????? ???????????????а<?> ?? ????? ????????????, ????????? ?????? ????????? ???? ??? ???????????? ???????????? ????? ? ??????????? ???? ??????, ???????? ? ?????. ????? ????? ????????? ???? ???, ???????????? 1?000╗а[12,а24].
56
?. ?. ???????
??????????? ??, ??? ???????????????? л?????╗ ?????????? ?????? (?? л???╗ ?ал????????╗ ???? л?????╗), ????, ???
????? ??????????, ??????????????? ????????????? (?? л??╗
?ал?╗ ? ???????а? ?? ??? ?а?????????? ???????????а? ?????
? л??╗), ?????а? ?????-???? ?? ?????? ???????а? ?????????,
?????? ?????????? ?????????, ????????. ???? ?а???, ???
????????????? ??????????? л?╗ (л???╗) ?????? ????? ?? ???
????, ??? л?????? ? ???????????????? ?????? ?????? ??????╗а[12, 29], ????????? ???? ???????????? ????? ?????. ??????, ?? ?????? ?.??.???????????, л??? ?? ?????? ?????? ??????а<?>, ?? ? ??????????? ??????????, ????????????
???????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ????????? ????????
???????? (???). ??????????????? ??????-????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ?а???????????????? ???????????, ? ???????? ??????????: ?????????? ???????????, ???????????? ???????? ????, ????????????? ????????????, ?????? ??????,
? ??????????? ???????????? ?????а? ?????? ?????????, ????????; ?? ????? ??????????? ???????????? ????? ??????
?????????? ???????? (???), ????????????? ?????? ????, ? ?????? ? ??? ????????? ????? ? ???????? ???????? ????????.
?????????? ??? ????, ??? ??????? ????? ????????? ?? ?????
???????????, ???????????? ????????????? (??????????) ????????? ????????????, ? ?????? ????? ????????? ????? ?????
??????? ?а??????????????? ?????????а? ??? ???? ??????????
???????, ????????? ??????. ??????????????? ????? ?????????? ???, ????? ???????, ????????? ?а???? ???? ????????
??????????????????а? ????????????? ? ?????????, ?????
?а????, ???????? ? ????╗а [12, 29?30]. ????? ???????, ????????????, ???? ? ?????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ????????,
???????????? ??????????? ??????????? л??╗ ?ал?╗, л????╗,
л????╗, л?????╗ ?ал????╗, ????? ?? ?????? ?????????????
?а????????? л?????? ???????╗ ????????????? XVIIIа????, ???
????????, ??? ? ???????????? (?? ???, ? ???????????? ?а???????
????? ??? ???????, ????? ????????????? ???????????? ????
???????? ????), ?? ? ?ал??????? ???????╗ ????????????
???????? ??? ???????.
?????????? ????????, ??? ??? л????╗ ?????????? ?????
?????????? ????? ?а? ???????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?а??????? ??????? ???????
??????? ????????. ???? ???? ?? ?????? ?а???????? ????????
??? ?. ?. ????????? л????╗: ????? ?????????
57
??? ????????? ????? ? ????? л????╗, ?? ?а?а???????????
????????? ????? ???????????? ?????? ????? ????????????а?
?ал????????╗ ??? ?? л????╗ ???????????? (?????????? ?? ?????? ????????????? ?????????????) ???????????? (???, ???
???? ????????????? ?.??.??????, л????????╗ ??????????,
???????, ?? ?????? ?.??.?????????, л????????? ?? ????? ???????????? ? ????????╗а[11,а13])13. ???, ???????, ????????? ??
?????? ? ?????????: ?? ??? ??? ???, ? ???????, ?????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? л????? ?????????╗
??????а? ???????? ?? ?????? ???????????а? ? ??????????????а? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ????14. ?????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????, ???
???? ?????????? ? ???????, ?????????? ???????, ????????
???????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????????, ?? ?а??????? ???
??????, ??????? ??? ????????? ????, ??? ?, ????????? ????
?????????? ???? ???????????? ???????? ?????????????????,
л????? ?а??????????╗.
???? ???? ? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ????,
???????????? л??╗ (????????, ??? ???????????????????
??? ??????????? ?????? ? ????? ??????): ????????, ??????
?а?????? ?????? л????????╗ ????????? ?????:ал??╗, л????????╗, л?????╗, л????╗. ?? ?????? ?????? ????? ???? ?????
??????, ? ???????а? ???? ? ?.а?. ? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ??????????, ?? ?????????
? ???????????? (????????????). ????????: л?? ????, ??
???, ?? ?????? ?????╗. ????? ???????, ??? ??? л????????╗
?? ????????????????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ???????????? л??╗, ??? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ???????????,
? ??????? ??????-???????? ?????????? ??????? ????????
? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????. ?? ????????? ??
?????? ? ????? ?????? ?????? ???? ???????? ? ?????????????
л??╗ ???????????, ????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????
? ????????? ????? ????????????: ???, ?????????? ?????????
?? ????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? л?????!╗, ??? ??? ?????????? ? ???????
??????, ? ??? ??? ????? ???????.
?????? л?????????╗ ?????????? ?? ???????????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ? ????????? ????????? ????,
58
?. ?. ???????
???? ?????????? ????? ????????????? ???????. ????
? ????? ?????? ??????. ????????, ???? ???????? ???
????????????? ?? ?? ????, ? ?? ??? ?????. ? ????? ?????????
??????????? ????????? ?????, ??????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ???: л????.╗. ??????????? ????????? ??? ? ? ??? ???????
?? ??????? ??? ? ??????????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? (????????, ???? ???????????? ? ??????????). ????????,
? ??? ?? ???????? ??????: л? ????15а? ? ????, ? ?????а?
?а????╗а? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? л?/?╗, ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????
?? ???????? ? ???????, ????? ?а?????????, ? ????? ??????????????? ? ???????????. ???????: ?????? ???? ??????
?а????????? л?╗ (????), ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????? ????
?????????????, ??????а? ??????????, ????? ??? л?╗а?????? ??
???????? ? ???????? ?????, ????? ????? ????????? ?а?????????
???????????????. ????????????? ??????????? л?/?╗, л?/?╗
?????? ?а????????????? ????? ????????????? ???????????????? ?????? л?╗ ??? ????? ??????????? ??????????,
????? ??????????????? ?а???????????, ???? ???????????? ?????????????, ??????? ???????? ?а???????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ? ??????? ??????. ??????????, ???
???????????? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ????? ?????????
????????? ????????, ?? ????????? ?????? ??????????????
?а???????? (л????? ????????╗), ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ???????? ???????? л?╗.
??? л????╗а? ??? ?? ?????? ???????????? ? л????????????
???? ?а??????╗, ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ????? ???????? XVIIIа????; ??? ?????? ????? ???????????? ??????? ???? ??????? ?????? ??? ???????, ?? ??? ??
?????????????, ???????, ??????? ??, ???????? ? ???? ?????????? ???? ?????? XVIIIа????, ?????? ? ???, ? ??????????????? (? л?????╗ ?????????) ?????????????? ???????????
????????? л??????╗ ???????? ??????????? л??╗ (????) ?ал?╗
(????????).
?? ?????????? ?????? ????? (л????????╗, ?? ?????????)
????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ??, ??? ??
????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?? ???? ??????? л? ???? ???╗,
??? ?. ?. ????????? л????╗: ????? ?????????
59
??????? ? ????? ? ??????????? ??????????, ????????????
??? ????????????, ??? ? ?????????? ???????.
?????? ? ???????????? ??????а? ? ?????? ?? ??????а?
?????? ?? ??? ???????? ???????, ??????? ? ?????? ??????
??????????? ??????????? ?????, ???????? ???????????
?????????: л????????????, ???????????!╗. ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ??????????????? ?????? ???, ?????? ???????????? ?????? (???? ????????
?а???????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????) ??????????
??? ?а?????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ??????
???? ????, ???????, ???????????? ????, ?????????? ?????????? ???????. ?????????????, ??? ???? ??????????????
?????? ???????????? ????? ?.??????? ???? ?? ??????, ??
???????????, ?? ?????????????? ??????, ??????? ????????????? ?????? л??????????? ??????╗, ?? ???? ? ????? ??????
??????? ?? ???????????. ??? ?????????????, ???? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ?? ????? (?? ?? ??????????!) л??????????╗ ???, ?? ???????????? ?ал??????????╗.
? ??? ?.???????, ? ?????????, ???????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????-?? ????????????, ?????????, ??????, ?? ???????
?? ???????????? ???? ? ??????????? ??? ?????? ???16.
???????????, ??? ?? ???????????, ?? ?????????, ?? ????
???????????а? ??????? ?? ????? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????
?????? ??????????? (????????? ????), ????????? ??? ???????????? л??╗ ?ал?╗. ???????, ??? ????????, ????????????а? ? ?????? ??????а? ??? ??????? ???????? ???? ?????????? ???-???? ?? ?????? ???????? ????? ????????????, ?? ?????????? ? ????????? ?????????? ??? л????╗, ? ??????
???????????? ???????? (???? ????? ? ????????????) ????????????, ?????????? ?а???????????? ??????????. л???????????? ??????╗ (????.а?.???????????а(3,а210)17) ?????????
???????? ???? ? ????? ?????????? (????????????????? ??????) ????? ???????????????? ? ????? ???????.
??????? ????????? ????????, ??? ????????, ????? ????????? ?? ???????? ????????? ????????? ??????????, ? ???
??????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ? ???, ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ?а???: л??????????, ???????? ???
?i? ????????? ???? ?????; ??, ?? ??????? ?????????? ???????,
60
?. ?. ???????
??? ?? ??????? ??????. ???? ?? ??????? ? ???????? ?????,
??????? ?? ???, ??? ???????????? ????? ??????? ?? ???????
???, ?????? ?????????. ??? ?????????? ?? ???, ??? ??????? ?????
?????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ???????? ??? ?????
???. ??? ?????? ? ??? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????????
??????, ???????? ?? ???????i??? ???????, ???????????? ????
???, ?? ???????????? ???????, ?? ?????????? ??? ?????????i?╗18.
?????? ?? ??? ????????а? ??? ? ???? ???????????? ??????а? ??ал????????? ??????╗? л??????????? ?????╗, ? ???????
????? ?????????????? ???????а? ?.??.?????????а? ? ?? л?????????? ?????╗, ???????? ????????????? ????????? ??????
???????????? ???, ???????? ???????? ? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ????, ?????????? ?? ?????? ??????????????, ????????, ???.а??????? (????????????)а[9]. ????????? ????????,
???????а? ? ???? ?????? ????? ????????? ?????? ?????????????????, ?????????????? ???????????? ????????, ????????
??????????? ????????а? ????????? ??? ????? ???????????а?
?? ???????????, ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ? ??????? ????????????а[7]. ?, ??????????, ??? ????? ????
???????????? ?? ?????? ?а???? ??????.
? ?????????????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ? ?????????????? ??????? ? ????????????? (?????????) л??╗ ?????? ??????
(л???? ?? ?????????а? ????╗а(1, 196)). ?????????? ??? ????
??? ? ???? ????? ??????????? ????????????????? ?? ????
? ?? ???????????? ??????????????? ? ????????? ??????, ??
????????? ????????? ? л??????? ?????????╗ ??? ?????????????. ???????? (???????) ?????????? ?а????? ?????????????
л??╗, ????? ?? ??????? ?????? ???? ??????????? ???????????
?????????? ??? ??? ? ?????? ???: ???? л?????????? ????? ????╗
????? ?? ?????? ????? (л?╗), ?? ? ????? ???????? ????????????? ????????????, ?????????? ??????? ?????.
?????? ???? ???????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ??????????
?????????? ????? ???????. ???????? ?? ???????????, ??? ??
??????????? (л?????????? ?? ??????????╗) ????????? ???????? ???????, ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????? ????????? ????? ????????????. ? ?????? ?????? (???, ???????, ? ?? ???? ??????) ???????? ?????????????? ?????????????
????????? ??????, ?? ???? ?????????? ??????????????. ??????? ??а? ?а????????а? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????????? ??????, ? ??????????????
??? ?. ?. ????????? л????╗: ????? ?????????
61
???????????? ????????, ??????????? ?? ???????????, ?????????????? ?????, ?? ? ???????? ??????????? ? ??????
??????.
??????????
а?????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ????. ?????? ?а1504-00212?.
1
?? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ?????, ??????? ????????????????
????????? ?а???????????? ???????, ????? ???????? ?????? ?.??.????????а[15] ? ?.???????а[8].
2
???????i? ?????????: ? 9а?.а/ ? ??????. ????. [? ???????.] ?.??????.
???.:а???.а????.а????, 1871. ?.а6. ?.а414. ????? ?????? ?? ??? ???????,
????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????, ?????????? ?? ????? ??????? ? ?????? ?????? ? ????????? ???? ? ???????? ? ??????? ???????.
3
??????????? ??? ??????????????? ???????????? ??????? (?? ??????????? ??????? ?.а?????) ????? ??????????? ?????? ???? л????╗. ??.:
????????? ?????????. ?.а1. ?.: ? ????.а???. ? ???????? ? ???????, 1798.
399 ?.; ????????? ?????????: ?.а1?4. ???.: ?.????????, 1831. ?.а1. [4],
VIII, 342, [5]а?., 2а?. ?????. (?????. ? ????. ???.а?.); ????????? ?????????:
?.а1?4. ???.:а???.а?.а????????? ? ?║, 1843. ?.а1. [6], LXXXII, 292а?., 1а?.
?????. (?????.); ????????? ?????????а/ ?????. ?????? ?.??.????????.
???.: ???.??.??.а???????, ?а???. ?.а?????????, 1845. [6], IV, XX, 395а?.;
????????? ?????????: ?.а1?2. ???.: ?.????????, 1847. ?.а1.а? [4], VIII,
760а?. (?????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ???????); ????????? ?????????. 2-? ???. ?.а1?2. ???.: ?.????????, 1851. ?.а1. XII, 738 c. (??????
???????? ????????? ??????? ???????); ????????? ????????? ????????
?????????? ?????????. ???.: ?.??.????????, 1893. 226,аII ?.
4
??.:ал??????? ??? 1743а???? 3аi???, ? ?? 1744а????, ?? ??????? ????????,
????? ??????? ??????, ?? ???, ???? ????? ????? ??????, ??????? ????
? ???????? ????????, ???? ? ?????? ?? ??????, ?????? ????? ???????:
????╗а(3, 594).
5
???? ???????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????????????
??????? ????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ???? ? ??????? ??????????? ??.:а[5].
6
??., ????????, ??????????? ?.??.??????????? ? л?????????????????
???????╗:а[1].
7
??., ????????, ??????????: л?????, ????? ???? ??????????а/а????????? ??? ??????????? ???╗ (????????.??. ? ????????? ???? ???????а//
????????.??. ????.а????.а???.: ? 7а?. ?.: ?????-?????, 1995. ?.а1. ?.а137).
8
??? ?.????????? ??????????, ??-????????, ? ???????????? ?? ?????
????????????, ?а???????? ?????????????: л??а? ????!╗а? ????????
?????.
*
62
?. ?. ???????
???????.а[??????????]а// ???????i? ?????????а/ 2-? ?????????????
???. ? ??????. ??????. [? ???????.] ?.а?????. ???.: ???.а????.а????,
1868. ?.а1: ???????????i?. ?.а143.
10
? ???? ??????? ????? л????╗ ? ??????? ?????? ??????? ? ?????????
?????. ????? ????????, ??? ? ??????????? ??????????????? ??????? ????? л????╗ ? ???? ?????? ??????? ?????? ? ????????? ?????.
??.: ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????. 1784. ?.а13. ?.а125?129;
??????????.??. ??? ???. ?.: ? ????.а???., ? ?????????, ??.а1792. 4а?.; ????????? ?????????. ?.а1. ?.: ? ????.а???. ? ???????? ? ???????, 1798.
399а?. ? XIXа???? ????? ????????? ??????????? ? ????????: ???. ???а/ ???.
?.а?.а?????????, ?????. ?? ?????? ?.??.???????. ???.: ???.а?.??????,
1831. 15а?.; ????????? ?????????: ?.а1?4. ???.: ?.????????, 1831. ?.а1.
[4], VIII, 342, [5]а?.; ????????? ?????????: ?. 1?4. ???.: ???.??.?????????? ? ?║, 1843. ?.а1. [6], LXXXII, 292а?.; ????????? ?????????а/ ?????.
?????? ?.??.????????. ???.: ???. ?.а?.а???????, ? ???.а?.??????????,
1845. 395 ?.; ????????? ?????????: ?. 1?2. ???.: ?. ???????, 1847. ?.а1.
[4], VIII, 760а?. (?????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ???????); ????????? ????????? ?.??.??????????, ? ???????? ?????????, ????????????
?????????????, ???????????? ? ??????????????????, ? ???????????
??????????? ???? ??????????: ??????? ?????????. ?????????????.
??????.а????????????. ?????. ?? ??????? ? ????? ?.а?.а?????????. ?.:
???.??.??.???????? ? ?░, 1884. [2], 8, 442а?. (??????? ???????? ?а?????:
??????? ??? ????. ???. ???. ???? ??????????); ????????? ?????????
???????? ?????????? ?????????. ???.: ?.??.????????, 1893. 226, IIаc.
????? ????????? ??????? ? ?а????????????, ??.: ?????????.??. ??????? ???????????:а??.а??????, ????????? ?? ???????????? ???????
??????????а/ ? ??????? ???????????? ?.??.?????????. ???., 1874.
242а?.; ??????? ????? ? ?????????? ? ????????а/ ?.??.????????; ??? ???.
[?а?а???????.] ?.а????????. 3-? ???., ????. ? ???. ???.:а???.а?.а?.а???????????, 1888. [8], 582, IXа?.; ????????-???????????? ???????????
?????? ??????? ??????? ???????????а/ ????. ?.а???????. 20-?а???. ?.;
??.: ?-?? л?.??.???????а? ????.а??.а????????╗, 1916. ?.а1. VIII, 485аc.
11
??? ?????????? ?? ????????????? ?.??????? ? ??????????? ?? ???????
???????, ??? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????: л????? ??? ??????
??????????????? ?? ??????i? ????? ?????i? ???????i? ?????????,
?????? ???? ?????????? ??? ???????? ????????:а?????? ?? ?????????,
?????????? ?? ?????????? ?????, ? ?? ??????????????? ???? ???????????, ? ?????? ???? ?????????, ?? ???????? ???????? ? ???????
????, ???? ????? ?????, ???????? ?????? ???? ????????i?, ????? ????
????? ??i????????? ?????.
?? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ?????i? ?????? ????, ??
????? ???????i?, ???????i? ?????i? ??????????????. ?????? ???????? ?? ????? I-? ???? ???. ?????? ????????i? ????????? ? ?????, ???
??а???? ?????????, ??? ????????????? ??? ???? ??????? ?????i? ???
????????. ???? ?????????????? ??????i?, ?????????i??? ?? ?????
9
??? ?. ?. ????????? л????╗: ????? ?????????
12
13
14
15
16
17
63
???????i?, ?????????? ???????? ?? ????? ??????? ????; ????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ??? ?????????i? ?? ??????? ????????i?,
???????????? ?? ?????? ????? ??а??????? ???????????i?. ?? ?????
?????????? ???????? ?????i? ?????????? ?????? ?? ???????????????
?, ??????? ???, ?????? ???????? ??? ???? ??????, ????? ???? ??
??????????????. ???????? 1868╗а(?????? ???.а? ?.??.) (???????i?
?????????. ?.а1. 1868. ?.аIII?IV). ??? ????? ??? ???? ????????, ?????? ?? л?? ???? ?????????╗ ????? ??????? ????? л?????????? ??????
?а??????????????╗.
??.: ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????. 1784. ?.а13. ?.а129; ????????? ?????????. ?.а1. ?., 1798; ??????????.??. ??? ???. ?., ??.а1792;
????????? ?????????: ?.а1?4. ???., 1831. ?.а1.; ????????? ?????????.
???., 1845; ????????? ?????????: ?.а1?2. ???., 1847. ?.а1; ?????????
?????????. 2-? ???. ?.а1?2. ???., 1851. ?.а1; ????????? ?????????
?.а?.а?????????. ?., 1884.
??? ???????? ?.а?.а???????? ???? ????, ??? ?????????? л??? (???
??????? ??????) ????? ??????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ?????, ???????
???????????? ?????-?? ????? ????????? ? ?????, ???????╗а[10, 13?14].
??. ????????? ?.??.??????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? л????? ?????????╗ (1952) ? ???-?????. ????????:
л????????? ??? ??? ? ??????? ???????: ??????? ???? ???????????
???????????? ?? ??????? ???????????? ????, ????? ??? ??? ?????
?????????? ? ??? ?? ?????? ??????????.а<?> ??, ??? ????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ??? ?????, ?????? ?????? ?????? ???? ? ??? ?????
??????????, ????????, ???????????? ?????а? ? ???, ??? ???? ?? ????
(???????? ???????.а? ?.а?.) ?????? ? ?????? ?? ??????????, ?? ??????? ??? ???? ?????╗ (???????.??. ????.а???.: ? 8а?. ?.: ????.а???????,
1996. ?.а5. ?.а563).
? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ? ? ????? л????╗ ???????????? ????????? ?????: ? ???? ?????? ??? ???????????? ????????
????????????????? ????????????? ????? ?????, ?? ? ??????????? ?????
?????? ???????? ?????, ??? ?? ????? ???? ??????????? ?а???????????
???????. ??.: ????????? ?????????. ?.а1. ?., 1798; ????????а?.а?. ???
???. ?., ??. 1792. ? XIXа???? ????? ????????? ??????????? ? ???????:
???. ???а/ ???. ?.??.??????????. ???., 1831.
??.: л?????????????? ????????????? ????? ????????????? ??????,
?????? ????????? ????? ?????????????? ???? ??????????? ? ? ?????
?????????? ? ???? ???????????? ???????? ????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ????? ???????????╗а[8, 133].
?????? ?.???????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ? ???, ??? л???????????? ????? ??????????? ?? ????i? ?? ????????????? ? ????????
??????????? ?????, ??????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ??????а<?>
???????????? ????? ???????? ?????????????? ?? ?i??i? ??????????
??????╗а[14, 503]. ??.а?????? ??????????а? ? ???? ????????????? ????????
? ????? ?????????????????а? ???????? ?.??.?????????? ? ???????????
л?????╗ ?ал?????????╗:ал??i??? ?? ???? ?????????: ??? ???????? ??????
?. ?. ???????
64
18
?????????, ??????????????, ??????, ? ?????? ?? ????????? ????????
? ????????i?.а? ?i? ??? ???? ???? ??????? ????????????, ??? ?????
????????i? ?????????? ??????? ??????????i???а<?> c????? ? ?????
???i??? ????? ??? ????????? ????????? ?? ??????╗а(???????i?
?????????. ???., 1866. ?.а3. ?.а210).
????????? ?????????: ?. 1?2. ???.: ?. ???????, 1851. ?.а1. ?.а6. ???
??????????? ??????? ????????? (??? ? ??????? ??? ??????? 1831
?а1847а?????), ?? ???????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?????? ?????, ?????
???? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????????. ???, ? ???????
?? ?????????? ???????, ??????????? ??????????? ???? л????╗. ??.
???? ??????? ??????????: л???? ?????????? ???????, ????????
????????? ?i? ??????, ???????? ????, ??? ?? ?????? ???? ????????? ??? ??????????? ????? ?? ?? ?????i?, ??????? ??? ???????
????╗а(3, 594).
?????? ??????????
1. ???????????.??. ?????????? ?????????а// ???????????.??. ?????-?????.
???????.а? ????: ??? I ?ITE??, 2006.а? ?.а173?176.
2. ??????????.??. ??? ?.??.?????????? л???╗а// ???????? ????????????
???????.а? ????????????: ??????, 1998.а? ???.а5: ???????????? ?????
?а??????? ?????????? XVIII?XXа?????: ??????, ?????????????, ?????,
?????, ????. ???.а2.а? ?.а140?150 [??????????? ??????].а? URL:аhttp://
poetica.pro/journal/article.php?id=2480 (03.08.2016).
3. ?????????.??. ???????????? ??????? ???????????.а? ?.: ?????, 2004.а?
560а?.
4. ?????????.??. ????????????? ?????????: ????????? ??????????????.а?
?.: ?????????, 2015.а? 616а?.
5. ?????????.??. ??????????? ???????? XVIIIа????: ????? ratio ??????????? ? ???????????? ?????????а// ???????? ???????????? ???????.а? ????????????: ??????, 2013.а? ???.а11: ???????????? ?????
? ??????? ?????????? XVIII?XXа?????: ??????, ?????????????, ?????,
?????, ????. ???.а8.а? ?.а7?26 [??????????? ??????].а? URL: http://
poetica.pro/files/redaktor_pdf/1430908318.pdf (03.08.2016).
6. ?????????.??. ?????? ???????????? ? ???????????? ?????????????
???????????? (л????????╗ ?.??.???????).а? ?.: ????, 1995.а? 102а?.
7. ?????????.??. ???????? ??? ????????? ??????? ????????????а //
Celebrating Creativity. Essays in Honour of Jostein Bortnesа/аEd. by Knut
Andreas Grimstadа&аIngunn Lunde.а? Norway: University of Bergen Press,
1997.а? Pp.а237?255.
8. ???????. ??????? ? ??????????? ? XVIIIа????: ??? ????????? л???╗а//
XVIIIа???.а? ???.: ?????, 2004.а? ??.а23.а? ?.а126?133.
9. ??????? (???????????), ???. ?????????: ? 7а?.а? ?.: ??????? ????,
1993.а? ?.а1: ???????????? ????? (?????? л? ??????╗).а? 570а?.
10. ??????????. ??? л???╗ ? ????????? ? ?????????. (???????????????
???????)а// Gavriil Derzhavin (1743?1816)а/ Ed. EtkindаE., ElnitskyаS.а?
Northfield; Vermont: The Russian School of Norwich University, 1995.а?
Pp.а341?354.
??? ?. ?. ????????? л????╗: ????? ?????????
65
11. ?????????.??. ?????? ?????? ???.а? ?????: ???????? ????????? ???.а?????
????????, 1993.а? 144а?.
12. ???????????.??. ?????????? ??????: ?????????? ? ?????????????
??????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????а// ???????? ????????????
???????.а? ????????????: ??????, 1994.а? ???.а3: ???????????? ?????
? ??????? ?????????? XVIII?XXа?????: ??????, ?????????????, ?????,
?????, ????.а???.а1.а? ?.а12?31 [??????????? ??????].а? URLа: http://
poetica.pro/journal/article.php?id=2371 (03.08.2016).
13. ?????????.??. ??????????????????? ?????? ??? ????? ????????????
????????????а// ???????? ??????? ??????? ? ??????? ????????.а?
????????, 1980.а? ???.а5.а? ?.а143?154.
14. ????????????. ???? ???????? ??????????.а? ?????: YMCA-PRESS,
1983.а? 600а?.
15. ????????. ??? ??????? ?????????а// Gavriil Derzhavin (1743?1816)а/
Ed.аEtkind E., ElnitskyаS.а? Northfield; Vermont: The Russian School of
Norwich University, 1995.а? Pp.а234?256.
Ivan A.?Esaulov
The Maxim Gorky Literature Institute
(Moscow, Russian Federation)
jesaulov@yandex.ru
THE ODE ?GOD? (л????╗) BY G. R. DERZHAVIN:
THE NEW UNDERSTANDING
Abstract. The article proposes a new understanding of the most famous Russian
ode (and the most famous work of the 18th century in Russia). Given the
structural peculiarities of the text, its constructive unity, as well as some
insufficiently studied nuances of the author?s (and publishers?) orthography
and punctuation, our work reconsiders the interpretations of the ode ?God?
established in the literature study, according to which the semantic core of the
work is the relation between the faith and the science (the Enlightenment).
According to the understanding we propose, one may consider that the semantic
dominant is the complex and dramatic relations between ?You? of God and
?I? of a man that change from verse to verse. While the rhetorical and logical
ending of the work is the tenth verse with its Easter finale counterbalancing
and harmonizing both the self-deprecation and the exorbitant exaltation of
the human ?I? in the verse IX, which has as a result the statement ?I ? (am)
God!?, the true literary ending is the tender emotion in the last, the eleventh,
verse, which has a super-logical and super-rhetorical tone. The gift of tears,
appearing in the last verse, is both one of the most important characteristics
of Derzhavin?s poetics and one of the manifestations of the Orthodox spiritual
tradition.
Keywords: understanding, analysis, interpretation, Derzhavin, Christian
tradition, poetics
?. ?. ???????
66
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??? ?. ?. ????????? л????╗: ????? ?????????
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???? ??????????? ? ????????:а05.09.2016
й??.??.????????, 2016
???????????. ??????????
???????, ??????????? л?╗, ???????, ??????????? ???-???? ? ????
??????? ???????????? ????????, ???????????? ?????? ????
?????????????? ????????????? ?? ????????? л??????????╗.
?а?????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????? ? ????????? ?? ??????
???????????? л?а? ????!╗, ?? ??????????? ????????? л?╗ ??
?? ????? ???? ?????, ??????? ?а?????????????, ?? ?????? ??????,
??????? ????????????? ????????.
????????? ????? ? ???? ?? ?????????? ???????????? ?????
?а???????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ?????????, ?? ???????
??????? ?? ?????? ???????????????? ????????. ????????????
??????? ?.????????? ????????? л???????? ???????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ????????????? ??????
???????? ?????╗а[10, 354]8. ???????? ???????? ????? ?? ?????
???????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????, ?а?????????? ???? ?????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????. ?????? ??, ??????? ? ??,
??? ?.??.????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ????????????
?????? ? ?????? ? ?? ?????? ????????, ?а????? ??, ??? ?? ???????????? ???? ???????????????? ?????, ?? ?? ??????? ?а??????????? ??????? ????????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????? ?????????. ? ???????????? ?? ??????? ??????? 1868?1878а????? ???? ??????????:
л????? ?? ?????????? ?????????, ?? ????? ????? ????? ????
????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?????, ?? ????????? ???? ????????
52
?. ?. ???????
??? ??????????i?, ???? ???? ?????????, ?????? ?????????????????? ?? ????????i?, ?????? ???? ?????? ??? ?????, ????
? ?????, ????? ???? ??? ? ?????????? ??????. ???? ?? ???
????? ????? ???????i? ?????????? ???????? ?? ???????
????????; ???????, ??? ??а????? ????? ????????, ???????
????а? a g?d╗9. ?? ?????? ??????, ????? ?? ???????????????
(???-???? ??? ????? ????????? ????????? ????), ?? ? ???????????? ?????? ???? ????, ???? ???? ???? ?а?????? ?????????????? ?????????, ?? ??? ?? ??????? ???? XVIIIа???? ???????? ?а???? ?????: л?а? ????!╗. ??????? ???? ? ????????
???????????? ????? ???? ?? ???????? ?????, ??? ????? ????
???? ? ?????? ?????? ? ????????? ????????. ?????? ???????
???????? ?? ??, ??? ? ?????? ??????? ????????? ?????????
1864?1883а????? (л? ?????????, ?????????? ? ?????????,
?а?????????? ? ????????╗), ??????????? ????? ? ????? ?????
????????????? ?????? ??? ????: л?? ?? ????? ???????
?????? ??????? ?? ??????i? ???????i? ????? ???? ?? ?????
???? ? ?? ????? ?????????. ???? ?????????? ??? ??????i?
???? ????????????? ???, ?? ??????????????? ???????, ?а?????? ??? ?????????? ? ???? ???????? ??????а(a god); ?????????, ?????????, ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ????╗а(1,а202)10.
??? ?????, ? ? ?????? ????? ?? ?? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ? ???, ????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ????? ????
? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????????????, ??????? ? ???????? ????????? ????????? 1864?1883 ?а1868?1878а????? ???????????? ?????? ???????? (? ????????????? ?????????????!11). ??????? ?? ???????? ? ?????? ???????????? ??? ????????, ???? ?? ??????????? ?????-?????? ????? ????????????
???????? ???????????? ?????? ??????, ??? ??????????? ??
? ?????? ?????????. ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ??????
??????? ???????? ?? ????????? ????????, ???????????
?а??????? ??????? ????????????.
???? ?????? ? XVIIIа????, ??? ????????, ??????? ???????????
????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ????
????????? ???????? ????????? ? ?? л??????╗, ? ?????????
?????, ?? ? ????? ?????? ????? ???????????? ??? ?? ??????
?????? ?? ??????????? ???? (???, ?????? ???, ?????? ??????????? ?????) ??????-???? ?? ???????? л?????╗. ????????
??? ?. ?. ????????? л????╗: ????? ?????????
53
????, ??????? ? ?????? ???????? ???, ???? ???? ????????????? ? ????????? (?????? ? л????????? ????????╗, ??? ???
??????????? ????). ???????? ?а??, ??? ???? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ?????????? ? ????? ??????? ?????? (? ????), ?? ??????????? ?????? ??? ????????? ?????
???????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? (??????? ?????? ???? ???????????? ?????). ?????, ??????????,
?????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ???????? л?????╗ ??? ?????? ?????, ??????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ????????,
?????а? ????????? ???????????? ???? ???????? (???? ??
???????????? ? ???????? ???????????? ??? ?? ??????? ?????,
???, ????????, ?а?????????????? ????? ?.???????? л??????,
??? ???????????? ????╗), ?? ????? ?? ??????????-?????????
?????. ? ???????????? ?? ??? ??? ?а???? ????, ??? ?????а?
?????????? ???????, ?? ?????????? ??????? ???? ???????????.
??? ??? ????????? ???????? (???, ????????, ? ???????
? ?????????????? ?????? ?????????) ????????????? ????????
????? ?????????????????? л? ?????╗ ? ?????????? л? ???!╗,
????? ????????? ? ??? ???? ????????????? ????????? л????╗
?ал????╗ ? ?????? ???? ????? ?????????? ?а??????? ??????
XVIIIа???? ??????. ????????? ????????: ??????????? ????????? ????? ?????? (?????? ????????????? ???????? л?╗
??? ????? ????) ? ????? ????? ?? ???? ???????, ???? ?? ????
??? ? ?????-???? ???????? л????╗ ??? ???? ???????????????
?????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???? ??. ?? ????? ????????, ??? ? ?????? ??? ?????? ???????? ???? ????? ?????????
???? ??? ???????? ? ???????? ????? ???????????? ??????
????????? ???????? ?? ?????????: л????? ???? ????, ?????
?????????╗а (л??????? ????? ???????????╗)а (3, 420)?
?а????а? ? 1808а????а? ?а????????? ????????????? ???? ????????? ??? ??? ? л?????? ????????╗, ?? ???? л??????╗ ??!
???, ? ?????? ?????? ???? ???? ???? ? ???????????? ????????????? ? ?????? л?╗ ??????????? ????????? ????????,
?а??????? (??? ? ? ?????? ???? ? ????), ???? ???? ??????
?а????????? ?? ????????? ? ?????? ?? ??????. ? ????? ?????
???? ?????? ??? ????, ? ??????? ? ???? ???? ? ???, ?? ??????
?? ????? ?? л?????╗ ????????? ???????.
?????? ???????????а? ? ????? ? ??????? ?????? ???????,а? ??? ????? ????, ?????????????? ? ??????? ??????,
54
?. ?. ???????
??????, ??????? ????????, ?????? ??? ?а??????. ??? ?????????????? (? ??????????? ?? ?????? ??? ??? ?? ???????) ??????????,
? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?? ??????, ????? ??????????? ? л??????????? ?? ??????????╗ ???? ???????????
?а???????????? ????? ?????? ??????????? (??? ???? ?????????,
?а???????????, ? ?????????? ? ???, ??? ????????????, ? ?????
?а?????????? ?????????????, ??????, ???, ????????, ?.??.?????????, ?ал?????????? ???? ??? ? ????????╗, ? ?????????? л?а?????
?????????????? ???????????╗а[2,а150]). ???? ?? ??????а? ?а?????????а? ????????, ? ????? ?????????? ?????????? (???????????)
?????? ????? ???? (? ??? л????╗!) ??? ???? ??????????? ???????,
????? ?????-??а? ? ??????? ???????? л?????╗а? ?????? ?????
?????????, ???????? ?? ?????????????? ?????? ??? ?а???????а?
? ??????!а? ????? ???????? ?? ?????.
???? ????? ? л???? ????? ????????╗, ??? ??? ?????, ?? ????????????? ? ???? ????? ??? ? ??? л????╗, ????? ?????????????? ?????? ? ? ??????, ? ? ????????? ???????????? ? ????, ??
????????? ???????? ???? ????? ??????, ???? ?????????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ?????? (??????? ??????, ??? ??? ???
? ????????? ?????????? л???????????╗: л? ????!╗) ? ???????????а? ?? ?????? ???????а? ? ??? ?? ????? ??????, ??????
??? ??? ????? ???????? ?????????? ???? ??? ?? ?????? ????
?????? ????????, ???? ? ? ????? ???????? ?????а? ? ????? ?????? ?????? (л???? ?? ?????????а? ????!╗а(1, 196)), ???????????? ????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ???????????????????
л???????????? ????????????╗а(??.:а[13]). ?????? ? ?????? ??????
??? л????????????╗ ?????? ?? ???????????, ?а?????? ?а??????
???????????? ? ????????????? ????????????? ????????????.
?????????? ????????, ??? л????????????????╗ ????? ???????????????? ?????? ? ????? ?????????? ???????? (??? ??? ???????, ??? ????????, ??????? ? ?????????? ? ????????????????
?????????, ???????? ?? ???? л???????╗ ??????????? ???????
? ??????? ??????) ??? ?????? ????? ?є?????, ??? ????? ??????????, ????????????? ??????????, ??? ??????? ????? ????????????, ????????? ? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? (???? ?? ? ??
??????????? ??????).
??????????? ? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????, ??????????? ????????, ??? ?? ?????? ????????? ??????????? л?╗ (л????╗),
?? ? ?????? (л????╗) ? ????????? ?? ?????? ???????????????
??? ?. ?. ????????? л????╗: ????? ?????????
55
??????????? ?????? ?а???????????? ????? (??????????): л????
???? ???? ? ????╗ (?а???? ??????????????? ???????12 ????????? ????? ????? ???????????? ????????? ?????). ???????, ???????? ?? ???????? ????? л?????╗ ?ал?????╗, ? ??? ?а??????
?????? ???????, ?????? ?????? ????????? ????????? л????╗
?ал????╗, ??? ? ??????????, ???????? ??? ?????,а? ?а?????????? ?????????????? ? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????????
???????? л???? ?????╗, ? ?????? ??????? ????????? ? л????╗,
?ал????╗.
??? ?? ?? л?????╗, ??????????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ???? ??? ????, ?? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????? ???? ????????? ?а?????????? ?????????? ??????а?
????????? ??.а???????. ? л????????? ???????????? ???????╗
??? ??????????????? ??????? л?????????? ? ?????????????╗
????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????, ??? ?????? ????????
?????????? ?? ?????? ?????????, ?? ? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ????????. ?? ???????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ?.??.???????????, ???????????????? ?а????? ?????? ????????????,
???????? ?? ???????? ???????? ???? ?? ???? ??????, ???????????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ???????????? ???.
???? ? ???, ??? л???╗ (?) ?ал?????╗а? ???????, ??????? ???????? ? ????????? ??? ??????.
?????, ??? ???????????? ?.??.??????????, ??????? ????????????
????????????? ??.а??????, л? ????????? ???????????? ????????а<?> ?????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????, ?а?????? ???? ????? ??? ??? ???????? XVIIIа???? (????? ???????
??????? ??? ??? ? ?????? ?????????.а? ?.а?.), ? ????? ??????
????????? ????????? ???????╗а[12, 21?22]. ?а??? ?????????
???????????, ??????? ???????? ???????????????? ?????????????,
??? ??? ???????????? ??? ????: ???? ???????? (л????????? ??????╗) ??? ???? ?????. ????????? ????? л????????????????
????????????? ?????╗ ? ???????? л???????? ??????? ?????,
??????????????? ????????╗а[12, 24]. ?.??.?????????? ????????,
??? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ?а?? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????? ????? ???????????? л??????? ???????????????а<?> ?? ????? ????????????, ????????? ?????? ????????? ???? ??? ???????????? ???????????? ????? ? ??????????? ???? ??????, ???????? ? ?????. ????? ????? ????????? ???? ???, ???????????? 1?000╗а[12,а24].
56
?. ?. ???????
??????????? ??, ??? ???????????????? л?????╗ ?????????? ?????? (?? л???╗ ?ал????????╗ ???? л?????╗), ????, ???
????? ??????????, ??????????????? ????????????? (?? л??╗
?ал?╗ ? ???????а? ?? ??? ?а?????????? ???????????а? ?????
? л??╗), ?????а? ?????-???? ?? ?????? ???????а? ?????????,
?????? ?????????? ?????????, ????????. ???? ?а???, ???
????????????? ??????????? л?╗ (л???╗) ?????? ????? ?? ???
????, ??? л?????? ? ???????????????? ?????? ?????? ??????╗а[12, 29], ????????? ???? ???????????? ????? ?????. ??????, ?? ?????? ?.??.???????????, л??? ?? ?????? ?????? ??????а<?>, ?? ? ??????????? ??????????, ????????????
???????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ????????? ????????
???????? (???). ??????????????? ??????-????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ?а???????????????? ???????????, ? ???????? ??????????: ?????????? ???????????, ???????????? ???????? ????, ????????????? ????????????, ?????? ??????,
? ??????????? ???????????? ?????а? ?????? ?????????, ????????; ?? ????? ??????????? ???????????? ????? ??????
?????????? ???????? (???), ????????????? ?????? ????, ? ?????? ? ??? ????????? ????? ? ???????? ???????? ????????.
?????????? ??? ????, ??? ??????? ????? ????????? ?? ?????
???????????, ???????????? ????????????? (??????????) ????????? ????????????, ? ?????? ????? ????????? ????? ?????
??????? ?а??????????????? ?????????а? ??? ???? ??????????
???????, ????????? ??????. ??????????????? ????? ?????????? ???, ????? ???????, ????????? ?а???? ???? ????????
??????????????????а? ????????????? ? ?????????, ?????
?а????, ???????? ? ????╗а [12, 29?30]. ????? ???????, ????????????, ???? ? ?????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ????????,
???????????? ??????????? ??????????? л??╗ ?ал?╗, л????╗,
л????╗, л?????╗ ?ал????╗, ????? ?? ?????? ?????????????
?а????????? л?????? ???????╗ ????????????? XVIIIа????, ???
????????, ??? ? ???????????? (?? ???, ? ???????????? ?а???????
????? ??? ???????, ????? ????????????? ???????????? ????
???????? ????), ?? ? ?ал??????? ???????╗ ????????????
???????? ??? ???????.
?????????? ????????, ??? ??? л????╗ ?????????? ?????
?????????? ????? ?а? ???????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?а??????? ??????? ???????
??????? ????????. ???? ???? ?? ?????? ?а???????? ????????
??? ?. ?. ????????? л????╗: ????? ?????????
57
??? ????????? ????? ? ????? л????╗, ?? ?а?а???????????
????????? ????? ???????????? ?????? ????? ????????????а?
?ал????????╗ ??? ?? л????╗ ???????????? (?????????? ?? ?????? ????????????? ?????????????) ???????????? (???, ???
???? ????????????? ?.??.??????, л????????╗ ??????????,
???????, ?? ?????? ?.??.?????????, л????????? ?? ????? ???????????? ? ????????╗а[11,а13])13. ???, ???????, ????????? ??
?????? ? ?????????: ?? ??? ??? ???, ? ???????, ?????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? л????? ?????????╗
??????а? ???????? ?? ?????? ???????????а? ? ??????????????а? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ????14. ?????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????, ???
???? ?????????? ? ???????, ?????????? ???????, ????????
???????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????????, ?? ?а??????? ???
??????, ??????? ??? ????????? ????, ??? ?, ????????? ????
?????????? ???? ???????????? ???????? ?????????????????,
л????? ?а??????????╗.
???? ???? ? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ????,
???????????? л??╗ (????????, ??? ???????????????????
??? ??????????? ?????? ? ????? ??????): ????????, ??????
?а?????? ?????? л????????╗ ????????? ?????:ал??╗, л????????╗, л?????╗, л????╗. ?? ?????? ?????? ????? ???? ?????
??????, ? ???????а? ???? ? ?.а?. ? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ??????????, ?? ?????????
? ???????????? (????????????). ????????: л?? ????, ??
???, ?? ?????? ?????╗. ????? ???????, ??? ??? л????????╗
?? ????????????????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ???????????? л??╗, ??? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ???????????,
? ??????? ??????-???????? ?????????? ??????? ????????
? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????. ?? ????????? ??
?????? ? ????? ?????? ?????? ???? ???????? ? ?????????????
л??╗ ???????????, ????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????
? ????????? ????? ????????????: ???, ?????????? ?????????
?? ????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? л?????!╗, ??? ??? ?????????? ? ???????
??????, ? ??? ??? ????? ???????.
?????? л?????????╗ ?????????? ?? ???????????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ? ????????? ????????? ????,
58
?. ?. ???????
???? ?????????? ????? ????????????? ???????. ????
? ????? ?????? ??????. ????????, ???? ???????? ???
????????????? ?? ?? ????, ? ?? ??? ?????. ? ????? ?????????
??????????? ????????? ?????, ??????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ???: л????.╗. ??????????? ????????? ??? ? ? ??? ???????
?? ??????? ??? ? ??????????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? (????????, ???? ???????????? ? ??????????). ????????,
? ??? ?? ???????? ??????: л? ????15а? ? ????, ? ?????а?
?а????╗а? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? л?/?╗, ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????
?? ???????? ? ???????, ????? ?а?????????, ? ????? ??????????????? ? ???????????. ???????: ?????? ???? ??????
?а????????? л?╗ (????), ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????? ????
?????????????, ??????а? ??????????, ????? ??? л?╗а?????? ??
???????? ? ???????? ?????, ????? ????? ????????? ?а?????????
???????????????. ????????????? ??????????? л?/?╗, л?/?╗
?????? ?а????????????? ????? ????????????? ???????????????? ?????? л?╗ ??? ????? ??????????? ??????????,
????? ??????????????? ?а???????????, ???? ???????????? ?????????????, ??????? ???????? ?а???????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ? ??????? ??????. ??????????, ???
???????????? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ????? ?????????
????????? ????????, ?? ????????? ?????? ??????????????
?а???????? (л????? ????????╗), ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ???????? ???????? л?╗.
??? л????╗а? ??? ?? ?????? ???????????? ? л????????????
???? ?а??????╗, ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ????? ???????? XVIIIа????; ??? ?????? ????? ???????????? ??????? ???? ??????? ?????? ??? ???????, ?? ??? ??
?????????????, ???????, ??????? ??, ???????? ? ???? ?????????? ???? ?????? XVIIIа????, ?????? ? ???, ? ??????????????? (? л?????╗ ?????????) ?????????????? ???????????
????????? л??????╗ ???????? ??????????? л??╗ (????) ?ал?╗
(????????).
?? ?????????? ?????? ????? (л????????╗, ?? ?????????)
????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ??, ??? ??
????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?? ???? ??????? л? ???? ???╗,
??? ?. ?. ????????? л????╗: ????? ?????????
59
??????? ? ????? ? ??????????? ??????????, ????????????
??? ????????????, ??? ? ?????????? ???????.
?????? ? ???????????? ??????а? ? ?????? ?? ??????а?
?????? ?? ??? ???????? ???????, ??????? ? ?????? ??????
??????????? ??????????? ?????, ???????? ???????????
?????????: л????????????, ???????????!╗. ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ??????????????? ?????? ???, ?????? ???????????? ?????? (???? ????????
?а???????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????) ??????????
??? ?а?????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ??????
???? ????, ???????, ???????????? ????, ?????????? ?????????? ???????. ?????????????, ??? ???? ??????????????
?????? ???????????? ????? ?.??????? ???? ?? ??????, ??
???????????, ?? ?????????????? ??????, ??????? ????????????? ?????? л??????????? ??????╗, ?? ???? ? ????? ??????
??????? ?? ???????????. ??? ?????????????, ???? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ?? ????? (?? ?? ??????????!) л??????????╗ ???, ?? ???????????? ?ал??????????╗.
? ??? ?.???????, ? ?????????, ???????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????-?? ????????????, ?????????, ??????, ?? ???????
?? ???????????? ???? ? ??????????? ??? ?????? ???16.
???????????, ??? ?? ???????????, ?? ?????????, ?? ????
???????????а? ??????? ?? ????? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????
?????? ??????????? (????????? ????), ????????? ??? ???????????? л??╗ ?ал?╗. ???????, ??? ????????, ????????????а? ? ?????? ??????а? ??? ??????? ???????? ???? ?????????? ???-???? ?? ?????? ???????? ????? ????????????, ?? ?????????? ? ????????? ?????????? ??? л????╗, ? ??????
???????????? ???????? (???? ????? ? ????????????) ????????????, ?????????? ?а???????????? ??????????. л???????????? ??????╗ (????.а?.???????????а(3,а210)17) ?????????
???????? ???? ? ????? ?????????? (????????????????? ??????) ????? ???????????????? ? ????? ???????.
??????? ????????? ????????, ??? ????????, ????? ????????? ?? ???????? ????????? ????????? ??????????, ? ???
??????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ? ???, ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ?а???: л??????????, ???????? ???
?i? ????????? ???? ?????; ??, ?? ??????? ?????????? ???????,
60
?. ?. ???????
??? ?? ??????? ??????. ???? ?? ??????? ? ???????? ?????,
??????? ?? ???, ??? ???????????? ????? ??????? ?? ???????
???, ?????? ?????????. ??? ?????????? ?? ???, ??? ??????? ?????
?????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ???????? ??? ?????
???. ??? ?????? ? ??? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????????
??????, ???????? ?? ???????i??? ???????, ???????????? ????
???, ?? ???????????? ???????, ?? ?????????? ??? ?????????i?╗18.
?????? ?? ??? ????????а? ??? ? ???? ???????????? ??????а? ??ал????????? ??????╗? л??????????? ?????╗, ? ???????
????? ?????????????? ???????а? ?.??.?????????а? ? ?? л?????????? ?????╗, ???????? ????????????? ????????? ??????
???????????? ???, ???????? ???????? ? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ????, ?????????? ?? ?????? ??????????????, ????????, ???.а??????? (????????????)а[9]. ????????? ????????,
???????а? ? ???? ?????? ????? ????????? ?????? ?????????????????, ?????????????? ???????????? ????????, ????????
??????????? ????????а? ????????? ??? ????? ???????????а?
?? ???????????, ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ? ??????? ????????????а[7]. ?, ??????????, ??? ????? ????
???????????? ?? ?????? ?а???? ??????.
? ?????????????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ? ?????????????? ??????? ? ????????????? (?????????) л??╗ ?????? ??????
(л???? ?? ?????????а? ????╗а(1, 196)). ?????????? ??? ????
??? ? ???? ????? ??????????? ????????????????? ?? ????
? ?? ???????????? ??????????????? ? ????????? ??????, ??
????????? ????????? ? л??????? ?????????╗ ??? ?????????????. ???????? (???????) ?????????? ?а????? ?????????????
л??╗, ????? ?? ??????? ?????? ???? ??????????? ???????????
?????????? ??? ??? ? ?????? ???: ???? л?????????? ????? ????╗
????? ?? ?????? ????? (л?╗), ?? ? ????? ???????? ????????????? ????????????, ?????????? ??????? ?????.
?????? ???? ???????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ??????????
?????????? ????? ???????. ???????? ?? ???????????, ??? ??
??????????? (л?????????? ?? ??????????╗) ????????? ???????? ???????, ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????? ????????? ????? ????????????. ? ?????? ?????? (???, ???????, ? ?? ???? ??????) ???????? ?????????????? ?????????????
????????? ??????, ?? ???? ?????????? ??????????????. ??????? ??а? ?а????????а? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????????? ??????, ? ??????????????
??? ?. ?. ????????? л????╗: ????? ?????????
61
???????????? ????????, ??????????? ?? ???????????, ?????????????? ?????, ?? ? ???????? ??????????? ? ??????
??????.
??????????
а?????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ????. ?????? ?а1504-00212?.
1
?? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ?????, ??????? ????????????????
????????? ?а???????????? ???????, ????? ???????? ?????? ?.??.????????а[15] ? ?.???????а[8].
2
???????i? ?????????: ? 9а?.а/ ? ??????. ????. [? ???????.] ?.??????.
???.:а???.а????.а????, 1871. ?.а6. ?.а414. ????? ?????? ?? ??? ???????,
????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????, ?????????? ?? ????? ??????? ? ?????? ?????? ? ????????? ???? ? ???????? ? ??????? ???????.
3
??????????? ??? ??????????????? ???????????? ??????? (?? ??????????? ??????? ?.а?????) ????? ??????????? ?????? ???? л????╗. ??.:
????????? ?????????. ?.а1. ?.: ? ????.а???. ? ???????? ? ???????, 1798.
399 ?.; ????????? ?????????: ?.а1?4. ???.: ?.????????, 1831. ?.а1. [4],
VIII, 342, [5]а?., 2а?. ?????. (?????. ? ????. ???.а?.
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