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ɋɟɪɢɹ 1. ɇɚɡɟɦɧɵɟ ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɧɵɟ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚ, ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢ ɢ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɢ.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Ɋɢɫɭɧɨɤ 4. Ƚɪɚɮɢɤ ɨɬɤɥɨɧɟɧɢɣ ɜɨɡɞɭɲɧɨɝɨ ɡɚɡɨɪɚ ɩɪɢ ɫɟɥɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɫɛɨɪɤɟ
Ʌɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɚ
Ʉɨɡɥɨɜɫɤɢɣ ȼ.ɇ., ɇɟɦɰɟɜ Ⱥ.Ⱦ. ɍɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɨɦ ɢ ɧɚɞɟɠɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɚɜɬɨɦɨɛɢɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɝɟɧɟɪɚɬɨɪɚ. ɍɱɟɛɧɨɟ ɩɨɫɨɛɢɟ. – Ɍɨɥɶɹɬɬɢ., 2005.-132ɫ.
Ʉɨɡɥɨɜɫɤɢɣ ȼ.ɇ., ɇɟɦɰɟɜ Ⱥ.Ⱦ. ɍɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɨɦ ɢ ɧɚɞɟɠɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɚɜɬɨɦɨɛɢɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɫɬɚɪɬɟɪɚ. ɍɱɟɛɧɨɟ ɩɨɫɨɛɢɟ. – Ɍɨɥɶɹɬɬɢ., 2007.-100ɫ.
ɘɬɬ ȼ.ȿ. ɗɥɟɤɬɪɨɨɛɨɪɭɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɚɜɬɨɦɨɛɢɥɟɣ. – Ɇ., 1995.-304ɫ.
Ʉɥɸɤɢɧ ɉ.ɇ. «ɋɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɟ ɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɢ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɚɜɬɨɦɨɛɢɥɶɧɨɣ ɞɢɚɝɧɨɫɬɢɤɢ ɢ ɢɯ ɨɬɪɚɠɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɭɱɟɛɧɨɦ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɟ». ɂɁȼȿɋɌɂə ɆȽɌɍ «ɆȺɆɂ» ʋ 1 (11) .- Ɇ., 2011.- 314-318ɫ.
Ⱥɤɢɦɨɜ Ⱥ.ȼ., ɑɟɪɧɨɜ Ⱥ.ȿ. « Ɇɟɬɨɞɢɤɚ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɨɜ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ
ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɫɧɚɛɠɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɩɭɫɤɚ ɚɜɬɨɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɧɵɯ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜ, ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɸɳɚɹ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹ ɷɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɚɰɢɢ, ɫɨɛɵɬɢɹ ɢ ɚɥɝɨɪɢɬɦ». ɂɁȼȿɋɌɂə ɆȽɌɍ «ɆȺɆɂ» ʋ 2 (12).- Ɇ., 2011.- 61-69ɫ.
ɍɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢ ɞɥɹ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɦɟɬɢɥɨɜɨɝɨ ɷɮɢɪɚ ɢɡ ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɦɚɫɥɚ
ɤ.ɬ.ɧ. ɞɨɰ. Ȼɟɥɨɜ ȼ.ɉ., Ɂɭɟɜ ɇ.ɋ., ɉɭɝɚɱɺɜ ɂ.Ɉ., ɤ.ɬ.ɧ. ɞɨɰ. Ⱥɩɟɥɢɧɫɤɢɣ Ⱥ.ȼ.
ɍɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ ɦɚɲɢɧɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɹ (ɆȺɆɂ)
easytomemorize@mail.ru, pugachev_02.08.1990@mail.ru,
Ⱥɧɧɨɬɚɰɢɹ. Ⱦɚɧɧɚɹ ɫɬɚɬɶɹ ɩɨɫɜɹɳɟɧɚ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɸ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɜ ɢ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɨɤ ɞɥɹ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɦɟɬɢɥɨɜɵɯ ɷɮɢɪɨɜ ɠɢɪɧɵɯ ɤɢɫɥɨɬ ɢɡ ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɦɚɫɟɥ.
Ɉɩɢɫɚɧɵ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɢ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɦɟɬɢɥɨɜɵɯ ɷɮɢɪɨɜ ɠɢɪɧɵɯ ɤɢɫɥɨɬ ɢɡ ɪɚɩɫɨɜɨɝɨ
ɦɚɫɥɚ, ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧ ɢɯ ɚɧɚɥɢɡ ɢ ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɟ. ɉɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɨ ɨɩɢɫɚɧɢɟ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɨɤ ɞɥɹ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɦɟɬɢɥɨɜɵɯ ɷɮɢɪɨɜ ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɦɚɫɟɥ, ɨɩɢɫɚɧ ɢɯ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɧɚ
ɩɪɢɦɟɪɟ ɪɚɩɫɨɜɨɝɨ ɦɚɫɥɚ (ɊɆ) ɢ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɦɟɬɢɥɨɜɨɝɨ ɷɮɢɪɚ ɪɚɩɫɨɜɨɝɨ ɦɚɫɥɚ.
ɍɤɚɡɚɧɵ ɞɨɫɬɨɢɧɫɬɜɚ ɢ ɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɤɢ ɤɚɠɞɨɝɨ ɦɟɬɨɞɚ ɢ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢ.
Ʉɥɸɱɟɜɵɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ: ɦɟɬɢɥɨɜɵɣ ɷɮɢɪ ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɦɚɫɟɥ, ɦɟɬɢɥɨɜɵɣ ɷɮɢɪ
ɪɚɩɫɨɜɨɝɨ ɦɚɫɥɚ (ɆɗɊɆ), ɪɚɩɫɨɜɨɟ ɦɚɫɥɨ (ɊɆ), ɞɢɡɟɥɶɧɨɟ ɛɢɨɬɨɩɥɢɜɨ (ȾȻɌ),
ɪɟɚɤɰɢɹ ɷɬɟɪɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɢ, ɫɭɩɟɪɤɪɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɹ, ɝɥɢɰɟɪɢɧ, ɜɨɡɨɛɧɨɜɥɹɟ-
ɂɡɜɟɫɬɢɹ ɆȽɌɍ «ɆȺɆɂ» ʋ 1(15), 2013, ɬ. 1
171
ɋɟɪɢɹ 1. ɇɚɡɟɦɧɵɟ ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɧɵɟ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚ, ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢ ɢ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɢ.
ɦɵɟ ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɢ ɬɨɩɥɢɜɚ
ȼ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɟɧɢɹ ɚɜɬɨɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɨɦ ɬɨɩɥɢɜ ɧɟɮɬɹɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɫɤɨɪɨɦ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɧɭɬɶ ɢɯ ɞɟɮɢɰɢɬ. ȼɨ ɜɫɟɦ ɦɢɪɟ ɢɞɭɬ ɢɧɬɟɧɫɢɜɧɵɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɩɨɢɫɤɭ ɚɥɶɬɟɪɧɚɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɬɨɩɥɢɜɚ, ɤɪɨɦɟ ɬɨɝɨ, ɢɯ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ
ɫɧɢɡɢɬɶ ɬɨɤɫɢɱɧɨɫɬɶ ɨɬɪɚɛɨɬɚɜɲɢɯ ɝɚɡɨɜ. Ɉɬɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɬɟɧɢɟ ɡɚɦɟɧɟ ɧɟɜɨɡɨɛɧɨɜɥɹɟɦɵɯ
ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɨɜ ɬɨɩɥɢɜɚ ɧɚ ɜɨɡɨɛɧɨɜɥɹɟɦɵɟ [2].
Ɉɞɧɢɦ ɢɡ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ ɷɬɢɯ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɬɨɩɥɢɜ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɦɚɫɟɥ. Ɍɨɩɥɢɜɚ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɦɚɫɟɥ ɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹ ɤ ɪɚɡɪɹɞɭ ɛɢɨɞɢɡɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɬɨɩɥɢɜ
(ȾȻɌ) ɢ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɬɶɫɹ ɜ ɞɢɡɟɥɹɯ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ:
x Ʉɚɤ ɨɱɢɳɟɧɧɨɟ ɪɚɩɫɨɜɨɟ ɦɚɫɥɨ (ɊɆ) ɢɥɢ ɟɝɨ ɫɦɟɫɢ ɫ ȾɌ
x ȼ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɦɟɬɢɥɨɜɨɝɨ ɷɮɢɪɚ ɪɚɩɫɨɜɨɝɨ ɦɚɫɥɚ (ɆɗɊɆ) ɢ ɟɝɨ ɫɦɟɫɢ ɫ ȾɌ
x Ʉɚɤ ɫɦɟɫɢ ɆɗɊɆ ɫɨ ɫɩɢɪɬɚɦɢ (ɷɬɚɧɨɥɨɦ ɢ ɦɟɬɚɧɨɥɨɦ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɩɨɥɭɱɚɬɶ ɢɡ ɛɢɨɦɚɫɫɵ)
ȼ ɨɛɳɟɦ ɜɢɞɟ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɆɗɊɆ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧ ɧɚ (ɪɢɫɭɧɤɟ 1):
Ɋɢɫɭɧɨɤ 1. Ɉɛɳɚɹ ɫɯɟɦɚ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɆɗɊɆ
Ɋɟɚɤɰɢɢ ɤɢɫɥɨɬ ɫɨ ɫɩɢɪɬɚɦɢ, ɜɟɞɭɳɢɟ ɤ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɸ ɫɥɨɠɧɵɯ ɷɮɢɪɨɜ ɠɢɪɧɵɯ ɤɢɫɥɨɬ,
ɧɚɡɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɹɦɢ ɷɬɟɪɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɢ. ȼ ɨɛɳɟɦ ɜɢɞɟ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɟ ɬɚɤɢɯ ɷɮɢɪɨɜ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ
ɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɨ ɭɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɟɦ, ɩɨɤɚɡɚɧɧɵɦ ɧɚ ɪɢɫɭɧɤɟ 2.
Ɋɢɫɭɧɨɤ 2. Ɋɟɚɤɰɢɹ ɷɬɟɪɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɢ
172 ɂɡɜɟɫɬɢɹ ɆȽɌɍ «ɆȺɆɂ» ʋ 1(15), 2013, ɬ. 1
ɋɟɪɢɹ 1. ɇɚɡɟɦɧɵɟ ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɧɵɟ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚ, ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢ ɢ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɢ.
ɋɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɆɗɊɆ. ɇɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɜ ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ
ɦɚɫɥɨ ɞɨɛɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɫɦɟɫɶ ɫɩɢɪɬɚ ɫ ɤɚɬɚɥɢɡɚɬɨɪɨɦ (ɪɢɫɭɧɨɤ 3).
Ɋɢɫɭɧɨɤ 3. ɋɯɟɦɚ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɆɗɊɆ ɫ ɞɨɛɚɜɤɨɣ ɫɦɟɫɢ ɫɩɢɪɬɚ ɫ ɤɚɬɚɥɢɡɚɬɨɪɨɦ
ɋɨɝɥɚɫɧɨ ɩɨɥɧɨɣ ɫɯɟɦɟ (ɪɢɫɭɧɨɤ 4), ɫɧɚɱɚɥɚ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɫɦɟɲɢɜɚɧɢɟ ɦɟɬɚɧɨɥɚ ɫ ɳɟɥɨɱɶɸ, ɚ ɡɚɬɟɦ ɜ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɟɦɤɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɢɯ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɲɢɜɚɧɢɟ ɫ ɨɱɢɳɟɧɧɵɦ ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦ ɦɚɫɥɨɦ [5].
Ɋɢɫɭɧɨɤ 4. ɉɨɥɧɚɹ ɫɯɟɦɚ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɆɗɊɆ
ɉɨɫɥɟ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɢ ɤ ɪɟɚɝɟɧɬɚɦ ɞɨɛɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɫɟɪɧɚɹ ɤɢɫɥɨɬɚ ɞɥɹ ɧɟɣɬɪɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɢɡɛɵɬɤɚ ɳɟɥɨɱɢ. Ɂɚɬɟɦ ɫɦɟɫɶ ɩɨɫɬɭɩɚɟɬ ɜ ɪɚɡɞɟɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɭɸ ɺɦɤɨɫɬɶ, ɢɡ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɢɡɜɥɟɤɚɸɬɫɹ ɧɟɨɱɢɳɟɧɧɵɟ ɦɟɬɢɥɨɜɵɟ ɷɮɢɪɵ ɠɢɪɧɵɯ ɤɢɫɥɨɬ ɢ ɝɥɢɰɟɪɢɧ. Ɋɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ ɦɚɫɥɨ ɩɨɞɜɟɪɝɚɟɬɫɹ ɪɟɤɬɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɢ, ɢ ɢɡ ɧɟɝɨ ɨɬɝɨɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɦɟɬɚɧɨɥ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɩɨɫɬɭɩɚɟɬ ɫɧɨɜɚ ɞɥɹ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɢ.
ȼ ɤɨɧɰɟ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɶ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɆɗɊɆ. ɂɡ ɧɟɨɱɢɳɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɝɥɢɰɟɪɢɧɚ ɨɬɝɨɧɹɟɬɫɹ
ɦɟɬɚɧɨɥ, ɢ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɟɝɨ ɨɱɢɫɬɤɚ. ȼ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɫɥɭɱɚɹɯ, ɤɨɝɞɚ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɸ ɩɨ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɫɨɨɛɪɚɠɟɧɢɹɦ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɸɬ ɫ ɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɤɨɦ ɤɚɬɚɥɢɡɚɬɨɪɚ (CaOH), ɩɨɫɥɟ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɢ ɜɵɩɨɥ-
ɂɡɜɟɫɬɢɹ ɆȽɌɍ «ɆȺɆɂ» ʋ 1(15), 2013, ɬ. 1
173
ɋɟɪɢɹ 1. ɇɚɡɟɦɧɵɟ ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɧɵɟ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚ, ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢ ɢ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɢ.
ɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɬɢɬɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ (ɦɟɬɨɞ ɨɛɴɺɦɧɨɝɨ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ). ɉɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɤ ɪɚɫɬɜɨɪɭ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɦɨɝɨ ɜɟɳɟɫɬɜɚ
(ɬɢɬɪɭɟɦɨɦɭ ɜɟɳɟɫɬɜɚ) ɞɨɛɚɜɥɹɸɬ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɢɦɢ ɩɨɪɰɢɹɦɢ ɪɚɫɬɜɨɪ ɬɢɬɪɚɧɬɚ (ɪɚɛɨɱɢɣ ɪɚɫɬɜɨɪ) ɫ ɰɟɥɶɸ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ. ɗɬɨ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ, ɱɬɨɛɵ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɶ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ
ɤɚɬɚɥɢɡɚɬɨɪɚ ɢ ɨɰɟɧɢɬɶ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɟɝɨ ɞɨɛɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ [4].
ɋɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɜɚɪɶɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɪɟɚɝɟɧɬɨɜ ɩɪɢ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɢ ɆɗɊɆ, ɤɨɬɨɪɨɟ ɨɛɴɹɫɧɹɟɬɫɹ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɦɢ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɹɦɢ ɜ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ ɫɵɪɶɹ, ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɦɨɝɨ ɜ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɟ. ɋɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɪɟɚɝɟɧɬɨɜ ɞɨ (ɪɢɫɭɧɨɤ 5) ɢ ɩɨɫɥɟ (ɪɢɫɭɧɨɤ 6) ɪɟɚɤɰɢɢ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɹ
ɆɗɊɆ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɟɟ:
Ɋɢɫɭɧɨɤ 5. ɋɨɫɬɚɜ ɪɟɚɝɟɧɬɨɜ ɞɨ
Ɋɢɫɭɧɨɤ 6. ɋɨɫɬɚɜ ɪɟɚɝɟɧɬɨɜ ɩɨɫɥɟ
ɩɪɢɝɨɬɨɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɆɗɊɆ
ɩɪɢɝɨɬɨɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɆɗɊɆ
Ʉɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɊɆ ɞɨ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɢ ɪɚɜɧɨ ɩɨɥɭɱɢɜɲɟɦɭɫɹ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɭ ɆɗɊɆ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɢ ɜ
ɩɪɨɰɟɧɬɧɨɦ ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢ – 86%. Ⱦɨ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɢ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɫɩɢɪɬɚ ɜ ɫɦɟɫɢ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ 12%, ɩɨɫɥɟ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɢ 4%. ɂɡɛɵɬɨɤ ɫɩɢɪɬɚ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬ ɤ ɭɫɤɨɪɟɧɢɸ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɢ, ɧɨ ɷɬɨ ɬɪɟɛɭɟɬ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɡɚɬɪɚɬ ɧɚ ɭɞɚɥɟɧɢɟ ɫɩɢɪɬɚ ɢɡ ɫɦɟɫɢ. Ɉɛɴɟɦ ɤɚɬɚɥɢɡɚɬɨɪɚ ɞɨ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɢ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɨɤɨɥɨ 1%. ɉɨɫɥɟ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɢ ɩɨɥɭɱɚɟɬɫɹ 9 % ɝɥɢɰɟɪɢɧɚ [3].
Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 1
ɋɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɪɟɚɝɟɧɬɨɜ ɞɨ ɢ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɢ.
ȼ ɨɛɳɟɦ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɫɱɢɬɚɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɩɪɢ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɦɟɬɚɧɨɥɚ ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɪɟɚɝɟɧɬɨɜ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɜ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɟɦ ɞɢɚɩɚɡɨɧɟ: ɧɚ 86 ɱɚɫɬɟɣ ɪɚɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɦɚɫɥɚ ɞɨɛɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɨɬ 10 ɞɨ 20
ɱɚɫɬɟɣ ɦɟɬɚɧɨɥɚ, ɚ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɳɟɥɨɱɢ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɨɬ 0,8 ɞɨ 1,6 ɱɚɫɬɟɣ.
Ʌɚɛɨɪɚɬɨɪɧɵɣ ɫɩɨɫɨɛ ɩɪɢɝɨɬɨɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɆɗɊɆ
Ɉɛɵɱɧɨ ɞɥɹ ɨɬɥɚɞɤɢ ɤɚɤɨɝɨ-ɥɢɛɨ ɯɢɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚ ɧɚɱɢɧɚɸɬɫɹ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫ
ɥɚɛɨɪɚɬɨɪɧɨɣ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢ. Ɂɚɬɟɦ ɩɨ ɬɟɨɪɢɢ ɩɨɞɨɛɢɹ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɵɟ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɵ ɩɟɪɟɧɨɫɹɬɫɹ ɧɚ
ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢ ɛɨɥɶɲɟɝɨ ɪɚɡɦɟɪɚ.
ɇɚ ɪɢɫɭɧɤɟ 7 ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɚ ɨɩɵɬɧɚɹ ɥɚɛɨɪɚɬɨɪɧɚɹ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚ ɞɥɹ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɆɗɊɆ
ɨɛɴɟɦɨɦ 1000 ɫɦ3. ɊɆ ɩɨɞɨɝɪɟɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɪɟɚɤɬɨɪɟ 4 ɞɨ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ 60-65°ɋ. ɉɨ ɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɢ
ɷɬɨɣ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ ɫɦɟɫɶ ɦɟɬɚɧɨɥɚ ɫ ɳɟɥɨɱɶɸ (KOH) ɩɨɞɚɺɬɫɹ ɜ ɪɭɱɧɭɸ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɢɦɢ ɩɨɪɰɢɹɦɢ ɢɡ ɡɚɥɢɜɧɨɣ ɺɦɤɨɫɬɢ 2, ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɹ ɩɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨɟ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɲɢɜɚɧɢɟ ɜ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ 2
ɱɚɫɨɜ. ɉɪɨɬɟɤɚɧɢɟ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɢ ɮɢɤɫɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɜɢɡɭɚɥɶɧɨ. ɉɪɢ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɦɚɥɨɣ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɢ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɲɢɜɚɧɢɹ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɛɟɥɵɯ ɤɚɩɟɥɶ. ɉɨ ɦɟɪɟ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɹ ɩɨɞɚɱɢ ɫɦɟɫɢ ɧɚ
ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ ɦɚɫɥɚ ɧɚɱɢɧɚɸɬ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɵɜɚɬɶɫɹ «ɤɨɪɠɢ» ɛɟɥɨɝɨ ɰɜɟɬɚ – ɝɥɢɰɟɪɢɧ. ɉɪɢ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɢ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɢ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɲɢɜɚɧɢɹ ɨɛɪɚɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɨɞɧɨɪɨɞɧɚɹ ɦɚɫɫɚ ɫ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɬɜɟɪɞɨɣ ɮɚɡɨɣ. ɉɪɨɪɟɚɝɢɪɨɜɚɜɲɢɣ ɪɚɫɬɜɨɪ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɫɥɢɬɶ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɫɥɢɜɧɭɸ ɺɦɤɨɫɬɶ 9, ɞɚɬɶ ɟɦɭ ɨɬɫɬɨɹɬɶɫɹ ɢ
ɡɚɬɟɦ ɭɞɚɥɢɬɶ ɜɵɩɚɜɲɢɣ ɜ ɨɫɚɞɨɤ ɝɥɢɰɟɪɢɧ ɢɡ ɪɚɫɬɜɨɪɚ. ɆɗɊɆ ɩɪɨɦɵɬɶ ɜɨɞɨɣ, ɱɬɨɛɵ ɭɛ174 ɂɡɜɟɫɬɢɹ ɆȽɌɍ «ɆȺɆɂ» ʋ 1(15), 2013, ɬ. 1
ɋɟɪɢɹ 1. ɇɚɡɟɦɧɵɟ ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɧɵɟ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚ, ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢ ɢ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɢ.
ɪɚɬɶ ɜɨɞɨɪɚɫɬɜɨɪɢɦɵɟ ɫɨɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɹ. ɉɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɫɬɨɢɬ ɫɨɛɥɸɞɚɬɶ ɨɫɬɨɪɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ, ɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ ɢɧɬɟɧɫɢɜɧɨɟ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɲɢɜɚɧɢɟ ɜ ɪɟɚɤɬɨɪɟ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɩɪɢɜɟɫɬɢ ɤ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɸ ɷɦɭɥɶɫɢɢ, ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ ɜɵɡɨɜɟɬ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚ ɪɚɫɫɥɚɢɜɚɧɢɹ.
Ɋɢɫɭɧɨɤ 7. Ʌɚɛɨɪɚɬɨɪɧɚɹ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚ ɞɥɹ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɆɗɊɆ: 1 – ɤɚɪɤɚɫ, 2 – ɡɚɥɢɜɧɚɹ
ɺɦɤɨɫɬɶ, 3 – ɰɟɧɬɪɨɛɟɠɧɵɣ ɧɚɫɨɫ, 4 – ɪɟɚɤɬɨɪ, 5 – ɪɚɫɲɢɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɛɚɤ, 6 – ɮɢɥɶɬɪ, 7 –
ɟɦɤɨɫɬɶ ɞɥɹ “ȼɵɩɚɪɤɢ”, 8 – ɤɨɦɩɪɟɫɫɨɪ, 9 – ɫɥɢɜɧɚɹ ɟɦɤɨɫɬɶ, 10 – ɝɢɛɤɢɟ ɲɥɚɧɝɢ, 11 –
ɮɢɬɢɧɝɢ, 12 – ɦɟɬɚɥɥɨɩɥɚɫɬɢɤɨɜɵɟ ɬɪɭɛɵ, 13 – ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɨɫɜɟɳɟɧɢɟ
ȼ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɜ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɪɟɚɝɟɧɬɨɜ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɸɬɫɹ ɦɟɬɚɧɨɥ ɢ ɳɟɥɨɱɶ(KOH). Ȼɨɥɟɟ
ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫ ɧɟɩɪɟɪɵɜɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɆɗɊɆ, ɫɯɟɦɚ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨ ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɚ ɧɚ ɪɢɫɭɧɤɟ 8.
Ɋɢɫɭɧɨɤ 8. ɋɯɟɦɚ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɆɗɊɆ ɧɟɩɪɟɪɵɜɧɵɦ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɨɦ
Ɉɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨ ɜ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɢɯ ɟɦɤɨɫɬɹɯ ɩɪɢɝɨɬɚɜɥɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɫɦɟɫɶ ɦɟɬɚɧɨɥɚ ɫ ɳɟɥɨɱɶɸ, ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ ɩɨɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɪɚɫɯɨɞɨɦɟɪɵ ɜ ɫɦɟɫɢɬɟɥɶ. ɇɚ ɫɦɟɫɢɬɟɥɶ ɢ ɧɚ ɧɚɫɨɫ ɨɬɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɹ
ɩɨ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɲɢɜɚɧɢɸ ɪɟɚɝɟɧɬɨɜ ɞɥɹ ɭɫɤɨɪɟɧɢɹ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɢ. Ɂɚɬɟɦ ɩɪɨɪɟɚɝɢɪɨɜɚɜɲɚɹ ɫɦɟɫɶ ɩɨɫɬɭɩɚɟɬ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɜ ɪɚɡɞɟɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɤɨɥɨɧɧɵ, ɜ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɟɺ ɪɚɡɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɧɚ
ɆɗɊɆ ɢ ɝɥɢɰɟɪɢɧ. ȼ ɤɨɧɰɟ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚ ɝɥɢɰɟɪɢɧ ɭɞɚɥɹɸɬ ɢɡ ɧɢɠɧɟɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ ɤɨɥɨɧɧɵ. ȼ ɫɯɟɦɚɯ
ɞɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɬɢɩɚ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɜɵɫɨɤɚɹ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɦɟɫɢɬɟɥɹ,
ɂɡɜɟɫɬɢɹ ɆȽɌɍ «ɆȺɆɂ» ʋ 1(15), 2013, ɬ. 1
175
ɋɟɪɢɹ 1. ɇɚɡɟɦɧɵɟ ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɧɵɟ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚ, ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢ ɢ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɢ.
ɱɬɨ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɟɬ ɩɨɥɧɭɸ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɸ ɷɬɟɪɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɢ.
ɉɪɟɞɩɨɱɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɬɢɩɨɜ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɞɢɫɩɟɪɝɚɬɨɪɨɜ (ɚɩɩɚɪɚɬ ɞɥɹ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɨɞɧɨɪɨɞɧɵɯ (ɧɟ ɪɚɫɫɥɚɢɜɚɸɳɢɯɫɹ), ɦɟɥɤɨ ɢɡɦɟɥɶɱɺɧɧɵɯ ɫɦɟɫɟɣ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ
ɷɦɭɥɶɫɢɣ ɜɵɫɨɤɨɣ ɞɢɫɩɟɪɫɧɨɫɬɢ) ɢ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɬɨɪɨɜ – ɭɫɬɪɨɣɫɬɜ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɨɛɥɟɝɱɚɸɬ ɪɚɡɪɵɜ
ɦɟɠɦɨɥɟɤɭɥɹɪɧɵɯ ɫɜɹɡɟɣ.
Ⱦɥɹ ɷɬɢɯ ɰɟɥɟɣ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɭɥɶɬɪɚɡɜɭɤ, ɫ ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɢ ɦɨɠɟɬ
ɛɵɬɶ ɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɨ ɫ 1–5 ɱɚɫɨɜ ɞɨ 15 ɦɢɧɭɬ, ɚ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫ ɫɟɩɚɪɚɰɢɢ (ɪɚɡɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɫɦɟɲɚɧɧɵɯ ɨɛɴɺɦɨɜ ɪɚɡɧɨɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɱɚɫɬɢɰ, ɫɦɟɫɟɣ ɠɢɞɤɨɫɬɟɣ ɪɚɡɧɨɣ ɩɥɨɬɧɨɫɬɢ, ɷɦɭɥɶɫɢɣ) ɜɦɟɫɬɨ 5–10 ɱɚɫɨɜ
ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧ ɡɚ 15 ɦɢɧɭɬ [4]. ɉɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɨɬ 50 ɞɨ
60% ɤɚɬɚɥɢɡɚɬɨɪɚ.
ɋɭɩɟɪɤɪɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɹ
ȼɩɟɪɜɵɟ ɫɭɩɟɪɤɪɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɹ ɛɵɥɚ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɨɜɚɧɚ ɜ əɩɨɧɢɢ, ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɚ ɧɚ
ɪɢɫɭɧɤɟ 9. ȼ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɪɟɚɤɬɨɪɚ ɫɥɭɠɢɥ ɰɢɥɢɧɞɪ ɨɛɴɟɦɨɦ 5 ɦɥ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɛɵɥ ɩɨɦɟɳɟɧ ɜ ɪɚɫɩɥɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɣ ɦɟɬɚɥɥ. ɉɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɥɨɫɶ ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɫɩɢɪɬɚ ɤ ɊɆ ɜ ɩɪɨɩɨɪɰɢɢ 42:1. [5]
Ɋɢɫɭɧɨɤ 9. ɋɯɟɦɚ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚ ɫɭɩɟɪɤɪɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɢ
ȼ ɷɬɢɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɚ ɜ ɪɟɚɤɬɨɪɟ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɜ ɞɢɚɩɚɡɨɧɟ 350–400ɋ, ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ 8
Ɇɩɚ, ɜɪɟɦɹ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɢ ɨɤɨɥɨ 3–5 ɦɢɧɭɬ. ɉɨ ɨɤɨɧɱɚɧɢɢ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɢ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɛɵɫɬɪɨ ɨɯɥɚɞɢɬɶ
ɩɨɥɭɱɢɜɲɢɟɫɹ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɵ ɜɨ ɢɡɛɟɠɚɧɢɟ ɢɯ ɪɚɫɩɚɞɚ.
Ʉ ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɚɦ ɬɚɤɨɣ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹ:
x ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɨɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɩɪɨɬɟɤɚɧɢɹ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɢ;
x ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɜ ɤɚɬɚɥɢɡɚɬɨɪɟ.
Ʉ ɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɤɚɦ:
x ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɞɨɪɨɝɨɫɬɨɹɳɟɝɨ ɨɛɨɪɭɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ;
x ɛɨɥɶɲɢɟ ɷɧɟɪɝɨɡɚɬɪɚɬɵ.
ȼ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɭɠɟ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɫɹ ɩɪɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɵɟ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢ ɞɥɹ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ
ɆɗɊɆ ɩɨ ɬɚɤɨɣ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɢ, ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ ɧɚ ɑɉ «ɏɢɦɩɨɫɬɚɜɳɢɤ» (ɝ. ɋɟɜɟɪɨɞɨɧɟɰɤ, Ʌɭɝɚɧɫɤɚɹ
ɨɛɥ.) [1].
ɉɪɨɰɟɫɫ ɩɪɨɯɨɞɢɬ ɩɪɢ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɟ 300 ɨɋ ɢ ɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɢ 30 Ɇɉɚ. ȼ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɨɬɥɚɞɤɚ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚ ɞɥɹ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɢɯ ɧɨɪɦ. ɋɪɚɜɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɢ ȾȻɌ ɦɚɪɤɢ ȻɂɈ ɗɋɌ ɢ ȻɂɈ ɗɋɌ «ɉ», ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɨ ɞɚɧɧɨɣ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɢ, ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɵ ɜ ɬɚɛɥɢɰɟ 2.
ȿɫɬɶ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɟ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ, ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɟ ɫ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɆɗɊɆ, – ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɦɨɝɨ ɝɥɢɰɟɪɢɧɚ ɧɟɩɪɟɪɵɜɧɨ ɪɚɫɬɟɬ. ɇɚ ɤɚɠɞɭɸ ɬɨɧɧɭ ɆɗɊɆ ɩɪɢɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɛɨɥɶɲɟ 100 ɤɝ ɫɵɪɨɝɨ ɝɥɢɰɟɪɢɧɚ. ɋɟɝɨɞɧɹ ɜ ɦɢɪɟ ɩɨɥɭɱɚɸɬ ɨɤɨɥɨ 15 ɦɥɧ. ɬɨɧɧ ɆɗɊɆ, ɚ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɨɫɬɶ ɜ ɝɥɢɰɟɪɢɧɟ ɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɸɬ ɨɬ 1 ɞɨ 1,5 ɦɥɧ.ɬɨɧɧ ɜ ɝɨɞ. [1]. Ɍɨ ɟɫɬɶ ɭɠɟ ɫɟɣɱɚɫ ɦɢɪɨɜɨɟ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ
ɝɥɢɰɟɪɢɧɚ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɧɚ ɛɢɨɞɢɡɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɡɚɜɨɞɚɯ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɧɨ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɨɫɬɢ ɜ ɷɬɨɦ ɜɟɳɟɫɬɜɟ. Ⱥ ɜ ɫɚɦɨɦ ɧɟɞɚɥɟɤɨɦ ɛɭɞɭɳɟɦ ɡɚ ɫɱɟɬ ɧɨɜɵɯ ɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɹɬɢɣ ɜ Ⱥɦɟɪɢɤɟ ɢ Ⱥɡɢɢ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɟɜɵɫɢɬ ɫɩɪɨɫ. ɇɨ ɜɟɞɶ ɟɫɬɶ ɟɳɟ ɢ ɡɚɜɨɞɵ, ɞɥɹ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɝɥɢɰɟɪɢɧ — ɰɟɥɟɜɨɣ ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬ. ȼɫɟ ɷɬɨ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬ ɤ ɬɨɦɭ, ɱɬɨ ɰɟɧɚ ɧɚ ɝɥɢɰɟɪɢɧ ɧɚ ɦɢɪɨɜɨɦ ɪɵɧɤɟ ɛɵɫɬɪɨ ɩɚɞɚɟɬ, ɩɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɢɬɶ ɫɟɛɟ ɟɝɨ ɨɱɢɳɚɬɶ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɥɢɲɶ ɫɚɦɵɟ ɤɪɭɩɧɵɟ ɤɨɦɩɚɧɢɢ. ɋɵɪɨɣ ɝɥɢɰɟɪɢɧ
176 ɂɡɜɟɫɬɢɹ ɆȽɌɍ «ɆȺɆɂ» ʋ 1(15), 2013, ɬ. 1
ɋɟɪɢɹ 1. ɇɚɡɟɦɧɵɟ ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɧɵɟ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚ, ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢ ɢ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɢ.
ɧɚɞɨ ɨɱɢɫɬɢɬɶ ɨɬ ɨɫɬɚɬɤɨɜ ɫɩɢɪɬɨɜ ɢ ɳɟɥɨɱɟɣ, ɚ ɡɚɬɟɦ ɩɨɞ ɜɚɤɭɭɦɨɦ ɞɢɫɬɢɥɥɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɩɪɢ
ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɟ 180—200 ɨɋ.
Ɍɚɛɥɢɰɚ 2
ɏɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɢ ȻɂɈ ɗɋɌ “ɉ” ɩɨ ɧɨɪɦɚɦ EN 14214
Ƚɥɢɰɟɪɢɧɭ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɧɚɣɬɢ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɜɵɝɨɞɧɨɟ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ (ɪɢɫɭɧɨɤ 10).
Ɋɢɫɭɧɨɤ 10. Ⱦɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɟɟ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɝɥɢɰɟɪɢɧɚ
Ɉɱɢɳɟɧɧɵɣ ɝɥɢɰɟɪɢɧ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬ ɞɥɹ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɦɨɸɳɢɯ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜ
(ɦɵɥɚ). ɉɨɫɥɟ ɝɥɭɛɨɤɨɣ ɨɱɢɫɬɤɢ ɩɨɥɭɱɚɸɬ ɮɚɪɦɚɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɝɥɢɰɟɪɢɧ. ɉɪɢ ɞɨɛɚɜɥɟɧɢɢ
ɮɨɫɮɨɪɧɨɣ ɤɢɫɥɨɬɵ ɤ ɝɥɢɰɟɪɢɧɭ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɩɨɥɭɱɢɬɶ ɮɨɫɮɨɪɧɵɟ ɭɞɨɛɪɟɧɢɹ. ȿɫɥɢ ɧɟ ɛɭɞɟɬ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɞɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɟɝɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɝɥɢɰɟɪɢɧɚ, ɬɨ ɨɧ ɫɬɚɧɟɬ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɬɶ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ ȾȻɌ.
ɂɡɜɟɫɬɢɹ ɆȽɌɍ «ɆȺɆɂ» ʋ 1(15), 2013, ɬ. 1
177
ɋɟɪɢɹ 1. ɇɚɡɟɦɧɵɟ ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɧɵɟ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚ, ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢ ɢ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɢ.
ȼɵɜɨɞɵ
ɂɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɢ ɷɬɟɪɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɢ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɞɨɫɬɭɩɧɵɦ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɨɦ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɹ
ɆɗɊɆ. ɉɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɨɬɦɟɬɢɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɜ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɨɬ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɫɬɜɚ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɢ
ɩɨɥɭɱɚɸɬ ɆɗɊɆ ɫ ɪɚɡɧɨɣ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɨɣ ɩɟɪɟɪɚɛɨɬɤɢ, ɱɬɨ ɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɟɝɨ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ.
Ⱦɥɹ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɆɗɊɆ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶ ɫɟɪɧɭɸ ɤɢɫɥɨɬɭ ɢ ɷɬɚɧɨɥ, ɧɨ ɞɥɹ ɭɫɤɨɪɟɧɢɹ
ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚ ɨɛɵɱɧɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬ ɦɟɬɚɧɨɥ ɢ ɳɟɥɨɱɶ (KOH ɢɥɢ NaOH), ɱɚɳɟ KOH, ɤɚɤ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɞɟɲɟɜɵɣ ɪɟɚɝɟɧɬ.
ɉɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɦɟɬɢɥɨɜɵɯ ɷɮɢɪɨɜ ɠɢɪɧɵɯ ɤɢɫɥɨɬ ɢɡ ɊɆ ɫɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɤ
ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɟɦɭ:
x ɨɱɢɫɬɤɚ ɦɚɫɥɚ (ɮɢɥɶɬɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɱɚɫɬɢɰ ɢɡ ɊɆ ɧɟ ɛɨɥɶɲɟ 5 ɦɤɦ, ɪɚɮɢɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ);
x ɨɛɟɡɜɨɠɢɜɚɧɢɟ ɫɩɢɪɬɚ;
x ɫɦɟɲɢɜɚɧɢɟ ɫɩɢɪɬɚ ɫ ɤɚɬɚɥɢɡɚɬɨɪɨɦ (ɳɟɥɨɱɶɸ);
x ɩɟɪɟɦɟɲɢɜɚɧɢɟ ɫɦɟɫɢ ɫɩɢɪɬɚ ɫ ɤɚɬɚɥɢɡɚɬɨɪɨɦ ɢ ɊɆ ɩɪɢ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɟ ɨɤɨɥɨ 80ɋ ɜ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ
1–2 ɱɚɫɨɜ;
x ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɵ ɩɪɨɬɟɤɚɧɢɹ ɪɟɚɤɰɢɢ ɷɬɟɪɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɢ ɠɢɪɧɵɯ ɤɢɫɥɨɬ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɨɦ ɬɢɬɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ;
x ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɪɚɡɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɆɗɊɆ ɢ ɝɥɢɰɟɪɢɧɚ;
x ɜɚɤɭɭɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɆɗɊɆ ɫ ɰɟɥɶɸ ɭɞɚɥɟɧɢɹ ɦɟɬɚɧɨɥɚ;
x ɩɪɨɦɵɜɤɚ ɆɗɊɆ ɜɨɞɨɣ;
x ɜɚɤɭɭɦɧɚɹ ɩɟɪɟɝɨɧɤɚ;
x ɭɞɚɥɟɧɢɟ ɫɩɢɪɬɚ ɢɡ ɝɥɢɰɟɪɢɧɚ ɢ ɟɝɨ ɨɱɢɫɬɤɚ.
ɋɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟ ɫɯɟɦɵ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɆɗɊɆ: ɜ ɨɞɧɨɦ ɛɨɥɶɲɨɦ ɪɟɚɤɬɨɪɟ ɢɥɢ ɜ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɢɯ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɢɯ. ȼ ɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɦ ɫɱɟɬɟ ɷɬɨ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɰɟɥɟɫɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɨɫɬɶɸ
ɢ ɨɛɪɚɛɨɬɚɧɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɢ. Ȼɨɥɟɟ ɩɪɨɝɪɟɫɫɢɜɧɵɦ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɦ ɫɱɢɬɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɟɩɪɟɪɵɜɧɨɟ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɟ (ɪɢɫɭɧɨɤ 8). ȼ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɜɟɞɭɬɫɹ ɦɟɪɨɩɪɢɹɬɢɹ ɩɨ ɜɧɟɞɪɟɧɢɸ ɫɭɩɟɪɤɪɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɤɚɤ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɛɵɫɬɪɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɣ. Ɍɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɫɯɟɦɵ (ɪɢɫɭɧɨɤ 3) ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɹ (ɪɢɫɭɧɨɤ 4) ɆɗɊɆ ɩɨɥɭɱɢɥɢ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɟɟ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɟ, ɨɧɢ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɫɹ ɧɚ
ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɟ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯ ɡɚɜɨɞɨɜ.
ɉɪɢ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɢ ȾȻɌ ɩɨ ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɸ ɫ ȾɌ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɜɵɞɟɥɢɬɶ [4]:
Ⱦɨɫɬɨɢɧɫɬɜɚ:
x ɏɨɪɨɲɢɟ ɫɦɚɡɨɱɧɵɟ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɢ.
x Ȼɢɨɞɢɡɟɥɶ, ɧɟɫɦɨɬɪɹ ɧɚ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɦɟɧɶɲɟɟ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɫɟɪɵ, ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɯɨɪɨɲɢɦɢ ɫɦɚɡɨɱɧɵɦɢ ɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɚɦɢ, ɱɬɨ ɩɪɨɞɥɟɜɚɟɬ ɫɪɨɤ ɠɢɡɧɢ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɹ. ɗɬɨ ɜɵɡɜɚɧɨ ɟɝɨ
ɯɢɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɨɦ ɢ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟɦ ɜ ɧɺɦ ɤɢɫɥɨɪɨɞɚ.
x Ȼɨɥɟɟ ɜɵɫɨɤɨɟ ɐɟɬɚɧɨɜɨɟ ɱɢɫɥɨ
o ɞɥɹ ɦɢɧɟɪɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɞɢɡɬɨɩɥɢɜɚ 42-45,
o ɞɥɹ ɛɢɨɞɢɡɟɥɹ (ɦɟɬɢɥɨɜɵɣ ɷɮɢɪ) ɧɟ ɦɟɧɟɟ 51.
x ȼɵɫɨɤɚɹ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɚ ɜɨɫɩɥɚɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ. Ɍɨɱɤɚ ɜɨɫɩɥɚɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɞɥɹ ɛɢɨɞɢɡɟɥɹ ɩɪɟɜɵɲɚɟɬ
150°ɋ, ɱɬɨ ɞɟɥɚɟɬ ɛɢɨɝɨɪɸɱɟɟ ɫɪɚɜɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɵɦ ɜɟɳɟɫɬɜɨɦ.
x ɍɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟ ɫɪɨɤɚ ɫɥɭɠɛɵ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɹ. ɉɪɢ ɪɚɛɨɬɟ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɹ ɧɚ ɛɢɨɞɢɡɟɥɟ ɨɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨ
ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɫɦɚɡɤɚ ɟɝɨ ɩɨɞɜɢɠɧɵɯ ɱɚɫɬɟɣ, ɜ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ, ɤɚɤ ɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɸɬ ɢɫɩɵɬɚɧɢɹ, ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɟɬɫɹ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɢɟ ɫɪɨɤɚ ɫɥɭɠɛɵ ɫɚɦɨɝɨ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɹ. ȼɚɠɧɨ ɨɬɦɟɬɢɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɧɟɬ
ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɶ [3].
ɇɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɤɢ:
x ȼ ɯɨɥɨɞɧɨɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɝɨɞɚ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɩɨɞɨɝɪɟɜɚɬɶ ɬɨɩɥɢɜɨ, ɢɞɭɳɟɟ ɢɡ ɬɨɩɥɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɛɚɤɚ ɜ
ɬɨɩɥɢɜɧɵɣ ɧɚɫɨɫ, ɢɥɢ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɬɶ ɫɦɟɫɢ 20 % ɛɢɨɞɢɡɟɥɹ ɢ 80 % ȾɌ ɦɚɪɤɢ ȼ20.
x ɇɟɛɨɥɶɲɨɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ (ɨɤɨɥɨ 3 ɦɟɫɹɰɟɜ).
x ɉɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ ɬɨɩɥɢɜɚ ɢɡ ɪɚɫɬɟɧɢɣ ɡɚɧɢɦɚɟɬ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɟ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɢ.
Ʌɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɚ
1. Ɇɚɬɢɟɜɫɤɢɣ Ⱦ.Ⱦ. , Ʉɭɥɦɚɧɚɤɨɜ ɋ.ɉ., Ʌɟɛɟɞɟɜ ɋ.ȼ., ɒɚɲɟɜ Ⱥ.ȼ. ɉɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɬɨɩɥɢɜɚ ɧɚ
ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɪɚɩɫɨɜɨɝɨ ɦɚɫɥɚ ɜ ɞɢɡɟɥɹɯ / ɉɨɥɡɭɧɨɜɫɤɢɣ ɜɟɫɬɧɢɤ. Ȼɚɪɧɚɭɥ (Ɋɨɫɫɢɹ) – 2006. – ʋ
4. – ɫ. 118–127.
178 ɂɡɜɟɫɬɢɹ ɆȽɌɍ «ɆȺɆɂ» ʋ 1(15), 2013, ɬ. 1
2.
3.
4.
5.
ɋɟɪɢɹ 1. ɇɚɡɟɦɧɵɟ ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɧɵɟ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚ, ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢ ɢ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɢ.
Ɇɚɪɱɟɧɤɨ Ⱥ.ɉ., Ɇɢɧɚɤ Ⱥ.Ɏ., ɋɟɦɟɧɨɜ ȼ.Ƚ., Ʌɢɧɶɤɨɜ Ɉ.ɘ., ɒɩɚɤɨɜɫɤɢɣ ȼ.ȼ.,Ɉɛɨɡɧɵɣ
ɋ.ȼ. Ɋɚɫɱɟɬɧɨ-ɷɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɨ ɨɰɟɧɤɟ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɹ ɩɨɞɨɝɪɟɜɚ ɚɥɶɬɟɪɧɚɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɬɨɩɥɢɜ ɧɚ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɞɢɡɟɥɹ // ȼɟɫɬɧɢɤ ɇɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬɚ «ɏɉɂ», Ⱦɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɢ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɟɝɨ ɫɝɨɪɚɧɢɹ. - ɏɚɪɶɤɨɜ: 2005. – ʋ 1. – ɫ. 8–17.
Bannikov M. G., Tyrlovoy S. I., Vasilev I. P., Chattha A. J. Investigation of characteristics of a
fuel injection pump of a diesel engine fuelled with viscous vegetable oil diesel oil blends // Proc.
Instn. Mech. Engrs. Part D. Journal of Automobile Engineering,2006. – vol. 270.– ʋ 6. – pp.
787–792.
Werner Korbitz. Status and Development of Biodiesel Production and Projects in Europe // SAE
Techn. Pap. Ser. – 1995. – ʋ 952768. – pp. 249–254.
Craig L. Chase, Charles L. Peterson, Gary Lowe, Paul Mann, Jeffrey A. Smith, Norman Y.
Kado. A 322,000 kilometer (200,000 mile) Over the Road Test with HySEE Biodiesel in a
Heavy Duty Truck // SAE Techn. Pap. Ser. – 2000. – ʋ 2000-01-2647.– pp. 1–22.
Ⱥɧɚɥɢɡ ɤɢɧɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɨɜ ɢ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɫɜɨɣɫɬɜ ɤɨɥɺɫɧɨɝɨ
ɞɜɢɠɢɬɟɥɹ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɵɜɚɸɳɟɝɨɫɹ ɬɢɩɚ
ɤ.ɬ.ɧ. ɞɨɰ. ɋɟɪɝɟɟɜ Ⱥ.ɂ., ɤ.ɬ.ɧ. ȿɫɚɤɨɜ Ⱥ.ȿ., Ʉɪɭɝɥɨɜ ɋ.Ɇ., ɤ.ɮ.-ɦ. ɧ. ɑɺɪɧɵɣ ɂ.ȼ.
ɍɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬ ɦɚɲɢɧɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɹ, Ȼɪɹɧɫɤɢɣ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɛɢɡɧɟɫɨɦ (ȻɂɍȻ)
(495)223 05 23 ɞɨɛ.1527, trak vc @mami.ru
Ⱥɧɧɨɬɚɰɢɹ. Ɋɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɫɜɹɡɶ ɤɢɧɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɨɜ ɢ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɫɜɨɣɫɬɜ ɤɨɥɺɫɧɨɝɨ ɞɜɢɠɢɬɟɥɹ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɵɜɚɸɳɟɝɨɫɹ ɬɢɩɚ. Ɋɟɲɚɟɬɫɹ ɡɚɞɚɱɚ ɨ
ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ ɞɥɹ ɬɪɺɯɦɟɪɧɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ «ɤɨɥɟɫɨ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɵɜɚɸɳɟɝɨɫɹ
ɬɢɩɚ – ɨɩɨɪɧɚɹ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɶ» ɩɪɢ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɨɩɨɪɧɨɣ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ. Ɍɚɤɠɟ ɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɫɜɹɡɶ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɶɸ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɢ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɨɦ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɸɳɢɯ ɤɨɥɟɛɚɧɢɣ, ɜɥɢɹɸɳɢɯ ɧɚ ɩɥɚɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɯɨɞɚ ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɧɨɝɨ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚ.
Ʉɥɸɱɟɜɵɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ: ɤɨɥɺɫɧɵɣ ɞɜɢɠɢɬɟɥɶ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɵɜɚɸɳɟɝɨɫɹ ɬɢɩɚ, ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɚ, ɤɢɧɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɵ, ɨɛɨɛɳɺɧɧɵɟ ɫɢɥɵ, ɤɢɧɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɷɧɟɪɝɢɹ, ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɷɧɟɪɝɢɹ, ɬɪɚɧɫɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɹ ɫɜɹɡɢ
Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɵɦɢ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɚɦɢ ɞɜɢɠɢɬɟɥɹ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɵɜɚɸɳɟɝɨɫɹ ɬɢɩɚ [1], ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɸɳɟɝɨ
ɨɩɨɪɧɭɸ ɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɶ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹ [2], ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɤɢɧɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ, ɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɢ ɷɧɟɪɝɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ, ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɳɢɟ ɡɚɤɨɧɵ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɤɚɠɞɨɝɨ ɡɜɟɧɚ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɢɯ ɚɦɩɥɢɬɭɞɧɨɱɚɫɬɨɬɧɵɟ ɢ ɮɚɡɨɱɚɫɬɨɬɧɵɟ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɢ.
ɉɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ ɩɥɨɫɤɨɟ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟ ɤɨɥɟɫɚ ɩɟɪɟɤɚɬɵɜɚɸɳɟɝɨɫɹ ɬɢɩɚ (ɄɉɌ) [3] ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹ
G
dU
ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɦ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɫɢɥ, ɹɜɥɹɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ Fi G , ɝɞɟ U U (q1q2 ,...q, s )
dri
ɩɨɥɧɚɹ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɷɧɟɪɝɢɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ. ȼ ɷɬɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɨɛɨɛɳɟɧɧɵɟ ɫɢɥɵ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɶ
ɜ ɜɢɞɟ (1):
G
n
wU wr
wU
QD ¦ G i (1)
wqD
i 1 wri wqD
Ɍɚɤ ɤɚɤ ɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɷɧɟɪɝɢɹ ɟɫɬɶ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɹ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ, ɬɨ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɦɟɫɬɨ ɪɚɜɟɧɫɬɜɨ:
wU
{ 0 , (D 1, 2,..., s ) .
wqD
ɂɫɯɨɞɹ ɢɡ ɜɵɲɟɢɡɥɨɠɟɧɧɨɝɨ, ɭɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɟ Ʌɚɝɪɚɧɠɚ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɡɚɩɢɫɚɬɶ ɜ ɜɢɞɟ (2):
d w
w
(T U ) (T U ) 0
(2)
dt wqD
wqD
d wL wL
0 , (D 1, 2,..., s ) .
ɢɥɢ
dt wqD wqD
Ɏɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɨɛɨɛɳɟɧɧɵɯ ɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɬ q , ɨɛɨɛɳɟɧɧɵɯ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɟɣ q ɢ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ t ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜ-
ɂɡɜɟɫɬɢɹ ɆȽɌɍ «ɆȺɆɂ» ʋ 1(15), 2013, ɬ. 1
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