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Расчет воздуховодов равномерной раздачи и удаления воздуха с отверстиями в стенке..pdf

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ВЕСТНИК
МГСУ
7/2011
ɊȺɋɑȿɌ ȼɈɁȾɍɏɈȼɈȾɈȼ ɊȺȼɇɈɆȿɊɇɈɃ ɊȺɁȾȺɑɂ
ɂ ɍȾȺɅȿɇɂə ȼɈɁȾɍɏȺ ɋ ɈɌȼȿɊɋɌɂəɆɂ ȼ ɋɌȿɇɄȿ
COLCULATION OF AIR LINES OF UNIFORM DISTRIBUTION
AND REMOVAL OF AIR APERTURES IN A WALL
ȿ.ɂ. Ɍɟɪɬɢɱɧɢɤ
ȿ. Tertichnik
Ɇɨɫɤɨɜɫɤɢɣ Ƚɋɍ
ȼ ɫɬɚɬɶɟ ɢɡɥɨɠɟɧɵ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɵ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɹ ɷɩɸɪ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɩɨ ɞɥɢɧɟ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɨɜ ɢ
ɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɢɯ ɚɷɪɨɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɫɱɺɬɚ.
In article ways of construstion of schedules of pressure on lendth of air lines and sequence of their aerodinamic calculation are stated.
ȼɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɵ ɪɚɜɧɨɦɟɪɧɨɣ ɪɚɡɞɚɱɢ ɢ ɪɚɜɧɨɦɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɜɫɚɫɵɜɚɧɢɹ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɜɟɧɬɢɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɵɦɢ ɭɫɬɪɨɣɫɬɜɚɦɢ, ɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɟɦɵɦɢ ɜ ɦɟɫɬɧɵɯ ɨɬɫɨɫɚɯ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɨɝɨ ɜɢɞɚ, ɜ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɢ ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɫɤɢɯ ɡɞɚɧɢɹɯ ɞɥɹ ɩɨɞɚɱɢ ɩɪɢɬɨɤɚ ɢ ɭɞɚɥɟɧɢɹ ɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɺɧɧɨɝɨ
ɜɨɡɞɭɯɚ.
ɗɬɢ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɵ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɨ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɬɶ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨɝɨ ɢɥɢ ɢɡɦɟɧɹɸɳɟɝɨɫɹ ɩɨ ɞɥɢɧɟ
ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɨɝɨ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɹ. ɉɟɪɜɵɣ ɜɢɞ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɨɜ ɩɪɨɫɬ ɜ ɢɡɝɨɬɨɜɥɟɧɢɢ, ɧɨ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɵ
ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɣ ɜ ɫɬɟɧɤɟ ɢ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɢ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɚ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɧɢɯ ɢɡɦɟɧɹɸɬɫɹ ɩɨ ɞɥɢɧɟ. ȼɬɨɪɨɣ ɜɢɞ ɭɫɬɪɚɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɞɥɹ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɨɞɢɧɚɤɨɜɵɯ ɪɚɫɯɨɞɨɜ ɢ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɟɣ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɚ ɩɪɢ
ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɢ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɹ ɨɞɢɧɚɤɨɜɨɝɨ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɚ.
ȼ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɣ ɪɚɛɨɬɟ ɢɡɥɚɝɚɸɬɫɹ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɵ ɪɚɫɱɺɬɚ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɨɜ ɪɚɜɧɨɦɟɪɧɨɣ ɪɚɡɞɚɱɢ ɢ ɪɚɜɧɨɦɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɜɫɚɫɵɜɚɧɢɹ ɫ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɹɦɢ ɜ ɫɬɟɧɤɟ.
Ɋɚɫɱɺɬɚɦ ɷɬɢɯ ɜɟɧɬɢɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɭɫɬɪɨɣɫɬɜ ɩɨɫɜɹɳɟɧɵ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ȼ.ȼ. Ȼɚɬɭɪɢɧɚ, Ʉ.Ʉ.
Ȼɚɭɥɢɧɚ, ɉ.ɇ.Ʉɚɦɟɧɟɜɚ, Ƚ.ɇ. Ɇɚɤɫɢɦɨɜɚ, ȼ.ɇ. Ɍɚɥɢɟɜɚ ɢ ɞɪ. Ɋɚɛɨɬɵ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɥɢɫɶ ɷɬɢɦɢ ɚɜɬɨɪɚɦɢ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɞɟɫɹɬɢɥɟɬɢɣ ɬɨɦɭ ɧɚɡɚɞ ɫ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɟɦ ɚɧɚɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɨɜ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɞɢɮɮɟɪɟɧɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɭɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɣ. Ɋɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɚɧɧɵɟ ɢɦɢ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤɢ ɪɚɫɱɺɬɚ ɧɟ ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɸɬ ɩɨɬɟɪɢ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ «ɧɚ ɨɬɜɟɬɜɥɟɧɢɟ», «ɧɚ ɩɪɨɯɨɞ», ɹɜɥɹɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɟɦ ɫɥɢɹɧɢɹ ɢɥɢ ɪɚɡɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɬɨɤɨɜ ɜ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɟ, ɯɨɬɹ ɞɥɹ ɫɥɭɱɚɹ ɩɨɞɚɱɢ ɢɥɢ
ɭɞɚɥɟɧɢɹ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɚ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɹ ɜ ɫɬɟɧɤɟ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɚ ɷɬɢ ɤɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬɵ ɦɟɫɬɧɨɝɨ
ɫɨɩɪɨɬɢɜɥɟɧɢɹ (ɞɚɥɟɟ ɄɆɋ) ɞɚɜɧɨ ɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɵ, ɢ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɜ ɫɩɪɚɜɨɱɧɨɣ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɟ [1,
2].
ɉɪɟɧɟɛɪɟɝɚɬɶ ɷɬɢɦɢ ɩɨɬɟɪɹɦɢ ɧɟɥɶɡɹ. ȼ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɧɚ ɩɪɢɬɨɤ ɄɆɋ ɩɟɪɜɨɝɨ
ɛɨɤɨɜɨɝɨ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɹ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɢɡɦɟɧɹɬɶɫɹ ɨɬ 64 ɞɨ -6,6, ɩɪɢ ɪɚɛɨɬɟ ɧɚ ɜɵɬɹɠɤɭ ɨɬ 65,7 ɞɨ
1,7. Ɋɹɞɨɜɨɝɨ ɩɪɢɬɨɱɧɨɝɨ «ɧɚ ɨɬɜɟɬɜɥɟɧɢɟ» -1,8…3,0, ɪɹɞɨɜɨɝɨ ɜɵɬɹɠɧɨɝɨ «ɧɚ ɨɬɜɟɬɜɥɟɧɢɟ» ɨɬ 1,4 ɞɨ -21. ɄɆɋ «ɧɚ ɩɪɨɯɨɞ» ɛɨɤɨɜɵɯ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɣ ɜɵɬɹɠɧɵɯ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɨɜ
ɧɟɜɟɥɢɤɢ, ɜ ɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɯ 0,06…-0,06, ɧɨ ɭ ɩɪɢɬɨɱɧɵɯ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɨɜ ɷɬɢ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɯɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɜ ɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɯ 0,4….-6,6.
ȼ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɚɯ ɪɚɜɧɨɦɟɪɧɵɯ ɪɚɡɞɚɱɢ ɢɥɢ ɭɞɚɥɟɧɢɹ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɚ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɦɟɫɬɨ ɞɜɚ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɚ: ɜɞɨɥɶ ɨɫɢ ɢ ɩɟɪɩɟɧɞɢɤɭɥɹɪɧɨ ɟɣ, ɜ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɹɯ.
346
ВЕСТНИК
7/2011
dosn5
k5 d54
Losn5
L54
d ɢɥɢ Ⱥɯɇ
d21
k1 d10
L32
L21
L10
Ɉɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɟ
5
ɋɬɜɨɥ
L43
4
3
2
1
МГСУ
k0
Ɍɨɪɟɰ
0
k5dosn5
k4d54 k3d43
k1d21
k0d10
k2d32
ɉɪɨɯɨɞ
k5d54
k4d43 k2d32
k1d10
k2d21
Ɉɬɜɟɬɜɥɟɧɢɟ
e
5
d
4
3
ɫ
b
2
a
1
0
Ɋɢɫ. 1. Ɉɛɳɢɣ ɜɢɞ, ɪɚɡɛɢɜɤɚ ɧɚ ɪɚɫɱɺɬɧɵɟ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɢ ɢ ɚɷɪɨɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɫɯɟɦɚ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɨɜ ɪɚɜɧɨɪɚɫɯɨɞɧɵɯ ɩɪɢɬɨɤɚ ɢ ɜɵɬɹɠɤɢ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɹ ɜ ɫɬɟɧɤɟ
Ⱦɜɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɜɨɡɞɭɲɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɬɨɤɚ ɜɞɨɥɶ ɨɫɢ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɟɬ ɪɚɡɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɨɥɧɵɯ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɜ
ɫɟɱɟɧɢɹɯ, ɩɟɪɩɟɧɞɢɤɭɥɹɪɧɵɯ ɨɫɢ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɚ, ɱɟɪɟɡ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɟ ɜ ɫɬɟɧɤɟ - ɫɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ
ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɫɬɟɧɤɟ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɚ.
ɋɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ ɪɢɫ.1, ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɚ ɜ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɚɯ ɪɚɜɧɨɦɟɪɧɨɣ ɪɚɡɞɚɱɢ ɢɥɢ ɭɞɚɥɟɧɢɹ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɚ ɚɧɚɥɨɝɢɱɧɨ ɟɝɨ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɳɟɧɢɸ ɜ ɩɪɹɦɨɥɢɧɟɣɧɨɣ ɦɚɝɢɫɬɪɚɥɢ ɫ ɩɪɢɫɨɟɞɢɧɺɧɧɵɦɢ ɤ ɧɟɣ ɩɨɞ ɭɝɥɨɦ ɜ 90ɨ ɨɬɜɟɬɜɥɟɧɢɹɦɢ. ɏɨɬɹ ɨɬɜɟɬɜɥɟɧɢɹ, ɨɮɨɪɦɥɟɧɧɵɟ ɜ
ɜɢɞɟ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɨɜ – ɨɬɜɟɬɜɥɟɧɢɣ, ɜ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɨɜ ɪɚɜɧɨɦɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɢɬɨɤɚ – ɭɞɚɥɟɧɢɹ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɚ, ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɭɸɬ, ɩɟɪɩɟɧɞɢɤɭɥɹɪɧɵɟ ɨɫɢ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɚ ɩɨɬɨɤɢ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɚ,
ɢɦɟɸɬ ɦɟɫɬɨ ɛɵɬɶ, ɤɚɤ ɢ ɦɟɫɬɧɵɟ ɫɨɩɪɨɬɢɜɥɟɧɢɹ «ɧɚ ɩɪɨɯɨɞ» ɢ «ɧɚ ɨɬɜɟɬɜɥɟɧɢɟ»
ɜɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɟ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɜ ɪɚɡɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ – ɫɥɢɹɧɢɹ ɩɨɬɨɤɨɜ.
ȼ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɟ ɚɷɪɨɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɪɚɫɱɺɬɚ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɦɨɝɨ ɜɢɞɚ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɨɜ ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɢɬɶ ɚɷɪɨɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ ɭɜɹɡɤɭ «ɦɚɝɢɫɬɪɚɥɢ» ɢ «ɨɬɜɟɬɜɥɟɧɢɣ – ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɣ»
ɫ ɰɟɥɶɸ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɧɢɯ ɬɪɟɛɭɟɦɵɯ ɪɚɫɱɺɬɧɵɯ ɪɚɫɯɨɞɨɜ. ɇɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɞɥɹ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɹ 4
ɨɛɳɟɣ ɫ «ɦɚɝɢɫɬɪɚɥɶɸ» ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɬɨɱɤɚ d, ɚ ɭɪɚɜɧɢɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɩɨɬɟɪɢ ɫɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ
ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɦ: 4d ɢ 0a + ab + bc + cd, ɢ ɬ.ɞ.
Ɋɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɦɵɣ ɜɢɞ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɨɜ ɫɨɫɬɨɢɬ ɢɡ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɨɜ ɫɨ ɫɩɥɨɲɧɨɣ ɫɬɟɧɤɨɣ,
ɦɚɪɤɢɪɭɟɦɵɯ, ɜ ɞɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɟɦ, d10, d21, d32…, ɢ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɨɜ ɫ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɟɦ ɜ ɫɬɟɧɤɟ, ɦɚɪɤɢɪɭɟɦɵɯ ɤɚɤ k0, k1, k2 ɢ ɬ.ɞ. Ƚɪɚɧɢɰɵ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɨɜ – ɜɟɪɬɢɤɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɤɪɨɦɤɢ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɣ.
Ɂɚɝɥɭɲɟɧɧɵɣ ɬɨɪɟɰ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɦɵɯ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɨɜ ɜ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɣ ɪɚɛɨɬɟ ɨɛɨɡɧɚɱɚɟɬɫɹ
ɬɟɪɦɢɧɨɦ «ɬɨɪɟɰ», ɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɣ ɬɨɪɟɰ, ɱɟɪɟɡ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɦɟɫɬɨ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɚ, «ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɚ».
ȼ ɪɚɫɱɺɬɧɨɣ ɚɷɪɨɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɯɟɦɟ ɭɫɥɨɜɧɨ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɨ, ɱɬɨ ɩɪɢɬɨɤ ɢɥɢ ɭɞɚɥɟɧɢɟ
ɢɡ ɩɨɦɟɳɟɧɢɹ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɚ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɜ ɬɨɱɤɟ ɰɟɧɬɪɚ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɹ.
ȼ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɯ ɫɨ ɫɩɥɨɲɧɨɣ ɫɬɟɧɤɨɣ ɪɚɫɯɨɞ ɩɨ ɞɥɢɧɟ ɧɟ ɦɟɧɹɟɬɫɹ, ɜ ɧɢɯ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɦɟɫɬɨ
ɩɨɬɟɪɢ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɩɪɟɨɞɨɥɟɧɢɟ ɫɢɥ ɬɪɟɧɢɹ.
ɍɱɚɫɬɤɢ ɫ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɟɦ ɜ ɫɬɟɧɤɟ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɢ ɩɨɬɟɪɢ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɞɥɢɧɟ, ɢ ɩɨɬɟɪɢ «ɧɚ
ɩɪɨɯɨɞ», ɢ «ɧɚ ɨɬɜɟɬɜɥɟɧɢɟ», ɚ ɪɚɫɯɨɞ ɩɨ ɞɥɢɧɟ ɢɡɦɟɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɭ ɪɚɫɯɨɞɚ ɱɟɪɟɡ
ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɟ.
347
ВЕСТНИК
МГСУ
7/2011
ȿɫɥɢ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨɟ ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɨɟ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɟ, ɩɨɥɧɨɟ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɚɟɬ ɜ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɢ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɚ, ɚ ɜ ɬɨɱɤɚɯ a, b, c, d, e ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ ɪɚɡɧɵɟ
ɩɨɥɧɵɟ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ, ɨɬɥɢɱɚɸɳɢɟɫɹ ɧɚ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɭ ɩɨɬɟɪɶ «ɧɚ ɩɪɨɯɨɞ» ɢ ɩɨɬɟɪɶ ɧɚ ɬɪɟɧɢɟ
ɩɨ ɞɥɢɧɟ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɨɜ. Ɋɚɫɱɺɬɧɵɦ ɞɥɹ ɜɵɱɢɫɥɟɧɢɹ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɨɜ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɹ ɜ ɫɬɟɧɤɟ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ
ɫɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɰɟɧɬɪɟ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɹ. ɉɨ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɟ ɪɚɫɱɺɬɧɨɝɨ ɫɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɜɵɱɢɫɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɬɪɟɛɭɟɦɚɹ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɶ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɚ ɜ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɢ ɢ ɟɝɨ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɵ.
Ɋɚɡɦɟɪɵ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɣ ɩɨ ɞɥɢɧɟ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɚ ɫ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɵɦ ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɵɦ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɟɦ
ɩɨɥɭɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɪɚɡɧɵɦɢ, ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵ ɢ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɢɬɨɤɚ-ɜɵɬɹɠɤɢ ɜ ɤɚɠɞɨɦ ɢɡ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɣ,
ɱɬɨ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɫɞɟɥɚɬɶ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞ ɪɚɜɧɨɦɟɪɧɨɣ ɪɚɡɞɚɱɢ ɧɟɩɪɢɝɨɞɧɵɦ ɞɥɹ ɩɨɞɚɱɢ ɩɪɢɬɨɤɚ
ɧɚ ɮɢɤɫɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɟ ɪɚɛɨɱɢɟ ɦɟɫɬɚ, ɬɚɤ ɤɚɤ ɧɨɪɦɵ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɸɬ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɨɫɟɜɵɯ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɟɣ ɩɪɢɬɨɱɧɨɣ ɫɬɪɭɢ ɧɚ ɜɯɨɞɟ ɜ ɪɚɛɨɱɭɸ ɡɨɧɭ.
ɂɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɨɝɨ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɚ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɰɟɥɶɸ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɰɟɧɬɪɟ
ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɣ ɨɞɢɧɚɤɨɜɵɯ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɨɜ ɪɚɫɱɺɬɧɨɣ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɵ ɫɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ, ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɸɳɟɣ ɜ ɧɢɯ ɪɚɫɱɺɬɧɵɣ ɪɚɫɯɨɞ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɚ. ɋɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɰɟɧɬɪɟ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɣ
ɩɪɢɜɨɞɹɬ ɤ ɪɚɫɱɺɬɧɵɦ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹɦ, ɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɹ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɫɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɢ, ɧɚɨɛɨɪɨɬ, ɫ ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ ɫɩɥɨɲɧɵɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɨɜ, ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɟɦɵɯ ɜ ɮɨɪɦɟ ɞɢɮɮɭɡɨɪɚ
ɢɥɢ ɤɨɧɮɭɡɨɪɚ.
Ɋɚɫɱɺɬɵ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɨɜ ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɶɫɹ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɷɩɸɪ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɫɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ, ɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɢ ɩɨɥɧɨɝɨ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɩɨ ɞɥɢɧɟ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɚ.
ɗɩɸɪɵ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɞɥɹ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɨɜ ɫ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɵɦ ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɵɦ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɟɦ
ɚ) ɩɪɢɬɨɱɧɵɣ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞ
Ʌɢɧɢɹ ɩɨɥɧɨɝɨ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ
dPk2
dPd21
dPk1
dPd10
Ɋɞ,d21
Ɋɞ,d10
1 ɚɬɦ.
2
d32
Pɫɬ k0d00
ɍɫɥ.0
0
1
k2
d21
k1
d10
d00
k0
ɪɫɬ0
Ɋɢɫ. 2. ɗɩɸɪɚ ɫɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɢ ɩɨɥɧɨɝɨ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɞɥɹ ɩɪɢɬɨɱɧɨɝɨ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɚ
ɪɚɜɧɨɦɟɪɧɨɣ ɪɚɡɞɚɱɢ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɨɝɨ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɹ
ɗɩɸɪɚ ɩɨɥɧɨɝɨ ɢ ɫɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɞɥɹ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɚ ɪɚɜɧɨɦɟɪɧɨɣ ɪɚɡɞɚɱɢ ɫ
ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɵɦ ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɵɦ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɚ ɧɚ ɪɢɫ. 2.
ɉɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɟ ɷɩɸɪ ɧɚɱɢɧɚɟɬɫɹ ɫ ɛɥɢɠɚɣɲɟɝɨ ɤ ɬɨɪɰɭ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɹ 0. ȼɵɱɢɫɥɹɟɬɫɹ
ɩɨɥɧɨɟ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɢ, ɩɟɪɩɟɧɞɢɤɭɥɹɪɧɨɦ ɨɫɢ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɚ, ɢ ɩɪɨɯɨɞɹɳɟɦ ɱɟɪɟɡ
ɰɟɧɬɪ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɹ 0.
348
7/2011
ВЕСТНИК
МГСУ
ɗɬɨ ɩɨɥɧɨɟ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɟɜɵɲɚɟɬ ɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɧɨɟ, ɬɚɤ ɤɚɤ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɩɪɟɨɞɨɥɟɬɶ
ɄɆɋ ɫɩɪɹɦɥɹɸɳɢɣ ɩɨɬɨɤ ɪɟɲɺɬɤɢ ɢ ɄɆɋ «ɉɟɪɜɨɟ ɛɨɤɨɜɨɟ ɩɪɢɬɨɱɧɨɟ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɟ»:
k0
Pɫɬɚɬ
]
ɪɟɲɺɬɤɢ ] 1 ɟ ɛɨɤ .ɨɬɜ . 2
vɨɬɜ
U , (1)
2
ɝɞɟ vɨɬɜ – ɪɟɤɨɦɟɧɞɭɟɦɚɹ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɶ ɜ ɠɢɜɨɦ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɢ ɩɪɢɬɨɱɧɨɣ ɪɟɲɺɬɤɢ, ɦ/ɫ.
ȼ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɢ k0d00 ɜ ɨɛɴɺɦɟ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɚ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɢ ɩɨɥɧɨɟ ɢ ɫɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɨɞɢɧɚɤɨɜɵ, ɬɚɤ ɤɚɤ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɶ ɜɞɨɥɶ ɨɫɢ ɜ ɷɬɨɦ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɢ ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɭɟɬ, ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɚ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ
ɜɵɱɢɫɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɤɚɤ:
Pk 0 d 00 Pk 0 0,5Pɞɢɧ , d 10 , (2)
ɝɞɟ Ɋɞɢɧ, d10 – ɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɚ ɧɚ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɟ d10, ɉɚ.
Ɂɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɢ k0d00 ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɨ ɞɥɹ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɹ ɤɚɤ
ɥɢɧɢɢ ɩɨɥɧɨɝɨ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɥɢɧɢɢ ɫɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ.
ȼ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɢ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɚ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɜɵɱɢɫɥɹɬɶ ɩɨɬɟɪɢ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɩɪɟɨɞɨɥɟɧɢɟ ɫɢɥ ɬɪɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɩɨɬɟɪɢ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɦɟɫɬɧɨɦ ɫɨɩɪɨɬɢɜɥɟɧɢɢ «ɧɚ ɩɪɨɯɨɞ». ɗɬɢ
ɩɨɬɟɪɢ ɟɫɬɶ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɵ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɥɧɨɝɨ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ. ȼɵɱɢɫɥɢɜ ɩɨɬɟɪɢ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɧɚ
ɩɪɟɨɞɨɥɟɧɢɟ ɫɢɥ ɬɪɟɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɟ k0 ɢ ɩɪɢɛɚɜɢɜ ɟɝɨ ɤ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɸ ɜ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɢ k0d00,
ɩɨɥɭɱɢɦ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɭ ɩɨɥɧɨɝɨ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɢ k0d10. ȿɫɥɢ ɤ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɨɦɭ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɸ
ɩɪɢɛɚɜɢɬɶ ɩɨɬɟɪɢ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɩɪɟɨɞɨɥɟɧɢɟ ɫɢɥ ɬɪɟɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɟ d10, ɩɨɥɭɱɢɦ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɥɧɨɝɨ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɢ k1d10. ȼ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɟ k1 ɢɦɟɸɬ ɦɟɫɬɨ ɢ ɩɨɬɟɪɢ ɧɚ ɩɪɟɨɞɨɥɟɧɢɟ ɫɢɥ ɬɪɟɧɢɹ, ɢ ɩɨɬɟɪɢ «ɧɚ ɩɪɨɯɨɞ». ɉɪɢɛɚɜɢɜ ɤ ɩɨɥɧɨɦɭ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɸ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɹ k1d10
ɷɬɢ ɩɨɬɟɪɢ, ɩɨɥɭɱɢɦ ɩɨɥɧɨɟ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɢ k1d21 ɢ ɬ.ɞ.
Ⱦɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɟ d10 ɨɬɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɜɧɢɡ ɨɬ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɵ ɩɨɥɧɨɝɨ
ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɹɯ k0d10 ɢ k1d10. Ⱦɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚ d21 ɨɬɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɜɧɢɡ ɨɬ ɥɢɧɢɢ ɩɨɥɧɨɝɨ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɹɯ k1d21 ɢ k2d21 ɢ ɬ.ɞ. ɋɨɟɞɢɧɹɹ ɜ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɧɵɯ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɹɯ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɵɟ ɬɨɱɤɢ ɫɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɩɪɹɦɵɦɢ ɥɢɧɢɹɦɢ, ɩɨɥɭɱɢɦ
ɥɢɧɢɸ ɫɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ. ȼ ɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚ k0 ɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɸɬɫɹ ɬɨɱɤɢ ɫɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ
ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɹɯ k0d00 ɢ k0d10.
ɛ) ɜɵɬɹɠɧɨɣ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞ
ɗɩɸɪɚ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɞɥɹ ɜɵɬɹɠɧɵɯ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɨɜ ɪɚɜɧɨɦɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɜɫɚɫɵɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɬɪɨɢɬɫɹ
ɚɧɚɥɨɝɢɱɧɵɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɚ ɫɚɦɢ ɷɩɸɪɵ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɢɞɟɧɬɢɱɧɵɦɢ ɩɪɢɬɨɱɧɨɦɭ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɭ, ɟɫɥɢ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɶ ɡɚ ɧɭɥɶ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɚɛɫɨɥɸɬɧɨɝɨ ɜɚɤɭɭɦɚ.
ȼɵɱɢɫɥɟɧɢɹ ɫɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ (ɩɨɥɧɨɝɨ) ɜ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɢ k0d00, ɩɨɬɟɪɢ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɯ
k0, d10, k1, d21 ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɸɬɫɹ ɬɚɤ ɠɟ, ɤɚɤ ɢ ɜ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɩɪɢɬɨɱɧɨɝɨ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɚ.
ɇɨ ɷɬɢ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɵ ɨɬɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɜɧɢɡ ɨɬ ɥɢɧɢɢ ɭɫɥɨɜɧɨɝɨ ɧɭɥɹ, ɬɚɤ ɤɚɤ ɜ ɜɵɬɹɠɧɨɦ
ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɟ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɦɟɧɶɲɟ ɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɧɨɝɨ, ɬɨ ɟɫɬɶ, ɢɦɟɟɬ ɦɟɫɬɨ ɜɚɤɭɭɦ. ɉɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɵɟ ɬɨɱɤɢ ɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɸɬɫɹ ɩɪɹɦɵɦɢ ɥɢɧɢɹɦɢ, ɫɨɜɨɤɭɩɧɨɫɬɶ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɨɛɪɚɡɭɟɬ ɥɢɧɢɸ
ɩɨɥɧɨɝɨ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɜɫɟɣ ɞɥɢɧɟ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɚ. Ʉ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɚɦ ɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɧɨɝɨ
ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɪɚɫɱɺɬɧɵɯ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɹɯ ɩɪɢɛɚɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ, ɬɨ ɟɫɬɶ ɨɬɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɜɧɢɡ, ɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɩɪɨɱɢɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɚɯ ɢ ɫɬɪɨɢɬɫɹ ɥɢɧɢɹ ɫɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɞɥɹ ɜɵɬɹɠɧɨɝɨ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɚ.
349
ВЕСТНИК
МГСУ
7/2011
1
0
d00 k0
1 ɚɬɦ
d10
k1
2
d21
ȼɚɤɭɭɦ
Pɞ,d10
k2
ɍɫɥ.0
Ɋɫɬ,k0 dPk0
dPd10
dPd21
Pɞ,d21
dPk1
dPk2
Pɞ,d32
Ʌɢɧɢɹ ɩɨɥɧɨɝɨ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ
Ʌɢɧɢɹ ɫɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ
Ɋɢɫ. 3. ɗɩɸɪɚ ɫɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɢ ɩɨɥɧɨɝɨ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɞɥɹ ɜɵɬɹɠɧɨɝɨ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɚ
ɪɚɜɧɨɦɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɜɫɚɫɵɜɚɧɢɹ ɫ ɢɡɦɟɧɹɸɳɢɦɫɹ ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɵɦ ɩɨ ɞɥɢɧɟ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɟɦ
ɗɩɸɪɵ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɨɜ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɨɝɨ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɹ
ɍɫɥɨɜɢɟɦ, ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɸɳɢɦ ɪɚɫɱɺɬɧɵɣ ɪɚɫɯɨɞ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɟ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɪɚɜɟɧɫɬɜɨ ɫɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɰɟɧɬɪɟ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɹ ɪɚɫɱɺɬɧɨɦɭ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɸ. Ɋɚɫɱɺɬɧɵɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɭɚɥɶɧɵ ɞɥɹ ɤɚɠɞɨɝɨ ɢɡ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɣ. ɉɪɢɱɢɧɚ ɬɨɦɭ – ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ ɪɚɡɧɢɰɚ ɜ
ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹɯ ɄɆɋ «ɧɚ ɨɬɜɟɬɜɥɟɧɢɟ», ɜɵɡɜɚɧɧɚɹ ɪɚɡɧɵɦɢ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɚɦɢ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɟɣ ɞɨ ɢ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɜ ɫɥɢɹɧɢɹ – ɪɚɡɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɬɨɤɨɜ, ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ ɪɚɫɯɨɞɨɜ ɱɟɪɟɡ
ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɟ ɢ ɞɨ - ɩɨɫɥɟ ɫɥɢɹɧɢɹ – ɪɚɡɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɬɨɤɨɜ ɞɥɹ ɤɚɠɞɨɝɨ ɢɡ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɣ.
ɂɡɝɨɬɨɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɫɩɥɨɲɧɵɯ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɨɜ ɜ ɜɢɞɟ ɞɢɮɮɭɡɨɪɨɜ –ɤɨɧɮɭɡɨɪɨɜ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɰɟɥɶɸ
ɨɬɤɨɪɪɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɸɳɢɟɫɹ ɜ ɰɟɧɬɪɚɯ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɣ ɫɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ, ɩɪɢɜɟɞɹ ɢɯ ɤ ɪɚɫɱɺɬɧɵɦ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹɦ.
ɉɪɢɧɰɢɩ ɩɪɨɫɬ: ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɢ ɜ ɪɚɫɱɺɬɧɨɦ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɢ ɩɭɬɺɦ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɹ ɟɝɨ
ɩɥɨɳɚɞɢ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬ ɤ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɸ ɫɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɧɺɦ, ɚ ɫɧɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɢ
ɜɵɡɵɜɚɟɬ ɤ ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɫɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ, ɱɬɨ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬ ɤ ɟɝɨ
ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɸ ɜ ɞɚɧɧɨɦ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɢ.
ɂɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɥɧɨɝɨ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɜɞɨɥɶ ɨɫɢ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɚ ɫɪɚɜɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɧɟɜɟɥɢɤɢ, ɚ
ɞɥɹ ɧɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɚ ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɫɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɟɝɨ ɬɚɤɢɦ
ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɱɬɨɛɵ ɢɡɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɨ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɶ ɜɞɨɥɶ ɨɫɢ ɛɵɥɚ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨɣ ɩɨ ɜɫɟɣ ɞɥɢɧɟ ɢ ɜ
ɩɪɢɬɨɱɧɵɯ, ɢ ɜɵɬɹɠɧɵɯ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɚɯ. Ⱦɥɹ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɲɢɪɢɧɚ ɜ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɢ k0d10, Bk0d10,
ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɛɚɡɨɜɨɣ, ɚ ɩɟɪɜɨɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɵ ɲɢɪɢɧɵ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɚ
ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɛɵɬɶ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɦɢ. ɉɪɢ ɨɞɢɧɚɤɨɜɨɣ ɞɥɹ ɜɫɟɝɨ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɚ ɜɵɫɨɬɟ ɩɟɪɜɨɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɲɢɪɢɧɚ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɹ k1d10 – 1*Bk0d10, ɫɟɱɟɧɢɣ k1d21 ɢ k2d21 – 2*Bk0d10, ɫɟɱɟɧɢɣ k2d32 ɢ k3d32 – 3*Bk0d10 ɢ ɬ.ɞ. ɗɩɸɪɵ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɵ ɢɦɟɧɧɨ ɞɥɹ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɨɜ ɬɚɤɨɣ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɢ. ɂɧɚɹ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɚ ɧɟ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɢɬ ɟɦɭ ɧɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɨ
ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ.
350
ВЕСТНИК
7/2011
МГСУ
ɚ) ɩɪɢɬɨɱɧɵɣ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞ (ɪɢɫ. 4)
dosn5
k5 d54
6Bk0d10
5
ɉɪɨɯɨɞ
5Bk0d10 4Bk0d10
L 54
L osn5
ɋɬɜɨɥ
d21
2
3
2Bk0d10
L 21
L 32
L 43
4
3Bk0d10
k1 d10
k0 d00
Bk0d10
Btor
L 10
1
0
k5dosn5
k4d54 k3d43
k1d21
k0d10
k2d32
k5d54
k4d43 k2d32
k1d10
k2d21
Ɉɬɜɟɬɜɥɟɧɢɟ
Ɋɢɫ. 4. Ɋɚɡɛɢɜɤɚ ɧɚ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɢ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɚ ɪɚɜɧɨɦɟɪɧɨɣ ɪɚɡɞɚɱɢ ɫ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɦ
ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɵɦ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɟɦ
ɇɚ ɪɢɫ. 5 ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɚ ɷɩɸɪɚ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɞɥɹ ɩɪɢɬɨɱɧɨɝɨ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɚ ɪɚɜɧɨɦɟɪɧɨɣ
ɪɚɡɞɚɱɢ ɫ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɦ ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɵɦ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɞɨ ɚɷɪɨɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɭɜɹɡɤɢ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɨɜ ɢ
ɨɬɜɟɬɜɥɟɧɢɣ.
Ʌɨɦɚɧɚɹ ɩɨɥɧɨɝɨ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ
Rlk2+dPɩɪɨɯ
Rld21
Rlk1+dPɩɪɨɯ.
Rld10
Rlk0
Ɋɫɬ.=Pɩɨɥɧ.
1 ɚɬɦ.
2
1
0
ɍɫɥ.0
Ʌɨɦɚɧɚɹ ɫɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ
ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ
Ɋɢɫ. 5. ɗɩɸɪɚ ɩɨɥɧɨɝɨ ɢ ɫɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɩɪɢɬɨɱɧɨɝɨ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɚ
ɫ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɦ ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɵɦ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɞɨ ɚɷɪɨɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɭɜɹɡɤɢ
ȼɵɱɢɫɥɟɧɢɹ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɢɯ ɞɥɹ ɷɩɸɪ ɩɨɥɧɨɝɨ ɢ ɫɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɚɧɚɥɨɝɢɱɧɨ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɚɦ ɫ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɵɦ ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɵɦ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɟɦ. ɇɨ ɜ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɟ
ɚɷɪɨɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɭɜɹɡɤɢ ɲɢɪɢɧɭ ɜ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɹɯ k1d10, k2d21, k3d32, k4d43 ɢ k5d54 ɩɪɢɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɚɬɶ, ɢ ɷɩɸɪɚ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɬɺɬ ɜɢɞ (ɪɢɫ. 6).
351
ВЕСТНИК
МГСУ
7/2011
Ʌɨɦɚɧɚɹ ɩɨɥɧɨɝɨ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ
Rlk2+dPɩɪɨɯ
Rld21
Rlk1+dPɩɪɨɯ.
Rld10
Rlk0
Ɋɫɬ.=Pɩɨɥɧ.
1 ɚɬɦ.
2
1
ɍɫɥ.0
0
Ʌɨɦɚɧɚɹ ɫɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ
ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ
Ɋɢɫ. 6. ɗɩɸɪɚ ɩɨɥɧɨɝɨ ɢ ɫɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɩɪɢɬɨɱɧɨɝɨ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɚ
ɫ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɦ ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɵɦ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɚɷɪɨɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɭɜɹɡɤɢ
ȼ ɩɪɢɬɨɱɧɵɯ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɚɯ ɫɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɦɟɧɶɲɟ ɩɨɥɧɨɝɨ, ɬɚɤ ɤɚɤ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɪɚɡɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɩɨɥɧɨɝɨ ɢ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ. ȼ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɜɵɬɹɠɧɨɝɨ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɚ
ɪɚɜɧɨɦɟɪɧɨɣ ɪɚɡɞɚɱɢ ɦɚɬɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɨɩɟɪɚɰɢɹ ɜɵɱɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬ ɤ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɸ
ɚɛɫɨɥɸɬɧɨɣ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɵ ɜɚɤɭɭɦɚ, ɧɚ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɪɚɫɫɱɢɬɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɵ ɪɚɜɧɨɦɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɭɞɚɥɟɧɢɹ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɚ (ɪɢɫ. 7 ɢ 8).
1
0
d00 k0
1 ɚɬɦ
d10
k1
2
d21
ȼɚɤɭɭɦ
k2
ɍɫɥ.0
Ɋɫɬ,k0 dPk0
dPd10
dPd21
Pɞ
dPk1
dPk2
Ʌɢɧɢɹ ɩɨɥɧɨɝɨ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ
Ʌɢɧɢɹ ɫɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ
Ɋɢɫ. 7. ɗɩɸɪɚ ɩɨɥɧɨɝɨ ɢ ɫɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɜɵɬɹɠɧɨɝɨ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɚ
ɫ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɦ ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɵɦ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɞɨ ɚɷɪɨɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɭɜɹɡɤɢ
352
7/2011
ВЕСТНИК
МГСУ
ɉɪɢ ɚɷɪɨɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɭɜɹɡɤɟ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɩɪɢɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɚɬɶ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɚ
k1d10, k2d21, k3d32, k4d43 ɢ k5d54 ɪɚɜɧɨɦɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɭɞɚɥɟɧɢɹ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɚ, ɧɨ ɜ ɛɨɥɶɲɟɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɩɨ ɩɪɢɱɢɧɟ ɛɨɥɶɲɟɝɨ ɚɛɫɨɥɸɬɧɨɝɨ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɜɚɤɭɭɦɚ.
Ɋɚɫɱɺɬ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɨɜ ɪɚɜɧɨɦɟɪɧɨɣ ɪɚɡɞɚɱɢ ɢ ɜɫɚɫɵɜɚɧɢɹ
Ⱥɥɝɨɪɢɬɦ ɪɚɫɱɺɬɚ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɚɷɪɨɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɯɟɦɨɣ ɜɟɧɬɢɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨ ɭɫɬɪɨɣɫɬɜɚ, ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɨɣ ɧɚ ɪɢɫ. 1. ɗɬɨ ɩɪɹɦɨɥɢɧɟɣɧɚɹ ɦɚɝɢɫɬɪɚɥɶ ɫ ɩɪɢɫɨɟɞɢɧɺɧɧɵɦɢ ɤ ɧɟɣ ɩɨɞ ɩɪɹɦɵɦ ɭɝɥɨɦ ɨɬɜɟɬɜɥɟɧɢɹɦɢ. Ȼɥɢɠɚɣɲɟɟ ɤ ɬɨɪɰɭ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɟ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ 1ɦ ɛɨɤɨɜɵɦ. Ɉɬɥɢɱɢɟ ɜ ɚɷɪɨɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɦ ɪɚɫɱɺɬɟ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɦɵɯ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɨɜ ɢ
ɨɛɵɱɧɵɯ ɜɟɧɬɢɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɫɟɬɟɣ ɟɫɬɶ. ȼɫɟ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɢ ɨɛɵɱɧɵɯ ɜɟɧɬɢɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɫɟɬɟɣ
ɪɚɫɫɱɢɬɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɩɨ ɩɨɥɧɵɦ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɦ. ȼ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɦɵɯ ɜɟɧɬɢɥɹɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɭɫɬɪɨɣɫɬɜɚɯ ɩɨ ɩɨɥɧɵɦ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɦ ɪɚɫɫɱɢɬɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɦɚɝɢɫɬɪɚɥɶ, ɨɬɜɟɬɜɥɟɧɢɹ - ɧɚ ɫɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ
ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ, ɩɪɟɜɵɲɚɸɳɟɟ ɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɧɨɟ ɞɥɹ ɩɪɢɬɨɱɧɵɯ, ɢ ɧɚ ɜɚɤɭɭɦ - ɞɥɹ ɜɵɬɹɠɧɵɯ.
ɋɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɰɟɧɬɪɟ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɹ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɜɵɱɢɬɚɧɢɟɦ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ
ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɚ ɜ ɩɟɪɩɟɧɞɢɤɭɥɹɪɧɨɦ ɨɫɢ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɚ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɢ, ɩɪɨɯɨɞɹɳɢɦ ɱɟɪɟɡ
ɰɟɧɬɪ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɹ, ɢɡ ɩɨɥɧɨɝɨ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɷɬɨɦ ɠɟ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɢ.
1
0
d00 k0
1 ɚɬɦ
d10
k1
2
d21
ȼɚɤɭɭɦ
k2
ɍɫɥ.0
Ɋɫɬ,k0 dPk0
dPd10
dPd21
dPk1
dPk2
Ʌɢɧɢɹ ɩɨɥɧɨɝɨ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ
Ʌɢɧɢɹ ɫɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ
Ɋɢɫ. 8. ɗɩɸɪɚ ɩɨɥɧɨɝɨ ɢ ɫɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɜɵɬɹɠɧɨɝɨ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɚ
ɫ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɦ ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɵɦ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɚɷɪɨɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɭɜɹɡɤɢ
1. Ⱥɷɪɨɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɪɚɫɱɺɬ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɨɜ ɫ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɵɦ ɩɨ ɞɥɢɧɟ ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɵɦ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɟɦ.
ɉɪɢɧɢɦɚɸɬɫɹ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɵ ɞɢɚɦɟɬɪɚ ɢɥɢ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɨɜ ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɨɝɨ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɚ
Ɋɚɫɱɺɬ ɧɚɱɢɧɚɟɬɫɹ ɫ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɨɜ ɛɥɢɠɚɣɲɟɝɨ ɤ ɬɨɪɰɭ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɹ 0 ɩɨ
ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɟ ɪɟɤɨɦɟɧɞɭɟɦɨɣ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɢɬɨɤɚ ɢɥɢ ɜɵɬɹɠɤɢ. ȼɵɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɟ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɵ ɨɤ-
353
ВЕСТНИК
МГСУ
7/2011
ɪɭɝɥɹɸɬɫɹ, ɭɬɨɱɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɮɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɢɬɨɤɚ ɢɥɢ ɜɵɬɹɠɤɢ. ȼɵɱɢɫɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɰɟɧɬɪɟ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɹ 0 ɢ ɩɨɥɧɨɟ – ɫɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɢ k0d00.
Ⱦɚɥɟɟ ɜɵɱɢɫɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɩɨɥɧɨɟ ɢ ɫɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɰɟɧɬɪɟ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɹ 1. ɉɨ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɟ ɫɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɜɵɱɢɫɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɵ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɹ 1, ɢ ɪɚɫɱɺɬ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɚɟɬɫɹ
ɜ ɬɨɣ ɠɟ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ.
ȼ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɧɟ ɫɨɜɫɟɦ ɭɞɚɱɧɨɝɨ ɜɵɛɨɪɚ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɨɜ ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɨɝɨ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɚ
ɄɆɋ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɹ 0 ɢ ɄɆɋ «ɧɚ ɨɬɜɟɬɜɥɟɧɢɟ» ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɹ 1 ɦɨɝɭɬ ɨɬɥɢɱɚɬɶɫɹ ɩɨ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧɟ
ɜ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɪɚɡ. ɗɬɨ ɩɪɢɜɟɞɺɬ ɤ ɛɨɥɶɲɨɣ ɪɚɡɧɢɰɟ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɨɜ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɣ 0 ɢ 1, ɢ ɧɟɞɨɩɭɫɬɢɦɨɣ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɢ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɚ ɜ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɢ 1 ɩɨ ɩɪɢɱɢɧɟ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɧɨɜɟɧɢɹ ɚɷɪɨɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɲɭɦɚ ɢɥɢ ɧɟɞɨɩɭɫɬɢɦɨ ɜɵɫɨɤɨɣ ɨɫɟɜɨɣ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɢ ɧɚ ɜɯɨɞɟ ɜ ɪɚɛɨɱɭɸ ɡɨɧɭ.
ȼɨ ɢɡɛɟɠɚɧɢɟ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɪɟɤɨɦɟɧɞɭɟɬɫɹ ɜɵɛɢɪɚɬɶ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɵ ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɨɝɨ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɚ
ɢɡ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɪɚɜɟɧɫɬɜɚ ɄɆɋ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɣ 0 ɢ 1, ɩɨɫɥɟ ɱɟɝɨ ɪɚɫɱɺɬ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɨɩɢɫɚɧɧɨɦ ɜɵɲɟ ɩɨɪɹɞɤɟ.
2. Ⱥɷɪɨɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɪɚɫɱɺɬ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɨɜ ɫ ɢɡɦɟɧɹɸɳɢɦɫɹ ɩɨ ɞɥɢɧɟ ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɵɦ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɟɦ.
ɉɨɫɥɟ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɨɜ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɹ 0, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɞɥɹ
ɩɪɨɱɢɯ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɣ, ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɚɷɪɨɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɭɜɹɡɤɚ ɩɨɬɟɪɶ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɢ
0 ɩɥɸɫ ɩɨɬɟɪɢ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɧɚ ɭɱɚɫɬɤɟ d10 ɢ ɚɷɪɨɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɨɩɪɨɬɢɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɹ1. ɗɬɨ ɨɱɟɧɶ ɜɚɠɧɚɹ ɨɩɟɪɚɰɢɹ. ȿɫɥɢ ɟɺ ɧɟ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɢɬɶ, ɦɨɠɟɬ ɫɬɚɬɶ ɧɟɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɣ
ɭɜɹɡɤɚ ɚɷɪɨɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɨɬɟɪɶ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɯ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɣ , ɥɢɛɨ ɩɪɢ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɟɧɢɢ
ɪɚɫɱɺɬɚ ɫɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ, ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɟɦɨɝɨ ɧɚ ɨɫɢ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɚ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɧɟ ɯɜɚɬɢɬɶ
ɞɥɹ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɪɚɫɱɺɬɧɨɝɨ ɪɚɫɯɨɞɚ ɜ ɩɪɨɱɢɯ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɹɯ. ȼ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɟ ɷɬɨɣ ɭɜɹɡɤɢ
ɦɨɠɧɨ ɢɡɦɟɧɹɬɶ ɲɢɪɢɧɭ ɬɨɪɰɚ, ɫɟɱɟɧɢɹ k0d10. Ⱦɚɥɟɟ ɜɵɱɢɫɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɫɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɰɟɧɬɪɚɯ ɩɪɨɱɢɯ ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɣ, ɩɪɢ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɢ, ɤɨɪɪɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɤɚ ɜɟɥɢɱɢɧ ɫɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɟɦ ɲɢɪɢɧɵ ɜ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɹɯ k1d10, k2d21, k3d32 ɢ
ɬ.ɞ.
Ɋɚɫɱɺɬɵ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɨɜ ɪɚɜɧɨɦɟɪɧɨɣ ɪɚɡɞɚɱɢ ɢ ɭɞɚɥɟɧɢɹ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɚ ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨ ɬɪɭɞɨɺɦɤɢ, ɷɬɨ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɨ ɫ ɬɟɦ, ɱɬɨ ɚɷɪɨɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ ɭɜɹɡɤɭ ɫɨɩɪɨɬɢɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɩɪɢɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ
ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɬɶ ɩɨɞɛɨɪɨɦ ɲɢɪɢɧɵ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɚ ɜ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɧɵɯ ɜɵɲɟ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɹɯ. Ɋɚɫɱɺɬɵ ɜɪɭɱɧɭɸ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɭɸɬ ɛɨɥɶɲɨɝɨ ɨɛɴɺɦɚ ɜɵɱɢɫɥɟɧɢɣ. Ȼɨɥɟɟ ɰɟɥɟɫɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɨ ɪɚɫɱɺɬɵ, ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ
ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɨɜ ɫ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɦ ɩɨɩɟɪɟɱɧɵɦ ɫɟɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɬɶ ɫ ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ ɤɨɦɩɶɸɬɟɪɚ.
ɉɪɟɞɩɨɱɬɟɧɢɟ ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɨɬɞɚɜɚɬɶ ɩɚɤɟɬɭ ɦɚɬɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦ MathCAD ɢɥɢ
ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɧɵɦ ɬɚɛɥɢɰɚɦ Excel, ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɹ ɞɥɹ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɹ ɪɚɫɱɺɬɨɜ ɜɫɬɪɨɟɧɧɵɟ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ. ȼɵɱɢɫɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɭɤɚɡɚɧɧɵɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɭɫɬɭɩɚɸɬ ɹɡɵɤɚɦ ɜɵɫɨɤɨɝɨ
ɭɪɨɜɧɹ, ɧɨ ɫ ɢɯ ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ ɩɪɨɳɟ ɢ ɛɵɫɬɪɟɟ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɚɥɝɨɪɢɬɦɵ ɪɚɫɱɺɬɨɜ.
MathCAD ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɪɚɫɱɺɬɧɵɟ ɚɥɝɨɪɢɬɦɵ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶ ɜ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɥɶɧɨɣ ɮɨɪɦɟ,
ɜɟɫɶɦɚ ɛɥɢɡɤɨɣ ɤ ɬɨɣ, ɤɚɤɚɹ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɢ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɢ ɩɨɹɫɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɡɚɩɢɫɨɤ.
Ɏɨɪɦɭɥɵ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɜɜɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɜ ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɮɨɪɦɟ, ɚ ɧɟ ɜ ɫɬɪɨɤɭ, ɤɨɝɞɚ ɩɪɢɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɜɜɨɞɢɬɶ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɤ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɦ ɛɨɥɶɲɨɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɫɤɨɛɨɤ, ɱɬɨ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɩɪɨɜɨɰɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɨɲɢɛɤɢ ɜ ɪɚɫɱɺɬɚɯ. ɉɚɤɟɬ MathCAD ɢ ɬɚɛɥɢɰɵ Excel ɯɨɪɨɲɨ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɚɧɵ ɫ
Word.
ɋɬɪɟɦɥɟɧɢɟ ɞɨɛɢɬɶɫɹ ɩɪɟɞɟɥɶɧɨ-ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɣ «ɚɜɬɨɦɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɢ» ɜɵɱɢɫɥɟɧɢɣ ɦɨɠɟɬ
ɩɨɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɬɶ ɛɨ’ɥɶɲɢɯ ɡɚɬɪɚɬ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ ɞɥɹ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɚɥɝɨɪɢɬɦɚ, ɧɟɠɟɥɢ ɚɥɝɨɪɢɬɦɚ ɫ
ɪɭɱɧɵɦ ɩɨɞɛɨɪɨɦ ɬɪɟɛɭɟɦɨɣ ɲɢɪɢɧɵ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɚ. ɇɨ ɩɪɢ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɤɨɦɩɶɸɬɟɪɚ ɢ ɦɟɬɨɞ ɩɨɩɵɬɨɤ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɩɨɥɭɱɢɬɶ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬ ɜ ɩɪɢɟɦɥɟɦɵɟ ɫɪɨɤɢ, ɚ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɫɨ-
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ɜɟɪɲɟɧɧɵɣ ɚɥɝɨɪɢɬɦ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɨɜɚɬɶ ɢ ɜ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɩɨɡɞɧɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ, ɤɨɝɞɚ ɛɭɞɟɬ ɧɚɤɨɩɥɟɧ ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɵɣ ɨɩɵɬ ɩɨɞɨɛɧɨɝɨ ɜɢɞɚ ɪɚɫɱɺɬɨɜ.
Ʌɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɚ
1. ɋɩɪɚɜɨɱɧɢɤ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɳɢɤɚ. ȼɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɟ ɫɚɧɢɬɚɪɧɨ – ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɭɫɬɪɨɣɫɬɜɚ. ɑɚɫɬɶ II.
ȼɟɧɬɢɥɹɰɢɹ ɢ ɤɨɧɞɢɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɚ. Ɇ.: ɋɬɪɨɣɢɡɞɚɬ, 1977. - ɫ. 266 – 267.
2. ɋɩɪɚɜɨɱɧɢɤ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɳɢɤɚ. ȼɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɟ ɫɚɧɢɬɚɪɧɨ – ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɭɫɬɪɨɣɫɬɜɚ. ɑɚɫɬɶ 3.
ȼɟɧɬɢɥɹɰɢɹ ɢ ɤɨɧɞɢɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɚ. Ʉɧɢɝɚ 2. Ɇ.: ɋɬɪɨɣɢɡɞɚɬ, 1992. - ɫ. 213 – 214.
Literature
1. Directory of the designer. Internal sanitary – engineering devices. A part II. Ventilation and
air conditioning. M,: literature Publishing house on building, 1977. – p. 266 – 267.
2. Directory of the designer. Internal sanitary – engineering devices. A part 3. Ventilation and air
conditioning. The book 2. M,: literature Publishing house on building, 1992. – p. 213 – 214.
Ʉɥɸɱɟɜɵɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ: ɫɬɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ, ɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ, ɩɨɥɧɨɟ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ, ɚɷɪɨɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɭɜɹɡɤɚ, ɦɚɝɢɫɬɪɚɥɶ, ɨɬɜɟɬɜɥɟɧɢɟ, ɤɨɷɮɮɢɰɢɟɧɬ ɦɟɫɬɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɩɪɨɬɢɜɥɟɧɢɹ, «ɧɚ ɨɬɜɟɬɜɥɟɧɢɟ», «ɧɚ ɩɪɨɯɨɞ», ɨɬɜɟɪɫɬɢɟ, ɫɩɪɹɦɥɹɸɳɚɹ ɩɨɬɨɤ ɪɟɲɺɬɤɚ, ɬɨɪɟɰ, ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɨɜɨɞɚ
Key words: static pressure, dynamic pressure, total pressure, aerodynamic coordination, pipe
main, branch, factor of local resistance, on branch, on pass, aperture, end face, the air line basis
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