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86
DOI 10.15393/j9.art.2016.3562
??? 821.161.1.09??18??
???????? ??????????? ???????
???????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??.а???????? ???????
(???????? ???????, ?????????? ?????????)
anatoly.koshelev@novsu.ru
?????? ????
?а?????????? ???????? ???????
?????????. ?????????? ????? ?????????? л?????? ?а??????? ???????╗ (??????????? ????????) ???????? ?????????????? ???????????:
л?????? ????, ?? ?а??? ?????, ?????? ???????? ????╗. ?????, ??????????, л?????╗, ?????????? ??ал?????????╗ ???????, ??????? ??????
?а?????? ???? ??????? ???? ????? ?????????? ???а????? ?а??????????
????????????????? ?????? (????? л?????????? ?? ??????????╗) ??ал????????╗ ???????? ????????? ??а???????, ??????? ???????? ?????????
???????????? ????????. ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????а?????????? ?а?????? ??? ?????????????? л????????╗, ??? ???????? ????? л??????? ????????╗. ?????? ?? ????????? ????????? ????????????
????? ???????????? ?? ??????? ?а???????? ?????? ?????. ?а??????
?????????? ??? ??????????????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ?а??????????????? ??????? ?????? ??? ?ал??????╗.
???????? ?????: ??????, ????????, ???????, ???????????? ????????????,
????????
??????? ?? 1833?1835а???? ??????????? ????? ?????????
??? ??а?????? ????????? ????????? ????????:
??????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ????? ?а?????? ???? ?а??????? ???????
????????, ???? ??а????
?
?????? ????, ?? ?а??? ?????,
?????? ???????? ????.
??????? ??????????? ????????????. ????????? ??????
????????1.
??????????? ??????? ??а?????? ??????????? ???????а?
???????. ???? ?а?????????? ????????? ?.??.?????????? ?ал????????╗ (? ?а????????? ??? ?а?????????????? ????? ?????????? ?а???????? ?.??.??????????) ???? ???? ????????????.
?????? ???? ? ?????????? ???????? ???????...
87
????????? ??? ????????? ?а???????? ?????? ?????а? ????? ??? ??????? ??????????. ???????, ??????, ????????
л?????? ?а??????? ???????╗ ??? ?????????? ?????? л?????????? ??? ??????╗ ??а1835а???, ?? ????????? ?????: л????????,
???? ??а????╗,а? ??? ????? ??????? ????????????? ???????
??а?????? ????-?? ??а??????????? ??????????.
?? ?????? ????? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? л?????╗ ?????????? ??????? ?????? л??????╗ ?? ?????????? ???????????? ??? ????? ?????????? л??????╗ (??????????? ????? ????????? ?????), ????????????? ??????????
?а?????????? л???????╗ ?????????? ???? л???????????
??????╗ (л????? ????? ?? ??????╗), ?????? ????????? ????
????????????, л?????????????╗.
? ?????, ??????????, л?????╗, ?????????? ??ал?????????╗
???????, ???????????? ??? ????, ??????? ?а?????? ?????? ???
?????? ????? ??????, ?а????????? л???????╗ ???????? л??????╗ ?? ????а? ???? ??????: л?????? ????╗а(III, 1119). ???????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ??????: л?? ???? ??? ??????
????╗а(III, 1119); ?ал??????????╗ ??????? ????????? ????????:
л?????? ???? ?? ?а??? ???? <?>╗а(III, 1121).
???? ???????? ???????? ?а?????? ??? ??? ??? ????? ?????? ??а?????????. ?????? ? ?.??.?????: л??????а? ???????,
?а?????а? ????. ??????а? ????, ?а?????а? ??????╗2.
?? ?????? ?ал???????????╗ ????????? (??????а? ????????, ???????, ????????) ??? ??????? ?а?????????? ???????
????????? ?????????????? ??????????. ??? ??? ?? ????
?????????? ???????????? ????? ????????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а????????? ???? ??????????????? ??????: ??????а? ?? ??? ????, ??? л???????? ??а??????? ?????????╗а? ??? ?????????? ?? ??? ?? ???? ?ал???????? ????????╗.
??? ??????? ????? ??????????? ?а?а??????? л???????? ?????????╗ (л?????? ?а?????? ?а???????╗а? ????????????? ?а???,
??? ??? ?? ????????????), ?а?а??????? л???????? ??????╗
(л????????? ??????╗), ?а?а?????????? ?а???????? ????????
(л????????? ?а??????? ????? ?????????╗), ?а???? ??? ????????? (л?????? ?а????????? ??????? ??????╗). ?????? ??????????????????? ???????? (л???????, ???????, ????????╗).??????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? (л?????????? ?????,
88
?. ?. ???????
???, ?????, ??????????????, ????????? ????, ?????????, ?????????? ???????, ????????, ?????????╗). ??????????? ??????а? ?????????? (л??? ????????? ??????, ????? ?? ?????╗)3.
??????? ?????? ????????? ?а???? ????? ????? ????? ??????????? ????????.
? ?????????? ????????????????? ??????а? ??? ?? ??????
???? (?????, ???????), ?? ????, ????????? ????? ?????????????? ?????. ???? ?????????? ?? ???: л??????, ??????????? ???????, ????????? ?а???? ??????????? ???????╗.
??????а? ??? ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ????????, ??а????????????????? ???????????? ?а???????????? ?????????? ??а??,
????? ????????? ??? ????????. ? ??????? ?????? ???????????? л????-????╗ (л??????. Noel╗а? II1, 69?70); ??????? ????????? ????? ?а???????????? (л?????? ?а???????╗а? VII, 134)
?а??????? л???? ????╗ (л??????? ????╗а? VIII1, 229), ?а???????,
???????????? ?ал????? ??????╗ (л???? ?а??????а/ ????? ??
?????????, ??????<?>╗а? V, 13), ?а???????????? ???????
?.??.??????????а(XI, 99), ?а(?а?????? ?.??.?????????) л???????
???????╗а(XIV, 209) ?а??.
?????? ?а?????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ????? ??????????
?? л??????????╗ (л??????????╗), ??? ?? л????? ?????╗, ??????? ????? ??????? ????? ?????? ?????????????????? ?????. ?????? ??ал??-??????╗ ???????? ????????? ??а???? (???????), ??????? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ????????а(??.:
[6]). ??? ????????? ????????????? ????? ???? ????????????
??????????, ?а??????? ?????? ????? ????? ??? ?а1820а????:
л???? ????, ??????? ??????а? ??????, ????? ?????????,
?а??????? ????? ?????? ?????, ???? ?????? ??а?????? ???????, ?????? ?а??????? ?????, ???????????? ?? ????? ????????? ?а???????? <?>╗ (?????? ???.а? ?.а?.)а(XIII, 19). ?????? ?а???? ?????? ???????????? л????????╗а? ?? ?а???? ??
??????????? ????????, ??????? ??????????? ?????????
???????? ??? ??????????. ??? ?? ????? ???? ??????? ?а???
1825а???? ?а?????? ?а?.??.??????????: л????? ??????? ????????; ?????????? ??? ??а?????╗а(XIII, 180).
????? ????? ????? ?????? ?а???????? ???????, ??????
????? ??????????????? ?????? л??????????????╗ ???????????? л?????? ???╗а(??.,а????.:а[6, 3]). ????????????? ?а????
????????? ??? ????????? ????????? ?а?????? ?а????? ??а??????
?????? ???? ? ?????????? ???????? ???????...
89
1824а???? ??а?????????????:ал???????? ?????? ??????а?
?а???????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????. ??? ?? ???????? ??? ??????! ?????? ???? ?????!╗
(?????? ???.а? ?.??.)а(XIII, 121).
????? ????????, ????? ?а??????? ?????? ?а?????? ?? ????????? ?? ???: ??? ????????????? ????????????? ??????????
????????? ?????????????? л???╗а(1816), ?а?????? ????????а?
??????????? ????????? ??? ??????? ???????????:
<?> ? ??? ?? ??? ??????????? ?????,
?? ??????? ??? ????? ????????????.
??! ?????? ?? ?а??????? ????,
? ???????? ???????????? ?????,
????? ?а?????, ?а????????? ???????,
???, ????? ???????? ??????,
? ???????? ??????????? ????
? ??????? ???????????? ??? ??????
? ?????????, ?а???????? ?????
?? ????? ?? ????????? ??????,
???? ????, ???????? ??? ??????,
?? ???????? ?? ???, ?? ??????.
??? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??а?????
???? ??????? ???????? ???????,
?????? ?????, ??????????? ?????
? ??????? ???, ??? ???? ??? ???????,а?
??? ?а???? ????? ????????? ????????а(I, 189).
?????? ??? ????? ??????? ????????????? ??? ??? л???????╗?
????? л?????????╗? ??? ????? ??? ?????????????????? ????? ??????????? ??????, ???????? ?а???, ??? ????? ??????????
л??????????????╗ ?а?????????? ???????, ???????? ????????????? ??а?????????? ????????????? ??? ??????? ??????
?????, ?а??????? ?а??????? ?? ???? ??а??????? (? ????????
???? ?????? ????а? ??????) ????????? ?? ????? ????????.
?????????? ????? л????????????╗, ?????? ?????, ???????????,
??? ????? ??а???????????? ??????: л???? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??а?????╗. ???? ?? ?а????????? ???? ?????????-???????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?????, ?????????? ???????? ???????.
?????? ????а? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ?а1805?1809а????.
??????? ?а?????? ???????? ???? ????????; ???????? ?????
90
?. ?. ???????
???? 6?10а???а? ??? ???????, ????? ??????? ???????? ????
???????. ?а??????????? ???????? ?????? л???????╗ л?
?????, ?а????????? ???????╗, ?ал????????? ?????????╗,
л?????? ???????╗ ?а???????? ????а? ??? ?????? ?? ?????
?????????? (??????? ?а?? ??????? ??? ?? ???? ?а50а??? ?а??????? ?? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????а? л???????╗).
???а? ??????? ????? ??а??????????? ????? ????? ?????????? ???????? (1745?1818), ???????, ??а????????????? ??? ??????
?????, ???? л???????????? ??а?????? ??????? ??а???????
?а?????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????╗а[1,а37].
л???????╗ (л???????╗) ????? ?а????? ??????? ?????????
(??? ??????? ??? ?????? ?ал??????? ?а???????╗) ??ал?????
??????? ?????????╗а(IV, 3)а? ?а???????????? ???? л????????╗
??? ????????? ?? ??? (???????), ? ?????? ??????: ??????
???????? ?????????? ?????????? л???????╗ (???????
?.??.???????? ??? ?.??.????????) ??????????? ?а????????
??????????. ?????? ??????? ?????? ?а???????? ?????????
л????????╗ ?????? ??? ????????? ?????? ????????? ?а????????: л?? ????? ?? ?????????, ?????? <?>╗, л??? ?а???? ?????
????????? ???????? <?>╗. ??????? ??????????? ??? ??????
??? ??????? л?????????╗а? ?а???????? ???????? ??????
????????, ????????? ?а????????.
??????, ?????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ??а????? ??????????, ???? ????????????? ?????. ???????? ?????????
?????????? ????????????, ??? л?????????╗ ?????? ?? ?????
л???????╗ ????????? ?а????????? ?а??? ???????? ?а?????
?а???? ????????? ?? ??ал???????? ??????? ????????╗ (???????? ??????? ?????????? ??????), ? ??а???????? ?а???????????
???????. ? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????????
?а?????, ?а??????? ????????????: ?????????? ??????????
?????????? ???? ?????????? ??????????? ?а??? ????????
?а???????????? ?????????? ??????.
?а1820а????, ???????? ???? ?????? ????? л?????? ?а???????╗, ?????? ???????????? ?? ??ал?????? ???╗, ? ??ал???????
?а??????╗. ?????????? л??????????╗ л??????????? ?????╗
??????? ??а????????????? ?? ?а?????????? ???????, ? ?ал?????
????? ???????? ????╗ (?????? ???.а? ?.а?.). ?а??? л?????
????????╗ ??????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?а?????????
?????? ???? ? ?????????? ???????? ???????...
91
???? ????????????. ?????? ?? ??????? ?? ????????? л?????-???????╗, ?? ????? ??????????? ??????, ?? ??????????
?????,а? ?? ?????? ??? ?а?????? л?????????╗ ??????:
?? ?????? ?? ?а?????????,
?? ?а???????, ?? ?а?????????,
?? ?????? ????? ????? ??,
??? ????? ?????? ????????? ???,
???????? ????? ???????,
???????, ???? ??а??????
???????, ?????? ???????
? ??????? ?????? ??а?????
?????, ?? ?????? ?? ??????
?? ?????? ????????? ??????,
??????????? ?????? ???????? <?>а(IV, 56).
??? ??? л?????????╗а? ????????, ??????, ???????, ???????а? ?????????????? ?? ??? л?????? ??????╗, ? ??? ??????,
??? ??????? ??а???????????? ????, ????????? ??????? ??????? л?????????╗ ???????. ????? ?????? ????? ??????????:
? ?????? ????, ??????? ??а???,
????????? ???????? ????
?? ??, ??? ?а???? ???????
??????????? ?? ??? ?? ?????.
<?>
?? ???? ?????????? ?????? <?>а(IV, 50).
л?? ??? ?? ?????╗а? ?? ????! (?????? ???.а? ?.а?.) ? ????
?????? ??? л??????? ?а???????╗а? ?? ?????-?? л???????????╗ ???, ??а??? ?????, ??????? ??????????? ?а?????????????? ????, ????? ??а????? ???? ?????? ????, ????? ?а?????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????????? ?а?????? ???????? ?????.
?? ????????? ?? ????а? ???? ?а?а??????? ????:
?? ????? ??? ?????? ????,
?? ????? ????????? ??????
?????, ?????????? ????
? ??????? ????? ?а?????.
??? ??????? ?а?????? ????,
?????? ???? ??а?????,
?? ????? ??????? ??????
? ????? ????????? ??????а(IV, 7).
92
?. ?. ???????
?? ???????? ????? ??? л????????╗ ?????? ????а? ???
??, ??? ?а????, ?а??? ?????????. ???? ?а?? ?????????,
?а?? ????????????? ?ал????????╗. ???????? ???? ??????
???????????????, ?????????? л??????╗ ???????????????
?????. ?????? ?????????????????? ????????? ?????? л??????? ?а???????╗ ?а1820а????.
? 1828а????, ?????? ?????? ??????? ????? ?????, ??????
???????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??? ?????????. ? ?????
?????? ????? ????????? 35а?????? л???????╗, ??????? ???
???????, ????????, ????????? ?????? ?а?????????? ??? ??????
?????????????? ?а????????? ?????? (????????, ??? ???? ?????? ??????-?? ????? ???????). ?????? ??????? ?а??? ??????????? ??????????? ??а??????? ????????? ??????????, ?а??????? ??????????????? ???????????? ??ал?????? ????╗ ?а???????????? ??????а(1824?1826).
??????? ?.??.??????????, ?????????????? ????????????
?а???????????? ?ал??????????╗ ?????? ?????????? ?????,
?????: л? ??????? ?а???????? ?а???????? ????????????? ????? ???????: ???? ??????? ???, ??? ????? ???????; ??а???? ??????
?????? ?????? ??? ?????? ??????? ?????, ?? ???? ????? ??????
??? ????? ??????? ?? ???????, ????? ????, ?????, ??? ??????
??? ????????? ??????? ???? ?а??? ???????? ??????? ??????╗а[2,
366]. л??????╗, ??????????? ??????? ?????, ??????? ?? ??????????. ?а??? ?????? ??????????? ????? ??????, ?а?????????
????? ?????????????, ?а??????????????, ??? ??? ???????????а? ?? ????? ??? л??????╗: л???? ?а?????: ?????? ???а/ ??????? ?????? ? ??????╗а(IV, 6).
?????? ??????????? ??????, ??????? ????????? ?? ??ал???????????╗ ????, ? ??а ????? ?????? ???????? ??????:
л? ????????? ??? ????????╗. ??? ????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ??а??? ?????? ???????? ?????? (??????? ?????????? 1824а?????), ??????? ??????? ???? ???????? ?а??????
л?????? ?а???? ????????╗: л?? ???? ????????? ?????? ????
? ??а???? ???? ??????? ???? ?а??а???? ?????? ?????? ????
?? ????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ????? ????? ?????╗4.
??? ????? л?????????╗? ???????? ??????? ?????? ???
(?а???????????? ?а???????????) ?а???????? ????? ??????
???????? ?????? ?а???????? ?????а[5]; ?????????а? ?????
?а?????????? ??????????? ?а????????? ???????????? (????????????? ?а???????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?а???????)а[3];
?????? ???? ? ?????????? ???????? ???????...
93
?????а? ?а?????? ???????? ????????????? ??????5. ?а????? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?ал????????╗
???????, ?? ??????? ???????? ?а?????????????? ??????
???????? ????.
????? ??????????? л?????????╗: л? ???? ?а????? ??? ??????а/ ??? ????? ??а???? ??????╗а(IV, 5). ???? л??? ??????╗
(?а?????????: л?? ?????? ?? ?а????? ?????╗) (IV, 276), ???
?а???????? л??????????╗, ???????????: ?? ?? ??????, ? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ?а?????? ??а???????????
??а?????? ??????? ????. ? ??????? ??????? ????а? ??????????
??? ?????????? л???????????╗ ?????????? ????????? ??????????: ?????, ???????, ??????? ??а?????? ??????, ???????,
????? ????, ?????????, ????? ?а????? ????, ???? ?????. ?а?
л?????????╗ ??????? (л? ??? ? ???, ?а??? ? ???╗). ??? ???
??? ?? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ??????, ??? ?? ?????????
?а???? ????????? ??а???????? ??? ??????????.
? ??? ???? ???а? л??? ??????? ???? ??? ????? ??????!╗а(IV, 6). ????? ???? ????????????????? ????? ????????????? ????? ???????? ??????. ????-???, ???????? ????? л??
??????╗ ?????????? ???????, ??????????: л??-??-??! ???????
????? ??????!╗. ??????????? ???? ????? ?????? ?а??????????
??????????????? ?а????????? ???????, ??а??????? ????????
????? ????-???:ал?????? ????? ?а?????? ??????? ????????
?????????. ??-????????, ????? ??а??? ??????? ??????????
????????? ???? ????? ?а???????? ??????. ????? ?????
??? ?? ???????? ?а??????? ?????????, ??? ????? ???????
??????? ?а???????? ?????╗а[7, 65?66]. ?? ??? ???????
????? ?? ????????????? ???? ????????? ???????. ?? ???
?? ??????????????? ??: ??????? ??? ?????????????? ???
????????? ???????? ??????? ????????????? ?????, ???????
???? ????? ?????????? ?????? ?а??????. ?? ????а? ?? ???.
?? ?????????? ?а?????? ????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ?а?????? ????????, ???????? ??, ?????????????? ?????:
?????? ?????? ???? ?????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ???????
?????????. ?????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?а?????? ???
?????????????? л????????╗, ??? ???????? ????? л???????
????????╗. ?????? ?? ????????? ????????? ????????????
????? ???????????? ?? ??????? ?а???????? ?????? ?????.
94
?. ?. ???????
????? л??????? ?а???????╗ ???????????? ??? ????? ????????, ??????????? л?? ??????????╗: л???? ??? ??????а/
????? ????????????? ????? <?>╗а(VII, 134). ?? ?а?????? ?????? ????? ???? ????????? ???????? ????? ????? ?????
?? л??????╗, ??????? ????? ?? л????????╗ ?????????????. ??? ?????? ???????? ????????????, ?????? ??????,
???????????? ?а??????????? ????? ?????? ????????: л?????????, ??????? ??? ????????? ?<??> ?<????>, ??? ???????? ???
??????╗а(XI, 218). ?? ??? ?? ???????? ??? ??????????? л??????╗
???????????? ??????? ?а????? ?????? ??а????????? ????.
????? ??????? ?.??.???????? ?????? ?а?????????? ??????? л??????? ?а???? ?????? ?а? ?????? ?????????╗, ?? ???
???????????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ?а??????? ???????? ????????????? ?а???, ??? л????????? ????????╗
?? ??? ???? ?????? ??????? ????????? ??????????, ?а? ???,
??? ????? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ?а?????? ????????. ????? ??? ?а???????, ?а??? ??????-????????? ?а????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????? л????╗, ???
??? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ??????, ??? ???????????? л??????╗, ?ал???????╗ ??????????? ???????????
????????????? ?????.
л????? ???????? ????????? ??а???? ??? ??? ??????,а? ????????? ???????,а? ???????? ??????????. ?? ??? ??? ???а?
?а????? ?????? ????? ???а? ????? ???????? ?а???????? ???
????? ????????????.а<?> ???? ??????? ?а???, ???? ?а?????.
?????? ??????????? ?????. ?? ????? ??? ??????????????.
???? ????? ??????? ?а?????, ?????? ?????????. ? ???? ??а?????? ?????, ?а???? ?????? ??а?????. ?? ????????, ?? ????? ???????????<?>╗а[8, 37]. ????? ???????? ??а?????????? ????????? ?????? л?????? ????╗.
? л?????????? ?????????╗ 1830а???? ??? ??????, ??????
?а???????, ??????? л???????? ????? ????? ??.а?.а???????╗
(?????? ???.а? ?.??.)а(XIV,а209), ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ??а???? ??????????,
?????????? ??????? ?а????? л???? ???????╗. ?? ?????????
????? ??????? ??????? ????????????, ??????, ??? ??? ???????? ???????????. ??????а? ?а????????: л??????? ????????? ????? ????????? ???????, ???????? ?.??.╗ (??????
???.а? ?.??.). ??????а? ?а???????? ??а?????????, ??????????
?а????? ?????????? ???????, ??? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ???????? ????????????:а??-?? л???
?????? ???? ? ?????????? ???????? ???????...
95
??????? ?а???????? ???????╗а(?????? ???.а? ?.??.) (VIII1, 57).
?а???????? ??????? ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ????????????
??????? ??? ???????, ?? ????? ?а???? ????????????? ?????
?????. ??? ????, ?а????????, ???????????? ???????.
? ?а???? л???????????╗ ????????? ?? ?????? л?.а??????╗,
?? ?а?????? л?????╗, ???????? л??? ?????????? ???????????╗: л?????????? ???????? ?.??.??.╗, л???????????? ?.??.??.╗,
л????????? ?.а?.╗, л?????? ?.??.??.╗а(VIII1, 61). ??????? л?????
??????╗а? ??? ?а???????????????? ??????? ????????????!
? ??? л??????? ?а???????? ????????╗.
? л???????╗ (???????) ???а? ?а????????, ????? ?????????
л??????╗. ??? ?? ????? ???????? ?а????????? ??????????
?????????????? ?????????: л??????????????? ??????????
?????????? ?а?????????? ???????????????╗ (?. ???????)6. ????
?ал??????????╗ ??? ????? ?????????, ?? л??????????????╗,
???????????? ?????? ???? ????? л???????╗,а? ????? ??
л??????????╗, ?а?????? ??????????????. ??? ??????? ????
????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????, ??????? ??????
??а???? л? ???????? ???????╗ ?а????????? ?? ?????????,
л??????╗ ?а?????????, ? л??????? ???????╗ л?а????? ?????????? ????????? ?а ?а ??????????, ?а ?а ?????? ???????╗а(VIII1,а106)а? ????? ?? ????? ??????? ??????????
??? ??????? ?????????????? ???????, ??????? л????????╗ ????? ?????, ???? ?? ???? ?? ????, ?а????? ????????? ???,
?а?????? ?????? ??????, ???? ????????, ??????????? ?а????
?????????? л???????╗? ??? ??????? ???? ?? ??а???????
???, ??????? л?? ????? ????╗, ?? ?? ????? ????? ????? ?????????? ????? ??????, ??????а? ??? ?а??? ??????
???????? ?? ??????? л?????? ???╗ ???????????? ?? ????
???????? ????????????? ??????? ???????а? ???? ?????,
????? ??? ???????? ??а????????????????? ??????. ???, ????????, ???????? ???????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??????, ???????
?????????? ?????????????? ???????? ??? л??????????╗ ???
???????????. ??? ????? л???????╗.
л???????? ?а?????? ??? ?а???????????? ??? ?????:
???? ?????????? ???????
? ??????????? ?? ????
96
?. ?. ???????
? ????????, ??? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ????? ????????? ??????????????╗,а? ????????????? ??????. ? ?????а? ?????????? ??? ??? ?ал??????╗ ?ал????????╗ ????????????? ?а????????????? ??????: л?????????? ???????????? ???????
???????????? ?????????, ?а?? ??????? ?а?? ???????????.
??????? ?а ?а ?????? ?????? ???????? ??? ????????????.
??а?а???????? ??????, ?????????? ????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????, ???? ??? ???????????????.а<?> ???????
????????? ?а????????, ??????????? ????, ??????????? ??а???
??? ?????, ??? ??? ??????? ????╗а(XI, 160).
??????? л???????╗ ????????? ????????? ??????а? л?????? ?? ?????? ???? ??????? ????????? ?а???????╗а? ???????????, л??????? ??????????? ??????????╗а(XI, 158). ? ????
???? ????????? л??????? ????????╗ ?????:ал??????? ???????
? ?а????????? ???? <?>╗а(XI, 160).
?? ??????????????, ????????? ????? ?? ?????? ????????
л???????? ?????╗ XVIIIа???????? ?? ???????? ??? л??????????? ?????╗ ????? ??????????? ?а????? л?????????╗.
?а?????? ??????а? ??????? ??????????? ?????????????
л????????????╗ ?а??????????? л??????????╗, ????????????
?а????? ?????????? л?????╗. ??????? л????????? ????????╗
???? ????????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ?а????????? ?????? л??????????? ?????╗, ?????????? ???????? ?ал???????
???????????? ?????╗. ? ??? ??????? л????????? ????????╗
????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ????? ???? ?а?????? ?а????? ???????? ??????? ?????, ?????????? ????? ????? ???
????? ????????? ???????а[4, 366?367]. ??? ???? ?????? ???
????? ?? ????? ?а???????? л????????????╗ ??????????, ??????? ?? ????? ??????????? ?????? л???????╗а? ????? ?????????? ???????.
? ???????? л??????????????╗ ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ??? ??? ???????????? л??????╗а? ?????? ??????, ??? л??????╗ ?а??? ??а??????????? л?? ?????
????╗! ????????? ?????????? ?а???а? ?? ?????, ??? ???????
??????? ?????: ??? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?????????????.
????????? ???? ?????? ????? ?а??????? л?????????╗
????: ?? ????? л?????? ??????╗, ?? ???????????? ??а?????,
??а??????????? ??? ????? ?а???????? ???а? ???? ??????
?????? ???? ? ?????????? ???????? ???????...
97
л?????╗. ??? ???????? ??? ????? ??????, ????????, ????????? ?????????? ????? л????-??????╗: ?? л???? ??а???????╗, ?? л?????????╗ ?????, ?? л???????? ??? ????????╗?
?????????????? ?????, ?????? ??????? ?ал????╗а? ?а???????? л?????????????╗ ???????????? ?????? ?????, л?????
?а????? ?????╗. ?а??????? ?????????? ????: л??? ??, ?????,
???? ???????╗. ?,а????????? ???? л???????╗ ????а? ?????????????,а? ????????? ???? ?а???, ????? ?? ????? ??????? (?
?????? ?? л????????╗) ?????: ????????? ?а??? ???? л??????
???????????╗ ?а? л????? ???? ?? ????????а/ ?? ????????
?????????╗а(III1,а528).
? ??а?????? ?????? л?????? ?а???? ????????╗ ????????????? ??????? ?а???????????? ??????? ?а????????а? ??? л?????? ?а?????? ?а?????╗ ??????? ?а???????????? ???????? ?а????????????? ?а????????. ???, ??????, ????? л????????????╗,
??? ?? ???????????? ????????а? ?????? ??а???????? ???????
?????. ? ???????? ????????? ????? ??а?????????? ????????
???????????? ??? ???????а? ? ??????? ?????? ???????, ? ??
??? ??-???????? ????? ?а????? ?ал?????? ????╗. ??? ?? ??????а? ?? ?????? ??? л????╗ ??????? ???????? ??????????????? ?????? ???????? ???????: ??????? ? л????????? ??????╗.
л?????? ?а??????? ???????╗, ??????????? ??а????????????
???????? ?????????? ???????, ??? ????? ?? ????? ?а???? ??????? л?????? ?????╗. ?а??? ???????????? ?????? ?????
л??????╗, ???????????, ? ??? ????? л??????????????? ???????????? ???????╗а[9, 422]. ? ??? ?????? ????????????а?
?а???????? ?????? ?а??????????? ????а? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ????.
??????????
1
2
3
4
5
6
????????.??. ?????? ???????? ?????????: ?а16а?. ?.; ?.: ???-??
??а????, 1949. ?.аXII. ?.а337. ????? ???????????? ?а?????? ???????
?????????? ??а????? ??????? ?а????????? ???? (??????? ??????),
????? (?????? ??????) ?а???????? ?а??????? ???????.
??????.??. ????????? ???????? ??????. ?.: ???????????, 1957. ?.а972.
??????.??. ???????? ??????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????: ?а4а?. ?.:
??????? ????, 1980. ?.а4. ?.а190.
????? ???????: ??????????? ?а???????????????? ??????. ?.??.:
Academia, 1935. ?.а406.
??????????. ?????????а// ????????а?. ???????? ?????????: ?а3а?.
?.: ?????.а???., 1977. ?.а3. ?.а336?344.
???????. ?а?????????. ?? ?????????: ?а2а?. ?.: ?????????, 1967. ?.а1. ?.а6?7.
?. ?. ???????
98
?????? ??????????
1. ?.??.??????? ?а????????????? ?????????????: ?а2а?.а/ ????. ?а??????.
?.??.???????, ?.??.????????????, ?.??.???????????, ?.??.?????????.а? ?.:
?????.а???., 1985.а? ?.а1.а? 543а?.
2. ???????????.??. ?????? ???????? ?????????: ?а13а?.а/ ??.а???. ?.??.??????????.а? ?.: ???-?? ??а????, 1955.а? ?.а7.а? 740а?.
3. ??????????.??. ? ?????????: ??????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????.а? ?.: ????????, 1971.а? 248а?.
4. ????????. ??????: ????? ?а???????????а// ????????. ? ?????? ????
?????? ??????.а? ?.: ???????, 2007.а? ?.а326?368.
5. ??????????.??. ? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????а// ?????????
?????????? ????????.а? ???.: ?????, 1995.а? ???.а26.а? ?.а192?196.
6. ????????.??. ?????????????? ??????? ????????? ??????.а? ????????????: ???-?? ??????, 1989.а? 87а?.
7. ???????.??. ???????????? ????? ????????? ??????.а? ?.: ???-?? ???,
1986.а? 364а?.
8. ?????????.??. ???????????? ?а??????? ????????? ????????а//
?.а?.а?????? ?а????????????? ?????????????: ?а2а?.а? ?.: ?????.а???.,
1985.а? ?.а2.а? ?.а35?43.
9. ????????????.??. ??????????а// ????????.??. ?????. ??????: ?а2а?.а?
?., 1939.а? ?.а2.а? ?.а381?439 (?-?? ?????).
Vyacheslav A.?Koshelev
Yaroslav-the-Wise Novgorod State University
(Novgorod the Great, Russian Federation)
anatoly.koshelev@novsu.ru
FAIRY TALE IS A LIE ACCORDING TO
PUSHKIN?S CREATIVE PERCEPTION
Abstract. The well-known final of Pushkin?s ?Fairy tale of the Golden Cockerel?
(crossed out by a censor) contained an unconventional statement: ?The tale?s
a lie, but it?s got a hint! For a good pal it?s a tip?. What was it for a ?hint? that
was a ?fairy tale?s? conclusion, that the author was referring to? And why was
the tale itself defined as a lie? In Pushkin?s language use a fairy-tale (something
that is told and then written down) is peculiar as it is obviously a fable and that
is esthetically important. The fairy-tale principle invented by the author provided
the basis for the very ?fables?, one could ?pour tears over?. That very principle
made the author perceive any event he described particularly vividly. This
article gives several examples of Pushkin?s treating the events he wrote about
as a ?fairy tale?.
Keywords: fairy tale, legend, history, literary transformation, imagination
?????? ???? ? ?????????? ???????? ???????...
99
References
1. A.?S.?Pushkin v vospominaniyakh sovremennikov: v 2аtomakh [A.?S.?Pushkin
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the Russian Magic Fairy Tale]. Petrozavodsk, Petrozavodsk State University
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Magic Fairy Tale]. Leningrad, Leningrad State University Publ., 1986. 364аp.
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vа2аtomakh [A.?S.?Pushkin in Memoirs of His Contemporaries: in 2аVols].
Moscow, Khudozhestvennaya literatura Publ., 1985, vol.а2, pp.а35?43.
9. Slonimskiy?A.?L. Primechaniya [Notes]. Pushkin?A.?S. Poemy. Skazki
[Pushkin?A.?S. Poems. Fairy Tales]. Leningrad, 1939, vol.а2, pp.а381?439.
???? ??????????? ?а????????: 30.05.2016
йа?.??.????????, 2016
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