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53
DOI 10.15393/j9.art.2016.3744
??? 821.161.1.09"18"
???? ????????? ???????
???????????? ???????? ??.а?.а?.а????????
(??????, ?????????? ?????????)
jesaulov@yandex.ru
??????????????а? ????????а? ????????а
? ??????? ? ???????????? ??????????а
?????????????????: ?????????? ????????*
?????????. ? ?????? ??????????????? ????????? ???????????????, ?????????, ????????? ??? ? ????? ??????????? ????, ??? ? ? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????????????. ????????????, ???
????????? ???????? ???????? (?????????? ????????????? ??? ?????????? ????????????, ??? ? ?????? ??????? ?????????, ?????? ?? ???????????? ?????????) ?????? ??????? ?? ??????? ????????? (??????????)
??????????????. ????????, ????? ?????? (???????? ????????) ??????????? ??? ?????? ???????????, ??? ? ?????? ??????????????? ?????????????. ?????? л??????╗ ???????????????? ?? ? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ???? (???, ???????, ? ???? ???????????????) ????????,
?????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ????????, ??????? ?а??????? ???????
? ???????? ?????? ???????? ????????, ?.а?. ????? ??? ?????????????
??????????? ??????????. ???? ????????????? (??????????) л????╗ ?????????? ??????????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ?????? ????,
??????? ?? ?????????, ??? ????????а? ? ?????????а? ?????? ????????
????? ???? ?????, ? ???? ?? ????????? ????????????? ???? ??????????
????????а? ?? ???? ????? ???? ? ??? ??????? ????????.
???????? ?????: ???????, ?????????????????, ??????????, ????,
??????????
?
?????? ?????????? ??????, ???????? ??????? ?????????????, ???????? ?а?????? ???????, ??? ????? ?? ???, ???
?????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????? л??????╗, ??????? ? ??????? ????????? ?а????? ????????? ??????, ?????????????? ? л????????? ???????????? ???????╗ ????? ???????? ??? ?????а(??.: [11]). ??? ????
????? ??????????? ?????, ??? ? ???????? ??? ??????????,
??????? ??????? (?а?? ?????? ???? л??????????╗) ?????, ? ???
?????????????? ???? ???????????, ??? ??????????????, ????
??? ??? ??????????. ?????? ?????? л?? ??????? ???????╗
54
?. ?. ???????
????????. ????????? ????? ????, ???????????? ? ?????????????? ????, ? ??????????? ???????: ??????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????, ?? ?, л?????? ????? ????╗ ? ?????, л??????
?????? ????????╗ (?????? ???.а? ?.а?.). ??????????????
л???????╗ ??????? ? ?????, ????? ???????, ??????????а?
?а??????????? ????????? ??? ???? ??????? ???????????
??????? ????????????.
???? ? ???, ??? ??? ?.??.???????, ???????? ??????????
????? ????????? ???????????? ???????а? л??????????????
???╗а(??.: [20]), ????? ? ????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????. ?а????? ????????? ??????а? ? ??? ?? л?????????
???????????? ???????╗,а ? ????????????? ??????????
??????, ??, ? ???????, ?????????: л??????????? ???а<?>
???????????, ?? ???? ????, ?????????? ??????????????? ?????, ????, ???????? ?? ?????? ???????╗, ????? ??? л?????
?????? (?? ?????????? ????????????) ???? ???????? ?????
?????????????? ???????????? ????, ???????? ??? ?????, ??????????? ????? ????? ?????? ? ??????????. <?>а?? ???????
???????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ????? ?????????
??????, ? ? ????????? ??????а? ???? ????????╗а[22, 133]. ????
??????????????, ???????? ??, ?????????? ?????? ????????
л?????? ????????????╗ ???????????? ????? ????????????а(??.:а[7];
[14, 577?582]), ??????? ???????????, ????? ??????, ? ????????? ??????????? ?.а?.а??????????.
????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??, ??? ?? ??????????
??????????? ??????? (??? ????????????? ???????????) ??
??????? ???????????????? ????? ???????????? ? ???????????? ?????? ????? ???? (??? ? ???????????? л????????????╗
????????????????? ? ??????) ?????????????????? (???? ????
??????????) ???????????? ? ????????????? ? ??????? ???????????? ????????. ??? ????????, ?????? ???????????????
л?????????╗ ? л??????????╗ (??? ???????: л??????????????╗
?ал????????????╗) ?? ???????? ?????? ???? ? ??????????
?????? ? л???? ?????????╗, ? ??????????? ??? ? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? XIXа????. ??????? ?????? ????? ????? ??????? ? ????? ?? ??? ?????: л????? ???????, ??????? ??????а<?> ??????? ???????????? ???????,
?? ???????? ???????????? ???? ? ??????а<?> ?????????
??????????????ан? ????????а? ?????????
55
??? ?? ?????? ???????? ???????? ? ??? ?????????????????
??????????╗а[21, 273]; л?? ??????? ????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????а<?> ????????╗а[21, 263].
?а?????? ????????? ???????????????? ???????? ?а??????
???? ??????? ????????????а? ???? ?? ??????, ??? ???а?
?а??????????????-??????? ?????а? ??????????????? ????????
????????????? ?????? ????, ????????????? ? ??????? ???????? ??? ???????.
? ????????? ???????????? ????? ??????? ????? ????????
???????? ?????? ?????? ???????????, ??? ??? ????? ???????????? ?а???? ??????, ???????? ?????????? ??????, ??????????? ??????????, ?а??? ????? ? ? ?????????? ????????.
?а????????? ??????????? ???? ????????????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????????, ?а??????? ??????????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ????????, ?????? ???
???????? ????????? ????? ????????????? ?????? ??????
????, ?.а?. ?????? ?????????????? ????? (??. ? ???????? ??????????? ????????:а[18];а[19]).
??? ????? ??????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????
??????? ????????? ?а???? ??-?????? ????????????? ???????????. ??, ?????????? ?????????, ??? ? ????? ????? ?????
????? ????????????? ? ???? л??????? ?????╗ ??.а???????,
???? ?????? ????????, ????????? ??? ? ???? ????? ??????
????????????? ? ?? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????. ?? ????? ?????
?? ???????????? ???????? ???????????? л????????????╗
(??????????? ??? ?????????) ???? ??? ????? ???????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????. ??? ????
???????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ????????????
????????? ?? ???? ? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ??
?????????, ? ?????? Slavia Orthodoxa (?.а??????) ? ?????????????????? ????.
????????? ?? ????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????
???? ??????? ????????? ? ???????? ???????, ?????????
???????? ??????????. ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ?.а?.а???????? л?????? ??????????? ?????
(1829?1834): ???? ????????, ???????? ???????????, ?????????
??????╗а(??.:а[5]). ? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??????,
56
?. ?. ???????
??????????? ??????? ??????????? л??????????╗ ? л?????????????╗. ?????? ?????? ????????? ? ??? ? ????????? ?????????? ????? ???????????, ? ???-???? ??????? ???? ???
??????? ??????????. ????????, ? ?????? ???????????? ?а???????? л????????????╗ ????????? ???????????? ?????????
??????????? ??????????. ?????? ???????, ????????, ???
????????????-????????? ????????? ? ????????????, ? л???????? ?а????????╗, ? л???????╗ ? л????????????╗ ????????
????? ????????????? ?а?????????? ??????????, ?, ??? ??
?????, ????? ?? ???????? ???????? ?? ???????? ?????????
?????????? ? ??????? ????????????? (??????????????). ????
л??????????а<?> ?????????? ? ??????╗а[5, 26] ? ?????? л?????? ???????? ????? ??????╗ ??????????, ??? ??????????????,
???????????????? ??? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ??
????. ???????, ??? ?? ?????? ????????? ???? ????????? ??
?????????? ? ?? ?????? ?????? ????????? ?а????? ????????????? ? ???????, ?? ? ????????? ???????? ???? ?? ?
?????? ?????? ????????? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ??????
????????? ??????????????. ??????? ?????, ??? ? ????????????, ?а?????? ?а???????????? ?? ?????? ????????, ?? ?
????? ??????? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ???? (?????? ?????????? ?, ??? ???????, ?????????? ??????? ????), ?? ????? ??
л????????? ?? ????╗.
? ?????, л???????????╗ ????????, ? ????? ????????????????? ????????????????? ? ???????? ?????????????????
?????????? ????? ?????????? ????? ?.а?.а??????? ? ??????
?.а?.а????? ? ??? ??????????????, ?????????, ?? ??? ??????,
? ????????? ????? ???????? ??????????, ??? ??? ????? ??????????. ?????????? л??????????╗ ?ал?????????????╗, л???????╗ ? л????????╗ ????????????? ??????? (???????????????????) ?????? ????????, ?? ? ????? ??????????? ???? ?????? (? ????? ? ????????????? ??????????? ???????) ???
?????? ?????а? ??? ? ???????????, ? ???????а? ??????
?? ???????? ??????-?? ??????????????????, ???????????????? ???? ????? ???????? ?????, ??? ???????????????
?а???????? ???????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????? ????. ???-???? ?? ????? ????????, ??? ???? ??????? ????????????????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ????? ???????
??????????????ан? ????????а? ?????????
57
???????? ????????, ?? ?????? ?? ??? ?????????? ??????????
? ???? ??????. ?????? ?????????-????????? ?????????????
??????, ??? ????????? ????? ?? ???????? ??????????????????? ??? ???????????? ???????????? ???????. ?а????? ??
???????? ??????????????????? ??? ??????? ???????? ???
???????. ???, ?????????, ????????? ?? ?????? ? ?????????
??????, ?? ?а?а????????? ????????.
??????? ??? ??????. ???????? ?? ???????????? ??????? ????????, ????????? ? ????? л?????╗, ?.??.????????
????????: л???????????????а<?> ??????????а<?> ? ????????а<?> ??? ?????а? ??????? ??? ? ????а? ??? ????????????,
??????????? (?????? ???.а? ?.а?.) ????????? ????? ??????
?а?????, ?????? ?а???????, ??????? ? ?????╗а[5, 28]. ??,
?????? ?а?????????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ???.
?а?????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???. ? ????????а? ??????
?? ???. ?а????? ??, ????? ???????, ??? ????? ???? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????????. ??? ????? л?????╗,
??????? ?? л????????╗ ?? ?????? ???????. ??? ??? ?? ??????
???????????? ??? ?????????????, ??? ??????, ?? ??? ??????,
???????? ??????????? л????????????╗ ?ал????????╗, л??????????╗ ?ал?????????????╗, л?????????╗ ?ал???????????????╗.
???? ?? ????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ?????? ? ?????? ????????????? ??? ????????? ????? ????????а ?
л??? ???? ?????? ? ???? ?????╗, ? ???? ?????????? ???????а(??.: [5, 119?120]), ? ?? ??? ????? ????????? ??? ?ал????????? ??????????╗а[5, 120]а? л??? ?????? ???? ?????? ??? ????
????, ???? ?????? ??????? ??????╗ (???.а21:12, 15). ????????,
??? ???????, ??????????????? ???? ??????? ?????????????
?????, ? ??????? ??????????????? ??? ?? ??????????? ???????? л?????????????╗ ? ???? (л??????? ????!╗) ?????? ???
??????, ?? ???? ?????? ??????????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????. ? ?????? ???????, ??? ??? ????
?????? ??????? ?????????????, ? ???? ????? л?????????????╗ ??? ???????? ??????. ????, ??? ?????? ? ????? ???? ????
? ???????, ?? ?????? ?? ??????????????? ??? ???? ?????????????? ??????????, ????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????.
58
?. ?. ???????
??????? л???????????? ????? ????╗а(??.: [25]) ?????????
?? ?????? ??????????? ?? л???????????╗ ? л????????????╗,
л?????????╗ ?ал????????????╗, ?? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????
??????????????? ????????????, ?а????????????? ????????
????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ??? ??????
?????????? ?????, ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ??????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ????????
????????????? ?????? ????.
??????????? ????? ?? ????????? л??????????? ????????╗
?.а?.а???????. ????? ??? ?????????, ?????? ????????????
?????? ?????????? л????????????? ????????╗. ?? ?????????? ???????, ?? ????? ???????, ?а???????? ???????? ??????
???????? ????????: ??????? ???????? ???????? л?????????
? ????? ??????????, ???????????? ? ???????????? ???? ?????? ???????, ?? ???? ???????? ?? ????? ?????, ? ??????? ??
?????? ?????? ???????. ?? ??????????????? ? ?????? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ? ??????╗а[2, 24]. ??????
?а??????? ????????: ?? ???????? ?? ????????????? ??????????????? ?????????? л???????????-???????? ??????╗ ?????
?????? ???? л?????????????╗?
?? ?????? ??????, ?.а?.а??????? ?????????? ???????????,
?? ??? ??????, ?????? ?? ?? ?????? ????? ????? л????????
????????╗ ? ????? ????????? ???????? ????????????? (????? ???????, ????????????)а(??.:а[4]). ???????? ??????????
?а????????? ?????????????????? ???? ??????? ????????,
?а????? ?????????? ?? ????? ????????????? ??????????
?????????? л???????????╗ ??????? ?????????.
?? ?????? ????????, ????????????? ??????? ?????? ??
???????? ?а???????????????????? ???????а[3, 271?325]. ????????????? ???????, ??? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ?? ????? ???? ?????????????
??????. ???????????? ?????????????, ???? ??????? ??? ????????????????? ?????????,а? ? ???????????? л????????????╗
??????? ?а?????????????? ?????. ? ???? ?? ????? ??????,
?????? ???????? ???? ?а? ??????????????, ?? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ?????????. ?????? ??? л????????????????╗
??????????????ан? ????????а? ?????????
59
???????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????????
???????? ????????, ?? ?? ?? ??????? ????? ???????.
? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? л???????? ???????? ????????╗
(?а??? ??????, ??????? ????????? ? ??? ??????? ??????), ??
? ???????? ?????? л?????????╗, ???? ????????? ??????????
??? ????????????, ??????? ?? ??????????, ??????? ????????? ??????, ???????? ??????? ????? ????????. ??? ?????????? ??????? ???? ?? ??????, ??? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ???????? ???????? (??????????????, ?? ???? ???????
??????? ???????????? ???????? ???????), ?????? ? ??????????? ??????. ???? ???????????-??????????? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????, ?? ??????????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ? ?????????.
??????????? ????????????? ????? ??????? ??????????
????????? ???????? ?????? ????????????? (????????????)
??????? ????, ? ??????? ??????????? л????????╗ ? л???????????╗, л?????????????╗ ?ал?????????????╗, л????????╗
?ал????????╗, л????????╗ ?ал??????????????╗, ??? ??????????
??????????? ????????. ?????????? ????????, ??? ? ??????????????? ???????, ???????????? ????????? ????????????
????????а[6], ???????? ??????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ??????????. ???, ????? ?????? (???????? ????????) ??????????? ??? ?????? ???????????, ??? ? ?????? ??????????????? ?????????????. ?????? ???????????? ?? ??? ??????????
????????? ???? (???, ???????, ?а???? ???????????????)
????????, ?????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ????????, ????? ???????, ??? ??? ??????? ? ??????? ??????? (? л?????
?????? ???????╗) ? ???????? ?????? ???????? ????????.
??? ???? ? ???? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ????? (? ?????!) ????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ?????????,
??????????? Slavia Orthodoxa. ???, ???????????? ????????
?????? ???????????? ????, ?????? ????????: л??????? ? ?????? ????, ?????????????, ?? ??????? ????????? ?????, ? ????????? ?????? ???????????, ??????????? ????, ???????????? ?? ???????????? ? ????????. ?? ???????? ???????????
? ??? ????? ????? ?????????????? ???? ?????????????
?а???????????????? ??????. ?? ??? ?? ???????, ??? ?????
60
?. ?. ???????
???? ????? ?? ?? ??????????? ? ??????????, ? ?? ??????╗а[1, 495].
??? ??? ??????? ???? ?????????? ?? ???????????, ???????
?а??? ????????? ????, ???????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ????
??????????? ????????????????? ?????????????, ?? ??????
???????????? ??????? ???? ???????? ????????????? л???????????, ??????????? ?????╗, ???????? л???????????╗ ?а????????????? ??????.
л????╗ ???????? ?????? ???????? ? ???? ?????????, ???????, ?????? ?????????? ?????, ???????????? л?? ???????????? ? ????????╗. ?????? ?????? ??????? ?????????а? ?,а???
?????, л???????????╗ ??????? ?? ??????????а? ??????
?а???????????? ????????? ?????????. ??????????, ???????????? ??????а? ? ???? ???????????? ??????? ????а? ??????????? (?.а?.а?????? ???????? ???????? ? ??? ??????????????).
??????, ?????? ??????? ????? ? ???????? ??????????????,
??????? ????????, ??? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ?а??????? ?????? ? ??????? л???? ????? ??????????╗ ???? ??
??????????? ???????? ? ???????? л???????????╗ ? л????????╗: ??? ????? ???? ?????? ?? ? ?????????? л???? ???????╗,
??? ??? ????? ??? ??????, ?????? ?? ????????? ????????????
?????????, ?? ? ????????? ?????? ???????????? ????????.
??????????, ????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ????? ????
?????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ???. ??? ?? ?????,
???? ????????????? л????╗ ?????? ?????????? ??????????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ????, ???
???????????? ?????? ???????? ????? ???? ????? (?а?а??????
?????? ????? ???????? ? ????????? ?????????), ? ???? ??
??????? ?? ????????? ????????????? ???? ????????????
??????????а? ?? ???? ???????? ?а?????????? ?? ?????????.
? ????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ? ???? ??????. ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ??????????????? ????, ?? ? ????????? ?а??????????? ??????????
??????. ? ?? ?????? ??????.
?????? ???????????? ??????? ??????????????, ????????????? ? ??????? ???????????, ???????????? ? ??????
??????? ?????????, ??????? ?? ??? ???, ?а?????????, ??
???????? ????????? ???? ?????????. ????? ?? ????? ???????? ??????? л???????????? ????????╗а(??.: [8]). ????? ???
??????????????ан? ????????а? ?????????
61
?????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??????????
?? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????а? ???????????? ????????.
??? ?? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?.а?.а????????, ??????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ????????? л??????? ?а?????? ??????╗
????????????. ??? ?? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????,
?? ??? ??????, ???????????? ???????????? ????????????:
л???????????? ???????а? ??? ???????, ? ??????? ??? ???,
????? ??????????? ??????, ?????? ?????????? ?????╗а[15,
175]. ??? ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ???
???????? ??????????? ?????? ?а????????? ????? ?.а?.а?????? л???? ?? ????╗, ??? ?? ????????? ?а????????? ????? ???????
??????????а(??.:а[24]). ??????? ???????????, ??? ???? ???????
????????????? ????????а? ??????? ?????????? ????? ?????????????? ????, ?????? ???????? ??????????? ????????????
??????????? (???????????, ???????????????, ??????????,
????????): ???? ???? ?а????????????????? ?????????? ????????, ??????? ????????? ???? ?а?????????? ? ????????? ????????????? ???? ????????.
? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ??????????
?а???????? ???????? (???????? ???? ?? л??????? ???????╗,
л??????????? ?????╗). ?? ??? ?????????? ? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ??? ? ???????? ?????????? ?????????
??? ? ???????????????? ????????????? ??? ?а?????????
????????????? ????????????? ? ????? ??? ? ???????????
л???????????????╗? ??? ? ??????? ???????? ? ???????????
?????? ?????????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ????????
?? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????. ???? ????а?
??? ??????? ????а? ?????? ???????? ????, ?????? ????????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ??????,
?? ?????? ???????, ????????? ?? ????????????? ??????
?????????????????, ???? ??????????????? ? ?????????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????, ????? ???? ????????????????
??? ?????????? ????????????? ????????. ????? ???????
??????? ?.а?.а?????????, ??????? ????????? ? ???, ???
62
?. ?. ???????
л??????? ???????? ???????? ?????????-???????????? ?а??????????????? ???????????╗а[17, 27], ???? ?????? ????а? ???
??? ?? ???????? ??????????, ??????? л????????╗ ????? ???????????а(??.а????.:а[9]).
?.а?.а??????? ??????????? ????????, ??? ??????????? ??????? ??????, ???????? ?? ?????? ????, ??? ?? ?????, ?????????? ? ?????????? л??????????? ??????????╗а[15, 176].
????? ????????, ??? ???? ?? ???????? ?а????? ?????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????????????????
???????????, ????? ???????? ???????????? ?а?????????
??????? ????????? ???????????: ?????? ????? ? ????? ?????? ????? ??? ??? ? ?? ????????. ?????? ???? ?? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????? ???????? ???????
????????, ???? ?? ??????, ??? ??? ???? ??? ???????, ???????
???? ???????? ??????????? ????????, ????? ???????????
??????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????????
?а???????? ??????. ?? ???? ????а? ??????? ?????? ?????????????, ? ?????? ?? л????????????╗ ????????. ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????, ???????, ???????? ??
????????? ????? ?а???????, л?????╗ ?? ?????? ???? ? л?????? ?????╗, ???????????????, ??? ?а???????????? ???????, ?
???, ??? ??? ???? ????????????, ???????? ????? ?????? ????
???????, ???????? ???? ??????а[12].
? л??????????? ?????╗ ??????? ?????????????? ????????????? ???????. ???????, ??? ? ?????????????, ?????????
?а???????????????, ???????? ?????????. ???, ?????? ?????
???????? ????????? ????????, ???????? ?а?????, ???????:
л??? ?? ?? ???? ?? ????, ????, ??? <?> ????????? ???????
????? ? ????!╗1. ?? ??, ?????? ??????? ?? ????????, ?????????? ???? ?????: л??? ???????? ?? ??? ?????. ? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ???????, ??????? ???? ????????? ????????? ??
???? ???? ???????????? ? ???? ??? ? ???????? ???? ??????? ????? ??????╗а(465). ??? ?? ??????, ?????? ??? ???????,
л?????????? ?а???????? ???? ????????? ?, ??????? ??????
???????? ???????, ????????? ?? ???????, ?? ?????????????
??????, ???????? ??????, ?? ???????? ? ???, ??? ?? ???? ?????╗а(528). ???????, л??????? <?> ?????? ???? ? ????????????? ????? ???????????? ????╗ (534?535) (???????
??????????????ан? ????????а? ?????????
63
??????????, ?? ??????? ???????????? ???? ????????). ????? ????????, ??? ??????? ???????, ??? ? ?????? ???????,
???????? ?????: ?????????? ????????? ????: л????? ???? ???????╗а(539). ?? ????? ??????? ????? ? ????????
?????????????, ?? ?????????? ????????? ???? ?????????
?а????? ???????????? ???? ???????? ? ???????????????
?а???????????? ???????? ????? ????????????а(??. ?????????:а[13,а52?71]).
????? ??? ?? ? ?????? л??????? ???╗ ?????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???? ???????????
л???????? ?????╗ ???????????? ????????? ?????. ??? ????
?????? ????????????? л?????????╗ (?????? ????????? ?? ?????????-???????????, ?? ??????????????), ??? ??? ?а??????
??? ??????? ??????, ?????????? ???????? ?????? ????????
?? ???????? л?????-??????╗, ?? ????? ??????, ?????? ?????
????????? ????????? ? ????? ? ???? ???????????. ?????????
?????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ??? ??, ??? ? ??????????? ???????? ??????: ???? ???????????? ?????? ? л????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ? ????????╗ ??????????? ? ??????????, ??? л?????? ?? <???????> ?? ?????, ?а????? ???
???????????? ? ????????????? ???? <?> ????? ?? ???? ???????а? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????? ? ????╗2. ?? ????????? ??????????? ?а????? ???????? ? ?? ???????????, ?????
??????????? ?????????а? ???????? ???????а? л???????? ? ???? ????? ? ????? ??? ?????????? ????, ??? ????????? ??????? (?.а?. ????????????.а? ?.а?.) ??????? ????????╗3, ?????а? ?? ????? ??????????? ?????????а? л??? ??????а? ???? ???????╗4. ????? ???????, ????????? л???????
???╗ ? ????????? л????????? ?????╗ ????? ??????????
?????? (??. ?????????: [10, 227?257]), ??? ????????? ?? ???????
????????? ????????????? ????????.
????? ????, ??????? ????????? ???????????? ???????
?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ????????????? ?????? ????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ?????? ???
?????????? ????? ????????? ? ????? ??????????????? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ?????? ????, ???????
???????? ?? ????????? ???????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ??????.
64
?. ?. ???????
????????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ???????
?????? ??????????? ????? ??????????. ??? ???????????
?????????? ?????, ?? ??????? ?????? ??????, ??? ?? ??? ????
???? ?? л???????????╗, ? ????????? ???????, ??? ???????
?????????? ????????????? ? ????????????? ?????. ???? ??????? ?????????????, ??????, ??????, ??? ???????????????
???????? ???????? ???????????, ?? ??? ?????????? ?????,
???????, ??? ??? ???? ??????????? ??????, ?? ?????? ??????? ???????????. ???? ?? ?? ?????? ?а????, ????????? ????????? ?.а?.а??????????, л?????? ?????????╗ ?а???????
?????????? ????? ???????, ?? ??? ?????????? ?????? ?????
???????????? ?? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????????, ?? ?????? ??
????????? ????????? ??????. ? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????
????? ?????? ????????????????? ?????????? ??????, ? ???????, ??????, ??????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????????а? ????????????? ????????а? ????????? ?? ??????
?????????????????? ????????. ?????? ???? ????????????? ??
????? ? ??????????? ????????, ?????? ?? ??? ???? ??????????? ??? ?????? ???? ??????????? ???????? л????????????? ???????╗, ?? ??, ????????, ?? ????? ???????????? ? ??
????????? ????????? ????????? ?? ???????.
??????? ?? ???????? XIXа????, ???????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????, ?????? ??????? ???????,
??????? ??? ? ??????, ??? ? ? ????? ?????????? ?????????
????????????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ?????????
???? ? ????????. ? ???? ????????????? ???? ?????? ?? ? ???????????????, ?? ???????? ? ??? ???????????????? ????.
?? ???? ?????????????? ???, ??? ?? ?????, ?????? ? ?????
???????????? ???????. ??????? ??? ?? ?? ????????а? ??
??????? л?????????? ?????╗а? ?????? ???? ? л?????????
??????????????? ??????╗ ????? л? ???? ????╗, ???? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??? ????? ??????????????
???????? ?????? л??????╗ ?? л???????? ????╗, ?? л??????????????? ?????╗ ?а л?????????? ???????????? ??????????╗а[26, 55]5. ??????? ??, ??? ???????? ????????? л???????╗
? ??????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ????????, ? ????????, ??????????? ? ??? ???????:
?? ?????? ???? ? л????????╗ ??????????? ?? ??? ??? ????
???????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??? ???????
??????????????ан? ????????а? ?????????
65
(??????, ?????? ????????), ????? ??? ???????? ? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ???????????? ??
л????????╗, л???????????╗, ??????????? ???????, ??? ? ???
???????????? ????.
??? ????????? ?.??.???????, ???? ?? ????????? ? ????
?????????? ??????????????? ?????????а? ??? ??? ??????????? ??????????а? ??????? ???? ??????????? ???????: л?????????? ?????? ?? ????? ? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????, ? ??? ???? ????????? ??? ? ???? ???????, ??
????? ?????? ?????, ? ??? ???? ???????????? ?????????????
???? ???? ???????? ??????. ????? ?????? ??????????????,
??? ?????? ???????, ?? ?? ????? ???????????? ?????? ?????
?а????????? ????????? ????????? ??, ? ???? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????а? ???????: ?????
??????? ???? (? ?? ???? ? ????? ????), ????????? ??????? ?????
(? ?? ???? ?а?????, ???????? ????), ? ?? ????? ????????????
???? ?а????? ????????? ??????,а<?> ??????? ? ?????? ?????
?а????, ? ??????? ?? ?????╗а[23, 14]6. ??? ????? ?????????????
????????? ????????????? ???????а? ???? ?? ?а??????????????? ????????? ???????? ????а? ????????? ??? ??????????
?????????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ??????? ????????.
??????? ???? ????????????? (??????????) л????╗ ??????
?????????? ??????????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ????
?????? ????, ??????? ?? ?????????, ??? ????????а? ? ?????????а? ?????? ???????? ????? ???? ?????, ? ???? ?? ????????? ????????????? ???? ?????????? ????????а? ??
???? ????? ???? ? ??? ??????? ????????.
??????????
а?????? ????????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????
????? (????), ?????? ?а15-04-00212.
1
?????? ?.а?. ?????? ???????? ?????????: ? 10 ?. 3-?а???. ?.а 6. ?.:
?????, 1964. ?.а458. ????? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ?????????? ? ??????
?????? ? ????????? ???????? ? ??????? ???????.
2
?????? ?.а?. ???????? ?????????: ? 9 ?. ?.а6. ?.: ??????? ?????, 1994.
?.а192.
3
??? ??.
4
??? ??.
*
66
?. ?. ???????
5
?????????, ??? ?.а?????????, ????????? ? л???????? ?????╗ ???
л????????╗ ??????, ?? ???? ?? ???????? ? ????? ??????? ??????????? ????? л? ???? ????╗, ????????? ? ?????????? ????? л?????╗ ???
? л??????????????? ? ????????? ???????????╗а[26, 58]. ????????
л??????????????╗ ???????????? ????????, ??-????????, ?????? ??????????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ??????????,
?????? ????????? ????????? л???????????╗ ?? ???????.
?.а?.а???????, ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????????, ????????????? ????????? л??????????????╗ ? л????????????╗ ??? л???
???????, ??? ??????? ????? ??????, ??? ?????? ????????? ? ??????
??????? ????????????: ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ??????
??????????????, ?? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ????????а?
????????????╗а[16, 386].
6
?????? ??????????
1. ??????а?.а?. ??????? ?????????? ? ????????.а? ?.: ?????.а???.,
1975.а? 504а?.
2. ??????а?.а?. ?????????? ??????? ????? ? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ? ??????????.а? ?.: ?????.а???., 1990.а? 543а?.
3. ???????а?.а?. ???????? ????????????? ???????? ????????.а? ?.:
?????????, 1981.а? 359а?.
4. ???????а?.а?. ????????? ????????????? ????????.а? ?.: ?????????,
1984.а? 350а?.
5. ???????а?.а?. ?????? ??????????? ????? (1829?1834): ???? ????????,
???????? ???????????, ????????? ??????: ???. ?а?-?? ?????. ????.
????????????, 2012.а? 400а?.
6. ???????а?.а?. ???????????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ????????а// ??????? ???????? ? ???: ?????? ???????? ?????????? IIа?????????????
??????? ???????????.а? ?????? ????????: ????, 1994.а? ?????а1.а?
?.а201?203.
7. ???????а?.а?. ?????? ???????????? ? ???????????? ?????????????
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8. ???????а?.а?. ??????????? ???????а// ????????????????? ?????.а?
???.: ????????????? ??????, 2000.а? ?.а503?508.
9. ???????а?.а?. ? ???? ??????????? ? ?????? л???????????? ? ?????????╗а// ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????????
?????-???????????? ????????????? ?????????: ?????????.а? ?.,
2003.а? ?.а410?417.
10. ???????а?.а?. ???????????? ??????? ???????????.а? ?.: ?????, 2004.а? 560а?.
11. ???????а?.а?. л??????╗ ?.а?.а?????? ??? ??????? ? ?????????????? ????а//
???????? ???????????? ???????.а? ????????????: ???-?? ??????,
1998.а? ???.а5: ???????????? ????? ? ??????? ?????????? ?VIII???
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(?? ??: ????????.а? 2007.а? ?а2 (18).а? ?.а42?45).
??????????????ан? ????????а? ?????????
67
12. ???????а?.а?. ? ??????????? ?????? л???????????? ??????????╗
?.а?.а???????а// ???????? ???????????? ???????.а? ????????????: ???-?? ??????, 2012.а? ???.а10: ???????????? ????? ? ???????
?????????? XVIII?XXа?????: ??????, ?????????????, ?????, ?????,
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2012.а? 448а?.
14. ???????а?.а?. ????????????? ?????????: ????????? ??????????????.а?
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???????.а? ?.: ??????, 2012.а? 264а?.
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??????, 2013.а? 456а?.
17. ????????а?.а?. ?????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ? ??????????
??????? ??????? ?????????? XIXа????а// ???????? ???. ?????????
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??????, 1990.а? ???.а1: ???????????? ? ?????????.а? ?.а31?40.
21. ??????а?.а?. ?? ????????? ?????? ? ??????????: ??????????? ????????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ?????? ?.а?.а???????? ?а???????????а//
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1994.а? ???.а3: ???????????? ????? ? ??????? ?????????? ?VIII???а?????:
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22. ??????а?.а?. ?????? ?.а??????? л? ???? ? ? ????????? ??? ?????╗а//
???????? ???????????? ???????.а? ????????????: ???-?? ??????,
2014.а? ???.а12: ???????????? ????? ? ??????? ?????????? XII?XXIа?????:
??????, ?????????????, ?????, ?????, ????.а? ???. 9.а? ?.а124?136.
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26. ?????????а?. ? ?????. ? ??????: ??????? ??????.а? ?.: ?????.а???.,
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?. ?. ???????
68
Ivan A.аEsaulov
The Maxim Gorky Literature Institute
(Moscow, Russian Federation)
jesaulov@yandex.ru
FICTIONAL?? MIRACULOUS?? REALа
IN POETICS AND THE PROSAIC REALITYа
OF LITERATURE STUDY:а
FORMULATION THE PROBLEM
Abstract. The article addresses the semantics of the fictional, the miraculous,
the real both in the world of poetics and in the system of categories of the
modern Russian literature study. It is argued that the result of the scientific
description (the very interpretation of particular literature works, as well as
other scientific subjects, including national literatures) depends to quite an
extent on the value system (axiology) of a researcher. For instance, hagiography
(especially of holy fools) is overflowing with seemingly comic, as well as quite
fictional details. However, it is only possible to interpret them ?scientifically?
as the manifestation of the world of laughter (as well as, in fact, the world of
fiction) if one renounces from the tradition of holiness, approaching the subject
of the scientific description with detachment, i.e., depriving it from a specific
poetic reality. If the effectiveness (reality) of a ?miracle? is accepted by the
researcher as a positive significance of the world representation under study,
the description ? and understanding ? of the subject may be one, whereas if a
fundamentally different cultural tradition is being followed ? it may also result
in another scientific description.
Keywords: poetics, literature study, the fantastika, miracle, reality
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tekst v russkoy literature XVIII?XXаvekov: tsitata, reministsentsiya, motiv,
syuzhet, zhanr [The Gospel Text in Russian Literature of the 18th?20thаCenturies:
Quotation, Reminiscence, Motive, Plot, Genre]. Issueа5, pp.а5?16.
26. EykhenbaumаB. O proze. O poezii: sbornik statey [On Prose. On Poetry: Collection
of Articles]. Leningrad, Khudozhestvennaya literatura Publ., 1986. 456аp.
???? ??????????? ? ????????: 25.03.2016
й ?.а?.а???????, 2016
??? ????????????? (??????????) л????╗ ?????????? ??????????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ?????? ????,
??????? ?? ?????????, ??? ????????а? ? ?????????а? ?????? ????????
????? ???? ?????, ? ???? ?? ????????? ????????????? ???? ??????????
????????а? ?? ???? ????? ???? ? ??? ??????? ????????.
???????? ?????: ???????, ?????????????????, ??????????, ????,
??????????
?
?????? ?????????? ??????, ???????? ??????? ?????????????, ???????? ?а?????? ???????, ??? ????? ?? ???, ???
?????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????? л??????╗, ??????? ? ??????? ????????? ?а????? ????????? ??????, ?????????????? ? л????????? ???????????? ???????╗ ????? ???????? ??? ?????а(??.: [11]). ??? ????
????? ??????????? ?????, ??? ? ???????? ??? ??????????,
??????? ??????? (?а?? ?????? ???? л??????????╗) ?????, ? ???
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??? ??? ??????????. ?????? ?????? л?? ??????? ???????╗
54
?. ?. ???????
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?????? ????????╗ (?????? ???.а? ?.а?.). ??????????????
л???????╗ ??????? ? ?????, ????? ???????, ??????????а?
?а??????????? ????????? ??? ???? ??????? ???????????
??????? ????????????.
???? ? ???, ??? ??? ?.??.???????, ???????? ??????????
????? ????????? ???????????? ???????а? л??????????????
???╗а(??.: [20]), ????? ? ????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????. ?а????? ????????? ??????а? ? ??? ?? л?????????
???????????? ???????╗,а ? ????????????? ??????????
??????, ??, ? ???????, ?????????: л??????????? ???а<?>
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???????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ????? ?????????
??????, ? ? ????????? ??????а? ???? ????????╗а[22, 133]. ????
??????????????, ???????? ??, ?????????? ?????? ????????
л?????? ????????????╗ ???????????? ????? ????????????а(??.:а[7];
[14, 577?582]), ??????? ???????????, ????? ??????, ? ????????? ??????????? ?.а?.а??????????.
????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??, ??? ?? ??????????
??????????? ??????? (??? ????????????? ???????????) ??
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л?????????╗ ? л??????????╗ (??? ???????: л??????????????╗
?ал????????????╗) ?? ???????? ?????? ???? ? ??????????
?????? ? л???? ?????????╗, ? ??????????? ??? ? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? XIXа????. ??????? ?????? ????? ????? ??????? ? ????? ?? ??? ?????: л????? ???????, ??????? ??????а<?> ??????? ???????????? ???????,
?? ???????? ???????????? ???? ? ??????а<?> ?????????
??????????????ан? ????????а? ?????????
55
??? ?? ?????? ???????? ???????? ? ??? ?????????????????
??????????╗а[21, 273]; л?? ??????? ????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????а<?> ????????╗а[21, 263].
?а?????? ????????? ???????????????? ???????? ?а??????
???? ??????? ????????????а? ???? ?? ??????, ??? ???а?
?а??????????????-??????? ?????а? ??????????????? ????????
????????????? ?????? ????, ????????????? ? ??????? ???????? ??? ???????.
? ????????? ???????????? ????? ??????? ????? ????????
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?а????????? ??????????? ???? ????????????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????????, ?а??????? ??????????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ????????, ?????? ???
???????? ????????? ????? ????????????? ?????? ??????
????, ?.а?. ?????? ?????????????? ????? (??. ? ???????? ??????????? ????????:а[18];а[19]).
??? ????? ??????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????
??????? ????????? ?а???? ??-?????? ????????????? ???????????. ??, ?????????? ?????????, ??? ? ????? ????? ?????
????? ????????????? ? ???? л??????? ?????╗ ??.а???????,
???? ?????? ????????, ????????? ??? ? ???? ????? ??????
????????????? ? ?? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????. ?? ????? ?????
?? ???????????? ???????? ???????????? л????????????╗
(??????????? ??? ?????????) ???? ??? ????? ???????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????. ??? ????
???????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ????????????
????????? ?? ???? ? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ??
?????????, ? ?????? Slavia Orthodoxa (?.а??????) ? ?????????????????? ????.
????????? ?? ????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????
???? ??????? ????????? ? ???????? ???????, ?????????
???????? ??????????. ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ?.а?.а???????? л?????? ??????????? ?????
(1829?1834): ???? ????????, ???????? ???????????, ?????????
??????╗а(??.:а[5]). ? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??????,
56
?. ?. ???????
??????????? ??????? ??????????? л??????????╗ ? л?????????????╗. ?????? ?????? ????????? ? ??? ? ????????? ?????????? ????? ???????????, ? ???-???? ??????? ???? ???
??????? ??????????. ????????, ? ?????? ???????????? ?а???????? л????????????╗ ????????? ???????????? ?????????
??????????? ??????????. ?????? ???????, ????????, ???
????????????-????????? ????????? ? ????????????, ? л???????? ?а????????╗, ? л???????╗ ? л????????????╗ ????????
????? ????????????? ?а?????????? ??????????, ?, ??? ??
?????, ????? ?? ???????? ???????? ?? ???????? ?????????
?????????? ? ??????? ????????????? (??????????????). ????
л??????????а<?> ?????????? ? ??????╗а[5, 26] ? ?????? л?????? ???????? ????? ??????╗ ??????????, ??? ??????????????,
???????????????? ??? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ??
????. ???????, ??? ?? ?????? ????????? ???? ????????? ??
?????????? ? ?? ?????? ?????? ????????? ?а????? ????????????? ? ???????, ?? ? ????????? ???????? ???? ?? ?
?????? ?????? ????????? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ??????
????????? ??????????????. ??????? ?????, ??? ? ????????????, ?а?????? ?а???????????? ?? ?????? ????????, ?? ?
????? ??????? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ???? (?????? ?????????? ?, ??? ???????, ?????????? ??????? ????), ?? ????? ??
л????????? ?? ????╗.
? ?????, л???????????╗ ????????, ? ????? ????????????????? ????????????????? ? ???????? ?????????????????
?????????? ????? ?????????? ????? ?.а?.а??????? ? ??????
?.а?.а????? ? ??? ??????????????, ?????????, ?? ??? ??????,
? ????????? ????? ???????? ??????????, ??? ??? ????? ??????????. ?????????? л??????????╗ ?ал?????????????╗, л???????╗ ? л????????╗ ????????????? ??????? (???????????????????) ?????? ????????, ?? ? ????? ??????????? ???? ?????? (? ????? ? ????????????? ??????????? ???????) ???
?????? ?????а? ??? ? ???????????, ? ???????а? ??????
?? ???????? ??????-?? ??????????????????, ???????????????? ???? ????? ???????? ?????, ??? ???????????????
?а???????? ???????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????? ????. ???-???? ?? ????? ????????, ??? ???? ??????? ????????????????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ????? ???????
??????????????ан? ????????а? ?????????
57
???????? ????????, ?? ?????? ?? ??? ?????????? ??????????
? ???? ??????. ?????? ?????????-????????? ?????????????
??????, ??? ????????? ????? ?? ???????? ??????????????????? ??? ???????????? ???????????? ???????. ?а????? ??
???????? ??????????????????? ??? ??????? ???????? ???
???????. ???, ?????????, ????????? ?? ?????? ? ?????????
??????, ?? ?а?а????????? ????????.
??????? ??? ??????. ???????? ?? ???????????? ??????? ????????, ????????? ? ????? л?????╗, ?.??.????????
????????: л???????????????а<?> ??????????а<?> ? ????????а<?> ??? ?????а? ??????? ??? ? ????а? ??? ????????????,
??????????? (?????? ???.а? ?.а?.) ????????? ????? ??????
?а?????, ?????? ?а???????, ??????? ? ?????╗а[5, 28]. ??,
?????? ?а?????????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ???.
?а?????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???. ? ????????а? ??????
?? ???. ?а????? ??, ????? ???????, ??? ????? ???? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????????. ??? ????? л?????╗,
??????? ?? л????????╗ ?? ?????? ???????. ??? ??? ?? ??????
???????????? ??? ?????????????, ??? ??????, ?? ??? ??????,
???????? ??????????? л????????????╗ ?ал????????╗, л??????????╗ ?ал?????????????╗, л?????????╗ ?ал???????????????╗.
???? ?? ????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ?????? ? ?????? ????????????? ??? ????????? ????? ????????а ?
л??? ???? ?????? ? ???? ?????╗, ? ???? ?????????? ???????а(??.: [5, 119?120]), ? ?? ??? ????? ????????? ??? ?ал????????? ??????????╗а[5, 120]а? л??? ?????? ???? ?????? ??? ????
????, ???? ?????? ??????? ??????╗ (???.а21:12, 15). ????????,
??? ???????, ??????????????? ???? ??????? ?????????????
?????, ? ??????? ??????????????? ??? ?? ??????????? ???????? л?????????????╗ ? ???? (л??????? ????!╗) ?????? ???
??????, ?? ???? ?????? ??????????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????. ? ?????? ???????, ??? ??? ????
?????? ??????? ?????????????, ? ???? ????? л?????????????╗ ??? ???????? ??????. ????, ??? ?????? ? ????? ???? ????
? ???????, ?? ?????? ?? ??????????????? ??? ???? ?????????????? ??????????, ????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????.
58
?. ?. ???????
??????? л???????????? ????? ????╗а(??.: [25]) ?????????
?? ?????? ??????????? ?? л???????????╗ ? л????????????╗,
л?????????╗ ?ал????????????╗, ?? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????
??????????????? ????????????, ?а????????????? ????????
????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ??? ??????
?????????? ?????, ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ??????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ????????
????????????? ?????? ????.
??????????? ????? ?? ????????? л??????????? ????????╗
?.а?.а???????. ????? ??? ?????????, ?????? ????????????
?????? ?????????? л????????????? ????????╗. ?? ?????????? ???????, ?? ????? ???????, ?а???????? ???????? ??????
???????? ????????: ??????? ???????? ???????? л?????????
? ????? ??????????, ???????????? ? ???????????? ???? ?????? ???????, ?? ???? ???????? ?? ????? ?????, ? ??????? ??
?????? ?????? ???????. ?? ??????????????? ? ?????? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ? ??????╗а[2, 24]. ??????
?а??????? ????????: ?? ???????? ?? ????????????? ??????????????? ?????????? л???????????-???????? ??????╗ ?????
?????? ???? л?????????????╗?
?? ?????? ??????, ?.а?.а??????? ?????????? ???????????,
?? ??? ??????, ?????? ?? ?? ?????? ????? ????? л????????
????????╗ ? ????? ????????? ???????? ????????????? (????? ???????, ????????????)а(??.:а[4]). ???????? ??????????
?а????????? ?????????????????? ???? ??????? ????????,
?а????? ?????????? ?? ????? ????????????? ??????????
?????????? л???????????╗ ??????? ?????????.
?? ?????? ????????, ????????????? ??????? ?????? ??
???????? ?а???????????????????? ???????а[3, 271?325]. ????????????? ???????, ??? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ?? ????? ???? ?????????????
??????. ???????????? ?????????????, ???? ??????? ??? ????????????????? ?????????,а? ? ???????????? л????????????╗
??????? ?а?????????????? ?????. ? ???? ?? ????? ??????,
?????? ???????? ???? ?а? ??????????????, ?? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ?????????. ?????? ??? л????????????????╗
??????????????ан? ????????а? ?????????
59
???????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????????
???????? ????????, ?? ?? ?? ??????? ????? ???????.
? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? л???????? ???????? ????????╗
(?а??? ??????, ??????? ????????? ? ??? ??????? ??????), ??
? ???????? ?????? л?????????╗, ???? ????????? ??????????
??? ????????????, ??????? ?? ??????????, ??????? ????????? ??????, ???????? ??????? ????? ????????. ??? ?????????? ??????? ???? ?? ??????, ??? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ???????? ???????? (??????????????, ?? ???? ???????
??????? ???????????? ???????? ???????), ?????? ? ??????????? ??????. ???? ???????????-??????????? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????, ?? ??????????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ? ?????????.
??????????? ????????????? ????? ??????? ??????????
????????? ???????? ?????? ????????????? (????????????)
??????? ????, ? ??????? ??????????? л????????╗ ? л???????????╗, л?????????????╗ ?ал?????????????╗, л????????╗
?ал????????╗, л????????╗ ?ал??????????????╗, ??? ??????????
??????????? ????????. ?????????? ????????, ??? ? ??????????????? ???????, ???????????? ????????? ????????????
????????а[6], ???????? ??????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ??????????. ???, ????? ?????? (???????? ????????) ??????????? ??? ?????? ???????????, ??? ? ?????? ??????????????? ?????????????. ?????? ???????????? ?? ??? ??????????
????????? ???? (???, ???????, ?а???? ???????????????)
????????, ?????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ????????, ????? ???????, ??? ??? ??????? ? ??????? ??????? (? л?????
?????? ???????╗) ? ???????? ?????? ???????? ????????.
??? ???? ? ???? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ????? (? ?????!) ????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ?????????,
??????????? Slavia Orthodoxa. ???, ???????????? ????????
?????? ???????????? ????, ?????? ????????: л??????? ? ?????? ????, ?????????????, ?? ??????? ????????? ?????, ? ????????? ?????? ???????????, ??????????? ????, ???????????? ?? ???????????? ? ????????. ?? ???????? ???????????
? ??? ????? ????? ?????????????? ???? ?????????????
?а???????????????? ??????. ?? ??? ?? ???????, ??? ?????
60
?. ?. ???????
???? ????? ?? ?? ??????????? ? ??????????, ? ?? ??????╗а[1, 495].
??? ??? ??????? ???? ?????????? ?? ???????????, ???????
?а??? ????????? ????, ???????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ????
??????????? ????????????????? ?????????????, ?? ??????
???????????? ??????? ???? ???????? ????????????? л???????????, ??????????? ?????╗, ???????? л???????????╗ ?а????????????? ??????.
л????╗ ???????? ?????? ???????? ? ???? ?????????, ???????, ?????? ?????????? ?????, ???????????? л?? ???????????? ? ????????╗. ?????? ?????? ??????? ?????????а? ?,а???
?????, л???????????╗ ??????? ?? ??????????а? ??????
?а???????????? ????????? ?????????. ??????????, ???????????? ??????а? ? ???? ???????????? ??????? ????а? ??????????? (?.а?.а?????? ???????? ???????? ? ??? ??????????????).
??????, ?????? ??????? ????? ? ???????? ??????????????,
??????? ????????, ??? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ?а??????? ?????? ? ??????? л???? ????? ??????????╗ ???? ??
??????????? ???????? ? ???????? л???????????╗ ? л????????╗: ??? ????? ???? ?????? ?? ? ?????????? л???? ???????╗,
??? ??? ????? ??? ??????, ?????? ?? ????????? ????????????
?????????, ?? ? ????????? ?????? ???????????? ????????.
??????????, ????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ????? ????
?????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ???. ??? ?? ?????,
???? ????????????? л????╗ ?????? ?????????? ??????????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ????, ???
???????????? ?????? ???????? ????? ???? ????? (?а?а??????
?????? ????? ???????? ? ????????? ?????????), ? ???? ??
??????? ?? ????????? ????????????? ???? ????????????
??????????а? ?? ???? ???????? ?а?????????? ?? ?????????.
? ????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ? ???? ??????. ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ??????????????? ????, ?? ? ????????? ?а??????????? ??????????
??????. ? ?? ?????? ??????.
?????? ???????????? ??????? ??????????????, ????????????? ? ??????? ???????????, ???????????? ? ??????
??????? ?????????, ??????? ?? ??? ???, ?а?????????, ??
???????? ????????? ???? ?????????. ????? ?? ????? ???????? ??????? л???????????? ????????╗а(??.: [8]). ????? ???
??????????????ан? ????????а? ?????????
61
?????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??????????
?? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????а? ???????????? ????????.
??? ?? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?.а?.а????????, ??????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ????????? л??????? ?а?????? ??????╗
????????????. ??? ?? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????,
?? ??? ??????, ???????????? ???????????? ????????????:
л???????????? ???????а? ??? ???????, ? ??????? ??? ???,
????? ??????????? ??????, ?????? ?????????? ?????╗а[15,
175]. ??? ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ???
???????? ??????????? ?????? ?а????????? ????? ?.а?.а?????? л???? ?? ????╗, ??? ?? ????????? ?а????????? ????? ???????
??????????а(??.:а[24]). ??????? ???????????, ??? ???? ???????
????????????? ????????а? ??????? ?????????? ????? ?????????????? ????, ?????? ???????? ??????????? ????????????
??????????? (???????????, ???????????????, ??????????,
????????): ???? ???? ?а????????????????? ?????????? ????????, ??????? ????????? ???? ?а?????????? ? ????????? ????????????? ???? ????????.
? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ??????????
?а???????? ???????? (???????? ???? ?? л??????? ???????╗,
л??????????? ?????╗). ?? ??? ?????????? ? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ??? ? ???????? ?????????? ?????????
??? ? ???????????????? ????????????? ??? ?а?????????
????????????? ????????????? ? ????? ??? ? ???????????
л???????????????╗? ??? ? ??????? ???????? ? ???????????
?????? ?????????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ????????
?? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????. ???? ????а?
??? ??????? ????а? ?????? ???????? ????, ?????? ????????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ??????,
?? ?????? ???????, ????????? ?? ????????????? ??????
?????????????????, ???? ??????????????? ? ?????????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????, ????? ???? ????????????????
??? ?????????? ????????????? ????????. ????? ???????
??????? ?.а?.а?????????, ??????? ????????? ? ???, ???
62
?. ?. ???????
л??????? ???????? ???????? ?????????-???????????? ?а??????????????? ???????????╗а[17, 27], ???? ?????? ????а? ???
??? ?? ???????? ??????????, ??????? л????????╗ ????? ???????????а(??.а????.:а[9]).
?.а?.а??????? ??????????? ????????, ??? ??????????? ??????? ??????, ???????? ?? ?????? ????, ??? ?? ?????, ?????????? ? ?????????? л??????????? ??????????╗а[15, 176].
????? ????????, ??? ???? ?? ???????? ?а????? ?????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????????????????
???????????, ????? ???????? ???????????? ?а?????????
??????? ????????? ???????????: ?????? ????? ? ????? ?????? ????? ??? ??? ? ?? ????????. ?????? ???? ?? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????? ???????? ???????
????????, ???? ?? ??????, ??? ??? ???? ??? ???????, ???????
???? ???????? ??????????? ????????, ????? ???????????
??????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????????
?а???????? ??????. ?? ???? ????а? ??????? ?????? ?????????????, ? ?????? ?? л????????????╗ ????????. ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????, ???????, ???????? ??
????????? ????? ?а???????, л?????╗ ?? ?????? ???? ? л?????? ?????╗, ???????????????, ??? ?а???????????? ???????, ?
???, ??? ??? ???? ????????????, ???????? ????? ?????? ????
???????, ???????? ???? ??????а[12].
? л??????????? ?????╗ ??????? ?????????????? ????????????? ???????. ???????, ??? ? ?????????????, ?????????
?а???????????????, ???????? ?????????. ???, ?????? ?????
???????? ????????? ????????, ???????? ?а?????, ???????:
л??? ?? ?? ???? ?? ????, ????, ??? <?> ????????? ???????
????? ? ????!╗1. ?? ??, ?????? ??????? ?? ????????, ?????????? ???? ?????: л??? ???????? ?? ??? ?????. ? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ???????, ??????? ???? ????????? ????????? ??
???? ???? ???????????? ? ???? ??? ? ???????? ???? ??????? ????? ??????╗а(465). ??? ?? ??????, ?????? ??? ???????,
л?????????? ?а???????? ???? ????????? ?, ??????? ??????
???????? ???????, ????????? ?? ???????, ?? ?????????????
??????, ???????? ??????, ?? ???????? ? ???, ??? ?? ???? ?????╗а(528). ???????, л??????? <?> ?????? ???? ? ????????????? ????? ???????????? ????╗ (534?535) (???????
??????????????ан? ????????а? ?????????
63
??????????, ?? ??????? ???????????? ???? ????????). ????? ????????, ??? ??????? ???????, ??? ? ?????? ???????,
???????? ?????: ?????????? ????????? ????: л????? ???? ???????╗а(539). ?? ????? ??????? ????? ? ????????
?????????????, ?? ?????????? ????????? ???? ?????????
?а????? ???????????? ???? ???????? ? ???????????????
?а???????????? ???????? ????? ????????????а(??. ?????????:а[13,а52?71]).
????? ??? ?? ? ?????? л??????? ???╗ ?????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???? ???????????
л???????? ?????╗ ???????????? ????????? ?????. ??? ????
?????? ????????????? л?????????╗ (?????? ????????? ?? ?????????-???????????, ?? ??????????????), ??? ??? ?а??????
??? ??????? ??????, ?????????? ???????? ?????? ????????
?? ???????? л?????-??????╗, ?? ????? ??????, ?????? ?????
????????? ????????? ? ????? ? ???? ???????????. ?????????
?????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ??? ??, ??? ? ??????????? ???????? ??????: ???? ???????????? ?????? ? л????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ? ????????╗ ??????????? ? ??????????, ??? л?????? ?? <???????> ?? ?????, ?а????? ???
???????????? ? ????????????? ???? <?> ????? ?? ???? ???????а? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????? ? ????╗2. ?? ????????? ??????????? ?а????? ???????? ? ?? ???????????, ?????
??????????? ?????????а? ???????? ???????а? л???????? ? ???? ????? ? ????? ??? ?????????? ????, ??? ????????? ??????? (?.а?. ????????????.а? ?.а?.) ??????? ????????╗3, ?????а? ?? ????? ??????????? ?????????а? л??? ??????а? ???? ???????╗4. ????? ???????, ????????? л???????
???╗ ? ????????? л????????? ?????╗ ????? ??????????
?????? (??. ?????????: [10, 227?257]), ??? ????????? ?? ???????
????????? ????????????? ????????.
????? ????, ??????? ????????? ???????????? ???????
?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ????????????? ?????? ????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ?????? ???
?????????? ????? ????????? ? ????? ??????????????? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ?????? ????, ???????
???????? ?? ????????? ???????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ??????.
64
?. ?. ???????
????????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ???????
?????? ??????????? ????? ??????????. ??? ???????????
?????????? ?????, ?? ??????? ?????? ??????, ??? ?? ??? ????
???? ?? л???????????╗, ? ????????? ???????, ??? ???????
?????????? ????????????? ? ????????????? ?????. ???? ??????? ?????????????, ??????, ??????, ??? ???????????????
???????? ???????? ???????????, ?? ??? ?????????? ?????,
???????, ??? ??? ???? ??????????? ??????, ?? ?????? ??????? ???????????. ???? ?? ?? ?????? ?а????, ????????? ????????? ?.а?.а??????????, л?????? ?????????╗ ?а???????
?????????? ????? ???????, ?? ??? ?????????? ?????? ?????
???????????? ?? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????????, ?? ?????? ??
????????? ????????? ??????. ? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????
????? ?????? ????????????????? ?????????? ??????, ? ???????, ??????, ??????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????????а? ????????????? ????????а? ????????? ?? ??????
?????????????????? ????????. ?????? ???? ????????????? ??
????? ? ??????????? ????????, ?????? ?? ??? ???? ??????????? ??? ?????? ???? ??????????? ???????? л????????????? ???????╗, ?? ??, ????????, ?? ????? ???????????? ? ??
????????? ????????? ????????? ?? ???????.
??????? ?? ???????? XIXа????, ???????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????, ?????? ??????? ???????,
??????? ??? ? ??????, ??? ? ? ????? ?????????? ?????????
????????????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ?????????
???? ? ????????. ? ???? ????????????? ???? ?????? ?? ? ???????????????, ?? ???????? ? ??? ???????????????? ????.
?? ???? ?????????????? ???, ??? ?? ?????, ?????? ? ?????
???????????? ???????. ??????? ??? ?? ?? ????????а? ??
??????? л?????????? ?????╗а? ?????? ???? ? л?????????
??????????????? ??????╗ ????? л? ???? ????╗, ???? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??? ????? ??????????????
???????? ?????? л??????╗ ?? л???????? ????╗, ?? л??????????????? ?????╗ ?а л?????????? ???????????? ??????????╗а[26, 55]5. ??????? ??, ??? ???????? ????????? л???????╗
? ??????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ????????, ? ????????, ??????????? ? ??? ???????:
?? ?????? ???? ? л????????╗ ??????????? ?? ??? ??? ????
???????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??? ???????
??????????????ан? ????????а? ?????????
65
(??????, ?????? ????????), ????? ??? ???????? ? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ???????????? ??
л????????╗, л???????????╗, ??????????? ???????, ??? ? ???
???????????? ????.
??? ????????? ?.??.???????, ???? ?? ????????? ? ????
?????????? ??????????????? ?????????а? ??? ??? ??????????? ??????????а? ??????? ???? ??????????? ???????: л?????????? ?????? ?? ????? ? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????, ? ??? ???? ????????? ??? ? ???? ???????, ??
????? ?????? ?????, ? ??? ???? ???????????? ?????????????
???? ???? ???????? ??????. ????? ?????? ??????????????,
??? ?????? ???????, ?? ?? ????? ???????????? ?????? ?????
?а????????? ????????? ????????? ??, ? ???? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????а? ???????: ?????
??????? ???? (? ?? ???? ? ????? ????), ????????? ??????? ?????
(? ?? ???? ?а?????, ???????? ????), ? ?? ????? ????????????
???? ?а????? ????????? ??????,а<?> ??????? ? ?????? ?????
?а????, ? ??????? ?? ?????╗а[23, 14]6. ??? ????? ?????????????
????????? ????????????? ???????а? ???? ?? ?а??????????????? ????????? ???????? ????а? ????????? ??? ??????????
?????????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ??????? ????????.
??????? ???? ????????????? (??????????) л????╗ ??????
?????????? ??????????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ????
?????? ????, ??????? ?? ?????????, ??? ????????а? ? ?????????а? ?????? ???????? ????? ???? ?????, ? ???? ?? ????????? ????????????? ???? ?????????? ????????а? ??
???? ????? ???? ? ??? ??????? ????????.
??????????
а?????? ????????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????
????? (????), ?????? ?а15-04-00212.
1
?????? ?.а?. ?????? ???????? ?????????: ? 10 ?. 3-?а???. ?.а 6. ?.:
?????, 1964. ?.а458. ????? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ?????????? ? ??????
?????? ? ????????? ???????? ? ??????? ???????.
2
?????? ?.а?. ???????? ?????????: ? 9 ?. ?.а6. ?.: ??????? ?????, 1994.
?.а192.
3
??? ??.
4
??? ??.
*
66
?. ?. ???????
5
?????????, ??? ?.а?????????, ????????? ? л???????? ?????╗ ???
л????????╗ ??????, ?? ???? ?? ???????? ? ????? ??????? ??????????? ????? л? ???? ????╗, ????????? ? ?????????? ????? л?????╗ ???
? л??????????????? ? ????????? ???????????╗а[26, 58]. ????????
л??????????????╗ ???????????? ????????, ??-????????, ?????? ??????????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ??????????,
?????? ????????? ????????? л???????????╗ ?? ???????.
?.а?.а???????, ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????????, ????????????? ????????? л??????????????╗ ? л????????????╗ ??? л???
???????, ??? ??????? ????? ??????, ??? ?????? ????????? ? ??????
??????? ????????????: ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ??????
??????????????, ?? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ????????а?
????????????╗а[16, 386].
6
?????? ??????????
1. ??????а?.а?. ??????? ?????????? ? ????????.а? ?.: ?????.а???.,
1975.а? 504а?.
2. ??????а?.а?. ?????????? ??????? ????? ? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ? ??????????.а? ?.: ?????.а???., 1990.а? 543а?.
3. ???????а?.а?. ???????? ????????????? ???????? ????????.а? ?.:
?????????, 1981.а? 359а?.
4. ???????а?.а?. ????????? ????????????? ????????.а? ?.: ?????????,
1984.а? 350а?.
5. ???????а?.а?. ?????? ??????????? ????? (1829?1834): ???? ????????,
???????? ???????????, ????????? ??????: ???. ?а?-?? ?????. ????.
????????????, 2012.а? 400а?.
6. ???????а?.а?. ???????????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ????????а// ??????? ???????? ? ???: ?????? ???????? ?????????? IIа?????????????
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7. ???????а?.а?. ?????? ???????????? ? ???????????? ?????????????
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9. ???????а?.а?. ? ???? ??????????? ? ?????? л???????????? ? ?????????╗а// ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????????
?????-???????????? ????????????? ?????????: ?????????.а? ?.,
2003.а? ?.а410?417.
10. ???????а?.а?. ???????????? ??????? ???????????.а? ?.: ?????, 2004.а? 560а?.
11. ???????а?.а?. л??????╗ ?.а?.а?????? ??? ??????? ? ?????????????? ????а//
???????? ???????????? ???????.а? ????????????: ???-?? ??????,
1998.а? ???.а5: ???????????? ????? ? ??????? ?????????? ?VIII???
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(?? ??: ????????.а? 2007.а? ?а2 (18).а? ?.а42?45).
??????????????ан? ????????а? ?????????
67
12. ???????а?.а?. ? ??????????? ?????? л???????????? ??????????╗
?.а?.а???????а// ???????? ???????????? ???????.а? ????????????: ???-?? ??????, 2012.а? ???.а10: ???????????? ????? ? ???????
?????????? XVIII?XXа?????: ??????, ?????????????, ?????, ?????,
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2012.а? 448а?.
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???????.а? ?.: ??????, 2012.а? 264а?.
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??????, 1990.а? ???.а1: ???????????? ? ?????????.а? ?.а31?40.
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1994.а? ???.а3: ???????????? ????? ? ??????? ?????????? ?VIII???а?????:
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2014.а? ???.а12: ???????????? ????? ? ??????? ?????????? XII?XXIа?????:
??????, ?????????????, ?????, ?????, ????.а? ???. 9.а? ?.а124?136.
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26. ?????????а?. ? ?????. ? ??????: ??????? ??????.а? ?.: ?????.а???.,
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?. ?. ???????
68
Ivan A.аEsaulov
The Maxim Gorky Literature Institute
(Moscow, Russian Federation)
jesaulov@yandex.ru
FICTIONAL?? MIRACULOUS?? REALа
IN POETICS AND THE PROSAIC REALITYа
OF LITERATURE STUDY:а
FORMULATION THE PROBLEM
Abstract. The article addresses the semantics of the fictional, the miraculous,
the real both in the world of poetics and in the system of categories of the
modern Russian literature study. It is argued that the result of the scientific
description (the very interpretation of particular literature works, as well as
other scientific subjects, including national literatures) depends to quite an
extent on the value system (axiology) of a researcher. For instance, hagiography
(especially of holy fools) is overflowing with seemingly comic, as well as quite
fictional details. However, it is only possible to interpret them ?scientifically?
as the manifestation of the world of laughter (as well as, in fact, the world of
fiction) if one renounces from the tradition of holiness, approaching the subject
of the scientific description with detachment, i.e., depriving it from a specific
poetic reality. If the effectiveness (reality) of a ?miracle? is accepted by the
researcher as a positive significance of the world representation under study,
the description ? and understanding ? of the subject may be one, whereas if a
fundamentally different cultural tradition is being followed ? it may also result
in another scientific description.
Keywords: poetics, literature study, the fantastika, miracle, reality
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