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Актуальные вопросы проектирования и расчета механизмов подъема портальных кранов..pdf

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ȁDzǸ 621.875.5
dz. ǻ. ǮțȒȞȖȎțȜȐ,
ȘȎțȒ. Ƞȓȣț. țȎȡȘ, ȝȞȜȢȓȟȟȜȞ,
DZȁǺǾȂ ȖȚȓțȖ ȎȒȚȖȞȎșȎ ǿ. Ǽ. ǺȎȘȎȞȜȐȎ;
Ǯ. ǻ. ǶȐȎțȜȐ,
ȘȎțȒ. Ƞȓȣț. țȎȡȘ, ȒȜȤȓțȠ,
DZȁǺǾȂ ȖȚȓțȖ ȎȒȚȖȞȎșȎ ǿ. Ǽ. ǺȎȘȎȞȜȐȎ
ȺɄɌɍȺɅɖɇɕȿ ȼɈɉɊɈɋɕ ɉɊɈȿɄɌɂɊɈȼȺɇɂə
ɂ ɊȺɋɑȿɌȺ ɆȿɏȺɇɂɁɆɈȼ ɉɈȾɔȿɆȺ ɉɈɊɌȺɅɖɇɕɏ ɄɊȺɇɈȼ
CURRENT ISSUES OF DESIGN AND CALCULATION OF LIFTING CRANES
ȼ ɫɬɚɬɶɟ ɢɡɥɚɝɚɸɬɫɹ ɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɵ, ɫ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɦɢ ɫɬɚɥɤɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɬɨɪ ɜ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɟ ɧɨɜɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɥɟɛɟɞɨɤ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ ɩɨɞɴɟɦɚ ɩɨɪɬɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɪɚɧɨɜ. ɂɯ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɢɬ ɢɡɛɟɠɚɬɶ
ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɤɨɜ, ɩɪɨɹɜɥɹɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɜ ɜɢɞɟ ɧɚɪɭɲɟɧɢɹ ɪɚɛɨɬɨɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ ɦɚɲɢɧɵ ɢ
ɩɪɢɞɚɬɶ ɭɜɟɪɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚɧɬɭ ɜ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɨɝɨ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ.
This article deals with the urgent issues faced by the designer in the process of new design winches, lifting
mechanisms and cranes. Their decision will allow to avoid design ßaws, manifested in the form of violations of
the operational condition of the machine and strengthen the conÞdence of the designers a the correctness of the
decision.
Ʉɥɸɱɟɜɵɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ: ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹ, ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦ, ɥɟɛɟɞɤɚ, ɩɟɪɟɞɚɱɢ, ɦɭɮɬɵ, ɡɚɤɨɧɵ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɨɤ,
ɩɪɨɱɧɨɫɬɶ.
Key words: structure, mechanism, failures, gears, laws of distribution of loads.
Выпуск 2
Ɋ
52
ȿȺɅɖɇȺə ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɹ ɜ ɱɚɫɬɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɧɨ-ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɬɨɪɫɤɢɯ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹɯ, ɫɨɡɞɚɧɧɵɯ ɜ
ɩɟɪɟɫɬɪɨɟɱɧɵɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ (1985–1991), ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɟɬɫɹ, ɫ ɨɞɧɨɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ, ɫɨɫɬɚɜɨɦ ɦɨɥɨɞɵɯ
ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɫɬɨɜ, ɧɟ ɩɪɨɲɟɞɲɢɯ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɲɤɨɥɵ. ɋ ɞɪɭɝɨɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ, ɜ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɧɨɣ
ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɩɨ ɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɵɦ ɩɪɢɱɢɧɚɦ, ɤɚɤ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɨ, ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɨɩɵɬɧɵɣ ɢɧɠɟɧɟɪɧɨ-ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɥ, ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɸɳɢɣ ɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟ ɭɱɚɫɬɢɟ ɜ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɟ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɚ. ȼ ɷɬɢɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ
ɧɟɢɡɛɟɠɧɵ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɤɢ ɜ ɧɨɜɵɯ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɭɟɦɵɯ ɭɡɥɚɯ ɢ ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟ ɭɜɟɪɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ
ɜ ɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɢ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɢ ɜ ɡɚɞɚɧɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ.
Ɉɞɧɢɦ ɢɡ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ ɩɟɪɟɝɪɭɡɨɱɧɨɣ ɦɚɲɢɧɵ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦ ɩɨɞɴɟɦɚ, ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɸɳɢɣ ɟɟ ɪɚɛɨɬɨɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɟ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ. ɍ ɤɪɚɧɨɜ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɧɨɣ ɝɪɭɡɨɩɨɞɴɟɦɧɨɫɬɢ (ɫɜɵɲɟ
100 ɬ) ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɫɨɛɨɣ ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨ ɫɥɨɠɧɭɸ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɸ, ɫɨɫɬɨɹɳɭɸ ɢɡ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɹ, ɩɟɪɟɞɚɬɨɱɧɵɯ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ ɢ ɝɪɭɡɨɜɨɝɨ ɛɚɪɚɛɚɧɚ ɫ ɤɚɧɚɬɚɦɢ. ɉɪɢ ɧɟɜɵɫɨɤɢɯ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɹɯ
ɩɨɞɴɟɦɚ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɩɨ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɨɜɨɱɧɵɦ ɫɨɨɛɪɚɠɟɧɢɹɦ ɜ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ ɩɟɪɟɞɚɱ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ ɧɚɥɢɱɢɟ ɨɬɤɪɵɬɨɣ ɡɭɛɱɚɬɨɣ ɩɚɪɵ, ɹɜɥɹɸɳɟɣɫɹ, ɤɚɤ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɨ, ɦɟɧɟɟ ɧɚɞɟɠɧɵɦ ɭɡɥɨɦ.
Ɋɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɢɦ ɥɟɛɟɞɤɭ, ɩɪɢɜɨɞ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɢɬ ɨɬɤɪɵɬɭɸ ɡɭɛɱɚɬɭɸ ɩɚɪɭ ɫ ɤɨɧɫɨɥɶɧɵɦ
ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟɦ ɲɟɫɬɟɪɧɢ ɢ ɡɚɤɪɟɩɥɟɧɢɟɦ ɤɨɥɟɫɚ ɩɚɪɵ ɧɚ ɛɚɪɚɛɚɧɟ ɥɟɛɟɞɤɢ.
ɇɚ ɪɢɫ. 1 ɩɨɤɚɡɚɧ ɷɫɤɢɡ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɢ ɜɚɥɚ ɤɨɧɫɨɥɶɧɨɣ ɲɟɫɬɟɪɧɢ ɨɩɵɬɧɨɝɨ ɨɛɪɚɡɰɚ ɥɟɛɟɞɤɢ
ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚ ɝɥɚɜɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɞɴɟɦɚ ɤɪɚɧɚ. ɂɡɜɟɫɬɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɤɨɧɫɨɥɶɧɨɟ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɲɟɫɬɟɪɧɢ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ
ɧɟɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɧɨ ɜ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɨɤ, ɚ ɢɦɟɧɧɨ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬ ɤ ɧɟɪɚɜɧɨɦɟɪɧɨɦɭ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɸ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ ɩɨ ɲɢɪɢɧɟ ɡɭɛɱɚɬɨɝɨ ɜɟɧɰɚ. ɉɨɫɥɟɞɧɟɟ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɨɞɧɨɣ ɢɡ ɜɚɠɧɟɣɲɢɯ ɩɪɢɱɢɧ ɜɵɯɨɞɚ ɩɟɪɟɞɚɱ ɢɡ ɫɬɪɨɹ [1]. ɂɦɟɧɧɨ ɷɬɨ ɨɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ ɢ ɩɨɫɥɭɠɢɥɨ ɩɪɢɱɢɧɨɣ ɤɪɚɟɜɵɯ ɩɨɥɨɦɨɤ ɡɭɛɶɟɜ ɤɨɥɟɫɚ (ɪɢɫ. 2) ɨɬɤɪɵɬɨɣ ɩɚɪɵ ɨɩɵɬɧɨɝɨ ɨɛɪɚɡɰɚ ɥɟɛɟɞɤɢ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚ ɝɥɚɜɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɞɴɟɦɚ,
ɩɪɢɱɟɦ ɩɪɨɢɡɨɲɥɨ ɷɬɨ ɭɠɟ ɜ ɩɟɪɜɵɣ ɦɨɦɟɧɬ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚ ɩɨɞ ɩɨɥɧɨɣ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɨɣ (ɪɢɫ. 3).
ɉɪɢɱɢɧɚ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɹɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɫɨɫɬɨɢɬ ɜ ɬɨɦ, ɱɬɨ ɩɪɢ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɢ ɡɭɛɱɚɬɨɝɨ ɜɟɧɰɚ ɩɨ ɨɞɧɭ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɭ ɨɬ ɨɩɨɪ ɞɟɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ ɜɚɥɚ, ɩɨɞɲɢɩɧɢɤɨɜ ɥɸɮɬɵ ɜ ɨɩɨɪɚɯ ɫɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ, ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɹ ɭɝɨɥ
ɩɟɪɟɤɨɫɚ ɜ ɡɚɰɟɩɥɟɧɢɢ ɪɚɛɨɬɚɸɳɟɣ ɩɟɪɟɞɚɱɢ. Ⱦɥɹ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɪɚɛɨɬɨɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɢ ɜ ɩɨɞɨɛɧɨɣ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɬɶ ɜɵɫɨɤɭɸ ɠɟɫɬɤɨɫɬɶ ɭɡɥɚ. Ⱦɥɹ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɞɥɢɧɭ ɤɨɧɫɨɥɢ
l ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɧɚɡɧɚɱɚɬɶ ɦɢɧɢɦɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɵ. Ɉɛɵɱɧɨ ɩɪɢ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɜɵɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɬɶ ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ: L/l • 2…2, 5; d • 1,3l (ɡɚɲɬɪɢɯɨɜɚɧɧɚɹ ɡɨɧɚ ɧɚ ɪɢɫ. 4), ɝɞɟ L — ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ
ɦɟɠɞɭ ɬɨɱɤɚɦɢ ɩɪɢɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɣ (ɬɨɱɤɚ ɩɟɪɟɫɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɨɫɢ ɜɚɥɚ ɫ ɧɨɪɦɚɥɹɦɢ, ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɫɟɪɟɞɢɧɵ ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɧɵɯ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɨɤ ɧɚ ɤɨɥɶɰɚɯ ɩɨɞɲɢɩɧɢɤɚ); d —ɞɢɚɦɟɬɪ ɜɚɥɚ ɩɨɞ ɩɨɞɲɢɩɧɢɤɨɦ
ɤɚɱɟɧɢɹ, ɪɚɫɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɦ ɛɥɢɠɟ ɤ ɲɟɫɬɟɪɧɟ; F — ɤɨɧɫɨɥɶɧɚɹ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɚ; N1, N2 — ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ ɜ ɨɩɨɪɚɯ
[2]. Ʉɚɤ ɜɢɞɧɨ, ɜ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɢ (ɪɢɫ. 1) ɧɢ ɨɞɧɨ ɢɡ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɧɵɯ ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɣ ɧɟ ɛɵɥɨ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɨ, ɱɬɨ
ɢ ɩɨɫɥɭɠɢɥɨ ɩɪɢɱɢɧɨɣ ɩɨɥɨɦɤɢ ɡɭɛɶɟɜ ɤɨɥɟɫɚ.
Ɋɢɫ. 1. ɇɟɰɟɥɟɫɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɚɹ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹ (ɷɫɤɢɡ)
ɩɪɢɜɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɧɫɨɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɜɚɥɚ ɨɬɤɪɵɬɨɣ ɩɚɪɵ
Ɋɢɫ. 2. Ɏɪɚɝɦɟɧɬ ɤɪɚɟɜɨɣ ɩɨɥɨɦɤɢ ɡɭɛɚ ɤɨɥɟɫɚ
ɨɬɤɪɵɬɨɣ ɩɚɪɵ
Ɋɢɫ. 3. Ʉɪɚɟɜɵɟ ɩɨɥɨɦɤɢ ɡɭɛɶɟɜ ɤɨɥɟɫɚ,
ɜɵɡɜɚɧɧɵɟ ɧɟɪɚɜɧɨɦɟɪɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ ɩɨ ɲɢɪɢɧɟ ɡɭɛɱɚɬɨɝɨ ɜɟɧɰɚ
Выпуск 2
Ⱦɥɹ ɭɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɤɚ ɪɟɤɨɦɟɧɞɭɟɦɵɟ ɜɵɲɟ ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ ɛɵɥɢ ɜɵɞɟɪɠɚɧɵ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɨɣ ɩɨɞɲɢɩɧɢɤɨɜ ɩɨ ɫɯɟɦɟ «ɜɪɚɫɬɹɠɤɭ» [1]. ȼ ɧɨɜɨɦ ɢɫɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɢ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹ ɨɩɵɬɧɨɝɨ ɨɛɪɚɡɰɚ ɥɟɛɟɞɤɢ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚ ɩɨɞɴɟɦɚ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɥɚ ɫɜɨɟ ɪɚɛɨɬɨɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɟ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ.
ȼ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɨɛɳɟɝɨ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɚ ɪɟɤɨɦɟɧɞɭɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɬɶ ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɨɩɨɪɚɦɢ ɧɟ ɦɟɧɶɲɟ ɭɞɜɨɟɧɧɨɣ ɞɥɢɧɵ ɤɨɧɫɨɥɢ.
ȼ ɨɛɳɟɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ, ɩɪɢ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɟ ɩɨɞɨɛɧɵɯ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɣ ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɧɚɡɧɚɱɚɬɶ ɦɚɥɨɟ
ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɛɟɡɪɚɡɦɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬɚ ɲɢɪɢɧɵ ɡɭɛɱɚɬɨɝɨ ɜɟɧɰɚ, ɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɢɬɚɬɶ ɲɚɪɢɤɨɜɵɦ ɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɭɟɦɵɟ ɪɨɥɢɤɨɜɵɟ ɩɨɞɲɢɩɧɢɤɢ, ɥɸɮɬɵ ɜ ɨɩɨɪɚɯ ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɛɵɬɶ ɦɢɧɢɦɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ, ɫɨɡɞɚɜɚɬɶ ɯɨɪɨɲɢɟ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɞɥɹ ɩɪɢɪɚɛɚɬɵɜɚɟɦɨɫɬɢ ɨɬɤɪɵɬɨɣ ɩɚɪɵ, ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɢɪɭɸɳɟɣ ɧɟɪɚɜɧɨɦɟɪɧɨɫɬɶ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ.
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Ɋɢɫ. 4. ɇɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ ɧɚ ɨɩɨɪɵ ɤɨɧɫɨɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɜɚɥɚ
Выпуск 2
Ɉɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɦɫɹ ɤɪɚɬɤɨ ɧɚ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɟ ɫɨɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɹ ɛɚɪɚɛɚɧɨɜ ɫ ɪɟɞɭɤɬɨɪɚɦɢ ɞɥɹ ɫɥɭɱɚɹ, ɤɨɝɞɚ ɨɩɨɪɵ ɛɚɪɚɛɚɧɚ ɢ ɪɟɞɭɤɬɨɪɚ ɧɟɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɵ.
ȼ ɞɚɧɧɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹ ɫɨɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɹ ɞɨɥɠɧɚ ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɩɨɝɪɟɲɧɨɫɬɢ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ
ɧɟɢɡɛɟɠɧɵ ɩɪɢ ɫɛɨɪɤɟ ɢ ɜ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɟ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɥɟɛɟɞɤɢ.
ɇɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɱɚɫɬɨ ɜ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚɯ ɩɨɞɴɟɦɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɫɯɟɦɚ, ɜ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɬɢɯɨɯɨɞɧɵɣ ɜɚɥ ɪɟɞɭɤɬɨɪɚ ɫɨɟɞɢɧɟɧ ɫ ɤɚɧɚɬɧɵɦ ɛɚɪɚɛɚɧɨɦ ɡɭɛɱɚɬɨɣ ɦɭɮɬɨɣ. Ɉɞɢɧ ɢɡ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɯ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɨɜ ɷɬɨɣ
ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɢ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧ ɧɚ ɪɢɫ. 5. ɉɨɥɭɦɭɮɬɚ 2 ɧɚ ɬɢɯɨɯɨɞɧɨɦ ɜɚɥɭ 3 ɪɟɞɭɤɬɨɪɚ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɚ ɫ
ɜɧɟɲɧɢɦɢ ɡɭɛɶɹɦɢ, ɚ ɩɨɥɭɦɭɮɬɚ 1 ɧɚ ɤɚɧɚɬɧɨɦ ɛɚɪɚɛɚɧɟ — ɫ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɦɢ ɡɭɛɶɹɦɢ. ɒɚɣɛɚ 4
ɩɪɟɞɨɬɜɪɚɳɚɟɬ ɩɟɪɟɤɨɫ ɧɚɪɭɠɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɥɶɰɚ ɩɪɢ ɦɨɧɬɚɠɟ ɩɨɞɲɢɩɧɢɤɚ ɜ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɟ ɜɚɥɚ ɪɟɞɭɤɬɨɪɚ. Ɍɚɤɚɹ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹ ɤɨɦɩɚɤɬɧɚ, ɦɟɧɟɟ ɱɭɜɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɚ ɤ ɪɚɫɰɟɧɬɪɨɜɤɚɦ, ɜɵɡɵɜɚɟɦɵɦ ɞɟɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɹɦɢ ɮɭɧɞɚɦɟɧɬɚ ɢ ɫɛɨɪɤɨɣ. ɉɪɢ ɷɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɚɰɢɢ ɟɟ ɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɤɨɦ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɫɞɜɢɝɚ
ɛɚɪɚɛɚɧɚ ɜɞɨɥɶ ɨɫɢ ɞɥɹ ɨɫɦɨɬɪɚ, ɯɨɬɹ ɢ ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨ ɷɬɨ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɶ ɨɞɢɧ ɪɚɡ ɜ ɝɨɞ [3, ɫ. 254].
ȼ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɧɨ-ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɦ ɩɥɚɧɟ ɛɨɥɶɲɭɸ ɬɪɭɞɨɟɦɤɨɫɬɶ ɹɜɥɹɟɬ ɫɨɛɨɣ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹ ɬɢɯɨɯɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɜɚɥɚ ɪɟɞɭɤɬɨɪɚ.
ɉɨ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɧɵɦ ɩɪɢɱɢɧɚɦ ɩɪɢ ɧɨɜɨɦ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɫɬɚɥɢ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɬɶ ɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɧɭɸ ɰɢɥɢɧɞɪɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ ɦɭɮɬɭ ɬɢɩɚ Ɍɋȼ ɮɢɪɦɵ “JAURE” (ɪɢɫ. 6). ȿɟ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɟɬ ɜɵɫɨɤɚɹ ɧɚɞɟɠɧɨɫɬɶ, ɡɚ
ɫɱɟɬ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɜɵɫɨɤɨɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɨɜ, ɢ ɜɵɫɨɤɚɹ ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɢɪɭɸɳɚɹ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶ.
Ⱦɥɹ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɢɪɭɸɳɟɣ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɪɚɛɨɱɢɟ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɬɭɩɢɰɵ 1 ɢ ɜɬɭɥɤɢ 2 ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɵ ɜ ɜɢɞɟ ɝɧɟɡɞ, ɜ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɵ ɛɨɱɤɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɟ ɪɨɥɢɤɢ 5.
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Ɋɢɫ. 5. Ʉɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹ ɫɨɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɹ ɪɟɞɭɤɬɨɪɚ ɫ ɛɚɪɚɛɚɧɨɦ ɩɪɢ ɩɨɦɨɳɢ ɡɭɛɱɚɬɨɣ ɦɭɮɬɵ
ɫɨ ɜɫɬɪɨɟɧɧɨɣ ɨɩɨɪɨɣ ɜ ɜɚɥ ɪɟɞɭɤɬɨɪɚ
Ɋɢɫ. 6. Ʉɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹ ɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɧɨɣ ɰɢɥɢɧɞɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɦɭɮɬɵ ɬɢɩɚ Ɍɋȼ ɮɢɪɦɵ “JAURE”:
1 — ɫɬɭɩɢɰɚ; 2 — ɜɬɭɥɤɚ; 3 — ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɹɹ ɤɪɵɲɤɚ; 4 — ɧɚɪɭɠɧɚɹ ɤɪɵɲɤɚ; 5 — ɰɢɥɢɧɞɪ; 6, 9 — ɜɢɧɬ;
7 — ɢɧɞɢɤɚɬɨɪ ɢɡɧɨɫɚ; 8 — ɭɩɥɨɬɧɟɧɢɟ; 10 — ɪɟɡɶɛɨɜɵɟ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɹ ɞɥɹ ɪɚɡɛɨɪɤɢ;
11 — ɤɚɧɚɜɤɢ ɩɪɟɞɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɢɡɧɨɫɚ; 12 — ɫɨɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɟ ɞɥɹ ɫɦɚɡɤɢ;
13 — ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɟ ɞɥɹ ɜɵɩɭɫɤɚ ɢɡɛɵɬɨɱɧɨɣ ɫɦɚɡɤɢ; 14 — ɢɫɯɨɞɧɨɟ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɞɥɹ ɫɛɨɪɤɢ;
15 — ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɹɸɳɢɟ ɤɨɥɶɰɚ ɰɢɥɢɧɞɪɚ; 16 — ɲɚɣɛɚ Ƚɪɨɜɟɪɚ
Выпуск 2
ȼ ɨɬɟɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɟ ɭɩɨɦɢɧɚɧɢɟ ɨɛ ɷɬɨɣ ɦɭɮɬɟ ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɨ ɜ ɪɚɛɨɬɟ [4]. ȼ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɩɨɹɜɢɥɚɫɶ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɟɟ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ. Ɇɭɮɬɵ Ɍɋȼ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ
ɩɨɥɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɜ ɫɛɨɪɟ. ɇɚ ɪɢɫ. 7 ɩɨɤɚɡɚɧ ɮɪɚɝɦɟɧɬ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢ ɛɚɪɚɛɚɧɚ ɧɚ ɜɚɥɭ ɪɟɞɭɤɬɨɪɚ ɩɪɢ ɩɨɦɨɳɢ
ɦɭɮɬɵ ɬɢɩɚ Ɍɋȼ.
ɋɛɨɪɤɚ ɦɭɮɬɵ 1 ɧɚ ɬɪɚɧɫɦɢɫɫɢɨɧɧɨɦ ɜɚɥɭ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɚ ɤɚɤ ɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦ ɲɩɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɤɚɧɚɜɨɤ
(ɫɦ. ɪɢɫ. 7), ɬɚɤ ɢ ɫɨɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɟɦ ɜ ɧɚɬɹɝ, ɛɟɡ ɲɩɨɧɨɱɧɵɯ ɤɚɧɚɜɨɤ. ɉɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɚ ɧɚɝɪɟɜɚ
ɧɟ ɞɨɥɠɧɚ ɩɪɟɜɵɲɚɬɶ 200–250 °ɋ. Ʉɨɥɶɰɨ 2 ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɟɬ ɦɟɫɬɨ ɞɥɹ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢ ɤɪɟɩɟɠɧɵɯ ɜɢɧɬɨɜ
ɦɟɠɞɭ ɬɨɪɰɨɦ ɤɪɵɲɤɢ ɦɭɮɬɵ ɢ ɤɨɪɩɭɫɨɦ ɪɟɞɭɤɬɨɪɚ. Ɍɨɪɰɨɜɚɹ ɲɚɣɛɚ 3 ɮɢɤɫɢɪɭɟɬ ɦɭɮɬɭ ɨɬ ɨɫɟɜɨɝɨ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɳɟɧɢɹ (ɫɩɨɥɡɚɧɢɹ). Ɇɭɮɬɚ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ
ɫɪɚɜɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɥɟɝɤɨ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɬɶ ɨɫɟɜɨɟ ɢ ɭɝɥɨɜɨɟ
ɜɵɪɚɜɧɢɜɚɧɢɟ ɛɚɪɚɛɚɧɚ ɫ ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ ɢɡɦɟɪɟɧɢɣ
ɥɢɧɟɣɤɨɣ, ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɜ ɥɢɧɟɣɤɭ ɜ ɱɟɬɵɪɟɯ ɬɨɱɤɚɯ.
Ɋɚɡɧɢɰɚ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɢ ɦɢɧɢɦɚɥɶɧɵɦ
ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɟɦ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɬɨɪɰɨɦ ɛɚɪɚɛɚɧɚ ɢ ɬɨɪɰɨɦ
ɦɭɮɬɵ ɞɨɥɠɧɚ ɛɵɬɶ ɦɟɧɶɲɟ 0,5 ɦɦ ɩɪɢ ɞɥɢɧɟ
ɛɚɪɚɛɚɧɚ ɦɟɧɟɟ ɦɟɬɪɚ ɢ ɛɨɥɶɲɟ 0,8 ɦɦ ɩɪɢ ɞɥɢɧɟ
ɛɚɪɚɛɚɧɚ ɛɨɥɟɟ 1 ɦ.
Ʉ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɭ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɧɨ-ɞɟɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɝɨ
ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ (ɇȾɋ) ɫɬɟɧɤɢ ɛɚɪɚɛɚɧɚ.
ȼɨ ɦɧɨɝɢɯ ɫɥɭɱɚɹɯ ɞɥɹ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɢ ɫɬɟɧɤɢ 7 ɤɚɧɚɬɧɨɝɨ ɛɚɪɚɛɚɧɚ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɸɬ
ɩɨɞɤɪɟɩɥɹɸɳɢɟ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɵ — ɤɨɥɶɰɚ ɢɥɢ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɶɧɵɟ ɪɟɛɪɚ ɠɟɫɬɤɨɫɬɢ. ȼ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɚ
ɦɨɠɧɨ ɩɪɢɜɟɫɬɢ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɸ ɛɚɪɚɛɚɧɚ ɦɨɧɬɚɠɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɪɬɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɤɪɚɧɚ ɝ/ɩ 125 ɬ ɫ ɤɨɥɟɫɨɦ
Ɋɢɫ. 7. ɋɨɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɟ ɛɚɪɚɛɚɧɚ ɫ ɪɟɞɭɤɬɨɪɨɦ
ɫ ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ ɰɢɥɢɧɞɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɦɭɮɬɵ ɬɢɩɚ Ɍɋȼ
ɨɬɤɪɵɬɨɣ ɩɚɪɵ 6 (ɪɢɫ. 8). ȼ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɢ ɭɫɬɚ-
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ɧɨɜɥɟɧɵ ɞɜɚ ɤɨɥɶɰɚ (ɞɢɚɮɪɚɝɦɵ) ɠɟɫɬɤɨɫɬɢ 1 ɩɨ ɰɟɧɬɪɭ ɛɚɪɚɛɚɧɚ. Ⱦɥɹ ɤɪɟɩɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɥɭɨɫɟɣ 2
ɨɩɨɪɧɨɝɨ ɭɡɥɚ ɛɚɪɚɛɚɧɚ ɪɹɞɨɦ ɫ ɥɨɛɨɜɢɧɚɦɢ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɵ ɞɢɫɤɢ 3. Ʉɪɟɩɥɟɧɢɟ ɭɫɢɥɟɧɨ ɪɚɞɢɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɪɟɛɪɚɦɢ 4 (ɫɦ. ɬɚɤɠɟ ɩɭɧɤɬɢɪɧɵɟ ɥɢɧɢɢ ɧɚ ɜɢɞɟ ɫɩɪɚɜɚ). Ɉɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɹ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɶ
ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɢ, ɤɨɥɶɰɚ ɠɟɫɬɤɨɫɬɢ ɨɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɨɦ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɣ
ɜ ɡɨɧɟ ɢɯ ɫɨɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɹ ɫɜɚɪɤɨɣ ɫ ɰɢɥɢɧɞɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɟɱɚɣɤɨɣ ɛɚɪɚɛɚɧɚ, ɜɵɡɵɜɚɹ ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨ ɜɵɫɨɤɢɟ ɦɟɫɬɧɵɟ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɹ ɢɡɝɢɛɚ. ɉɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɫɥɭɠɢɬɶ ɩɪɢɱɢɧɨɣ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɧɨɜɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɭɫɬɚɥɨɫɬɧɵɯ ɬɪɟɳɢɧ.
Выпуск 2
Ɋɢɫ. 8. Ʉɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹ ɛɚɪɚɛɚɧɚ ɦɨɧɬɚɠɧɨɝɨ ɤɪɚɧɚ
56
ȼ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɷɬɢɦ ɛɵɥɢ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɵ ɱɟɬɵɪɟ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɢ ɛɚɪɚɛɚɧɚ. ɉɟɪɜɚɹ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɚ ɧɚ ɪɢɫ. 8.
ȼɬɨɪɚɹ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹ ɨɬɥɢɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɨɬ ɩɟɪɜɨɣ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɢ
ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟɦ ɤɨɥɟɰ ɠɟɫɬɤɨɫɬɢ 1. Ɍɪɟɬɶɹ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹ, ɤɚɤ ɢ ɩɟɪɜɚɹ, ɫɞɟɥɚɧɚ ɫ ɞɜɭɦɹ ɤɨɥɶɰɚɦɢ ɠɟɫɬɤɨɫɬɢ 1,
ɧɨ ɤɪɟɩɥɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɥɭɨɫɟɣ 2 ɨɩɨɪɧɨɝɨ ɭɡɥɚ ɛɚɪɚɛɚɧɚ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɨ ɫ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɟɦ ɤɨɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɞɢɚɮɪɚɝɦɵ 5 (ɪɢɫ. 9). ɑɟɬɜɟɪɬɚɹ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɚ ɛɟɡ ɤɨɥɟɰ ɠɟɫɬɤɨɫɬɢ ɫ ɤɨɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɞɢɚɮɪɚɝɦɨɣ ɞɥɹ ɨɛɟɢɯ ɩɨɥɭɨɫɟɣ ɨɩɨɪ ɛɚɪɚɛɚɧɚ.
ɋɨɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɟ ɞɢɫɤɚ 3 ɫ ɩɨɥɭɨɫɶɸ 2 ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɫ ɩɨɦɨɊɢɫ. 9. Ʉɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɢ ɫɜɚɪɧɨɝɨ
ɳɶɸ ɫɜɚɪɤɢ ɫ ɪɚɡɞɟɥɤɨɣ ɤɪɨɦɨɤ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɫ ɜɧɟɲɧɟɣ
ɨɩɨɪɧɨɝɨ ɭɡɥɚ ɛɚɪɚɛɚɧɚ
ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ. ȼɨ ɜɫɟɯ ɫɥɭɱɚɹɯ ɤɚɧɚɬɵ ɧɚɜɢɬɵ ɩɨ ɜɫɟɣ ɞɥɢɧɟ
ɫ ɤɨɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɞɢɚɮɪɚɝɦɨɣ (ɞɢɫɤɨɦ)
ɛɚɪɚɛɚɧɚ. Ɋɚɫɱɟɬɵ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɢɫɶ ɢɧɠɟɧɟɪɨɦ ɂ. Ⱥ. ɉɨɬɟɯɢɧɵɦ ɫ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɚ ANSYS.
ɇɚ ɪɢɫ. 10 ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɨ ɇȾɋ ɜɨ ɜɫɟɯ ɱɟɬɵɪɟɯ ɜɵɲɟɭɩɨɦɹɧɭɬɵɯ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹɯ ɛɚɪɚɛɚɧɨɜ: ɱɢɫɥɨɜɵɟ
ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɧɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɣ s, ɭɤɚɡɚɧɧɵɟ ɩɟɪɟɞ ɫɤɨɛɤɚɦɢ, ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɸɬ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɹ ɜ
ɫɬɟɧɤɚɯ ɛɚɪɚɛɚɧɚ, ɚ ɜ ɫɤɨɛɤɚɯ ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɵ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɹ. ȼ ɩɟɪɜɨɣ (ɪɢɫ. 10, ɚ) ɢ ɜɬɨɪɨɣ
(ɪɢɫ. 10, ɛ) ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹɯ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɹ, ɪɚɜɧɵɟ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ 135 ɢ 123 Ɇɉɚ, ɢɦɟɸɬ ɦɟɫɬɨ ɜ ɡɨɧɟ ɫɨɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɹ ɫɜɚɪɤɨɣ ɤɨɥɟɰ ɠɟɫɬɤɨɫɬɢ 1 ɫ ɰɢɥɢɧɞɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɟɱɚɣɤɨɣ ɛɚɪɚɛɚɧɚ 7,
ɩɪɨɬɢɜ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɣ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ 56 ɢ 61 Ɇɉɚ, ɢɦɟɸɳɢɯ ɦɟɫɬɨ ɜ ɫɬɟɧɤɚɯ ɛɚɪɚɛɚɧɚ. ɗɬɨ ɥɢɲɧɢɣ
ɪɚɡ ɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɠɞɚɟɬ, ɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɵɣ ɜɵɜɨɞ [ɫɦ., ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ȼ. ȼ. ɇɟɫɬɟɪɟɧɤɨ, ɇ. ɇ. Ɏɢɞɪɨɜɫɤɨɣ
(ɍɂɉȺ)]: ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɞɟɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ ɪɟɡɤɨ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɚɸɬ ɜ ɡɨɧɟ ɫɜɚɪɧɵɯ ɲɜɨɜ ɨɤɨɥɨ ɪɟɛɟɪ ɠɟɫɬɤɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɩɪɨɜɨɰɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɩɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɬɪɟɳɢɧ. ȼ ɷɬɢɯ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹɯ ɧɢɠɧɹɹ (ɩɟɪɜɚɹ) ɮɨɪɦɚ
ɩɨɬɟɪɢ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɢ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɦɟɫɬɧɨɣ ɩɨɬɟɪɟɣ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɢ ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɨɥɶɰɟɜɵɯ ɞɢɚɮɪɚɝɦ.
ɚ
s = 56 (135)
ɜ
ɛ
s = 61 (123)
ɝ
s = 68 (68)
s = 68
Ɋɢɫ. 10. ɇɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɧɨ-ɞɟɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɟ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ,
ɷɤɜɢɜɚɥɟɧɬɧɵɟ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɵ ɜ Ɇɉɚ
Ɉɧɚ ɧɟ ɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɨɛɳɟɣ ɩɨɬɟɪɟ ɪɚɛɨɬɨɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɢ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɣ, ɬɚɤ ɤɚɤ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɶ
ɬɟɪɹɟɬ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɞɢɚɮɪɚɝɦɚ. Ⱦɚɧɧɚɹ ɮɨɪɦɚ ɩɨɬɟɪɢ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɚ ɧɚ ɪɢɫ. 11, ɚ. Ʉɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬ ɡɚɩɚɫɚ ɩɨ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɢ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ 7,2.
ȼ ɬɪɟɬɶɟɣ (ɪɢɫ. 10, ɜ) ɢ ɱɟɬɜɟɪɬɨɣ (ɪɢɫ. 10, ɝ) ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹɯ ɫ ɤɨɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɞɢɚɮɪɚɝɦɨɣ 5
ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɵɟ (ɦɟɫɬɧɵɟ) ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɹ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɜ ɞɜɚ ɪɚɡɚ ɦɟɧɶɲɢɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɧɨ ɨɞɢɧɚɤɨɜɵ,
ɤɚɤ ɩɪɢ ɧɚɥɢɱɢɢ ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɨɥɟɰ ɠɟɫɬɤɨɫɬɢ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɩɪɢ ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɢ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɯ. ɇɢɡɲɚɹ ɮɨɪɦɚ
ɩɨɬɟɪɢ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɚ ɧɚ ɪɢɫ. 11, ɛ. Ʉɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬ ɡɚɩɚɫɚ ɩɨ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɢ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ
12,1. Ⱦɚɧɧɚɹ ɮɨɪɦɚ ɩɨɬɟɪɢ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɢ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɬɪɚɤɬɨɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɤɚɤ ɨɛɳɚɹ ɩɨɬɟɪɹ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɢ,
ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɳɚɹ ɪɚɛɨɬɨɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɢ, ɬɚɤ ɤɚɤ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɶ ɬɟɪɹɟɬ ɨɛɟɱɚɣɤɚ ɛɚɪɚɛɚɧɚ.
ɚ
ɛ
Выпуск 2
57
Ɋɢɫ. 11. Ɏɨɪɦɵ ɩɨɬɟɪɢ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɢ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɣ ɛɚɪɚɛɚɧɚ
ɉɨ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɚɦ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɫɞɟɥɚɬɶ ɜɵɜɨɞ ɨ ɬɨɦ, ɱɬɨ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬ ɢɫɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɹ ɛɚɪɚɛɚɧɚ ɫ ɤɨɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɞɢɚɮɪɚɝɦɚɦɢ ɢ ɛɟɡ ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɨɥɶɰɟɜɵɯ ɞɢɚɮɪɚɝɦ (ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹ 4) ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɧɚɢɥɭɱɲɢɦ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɨɦ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɢ. Ʉ ɬɨɦɭ ɠɟ ɬɚɤɨɣ ɭɡɟɥ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɚ ɩɟɪɟɞ ɭɡɥɨɦ ɧɚ ɪɢɫ. 8.
ɇɚ ɪɢɫ. 9 ɞɥɹ ɫɯɟɦɵ ɫɜɚɪɧɨɝɨ ɨɩɨɪɧɨɝɨ ɭɡɥɚ ɛɚɪɚɛɚɧɚ, ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɳɟɝɨ ɩɨɥɭɨɫɶ 2, ɞɢɚɮɪɚɝɦɭ 3,
ɤɨɧɭɫ 5, ɩɨɤɚɡɚɧɨ ɟɝɨ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɧɚɝɪɭɠɟɧɧɨɟ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɟ — ȼ–ȼ, ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɳɟɟ ɧɟɫɭɳɭɸ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶ
ɭɡɥɚ. Ɍɚɤ, ɞɥɹ ɬɚɜɪɨɜɨɝɨ ɫɜɚɪɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɹ ɫ ɭɝɥɨɜɵɦɢ ɲɜɚɦɢ (ɛɟɡ ɪɚɡɞɟɥɤɢ ɤɪɨɦɨɤ) ɛɟɡ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɪɚɛɨɬɤɢ ɲɜɨɜ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɚ ɩɪɟɞɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɚɦɩɥɢɬɭɞɧɨɝɨ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɹ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ ɊȾ-50-551-85
ɪɚɜɧɚ 26 Ɇɉɚ. ȼ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɬɚɜɪɨɜɨɝɨ ɫɨɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɹ ɫ ɪɚɡɞɟɥɤɨɣ ɤɪɨɦɨɤ ɢ ɩɨɥɧɵɦ ɩɪɨɜɚɪɨɦ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɚ
ɩɪɟɞɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɚɦɩɥɢɬɭɞɧɨɝɨ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɹ ɪɚɜɧɚ 57,5 Ɇɉɚ (ɫɦ. ɬɚɤɠɟ [5]). Ⱦɥɹ ɩɨɜɵɲɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɞɟɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɞɨɛɧɨɝɨ ɭɡɥɚ ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɢɧɬɟɧɫɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɰɢɤɥɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɧɚɝɪɭɠɟɧɢɹ ɪɟɤɨɦɟɧɞɭɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɬɶ
ɦɟɯɚɧɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ ɨɛɪɚɛɨɬɤɭ ɫɜɚɪɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɹ (ɫɦ. ɫɟɱɟɧɢɟ ȼ–ȼ ɧɚ ɪɢɫ. 9), ɱɬɨ ɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɠɞɟɧɨ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɚɦɢ ɢɫɩɵɬɚɧɢɣ ɩɹɬɢ ɦɨɞɟɥɟɣ ɭɡɥɨɜ ɩɪɢ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɭɪɨɜɧɹɯ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ [6, ɫ. 31–32].
Ɉ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɚɯ ɜ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɟ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚ ɩɨɞɴɟɦɚ ɤɪɚɧɚ.
Ɍɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɨ ɪɚɫɱɟɬ ɞɟɬɚɥɟɣ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚ ɩɨɞɴɟɦɚ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɹɬ ɧɚ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɨɤ [4].
1-ɣ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɧɵɣ ɫɥɭɱɚɣ: ɪɚɫɱɟɬ ɩɨ ɧɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɚɦ ɪɚɛɨɱɟɝɨ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ. ɗɬɨ ɪɚɛɨɬɚ ɫ
ɝɪɭɡɚɦɢ, ɦɚɫɫɵ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɭ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɭ, ɩɪɢ ɩɥɚɜɧɵɯ ɩɭɫɤɚɯ ɢ ɬɨɪɦɨɠɟɧɢɹɯ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚ. Ⱦɟɬɚɥɢ ɜɪɚɳɟɧɢɹ, ɢɫɩɵɬɵɜɚɸɳɢɟ ɰɢɤɥɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɹ, ɪɚɫɫɱɢɬɵɜɚɸɬ
ɧɚ ɜɵɧɨɫɥɢɜɨɫɬɶ; ɩɨɞɲɢɩɧɢɤɢ ɤɚɱɟɧɢɹ — ɧɚ ɞɨɥɝɨɜɟɱɧɨɫɬɶ.
2-ɣ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɧɵɣ ɫɥɭɱɚɣ: ɪɚɫɱɟɬ ɩɨ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɚɦ ɪɚɛɨɱɟɝɨ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ
ɦɨɝɭɬ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɬɶ ɩɪɢ ɪɚɛɨɬɟ ɜ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɬɹɠɟɥɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɷɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɚɰɢɢ ɤɪɚɧɚ ɫ ɧɨɦɢɧɚɥɶɧɵɦ
ɝɪɭɡɨɦ ɩɪɢ ɪɟɡɤɢɯ ɩɭɫɤɚɯ ɢ ɬɨɪɦɨɠɟɧɢɹɯ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚ. ɉɨ ɷɬɢɦ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɚɦ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɩɪɨɜɟɪɤɚ ɞɟɬɚɥɟɣ ɧɚ ɫɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ ɩɪɨɱɧɨɫɬɶ.
Ɇɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɚ (2-ɣ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɧɵɣ ɫɥɭɱɚɣ), ɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɸɳɚɹ ɜ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɟ ɩɨɞɴɟɦɚ ɩɪɢ
ɩɨɞɯɜɚɬɟ ɝɪɭɡɚ, ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɨɛɳɟɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɤɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬɨɦ kɞɢɧ, ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɸɳɢɦ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɶ ɩɨɞɴɟɦɚ ɝɪɭɡɚ ɢ ɪɨɞ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɚ [4, ɬɚɛɥ. 2.4]:
Smax = (1 + kɞɢɧ )GH,
(1)
ɝɞɟ GH — ɫɭɦɦɚɪɧɵɣ ɜɟɫ ɧɨɦɢɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɝɪɭɡɚ ɢ ɝɪɭɡɨɡɚɯɜɚɬɧɨɝɨ ɭɫɬɪɨɣɫɬɜɚ.
Ɋɚɫɱɟɬ ɧɚ ɜɵɧɨɫɥɢɜɨɫɬɶ (1-ɣ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɧɵɣ ɫɥɭɱɚɣ) ɜ ɤɪɚɧɨɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɟ ɨɛɵɱɧɨ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɩɨ ɷɤɜɢɜɚɥɟɧɬɧɵɦ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɚɦ ɢ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɫɨɛɨɣ ɪɚɫɱɟɬ ɧɚ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɧɭɸ ɞɨɥɝɨɜɟɱɧɨɫɬɶ. ɗɤɜɢɜɚɥɟɧɬɧɚɹ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɚ FE ɜ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɟ ɧɚ ɜɵɧɨɫɥɢɜɨɫɬɶ:
FE = kɞ Smax,
(2)
ɝɞɟ kɞ — ɤɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬ ɞɨɥɝɨɜɟɱɧɨɫɬɢ, ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɦɵɣ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ:
Выпуск 2
kɞ = kG kT ,
58
ɝɞɟ kG — ɤɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬ, ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɸɳɢɣ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ ɜɨ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ kG § 0,8 — ɜ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɟ ɧɚ
ɢɡɝɢɛ; kG § 0,65 — ɩɪɢ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɟ ɧɚ ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɧɭɸ ɩɪɨɱɧɨɫɬɶ; kT — ɤɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬ, ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɸɳɢɣ ɫɪɨɤ
ɫɥɭɠɛɵ ɞɟɬɚɥɢ [4, ɬɚɛɥ. 2.1]. Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɱɢɫɥɚ ɩɨɞɴɟɦɨɜ ɝɪɭɡɚ ɜ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɱɚɫɚ ɢ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɧɨɝɨ ɱɢɫɥɚ
ɰɢɤɥɨɜ, ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɟɦɵɯ ɜ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɟ ɧɚ ɜɵɧɨɫɥɢɜɨɫɬɶ, ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɹɬ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɪɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɟɧɢɹ ɰɢɤɥɚ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɝɨ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚ.
Ɋɚɫɱɟɬ ɭɡɥɨɜ ɩɨ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɨɱɧɵɦ ɞɢɚɝɪɚɦɦɚɦ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɚɧ, ɱɟɦ ɪɚɫɱɟɬ ɩɨ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɧɵɦ ɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹɦ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɨɤ, ɨɞɧɚɤɨ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɹɟɬ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɵ ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɢɡɦɚ ɜ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɨɫɪɟɞɧɟɧɢɟɦ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɣ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɢ ɫɚɦɢɯ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɨɤ. Ȼɨɥɟɟ ɞɨɫɬɨɜɟɪɧɵɦ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɨɫɬɧɵɣ ɩɨɞɯɨɞ ɤ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɸ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɨɤ, ɞɥɹ ɱɟɝɨ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɡɧɚɧɢɟ ɡɚɤɨɧɚ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ. Ɂɚɤɨɧɵ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɷɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɨɤ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɤ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚɦ ɩɨɞɴɟɦɚ ɝɪɟɣɮɟɪɧɵɯ ɩɨɪɬɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɪɚɧɨɜ ɛɵɥɢ
ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɵ ɢ ɨɛɨɛɳɟɧɵ ɤɚɮɟɞɪɨɣ ɉɌɆ ɅɂȼɌɚ ɜ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɦɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɧɚɬɭɪɧɵɯ ɢɫɩɵɬɚɧɢɣ
ɜ ɪɟɱɧɵɯ ɢ ɦɨɪɫɤɢɯ ɩɨɪɬɚɯ. ɍɫɢɥɢɹ ɜ ɝɪɭɡɨɜɵɯ ɤɚɧɚɬɚɯ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɥɢɫɶ ɫ ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ ɬɚɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ
ɞɚɬɱɢɤɨɜ ɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɨɩɪɨɬɢɜɥɟɧɢɹ. Ɋɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɫɬɚɬɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɭɦɦɚɪɧɵɯ ɭɫɢɥɢɣ ɜ ɝɪɭɡɨɜɵɯ ɤɚɧɚɬɚɯ ɤɪɚɧɨɜ ɩɪɢ ɪɚɛɨɬɟ ɝɪɟɣɮɟɪɨɦ ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɵ ɧɚ ɪɢɫ. 12 [7, ɫ. 110–116].
ɍɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɫɭɦɦɚɪɧɵɯ ɭɫɢɥɢɣ ɛɥɢɡɤɨ ɤ ɭɫɟɱɟɧɧɨɦɭ ɧɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɨɦɭ ɡɚɤɨɧɭ ɫ ɞɜɭɦɹ ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɚɦɢ ɜ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɚɯ. ɗɬɨ ɦɚɬɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɨɠɢɞɚɧɢɟ m(S/GH ) ɢ
ɫɪɟɞɧɟɤɜɚɞɪɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɨɬɤɥɨɧɟɧɢɟ s (sS /GH ). Ʉɪɢɜɚɹ 1 ɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɨɤ ɩɪɢ ɪɚɛɨɬɟ ɫ ɤɚɦɟɧɧɵɦ ɭɝɥɟɦ 10-ɬɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɪɬɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɤɪɚɧɚ ɩɨ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɭ ɜɚɝɨɧ–ɫɤɥɚɞ (m = 0,44; s = 0,35).
Ʉɪɢɜɚɹ 2 ɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɨɤ ɩɪɢ ɪɚɛɨɬɟ ɫ ɭɝɥɟɦ 10-ɬɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɪɬɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɤɪɚɧɚ ɩɨ
ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɭ ɫɤɥɚɞ–ɫɭɞɧɨ (m = 0,54; s = 0,25). Ʉɪɢɜɚɹ 3 ɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɨɤ ɩɪɢ ɪɚɛɨɬɟ
ɫɨ ɳɟɛɧɟɦ 10-ɬɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɪɬɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɤɪɚɧɚ ɩɨ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɭ ɫɭɞɧɨ–ɫɤɥɚɞ (m = 0,44; s = 0,24). Ʉɪɢɜɚɹ 4
ɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɨɤ ɩɪɢ ɪɚɛɨɬɟ ɫ ɫɟɪɧɵɦ ɤɨɥɱɟɞɚɧɨɦ 16-ɬɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɪɬɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɤɪɚɧɚ ɩɨ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɭ ɫɤɥɚɞ–ɫɤɥɚɞ (m = 0,60; s = 0,25).
Ɋɢɫ. 12. Ƚɪɚɮɢɤɢ ɩɥɨɬɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɣ ɫɭɦɦɚɪɧɵɯ ɭɫɢɥɢɣ S
ɜ ɝɪɭɡɨɜɵɯ ɤɚɧɚɬɚɯ ɤ ɧɨɦɢɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɢɥɟ ɬɹɠɟɫɬɢ GH
ȼ ɭɫɪɟɞɧɟɧɧɨɦ ɜɢɞɟ ɡɚɤɨɧ ɧɚɝɪɭɠɟɧɢɹ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɨɩɢɫɚɬɶ ɭɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɟɦ
(3)
Ⱦɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɢɟ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɵ ɧɚɞɟɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɞɨɥɝɨɜɟɱɧɨɫɬɢ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚ ɩɨɞɴɟɦɚ ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ
ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɶ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤɟ, ɢɡɥɨɠɟɧɧɨɣ ɜ ɪɚɛɨɬɟ [8, ɫ. 30–34].
ɋɩɢɫɨɤ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ
Выпуск 2
1. Ʉɭɞɪɹɜɰɟɜ ȼ. ɇ. Ʉɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɢ ɢ ɪɚɫɱɟɬ ɡɭɛɱɚɬɵɯ ɪɟɞɭɤɬɨɪɨɜ: ɫɩɪɚɜ. ɩɨɫɨɛɢɟ / ȼ. ɇ. Ʉɭɞɪɹɜɰɟɜ, ɘ. Ⱥ. Ⱦɟɪɠɚɜɟɰ, ȿ. Ƚ. Ƚɥɭɯɚɪɟɜ. — Ʌ.: Ɇɚɲɢɧɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɟ, 1971. — 328 ɫ.
2. Ɉɪɥɨɜ ɉ. ɂ. Ɉɫɧɨɜɵ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ / ɉ. ɂ. Ɉɪɥɨɜ. — Ɇ.: Ɇɚɲɢɧɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɟ, 1968. — 568 ɫ.
3. ɋɩɪɚɜɨɱɧɢɤ ɩɨ ɤɪɚɧɚɦ / ɩɨɞ ɪɟɞ. Ⱥ. ɂ. Ⱦɭɤɟɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ. — Ɇ.; Ʌ.: Ɇɚɲɢɧɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɟ, 1973. —
Ɍ. 2. — 504 ɫ.
4. ɒɚɛɚɲɨɜ Ⱥ. ɉ. Ɇɨɫɬɨɜɵɟ ɤɪɚɧɵ ɨɛɳɟɝɨ ɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ / Ⱥ. ɉ. ɒɚɛɚɲɨɜ, Ⱥ. Ƚ. Ʌɵɫɹɤɨɜ. — Ɇ.:
Ɇɚɲɢɧɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɟ, 1980. — 304 ɫ.
5. Ⱦɟɬɚɥɢ ɦɚɲɢɧ: ɭɱɟɛɧɢɤ ɞɥɹ ɜɭɡɨɜ / ɩɨɞ ɪɟɞ. Ɉ. Ⱥ. Ɋɹɯɨɜɫɤɨɝɨ. — Ɇ.: ɂɡɞ-ɜɨ ɆȽɌɍ
ɢɦ. ɇ. ɗ. Ȼɚɭɦɚɧɚ, 2002. — 544 ɫ.
6. ɇɟɫɭɳɚɹ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɜɚɪɧɨɝɨ ɨɩɨɪɧɨɝɨ ɭɡɥɚ ɤɚɧɚɬɧɵɯ ɛɚɪɚɛɚɧɨɜ / Ɇ. Ɇ. ɉɨɩɨɜ, Ⱥ. Ⱥ. Ʉɨ-
59
ɜɢɧ, ɋ. Ⱥ. ɋɨɤɨɥɨɜ [ɢ ɞɪ.] // ɉɪɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɵɣ ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬ. — 1988. — ʋ 1.
7. Ȼɪɚɭɞɟ ȼ. ɂ. ɇɚɝɪɭɡɤɢ ɩɨɪɬɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɪɚɧɨɜ / ȼ. ɂ. Ȼɪɚɭɞɟ, ɇ. ȼ. Ɂɜɹɝɢɧɰɟɜ, ɘ. ȼ. ɋɢɥɢɤɨɜ //
Ɍɪ. ɅɂȼɌɚ. — Ʌ.: Ɍɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬ, 1969. — ȼɵɩ. 123.
8. Ⱥɧɞɪɢɚɧɨɜ ȿ. ɇ. Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɷɤɜɢɜɚɥɟɧɬɧɵɯ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɨɤ ɢ ɧɚɞɟɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɩɨɪɬɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɪɚɧɨɜ / ȿ. ɇ. Ⱥɧɞɪɢɚɧɨɜ, ȼ. ɂ. Ȼɪɚɭɞɟ // Ɍɪ. ɅɂȼɌɚ. — Ʌ.: Ɍɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬ, 1984.
ȁDzǸ 629.12,697.9
ǿ. ǻ. ǯȓȕȝȎșȪȥȡȘ,
ȖțȔȓțȓȞ,
ȂDZǯǼȁ ǰǽǼ «ǿǽȏDZǽȁ»;
Ǹ. Ǯ. ǰȎȟȖșȪȓȐ,
ȎȟȝȖȞȎțȠ,
ȂDZǯǼȁ ǰǽǼ «ǿǽȏDZǮǿȁ»
Ǯ. Ǹ. ǻȎȡȚȜȐȎ,
ȕȎȐȓȒȡȬȧȖȗ ȟȓȘȠȜȞȜȚ ȁȥȓȏțȜȑȜ ȜȠȒȓșȎ,
ȂDZǯǼȁ ǰǽǼ «ǿǽȏDZǽȁ»
ɂɋɉɈɅɖɁɈȼȺɇɂȿ ɉɈɅɂɆȿɊɇɕɏ ɄɈɆɉɈɁɂɐɂɈɇɇɕɏ ɆȺɌȿɊɂȺɅɈȼ
ȼ ɌȿɏɇɈɅɈȽɂɂ ɂɁȽɈɌɈȼɅȿɇɂə ɌɊɍȻɈɉɊɈȼɈȾɈȼ
ɋɂɋɌȿɆɕ ɋɍȾɈȼɈɃ ȼȿɇɌɂɅəɐɂɂ
THE USE OF POLYMER COMPOSITE MATERIALS FOR FABRICATION
OF PIPING SYSTEMS OF SHIP VENTILATION
ȼ ɫɬɚɬɶɟ ɪɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɟɧɵ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɵ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɨɥɢɦɟɪɧɵɯ ɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɨɜ ɩɪɢ ɢɡɝɨɬɨɜɥɟɧɢɢ ɚɪɦɚɬɭɪɵ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɣ ɜɟɧɬɢɥɹɰɢɢ. ɉɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɵ ɪɚɡɧɵɟ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɢ ɬɪɭɛɨɩɪɨɜɨɞɨɜ ɢ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ
ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɢɡɞɟɥɢɣ ɢɡ ɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɨɜ.
In the article the questions of the use of polymeric composite materials in the manufacture of armature ship
ventilation. There are a variety pipe work design and technological features of manufacture of goods from composite materials.
Выпуск 2
Ʉɥɸɱɟɜɵɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ: ɩɨɥɢɦɟɪɧɵɣ ɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɰɢɨɧɧɵɣ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥ, ɪɟɚɤɬɨɩɥɚɫɬ, ɦɚɬɪɢɰɚ, ɧɚɧɨɦɨɞɢɮɢɤɚɬɨɪ, ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɚ, ɮɭɬɟɪɨɜɤɚ ɬɟɪɦɨɩɥɚɫɬɨɦ.
Key words: polymeric composite material, thermosetting, matrix, modiÞer necessary, the design of the
ventilation duct liner thermoplastic.
60
ɉ
Ɋɂ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɫɭɞɨɜ ɭɞɟɥɹɸɬ ɛɨɥɶɲɨɟ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɦ ɦɨɳɧɨɣ
ɢ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɨɣ ɜɟɧɬɢɥɹɰɢɢ. ɇɚ ɫɭɞɚɯ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɨɝɨ ɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɸɬ ɪɚɡɧɵɟ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ
ɜɟɧɬɢɥɹɰɢɢ [1–5]. ɉɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɜ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɟ ɫɭɞɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɦɟɬɢɥɢɫɶ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɢ:
ɞɥɹ ɫɭɞɨɜ ɦɚɥɨɝɨ ɜɨɞɨɢɡɦɟɳɟɧɢɹ ɫ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚɦɢ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɨɣ ɦɨɳɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɢɝɨɞɧɵ
ɧɢɡɤɨɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɧɵɟ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ, ɞɥɹ ɫɭɞɨɜ ɛɨɥɶɲɨɝɨ ɜɨɞɨɢɡɦɟɳɟɧɢɹ (ɫɜɵɲɟ 5000 ɬ) — ɫɪɟɞɧɟɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɧɵɟ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ, ɚ ɜ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ — ɜɵɫɨɤɨɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɧɵɟ ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɢɡɨɜɚɧɧɵɟ ɜɵɬɹɠɧɵɟ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ.
ɇɚ ɫɭɞɚɯ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɧɚɫɱɢɬɵɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɞɨ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɢɯ ɞɟɫɹɬɤɨɜ ɤɢɥɨɦɟɬɪɨɜ ɬɪɭɛɨɩɪɨɜɨɞɨɜ ɜɟɧɬɢɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɪɚɡɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɮɢɥɹ ɢ ɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ. Ɋɚɡɜɟɬɜɥɟɧɧɚɹ ɫɟɬɶ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɩɪɨɜɨɞɨɜ ɫ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɦ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨɦ ɚɪɦɚɬɭɪɵ ɢ ɜɟɧɬɢɥɹɬɨɪɨɜ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɭɫɥɨɠɧɹɟɬ ɷɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɚɰɢɸ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɢ ɟɟ ɨɛɳɭɸ
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