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Ƚɭɦɚɧɢɬɚɪɧɵɟ ɧɚɭɤɢ. I. ɉɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɬɟɨɪɢɢ ɢ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɥɨɝɢɢ
ɅɈɄȺɅɖɇɕȿ ɄɈɇɐȿɉɌɕ ȼ ɄɈɇɐȿɉɌɍȺɅɖɇɈɃ ɋɂɋɌȿɆȿ əɁɕɄȺ
ȼ.Ƚ. Ʉɭɥɢɤɨɜ
Kulikov, V.G. Local concepts in the conceptual system of a language. The article looks at ways of
representing knowledge of dialectal variations. Local concept is seen as the unit of such knowledge. It
emerges against the juxtaposition of linguistic forms in contacting dialects and is structured as a cognitive
matrix. A method of matrix analysis is proposed that allows determining the matrix structure, types of
categories emerging on the basis of local concepts, and linguistic forms representing a local concept.
ɂɡɭɱɟɧɢɟ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɨɣ ɤɚɪɬɢɧɵ ɦɢɪɚ ɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹ ɨɞɧɢɦ ɢɡ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɧɵɯ
ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɥɢɧɝɜɢɫɬɢɤɢ.
əɡɵɤɨɜɚɹ ɤɚɪɬɢɧɚ ɦɢɪɚ, ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɚɹ
ɫɨɛɨɣ ɨɬɪɚɠɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɹɡɵɤɟ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɣ
ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ, ɫɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɣ ɜ ɤɨɥɥɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɦ
ɫɨɡɧɚɧɢɢ, ɩɟɪɟɞɚɟɬ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟ ɬɢɩɵ ɡɧɚɧɢɹ:
ɡɧɚɧɢɹ ɨ ɪɟɚɥɢɹɯ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɫɪɟɞɵ, ɚɛɫɬɪɚɤɬɧɵɯ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɯ ɢ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹɯ, ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɵɟ ɡɧɚɧɢɹ. ɋɪɟɞɢ ɷɬɢɯ ɬɢɩɨɜ
ɡɧɚɧɢɹ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɜɵɞɟɥɢɬɶ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɵ, ɩɟɪɟɞɚɸɳɢɟ ɡɧɚɧɢɟ ɨ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɨɣ ɜɚɪɢɚɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ, ɨɬɪɚɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɹ ɜ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ. Ⱦɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɟ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɹ, ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɟ ɜ ɹɡɵɤɟ, ɩɨɩɚɞɚɸɬ ɜ
ɫɮɟɪɭ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚ ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɢ ɜ ɩɨɥɧɨɣ ɦɟɪɟ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɩɪɟɞɦɟɬɨɦ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɥɢɧɝɜɢɫɬɢɤɢ. ɗɬɨɬ ɬɢɩ ɡɧɚɧɢɹ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɫɜɨɸ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɤɭ
ɤɚɤ ɜ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɚɯ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɜ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɚɯ ɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɩɟɪɟɞɚɱɢ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ. Ⱦɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɨɟ ɡɧɚɧɢɟ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɫɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ, ɨɧɨ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɟɬ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɜ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ
ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɹ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɵɯ ɮɨɪɦ ɩɨ ɤɪɚɣɧɟɣ ɦɟɪɟ
ɞɜɭɯ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ, ɢ ɜ ɫɢɥɭ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɬɪɟɛɭɟɬ ɨɫɨɛɨɝɨ ɦɟɬɨɞɚ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɜ ɪɚɦɤɚɯ
ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɚ.
Ɍɪɚɞɢɰɢɢ ɞɥɹ ɬɚɤɨɝɨ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɚ ɤ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɸ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɨɜ ɛɵɥɢ ɡɚɥɨɠɟɧɵ ɜ ɪɚɦɤɚɯ ɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɣ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɲɤɨɥɵ, ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɜɲɟɣ ɜ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɣ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɵ
ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɹɡɵɤɚ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɨɟ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɟ [1]. ȼɩɥɨɬɧɭɸ ɩɨɞɨɣɬɢ ɤ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɸ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɨɫɧɨɜ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɢɥɨ
ɬɚɤɠɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɚɫɩɟɤɬɨɜ
ɥɢɧɝɜɢɫɬɢɤɢ (ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, [2; 3]). Ⱦɢɚɥɟɤɬɵ
ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɵɦ ɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɨɦ, ɧɨ
ɢ ɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɨɦ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɠɢɡɧɢ, ɬɚɤ ɤɚɤ
ɨɧɢ ɨɬɪɚɠɚɸɬ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɭɸ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɭ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚ. ȼ ɫɜɨɸ ɨɱɟɪɟɞɶ, ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɚɹ ɥɢɧɝɜɢɫɬɢɤɚ ɩɪɟɞɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɚɪɫɟɧɚɥ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɜ, ɫ ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɶ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭ12
ɪɭ ɢ ɷɬɚɩɵ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɨɜ ɢ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɯ ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɣ, ɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɜ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɨɫɦɵɫɥɟɧɢɹ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɯ
ɨɬɥɢɱɢɣ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɬɢɩɨɥɨɝɢɸ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɵɯ ɟɞɢɧɢɰ, ɪɟɩɪɟɡɟɧɬɢɪɭɸɳɢɯ ɬɚɤɢɟ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɵ ɢ
ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɢ. ȼ ɞɚɧɧɨɣ ɫɬɚɬɶɟ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ
ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɵ ɤɚɤ ɫɩɨɫɨɛ ɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ
ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ ɨ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɯ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɹɯ ɜ ɹɡɵɤɟ, ɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɟɬɫɹ ɦɟɬɨɞ ɨɩɢɫɚɧɢɹ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɯ
ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɨɜ ɢ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɚ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɨɜ ɢɯ
ɹɡɵɤɨɜɨɣ ɪɟɩɪɟɡɟɧɬɚɰɢɢ.
ɍɧɢɜɟɪɫɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɟɣ ɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɩɟɪɟɞɚɱɢ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ, ɩɪɢ ɩɨɦɨɳɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ
ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɨɟ ɡɧɚɧɢɟ, ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬ. ȼ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɣ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɥɢɧɝɜɢɫɬɢɤɟ ɩɨɞ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɨɦ ɨɛɵɱɧɨ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɟɬɫɹ
ɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ ɞɥɹ ɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɩɟɪɟɞɚɱɢ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ ɨɛ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɦ ɦɢɪɟ ɢ
ɹɡɵɤɟ, ɤɜɚɧɬ ɡɧɚɧɢɹ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ
ɫɥɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ [4]. ɍɧɢɜɟɪɫɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɚɦɢ
ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɚ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɸɬɫɹ ɰɟɥɨɫɬɧɨɫɬɶ ɜɨɫɩɪɢɹɬɢɹ, ɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɰɢɨɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɹ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ
ɢɡɨɦɨɪɮɢɡɦ ɟɝɨ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɩɨ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɸ ɤ
ɰɟɥɨɦɭ.
ɒɢɪɨɤɢɣ ɫɩɟɤɬɪ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɬɟɪɦɢɧɚ
«ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬ» ɨɛɭɫɥɨɜɥɟɧ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɜɚɪɢɚɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɬɢɩɨɜ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɨɜ. Ʉ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɚɦ ɢ
ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚɦ ɨɬɧɨɫɹɬ ɢɞɟɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɦɨɞɟɥɢ (ICM) [5], ɮɪɟɣɦɵ
[6; 7], ɫɤɪɢɩɬɵ [8], ɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɢ ɢɧɬɟɝɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɟ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚ [9], ɩɪɨɩɨɡɢɰɢɢ [10],
ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɵɟ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɵ [11], ɩɨɤɪɵɜɚɸɳɢɟ
ɲɢɪɨɤɢɣ ɤɪɭɝ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪ ɢ
ɬɢɩɨɜ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɨɜ. Ʉɨɧɰɟɩɬɵ
ɥɟɠɚɬ ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɣ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɦɢ ɨɩɟɪɢɪɭɟɬ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɫɨɡɧɚɧɢɟ [12].
Ɋɚɡɧɵɣ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ ɡɧɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬ ɤ
ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɸ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɬɢɩɨɜ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɨɜ.
Ɉɱɟɜɢɞɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɜɫɟ ɚɫɩɟɤɬɵ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ
ɠɢɡɧɢ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɧɚɯɨɞɹɬ ɫɜɨɟ ɨɬɪɚɠɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ. ɉɨɥɭɱɚɹ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɨɟ ɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɢɟ, ɬɚɤɢɟ ɡɧɚɧɢɹ ɫɬɚɧɨɜɹɬɫɹ
ȼɟɫɬɧɢɤ ɌȽɍ, ɜɵɩɭɫɤ 4 (40), 2005
ɩɪɢɧɚɞɥɟɠɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɨɣ ɤɚɪɬɢɧɵ ɦɢɪɚ.
Ɉɞɧɢɦ ɢɡ ɬɢɩɨɜ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɡɧɚɧɢɹ,
ɢɦɟɸɳɢɦ ɫɜɨɟ ɷɤɫɩɥɢɰɢɬɧɨɟ ɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɢɟ ɜ
ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ ɹɡɵɤɚ, ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɡɧɚɧɢɟ ɨ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɨɣ
ɜɚɪɢɚɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɜ ɹɡɵɤɟ. ɇɨɫɢɬɟɥɢ ɥɸɛɨɝɨ
ɹɡɵɤɚ, ɬɟɦ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɥɢɧɝɜɢɫɬɵ, ɨɫɜɟɞɨɦɥɟɧɵ ɨ
ɬɨɦ, ɱɬɨ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɥɟɤɫɢɤɨɧɚ, ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɦɨɝɨ ɜ
ɩɨɜɫɟɞɧɟɜɧɨɦ ɨɛɳɟɧɢɢ ɢ ɜ ɩɢɫɶɦɟɧɧɨɦ ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɧɨɦ ɹɡɵɤɟ, ɢɦɟɟɬ ɫɬɚɬɭɫ «ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɯ
ɥɟɤɫɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢ ɝɪɚɦɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɟɞɢɧɢɰ» ɢɥɢ
ɦɨɠɟɬ ɜɨɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɶɫɹ ɫ «ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɦ
ɩɪɨɢɡɧɨɲɟɧɢɟɦ». ɇɚɥɢɱɢɟ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɨɜ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟɦ ɞɥɹ ɥɸɛɨɝɨ
ɹɡɵɤɚ. Ʉɚɤ ɨɬɦɟɱɚɥ Ɏ. ɞɟ ɋɨɫɫɸɪ, ɥɸɛɨɟ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɹɡɵɤɚ ɜɨ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬ
ɤ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹɦ [13].
ɂɡɭɱɟɧɢɸ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɨɜ ɩɨɫɜɹɳɟɧɵ ɦɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɟ ɥɢɧɝɜɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ,
ɨɞɧɚɤɨ ɜɨɩɪɨɫ ɨ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɟ
ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɨɣ ɜɚɪɢɚɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɞɨ ɫɢɯ ɩɨɪ ɨɫɬɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɱɢɫɥɟ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ, ɧɟ ɧɚɲɟɞɲɢɯ ɞɨɥɠɧɨɝɨ ɨɫɜɟɳɟɧɢɹ. Ʉɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɚɹ ɥɢɧɝɜɢɫɬɢɤɚ
ɞɨɥɠɧɚ ɨɬɜɟɬɢɬɶ ɧɚ ɜɨɩɪɨɫ ɨ ɬɨɦ, ɤɚɤ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ, ɯɪɚɧɹɬɫɹ ɢ ɩɟɪɟɞɚɸɬɫɹ ɡɧɚɧɢɹ ɨ
ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɨɣ ɜɚɪɢɚɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ, ɤɚɤɨɜɵ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɨɫɧɨɜɵ ɬɚɤɨɣ ɜɚɪɢɚɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ, ɤɚɤɢɟ
ɭɪɨɜɧɢ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɡɚɞɟɣɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɧɵɦɢ ɩɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ, ɢ ɱɬɨ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɜ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ ɩɪɢ ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɚɯ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɨɜ ɢ ɩɪɢ ɫɦɟɧɟ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɚ.
ɂɫɯɨɞɹ ɢɡ ɬɟɡɢɫɚ ɨ ɬɨɦ, ɱɬɨ ɡɧɚɧɢɟ, ɩɨɥɭɱɚɟɦɨɟ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɨɦ, ɟɫɬɶ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬ ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɢ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ, ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ
ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɶ, ɱɬɨ ɡɧɚɧɢɟ ɨ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɢ
ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɨɜ, ɨ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɱɟɪɬɚɯ ɢ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɹɯ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ, ɨɬɪɚɠɟɧɧɨɟ ɜ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɨɣ ɮɨɪɦɟ ɜ ɜɢɞɟ
ɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɢɣ ɢ ɨɛɨɛɳɟɧɢɣ (ɫɯɟɦ), ɩɟɪɟɞɚɟɬɫɹ
ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɚɦɢ ɨɫɨɛɨɝɨ ɜɢɞɚ – ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ
ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɚɦɢ (ɫɦ. ɬɚɤɠɟ [14]). Ʌɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɟ
ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɵ ɟɫɬɶ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬ ɩɨɡɧɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɨɫɦɵɫɥɟɧɢɹ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɯ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɣ, ɡɚɤɪɟɩɥɟɧɧɵɣ ɜ
ɹɡɵɤɟ. ɉɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶ ɹɡɵɤɚ ɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɟɬ
ɤɚɤ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɬɟɥɶ ɡɚ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟɦ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɨɣ
ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ, ɨɬɫɥɟɠɢɜɚɸɳɢɣ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ, ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɹɳɢɟ ɜ ɹɡɵɤɟ ɜ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɨɜ ɫ
ɢɧɵɦɢ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɦɢ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɦɢ.
Ɉɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɚ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɬɨ, ɱɬɨ ɨɧ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɭ
ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɦɚɬɪɢɰɵ, ɫɨɫɬɨɹɳɟɣ ɢɡ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɢɯ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɟɣ, ɢɥɢ ɞɨɦɟɧɨɜ. ɉɨɧɹɬɢɟ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɦɚɬɪɢɰɵ ɛɵɥɨ
ɜɩɟɪɜɵɟ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɨ Ɋ. Ʌɷɧɟɤɟɪɨɦ ɞɥɹ ɨɩɢ-
ɫɚɧɢɹ ɤɨɧɮɢɝɭɪɚɰɢɢ ɡɧɚɧɢɹ, ɫɥɭɠɚɳɟɣ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɨɣ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɵ [15]. ɇɚ
ɧɚɲ ɜɡɝɥɹɞ, ɩɨɧɹɬɢɟ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɦɚɬɪɢɰɵ
ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɨ ɢ ɞɥɹ ɨɩɢɫɚɧɢɹ
ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɨɜ. Ʉɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɚɹ ɦɚɬɪɢɰɚ ɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɟɬ ɤɚɤ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɚɥɶɧɚɹ
ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ ɡɧɚɧɢɹ, ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɸɳɚɹ ɫɜɹɡɶ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɚ ɫɨ ɦɧɨɝɢɦɢ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɹɦɢ, ɬɚɤɢɦɢ ɤɚɤ «ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬ»,
«ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹ», «ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɚ», «ɫɜɨɣ – ɱɭɠɨɣ»,
«ɨɰɟɧɤɚ».
Ʌɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬ, ɛɭɞɭɱɢ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɨɣ ɡɧɚɧɢɹ, ɨɬɥɢɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɨ ɫɜɨɟɣ
ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɟ ɨɬ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɨɜ-ɱɭɜɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜ, ɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɫɯɟɦ, ɮɪɟɣɦɨɜ. Ʌɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɣ
ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬ ɧɟ ɩɪɨɫɬɨ ɩɟɪɟɞɚɟɬ ɧɟɤɨɟ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɨɟ
ɢɥɢ ɧɟɹɡɵɤɨɜɨɟ ɡɧɚɧɢɟ, ɚ ɨɬɪɚɠɚɟɬ ɫɜɹɡɶ
ɹɡɵɤɨɜɨɝɨ ɡɧɚɧɢɹ ɫɨ ɡɧɚɧɢɟɦ ɧɟɹɡɵɤɨɜɵɦ.
əɡɵɤɨɜɵɟ ɮɨɪɦɵ ɩɨɞɜɟɪɝɚɸɬɫɹ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɭ ɧɚ
ɩɪɟɞɦɟɬ ɢɯ ɫɯɨɞɫɬɜɚ/ɨɬɥɢɱɢɹ ɫ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɵɦɢ
ɮɨɪɦɚɦɢ ɫɜɨɟɝɨ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɚ, ɢ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɢ
ɷɬɨɝɨ ɜɵɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɹ ɨ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɨɣ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɨɣ ɮɨɪɦɵ ɫ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɵɦ ɤɨɥɥɟɤɬɢɜɨɦ, ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɳɢɦ ɟɟ. ɋɩɟɰɢɮɢɤɚ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɚ ɡɚɤɥɸɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɬɨɦ, ɱɬɨ ɨɧ
ɨɬɪɚɠɚɟɬ ɫɜɹɡɶ ɡɧɚɧɢɹ ɨ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɵɯ ɮɨɪɦɚɯ ɫɨ
ɡɧɚɧɢɟɦ ɨ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɩɪɢɧɚɞɥɟɠɧɨɫɬɢ
ɹɡɵɤɨɜɨɝɨ ɤɨɥɥɟɤɬɢɜɚ, ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɳɟɝɨ ɷɬɢ
ɮɨɪɦɵ. ɂɦɟɧɧɨ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ ɦɚɬɪɢɰɵ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɦɭ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭ ɩɟɪɟɞɚɜɚɬɶ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɨɟ ɡɧɚɧɢɟ.
Ʌɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɵ ɥɟɠɚɬ ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ
ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɨɫɨɛɨɝɨ ɪɨɞɚ ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɣ ɜ
ɹɡɵɤɟ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɨɬɪɚɠɚɸɬ ɫɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɨɛɳɢɯ ɢ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɯ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɵɯ ɟɞɢɧɢɰ. ɂɦɟɧɧɨ
ɧɚɥɢɱɢɟ ɨɛɨɢɯ ɬɢɩɨɜ ɨɛɪɚɡɭɟɬ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɭɸ
ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɸ. Ɉɛɨɛɳɟɧɢɹ ɬɚɤɨɝɨ ɪɨɞɚ ɢɦɟɸɬ
ɨɫɨɛɭɸ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɭ, ɤɨɬɨɪɚɹ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɚ ɜ ɜɢɞɟ ɫɯɟɦɵ. ɉɨɞ ɫɯɟɦɨɣ ɦɵ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɟɦ ɬɚɤɨɣ ɬɢɩ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɣ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɚɦɢ ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɢ, ɩɪɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɦ ɨɞɢɧ ɢɡ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ (ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ, ɫɯɟɦɚ) ɢɦɟɟɬ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɚɛɫɬɪɚɤɬɧɵɣ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ ɢ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɫɭɩɟɪɨɪɞɢɧɚɬɧɨɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ, ɚ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɵ ɧɚ ɫɭɛɨɪɞɢɧɚɬɧɨɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ (ɨɛɪɚɡɰɵ) ɭɬɨɱɧɹɸɬ ɢ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɹɸɬ
ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɢ ɫɯɟɦɵ (ɪɢɫ. 1).
ȼ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɟ ɨɬ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɵɯ ɜ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨɣ
ɥɢɧɝɜɢɫɬɢɤɟ ɬɪɚɤɬɨɜɨɤ ɫɯɟɦɵ (ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ,
[16; 17]), ɫɯɟɦɵ, ɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɸɳɢɟ ɜ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɟ
ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɨɜ, ɫɨɫɬɨɹɬ
ɢɡ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ, ɢɡɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɨ ɩɪɢɧɚɞɥɟɠɚɳɢɯ
ɪɚɡɧɵɦ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɦ ɩɨɞɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɦ ɹɡɵɤɚ. Ɉɬɥɢɱɚɸɳɢɣɫɹ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬ ɢɧɨɝɨ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɚ ɫɨɩɨɫ13
Ƚɭɦɚɧɢɬɚɪɧɵɟ ɧɚɭɤɢ. I. ɉɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɬɟɨɪɢɢ ɢ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɥɨɝɢɢ
ɬɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɫ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɦ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɦ
ɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɚ. Ɍɚɤɨɟ ɫɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɢ
ɨɛɪɚɡɭɟɬ ɫɯɟɦɭ, ɝɞɟ ɧɚ ɫɭɩɟɪɨɪɞɢɧɚɬɨɪɧɨɦ
ɭɪɨɜɧɟ ɛɭɞɭɬ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɶɫɹ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɢ, ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɸɳɢɟ ɢɞɟɧɬɢɮɢɰɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɨɛɟ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɵ ɤɚɤ
ɚɧɚɥɨɝɢɱɧɵɟ ɩɨ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ ɢɥɢ ɫɟɦɚɧɬɢɤɟ. ȼ
ɨɬɥɢɱɢɟ ɨɬ ɫɯɟɦ, ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɜ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ
ɹɡɵɤɚ ɢ ɢɦɟɸɳɢɯ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɵɣ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ
(ɫɯɟɦɚ «ɮɨɧɟɦɚ-ɚɥɥɨɮɨɧɵ», ɫɯɟɦɵ ɫɥɨɝɨɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɞɪ.), ɫɯɟɦɵ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɨɜ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ. ɇɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ
ɬɢɩɢɱɧɵɟ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɟ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɹ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɨɮɨɪɦɥɹɬɶɫɹ ɜ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɵɟ ɦɟɠɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɟ ɫɯɟɦɵ,
ɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɵɟ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɭ ɝɨɜɨɪɹɳɢɯ.
ɋɏȿɆȺ
Ɉɛɪɚɡɟɰ
Ɉɛɪɚɡɟɰ
Ɋɢɫ. 1. Ɇɨɞɟɥɶ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɣ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɫɯɟɦɨɣ ɢ
ɨɛɪɚɡɰɚɦɢ
ɋɨɞɟɪɠɚɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɚ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɚ, ɬɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɫɨɛɨɣ
ɛɨɥɟɟ ɫɥɨɠɧɵɣ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɬ ɩɨ ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɸ ɫ
ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɚɦɢ, ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɨɛɵɱɧɵɦɢ
ɹɡɵɤɨɜɵɦɢ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɚɦɢ ɜ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɯ. ȼ ɟɝɨ ɫɨɫɬɚɜ ɜɯɨɞɢɬ ɹɞɪɨ, ɜɤɥɸɱɚɸɳɟɟ
ɫɯɟɦɵ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɣ1, ɢ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɦɚɬɪɢɰɚ,
ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɳɚɹ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɚ.
Ɇɟɬɨɞɢɤɚ ɨɩɢɫɚɧɢɹ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɨɜ ɞɨɥɠɧɚ ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɬɶ ɜɫɟ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɟɝɨ
ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ. ɇɨɜɢɡɧɚ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɭɟɦɨɝɨ ɬɢɩɚ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɚ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɧɨɜɵɯ
ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤ ɥɢɧɝɜɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ. Ⱥɧɚɥɢɡ
ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɨɜ ɬɚɤɨɝɨ ɪɨɞɚ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬ ɜɵɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɨɜ, ɨɬɥɢɱɚɸɳɢɯ
ɚɧɚɥɨɝɢɱɧɵɟ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɵ ɜ ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɢɪɭɸɳɢɯ ɢ
ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɯ,
ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɚ, ɧɚ ɮɨɧɟ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɢ ɚɤɬɭɚɥɢɡɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ
ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬ, ɢ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨɣ
ɦɨɞɟɥɢ, ɨɩɢɫɵɜɚɸɳɟɣ ɜɫɸ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɭ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɵ.
Ʉɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɣ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦ, ɥɟɠɚɳɢɣ ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɩɪɢ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɨɜ, ɨɬɪɚɠɚɟɬ ɨɛ1
ɋɪ. ɫ «ɭɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɹɦɢ», ɨ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɩɢɫɚɥ Ɇ. Ɇɢɧɫɤɢɣ [6, ɫ. 292].
14
ɳɢɟ ɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɚ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɨɡɧɚɧɢɹ ɜɵɛɢɪɚɬɶ ɬɨɱɤɭ ɨɬɫɱɟɬɚ ɜɨ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ ɢ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟ, ɜɵɛɢɪɚɬɶ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɭɸ ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɭ ɢɥɢ
ɫɩɨɫɨɛ ɜɢɞɟɧɢɹ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɝɨ ɦɢɪɚ, ɫɪɚɜɧɢɜɚɬɶ ɢ ɫɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶ ɩɨɫɬɭɩɚɸɳɭɸ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɸ, ɮɢɥɶɬɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɟɟ ɢ ɮɨɤɭɫɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɧɚ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɡɧɚɱɢɦɵɯ ɟɟ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɚɯ, ɚ
ɬɚɤɠɟ ɚɛɫɬɪɚɝɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɢɥɢ ɫɯɟɦɚɬɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ
ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɵɣ ɨɩɵɬ. Ɉɛɪɚɡɭɸɳɢɟɫɹ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɵ
ɢ ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɢ ɩɨɥɭɱɚɸɬ ɜ ɞɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɟɦ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɨɟ ɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɢɟ, ɡɚ ɧɢɦɢ ɡɚɤɪɟɩɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɟ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɵɟ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɵ. Ɍɚɤɚɹ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤɚ ɨɩɢɫɚɧɢɹ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɨɜ ɜ ɧɚɲɟɦ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɩɨɥɭɱɢɥɚ ɧɚɡɜɚɧɢɟ «ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨ-ɦɚɬɪɢɱɧɵɣ ɚɧɚɥɢɡ».
Ɇɟɬɨɞ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨ-ɦɚɬɪɢɱɧɨɝɨ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ
ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɢ ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɟɧɢɟɦ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɜ, ɢɦɟɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɜ ɚɪɫɟɧɚɥɟ
ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɥɢɧɝɜɢɫɬɢɤɢ. Ɉɧ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɜɵɬɟɤɚɟɬ ɢɡ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɜ, ɩɪɨɱɧɨ ɡɚɤɪɟɩɢɜɲɢɯɫɹ ɜ ɥɢɧɝɜɢɫɬɢɤɟ (ɫɪɚɜɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɦɟɬɨɞ, ɚɧɚɥɢɡ ɫɥɨɜɚɪɧɵɯ ɞɟɮɢɧɢɰɢɣ, ɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɦɟɬɨɞ), ɢ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɜ, ɜɨɡɧɢɤɲɢɯ ɜ
ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɥɢɧɝɜɢɫɬɢɤɟ – ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ, ɮɪɟɣɦɨɜɨɝɨ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ, ɩɪɨɬɨɬɢɩɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ, ɜ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɟ ɨɬ ɭɠɟ
ɫɥɨɠɢɜɲɢɯɫɹ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ,
ɨɩɢɫɚɧɢɟ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɨɜ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɛɨɥɟɟ
ɫɥɨɠɧɭɸ ɩɪɨɰɟɞɭɪɭ. ɋɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɚ ɜɤɥɸɱɚɟɬ ɤɚɤ ɦɢɧɢɦɭɦ ɞɜɟ ɫɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɦɵɟ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɵ. Ⱦɥɹ
ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ ɷɬɢɯ ɟɞɢɧɢɰ ɢ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɫɹ ɜɵɲɟɭɩɨɦɹɧɭɬɵɟ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤɢ. Ɇɟɬɨɞɢɤɚ
ɦɚɬɪɢɱɧɨɝɨ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɪɚɫɲɢɪɢɬɶ
ɩɨɥɟ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɚ ɜ
ɥɢɧɝɜɢɫɬɢɤɟ ɢ ɜɤɥɸɱɢɬɶ ɜ ɱɢɫɥɨ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɜ
ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɵ ɹɡɵɤɚ. Ʉɚɤ ɧɚɦ ɜɢɞɢɬɫɹ, ɷɬɨɬ ɦɟɬɨɞ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧ ɢ
ɞɥɹ ɨɩɢɫɚɧɢɹ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɨɝɨ ɡɧɚɧɢɹ, ɤɨɬɨɪɨɟ
ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬ ɫɜɨɟ ɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɹɡɵɤɟ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɡɚɢɦɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɤɫɟɧɢɡɦɵ, ɤɥɢɲɟ ɢ ɫɬɟɪɟɨɬɢɩɵ,
ɨɬɪɚɠɚɸɳɢɟ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɤɭ ɢɧɵɯ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪ.
Ɇɟɬɨɞ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨ-ɦɚɬɪɢɱɧɨɝɨ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ
ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɟɬ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɟ ɢ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ
ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɵ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɨɣ ɤɚɪɬɢɧɵ
ɦɢɪɚ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɵ ɟɟ ɜɨɫɩɪɢɹɬɢɹ. ɉɪɢɧɰɢɩ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɣ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɩɪɢ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɡɧɚɧɢɹ, ɜɵɪɚɠɚɟɦɨɝɨ ɩɪɢ ɩɨɦɨɳɢ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɨɜ, ɨɬɪɚɠɚɟɬɫɹ, ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɜ
ɜɢɞɟ ɚɪɯɚɢɡɦɨɜ ɢ ɧɟɨɥɨɝɢɡɦɨɜ, ɨ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɡɧɚɸɬ ɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɢ ɹɡɵɤɚ. ɑɚɫɬɶ
ɬɚɤɨɣ ɥɟɤɫɢɤɢ ɜ ɞɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɟɦ «ɨɫɟɞɚɟɬ» ɜ
ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ ɹɡɵɤɚ.
ȼɟɫɬɧɢɤ ɌȽɍ, ɜɵɩɭɫɤ 4 (40), 2005
ɉɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɹ
ɹɡɵɤɨɜɨɣ ɤɚɪɬɢɧɵ ɦɢɪɚ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬ, ɱɬɨ
ɜɫɹɤɢɟ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɹ ɜ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɨɣ
ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ ɨɫɨɡɧɚɸɬɫɹ, ɜ ɬɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɟ, ɢ ɤɚɤ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɹ. Ʌɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬ
ɧɟ ɩɟɪɟɞɚɟɬ ɩɪɨɫɬɵɟ ɡɧɚɧɢɹ ɨ ɤɚɤɢɯ-ɥɢɛɨ
ɩɪɟɞɦɟɬɚɯ ɢ ɹɜɥɟɧɢɹɯ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɝɨ ɦɢɪɚ
ɢɥɢ ɨ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ ɤɚɤ ɬɚɤɨɜɨɣ. Ɋɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɹ /4/ ɤɚɤ [Ll] ɜ ɫɟɜɟɪɧɨɦ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɟ ɋɒȺ
ɢɥɢ «ɨɤɚɧɶɟ» ɜ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɚɯ ɪɭɫɫɤɨɝɨ ɹɡɵɤɚ ɫɚɦɨ ɩɨ ɫɟɛɟ ɧɟ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɨɦ, ɬɚɤɠɟ ɤɚɤ ɧɟ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɢɦ ɮɨɪɦɚ ‘youguys’ ɢɥɢ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ ɮɪɟɣɦɚ ‘government’ ɜ
ɚɦɟɪɢɤɚɧɫɤɨɦ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɟ ɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɹɡɵɤɚ.
Ʌɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɷɬɢ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɵ ɫɬɚɧɨɜɹɬɫɹ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ
ɜ ɫɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɢ ɫ ɚɧɚɥɨɝɢɱɧɵɦɢ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚɦɢ ɜ ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɢɪɭɸɳɢɯ ɢ
ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɯ.
Ⱦɥɹ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɛɵɥɢ ɨɬɨɛɪɚɧɵ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɟ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɵɟ ɮɨɪɦɵ ɢ ɥɟɤɫɢɤɚ, ɨɬɪɚɠɚɸɳɚɹ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɵɟ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɯ ɚɪɟɚɥɨɜ ɫ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɛɪɢɬɚɧɫɤɢɯ ɢ
ɚɦɟɪɢɤɚɧɫɤɢɯ ɫɥɨɜɚɪɟɣ Shorter Oxford
English Dictionary on historical principles
(2002) ɢ Webster’s Third New International
Dictionary (1993). ȼ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɞɥɹ
ɨɬɛɨɪɚ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɚ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɥɢɫɶ ɩɨɦɟɬɵ
dial., N.Amer., US, Britain ɢ ɩɪ., ɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɸɳɢɟ
ɧɚ ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɭɸ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɤɭ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɢɥɢ
ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɟɧɢɹ ɫɥɨɜɚ. Ɏɨɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɟ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɥɢɫɶ ɩɨ ɥɢɧɝɜɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɭ ɚɬɥɚɫɭ Atlas of North American
English1 ɢ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɦ ɛɚɡɚɦ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ Harvard
Dialect Survey2. Ʉɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɟɧɢɟ ɫɥɨɜɨɮɨɪɦ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɥɨɫɶ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ
ɩɪɢɦɟɪɨɜ, ɫɨɛɪɚɧɧɵɯ ɜ ɛɚɡɟ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ Ȼɪɢɬɚɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɪɩɭɫɚ3. ɑɚɫɬɶ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɨɜ ɞɥɹ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɛɵɥɚ ɨɬɨɛɪɚɧɚ ɢɡ
ɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɵɯ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɣ ɚɜɬɨɪɚ ɜɨ
ɜɪɟɦɹ ɫɬɚɠɢɪɨɜɤɢ ɜ ɋɒȺ.
ȼɵɛɨɪ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɚ ɢ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɜɢɞɟɧɢɹ ɦɢɪɚ (ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɵ) ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɮɚɤɬɨɜ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ
ɢ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɤɚɤ ɫ ɩɨɡɢɰɢɢ «ɜɧɭɬɪɢ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ», ɬɚɤ ɢ ɫ ɩɨɡɢɰɢɢ «ɢɡɜɧɟ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ». Ⱦɥɹ ɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɹ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɨɝɨ
ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɚ ɬɚ ɢɥɢ ɢɧɚɹ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɚɹ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɚ ɫɚɦɚ
1
ȼɵɯɨɞ ɚɬɥɚɫɚ ɩɥɚɧɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɜ 2005 ɝ. ȼ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟ
ɜɪɟɦɹ ɪɟɠɢɦ ɞɨɫɬɭɩɚ: http://www.ling.upenn.edu/phono_
atlas/Atlas_chapters. Ɂɚɝɥ. ɫ ɷɤɪɚɧɚ.
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Ɋɟɠɢɦ ɞɨɫɬɭɩɚ: http://cfprod01.imt.uwm.edu/
Dept/FLL/linguistics/dialect/index.html. Ɂɚɝɥ. ɫ ɷɤɪɚɧɚ.
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Ɋɟɠɢɦ ɞɨɫɬɭɩɚ: http://thetis.bl.uk/lookup.html.
Ɂɚɝɥ. ɫ ɷɤɪɚɧɚ.
ɩɨ ɫɟɛɟ ɧɟ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɫɥɭɠɢɬɶ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɞɥɹ
ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɚ, ɟɫɥɢ ɨɧ
ɜɵɛɢɪɚɟɬ ɩɨɡɢɰɢɸ ɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɬɟɥɹ «ɜɧɭɬɪɢ
ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ». Ɍɨɥɶɤɨ ɟɫɥɢ ɜ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɚ
ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɹ ɢɡɛɢɪɚɟɬɫɹ ɢɧɚɹ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɚɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ, ɜ ɷɬɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɟɬ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ
ɨɮɨɪɦɢɬɶ ɩɨɥɭɱɚɟɦɭɸ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɸ ɜ ɜɢɞɟ
ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɚ.
Ɇɟɬɨɞ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨ-ɦɚɬɪɢɱɧɨɝɨ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ
ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬ ɭɱɟɬ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɯ
ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɨɡɧɚɧɢɹ,
ɬɚɤɢɯ ɤɚɤ ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɟ, ɨɬɨɠɞɟɫɬɜɥɟɧɢɟ, ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ, ɚɩɩɟɪɰɟɩɰɢɹ, ɢɧɮɟɪɟɧɰɢɹ. ȼ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ
ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɨɜ ɥɟɠɢɬ
ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɣ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦ ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɹ. Ɉɧ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɫɜɨɟɝɨ ɪɨɞɚ ɩɭɫɤɨɜɵɦ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɦ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ. ɉɪɢ ɫɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɢ
ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɯ ɟɞɢɧɢɰ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɚɹ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɚ ɱɭɠɨɝɨ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɚ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɩɪɟɞɦɟɬ ɫɯɨɞɫɬɜɚ/ɨɬɥɢɱɢɹ ɫ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɨɣ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɟɣ ɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ
ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɚ. ȼ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɢ ɫ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɚɦɢ
ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɢ ɦɚɪɤɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ ɤɚɤ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɚɥɶɧɵɟ, ɥɢɛɨ ɤɚɤ ɨɛɳɢɟ
ɞɥɹ ɜɫɟɣ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ4.
ɉɨɫɬɭɩɚɸɳɚɹ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɹ ɪɚɡɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹ
ɧɚ ɫɬɚɪɭɸ, ɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɭɸ ɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɸ ɹɡɵɤɚ, ɢ ɧɨɜɭɸ, ɧɟɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɭɸ. ɇɨɜɚɹ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɹ ɨɛɵɱɧɨ ɜɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɜ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢ ɤ ɱɟɦɭ-ɥɢɛɨ ɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɨɦɭ. ȼ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɟ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɚ
ɬɚɤɢɦ ɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɵɦ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɟɬ ɡɧɚɧɢɟ ɨ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɨɣ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɟ ɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɚ, ɫɥɭɠɚɳɟɟ
ɨɫɧɨɜɨɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɨɝɨ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɹ. ɋɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɦɚɹ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɚ ɱɭɠɨɝɨ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɚ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɧɨɜɨɣ, ɨɧɚ ɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟɬɫɹ
ɤɚɤ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɚɹ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɟ ɢ ɫɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɫ ɪɨɞɧɵɦ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɨɦ.
ɇɟ ɜɫɹ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɹ, ɩɨɫɬɭɩɚɸɳɚɹ ɜ ɧɚɲɟ ɫɨɡɧɚɧɢɟ, ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɮɨɤɭɫɟ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ
ɢ ɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɧɢɹ ɜ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɟ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ.
ɋɥɟɞɵ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ ɩɨ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɭ «ɮɢɝɭɪɚ – ɮɨɧ» [19] ɩɪɢɫɭɬɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɜɨ ɜɫɟɯ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɵɯ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɚɯ ɧɚ
ɜɫɟɯ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɵɯ ɭɪɨɜɧɹɯ – ɨɬ ɮɨɧɟɦɵ ɞɨ ɬɟɤɫɬɚ. ȿɞɢɧɢɰɚ, ɜɵɞɟɥɹɟɦɚɹ ɜ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɮɢɝɭɪɵ,
ɩɪɢɜɥɟɤɚɟɬ ɮɨɤɭɫ ɧɚɲɟɝɨ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ, ɟɟ ɯɚ4
Ɍɚɤɚɹ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɹ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɟɬ ɩɪɢ ɫɬɢɥɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɜɚɪɢɚɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ, ɤɨɝɞɚ ɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɟɦɚɹ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɚɹ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɧɧɚɹ ɧɟ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɨɤɪɚɫɤɢ ɞɥɹ ɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɟɣ
ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɚ ɢ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɫɹ ɤ «ɨɛɳɟɦɭ ɹɞɪɭ», ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɩɪɨɢɡɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬ [in] ɭ ɫɭɮɮɢɤɫɚ -ing ɜɨ ɦɧɨɝɢɯ
ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɚɯ ɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɹɡɵɤɚ ɧɟ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ
ɞɥɹ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɢ ɩɪɨɢɡɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ ɤɚɤ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɨɝɨ, ɚ
ɫɥɭɠɢɬ ɥɢɲɶ ɦɚɪɤɟɪɨɦ ɪɚɡɝɨɜɨɪɧɨɝɨ ɫɬɢɥɹ (ɫɦ. ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ: [18]).
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Ƚɭɦɚɧɢɬɚɪɧɵɟ ɧɚɭɤɢ. I. ɉɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɬɟɨɪɢɢ ɢ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɥɨɝɢɢ
ɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɢ ɨɫɨɡɧɚɸɬɫɹ ɤɚɤ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɢ ɜɚɠɧɵɟ ɞɥɹ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ. Ɏɨɧɨɜɚɹ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɚ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɩɟɪɢɮɟɪɢɢ ɧɚɲɟɝɨ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ, ɢ ɟɟ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɢ ɫɥɭɠɚɬ
ɞɥɹ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɢ ɮɢɝɭɪɵ. ȼ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢ
ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɚ ɷɬɨɬ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩ ɧɟɨɞɧɨɤɪɚɬɧɨ ɩɨɜɬɨɪɹɟɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɢɟɪɚɪɯɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ
ɭɪɨɜɧɹɯ. ɉɪɢ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɵɯ ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɚɯ ɞɜɟ ɫɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɦɵɟ ɚɧɚɥɨɝɢɱɧɵɟ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɵ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɩɪɟɞɦɟɬ ɬɨɠɞɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ, ɢ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɢ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɵ «ɱɭɠɨɝɨ» ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɚ (ɮɢɝɭɪɚ) ɜɵɞɟɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɮɨɧɟ «ɫɜɨɟɣ»
ɹɡɵɤɨɜɨɣ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɵ. ɋɚɦ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬ
(ɮɢɝɭɪɚ) ɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹ ɬɚɤɨɜɵɦ ɧɚ ɮɨɧɟ ɡɧɚɧɢɣ
ɨ ɬɨɦ, ɱɬɨ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɚɦɢ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɬ
ɹɡɵɤɨɜɵɟ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɹ.
ȼɚɠɧɵɦ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɨɦ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤɢ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨ-ɦɚɬɪɢɱɧɨɝɨ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɜɵɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɢ ɨɩɢɫɚɧɢɟ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɨɜ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɦɚɬɪɢɰɵ. ɋɸɞɚ ɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹ ɬɟ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ (ɞɨɦɟɧɵ), ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ
ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɸɬ ɫɜɹɡɶ ɹɞɪɚ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɚ ɫɨ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚɦɢ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɨɝɨ ɢ ɧɟɹɡɵɤɨɜɨɝɨ
ɡɧɚɧɢɹ, ɩɟɪɟɞɚɸɳɟɝɨ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɸ ɨ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɯ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɣ, ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɵɯ
ɢ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɵɯ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɝɪɭɩɩ ɥɸɞɟɣ, ɩɪɨɠɢɜɚɸɳɢɯ ɧɚ ɷɬɢɯ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹɯ. Ʉɚɤ ɦɵ ɜɢɞɢɦ, ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɤɚ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɚ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɤɨɣ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɚ. ɋɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɦɚɬɪɢɰɵ ɤɚɤ
ɨɫɨɛɨɝɨ ɜɢɞɚ ɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɚ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɪɹɞ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɣ ɨɬ
ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɬɢɩɨɜ ɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɚ, ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɮɪɟɣɦɚ,
ɱɬɨ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɞɢɤɬɭɟɬ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ
ɨɫɨɛɨɣ ɦɟɬɨɞɢɤɢ ɦɚɬɪɢɱɧɨɝɨ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ.
Ɏɪɟɣɦɨɜɵɣ ɚɧɚɥɢɡ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬ ɜɵɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɨɜ ɜ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɟ ɮɪɟɣɦɚ, ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɢɯ ɪɨɥɢ ɜ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ, ɩɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɜ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɟ ɮɪɟɣɦɚ ɜɵɞɟɥɹɸɬ
ɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɢ ɮɚɤɭɥɶɬɚɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɭɡɥɵ (ɫɥɨɬɵ,
ɬɟɪɦɢɧɚɥɵ). ɋɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ ɮɪɟɣɦɚ ɧɨɫɢɬ ɧɟɠɟɫɬɤɢɣ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ, ɱɚɫɬɶ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɨɜ ɮɪɟɣɦɚ
ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɟɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɞɥɹ ɟɝɨ ɜɨɫɩɪɢɹɬɢɹ. Ʉɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɚɹ ɦɚɬɪɢɰɚ ɫɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɢɡ
ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɢɯ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɟɣ, ɢ ɞɥɹ
ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɦɚɬɪɢɰɵ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɧɚɥɢɱɢɟ
ɯɨɬɹ ɛɵ ɞɜɭɯ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɟɣ. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ
ɹɞɪɚ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɚ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɠɟɫɬɤɢɣ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ – ɜ ɱɢɫɥɨ ɟɝɨ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɨɜ ɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɜɯɨɞɹɬ ɞɜɚ ɫɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɦɵɯ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɚ, ɛɟɡ ɧɚɥɢɱɢɹ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɟɜɨɡɦɨɠɟɧ ɫɚɦ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬ.
ȼɨɫɩɪɢɹɬɢɟ ɮɪɟɣɦɚ ɝɟɲɬɚɥɶɬɧɨ, ɱɬɨ
ɨɛɭɫɥɨɜɥɟɧɨ ɩɪɨɱɧɨɫɬɶɸ (ɭɤɨɪɟɧɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɸ)
16
ɫɜɹɡɟɣ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɟɝɨ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɚɦɢ. ȼɵɫɨɤɚɹ
ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ ɭɤɨɪɟɧɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɚ ɫ ɱɚɫɬɨɬɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɢ ɚɜɬɨɦɚɬɢɡɦɨɦ ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɟɧɢɹ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɵɯ ɟɞɢɧɢɰ, ɪɟɩɪɟɡɟɧɬɢɪɭɸɳɢɯ ɮɪɟɣɦ. ȿɞɢɧɢɰɵ ɹɡɵɤɚ, ɪɟɩɪɟɡɟɧɬɢɪɭɸɳɢɟ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬ, ɚɤɬɭɚɥɢɡɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ ɜ ɪɟɱɢ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɪɟɠɟ, ɩɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɝɟɲɬɚɥɶɬɧɨɟ ɜɨɫɩɪɢɹɬɢɟ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɚ
ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɩɪɢ ɧɚɥɢɱɢɢ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɵɯ
ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɨɜ, ɩɪɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɜɵɪɚɛɚɬɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɚɜɬɨɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɪɚɫɩɨɡɧɚɜɚɧɢɟ ɢ ɫɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ
ɹɡɵɤɨɜɵɯ ɟɞɢɧɢɰ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɨɜ. ɋɚɦɚ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɚɹ ɦɚɬɪɢɰɚ ɜ ɬɚɤɨɦ
ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟɬ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɵɣ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ ɢ ɜɤɥɸɱɚɟɬ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɣ ɧɚɛɨɪ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɟɣ.
Ʉɚɤ ɭɠɟ ɨɬɦɟɱɚɥɨɫɶ ɜɵɲɟ, ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɟ
ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɵ ɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɬɫɹ ɜ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɯ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɣ. Ɏɪɟɣɦɵ,
ɤɚɤ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɟ ɫɟɦɚɧɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɢ,
ɧɚɪɹɞɭ ɫɨ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɥɟɤɫɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɟɞɢɧɢɰ
ɦɨɝɭɬ ɫɥɭɠɢɬɶ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɦ ɫɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɢ
ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɯ ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɚɯ. ɋɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ, ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɚɹ ɦɚɬɪɢɰɚ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɟɬ ɤɚɤ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɲɢɪɨɤɚɹ ɩɨ ɨɯɜɚɬɭ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ,
ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɚɦɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɬɶ ɜɫɟ
ɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɵɟ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ ɡɧɚɧɢɹ.
Ʉɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ, ɜɯɨɞɹɳɢɟ ɜ
ɫɨɫɬɚɜ ɦɚɬɪɢɰɵ, ɦɨɝɭɬ ɢɦɟɬɶ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɣ ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɫɥɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ. Ʉɚɠɞɵɣ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬ ɦɚɬɪɢɰɵ ɫɜɹɡɵɜɚɟɬ ɹɞɪɨ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɚ ɫ
ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɶɸ ɡɧɚɧɢɹ. ȼ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɛɵɥɢ ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɵ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ, ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɸɳɢɟ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɭɸ ɦɚɬɪɢɰɭ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɚ: «ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬ», «ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹ», «ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɚ», «ɫɜɨɣ-ɱɭɠɨɣ», «ɨɰɟɧɤɚ», «ɹɡɵɤɨɜɚɹ ɪɟɩɪɟɡɟɧɬɚɰɢɹ».
Ʌɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɵ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɚɬɵɜɚɸɬ ɢ
ɭɬɨɱɧɹɸɬ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɭ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɚ «ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬ», ɩɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɞɚɧɧɚɹ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɶ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɵɦ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɨɦ
ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɦɚɬɪɢɰɵ. ɉɨɧɹɬɢɟ
«ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬ» ɧɟɪɚɡɪɵɜɧɨ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɨ ɫɨ ɡɧɚɧɢɟɦ ɨ
ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɞɟɥɟɧɢɢ ɫɬɪɚɧɵ-ɚɪɟɚɥɚ
ɹɡɵɤɚ. ɗɬɨ ɡɧɚɧɢɟ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɨɮɨɪɦɥɟɧɨ ɜ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɫɥɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ – ɨɬ ɡɧɚɧɢɹ ɨ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɛɥɢɠɚɣɲɢɯ ɫɨɫɟɞɟɣ,
ɝɨɜɨɪɹɳɢɯ ɧɚ ɞɪɭɝɨɦ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɟ, ɞɨ ɛɨɥɟɟ
ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɡɧɚɧɢɹ ɨ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɢ
ɫɯɟɦɵ ɪɚɫɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɯ
ɝɪɭɩɩ [20; 21]. Ɉɫɨɛɨ ɨɬɦɟɬɢɦ, ɱɬɨ ɪɟɱɶ ɢɞɟɬ
ɨɛ ɨɛɵɞɟɧɧɨɦ ɫɨɡɧɚɧɢɢ ɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɹɡɵɤɚ, ɚ
ȼɟɫɬɧɢɤ ɌȽɍ, ɜɵɩɭɫɤ 4 (40), 2005
ɧɟ ɨɛ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɧɨɦ ɡɧɚɧɢɢ ɥɢɧɝɜɢɫɬɨɜ-ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɨɥɨɝɨɜ. Ɏɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ ɡɧɚɧɢɹ ɨ
ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɚɯ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɨ ɧɚ
ɨɩɵɬɟ ɨɛɳɟɧɢɹ ɫ ɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɹɦɢ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɨɜ ɢ
ɩɨɫɟɳɟɧɢɹ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɣ, ɝɞɟ ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɟ ɮɨɪɦɵ. Ɉɬɫɸɞɚ, ɬɚɤɢɟ ɫɨɰɢɨɥɢɧɝɜɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɵ ɤɚɤ ɦɨɛɢɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ ɪɚɫɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ (ɧɚɥɢɱɢɟ ɦɟɝɚɩɨɥɢɫɨɜ ɫ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɵɦ
ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɟɦ) ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɸɬ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ ɧɚ ɢɧɬɟɧɫɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɨɜ ɢ ɧɚ ɢɯ ɭɤɨɪɟɧɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɜ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ.
ɉɪɢ ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɚɯ ɫ ɢɧɵɦɢ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɦɢ
ɝɪɭɩɩɚɦɢ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɵɟ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɵ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɝɨ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɚ ɩɨɞɜɟɪɝɚɸɬɫɹ ɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɧɢɸ
ɫ ɩɨɡɢɰɢɢ «ɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɚɹ / ɧɟɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɚɹ» ɮɨɪɦɚ, «ɭɦɟɫɬɧɚɹ / ɧɟɭɦɟɫɬɧɚɹ» ɮɨɪɦɚ ɢ ɞɚɠɟ
«ɩɪɢɹɬɧɚɹ, ɛɥɚɝɨɡɜɭɱɧɚɹ / ɧɟɩɪɢɹɬɧɚɹ, ɧɟɛɥɚɝɨɡɜɭɱɧɚɹ» ɮɨɪɦɚ. ɗɬɨ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɝɨɜɨɪɢɬɶ ɨ
ɬɨɦ, ɱɬɨ ɜ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɟ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɦɚɬɪɢɰɵ
ɩɪɢɫɭɬɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɨɰɟɧɨɱɧɵɣ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬ. ɇɚ
ɨɰɟɧɤɭ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɬɶ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɤɚɤ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɵɟ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɵ (ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɟ ɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟɦɨɣ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɨɣ ɮɨɪɦɵ
ɩɪɚɜɢɥɚɦ ɞɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɚ: ɸɠɧɨɟ ɚɦɟɪɢɤɚɧɫɤɨɟ might could ɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɹɦɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɢɯ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɨɜ ɤɚɤ
ɝɪɚɦɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɧɟɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɨɟ), ɬɚɤ ɢ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɨ ɨɛɭɫɥɨɜɥɟɧɧɵɟ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɫɭɛɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɵɦɢ ɢ ɫɭɛɷɬɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɝɪɭɩɩɚɦɢ ɜ
ɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɯ ɨɞɧɨɣ ɧɚɰɢɢ ɢɥɢ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ
ɫɬɟɪɟɨɬɢɩɵ ɩɪɢ ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɚɯ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɷɬɧɨɫɨɜ,
ɝɨɜɨɪɹɳɢɯ ɧɚ ɨɞɧɨɦ ɹɡɵɤɟ (ɧɢɡɤɚɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɚ
ɸɠɧɵɯ ɚɦɟɪɢɤɚɧɫɤɢɯ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɨɜ ɩɨ ɩɪɢɱɢɧɟ
ɫɯɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɫ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɨɦ ɚɮɪɨ-ɚɦɟɪɢɤɚɧɰɟɜ) (ɫɦ.
ɩɨɞɪɨɛɧɟɟ [22]).
Ʉɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɵɣ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɡɧɚɱɢɦɵɦ ɜ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɟ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨɣ
ɦɚɬɪɢɰɵ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɚ. ɇɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɵɟ ɫɬɟɪɟɨɬɢɩɵ ɫɨɡɞɚɸɬ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɟ
ɞɥɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɢ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɵɯ ɮɨɪɦ ɧɚ ɩɪɟɞɦɟɬ ɭɦɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɟɧɢɹ. Ʌɢɧɝɜɨɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɵɟ
ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɵ [23] ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɸɬ ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ
ɩɥɚɫɬ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɵɯ ɟɞɢɧɢɰ, ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɧɵɯ ɞɥɹ
ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨ-ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚ. Ɂɧɚɤɨɦɫɬɜɨ ɫ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɨɣ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɤɨɣ ɢ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɵɦ ɦɧɨɝɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟɦ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ ɤɚɤ ɧɚ
ɩɪɢɦɟɪɟ ɢɧɨɹɡɵɱɧɨɣ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɧɚ
ɩɪɢɦɟɪɟ ɷɬɧɨɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɨɣ ɝɪɭɩɩɵ, ɝɨɜɨɪɹɳɟɣ
ɧɚ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɟ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɹɡɵɤɚ.
Ɉɫɨɡɧɚɧɢɟ ɫɟɛɹ ɩɪɢɧɚɞɥɟɠɚɳɢɦ ɤ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɨɣ ɝɪɭɩɩɟ, ɨɬɥɢɱɚɸɳɟɣɫɹ, ɜ ɬɨɦ ɱɢɫ-
ɥɟ, ɢ ɩɨ ɹɡɵɤɭ, ɫɜɹɡɵɜɚɟɬ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɵ ɫ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɨɦ «ɫɜɨɣ / ɱɭɠɨɣ», ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ
ɜɤɥɸɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɭ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɦɚɬɪɢɰɵ. Ʉɚɤ ɮɨɧɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɥɟɤɫɢɤɨɫɟɦɚɧɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɵɟ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɹ ɫɥɭɠɚɬ
ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦ ɢɞɟɧɬɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɢ ɝɪɭɩɩɨɜɨɣ ɩɪɢɧɚɞɥɟɠɧɨɫɬɢ (ɫɦ. ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ [24]). ɗɬɨɬ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬ ɦɚɬɪɢɰɵ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɫɜɹɡɚɧ ɫ ɨɰɟɧɨɱɧɵɦ
ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɨɦ. «ɋɜɨɢ» ɹɡɵɤɨɜɵɟ ɮɨɪɦɵ ɩɨɥɭɱɚɸɬ ɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɭɸ ɨɰɟɧɤɭ, ɬɨɝɞɚ ɤɚɤ
«ɱɭɠɢɟ» ɮɨɪɦɵ ɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɧɟɣɬɪɚɥɶɧɨ
ɢɥɢ ɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ. ȼ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɟ ɫɥɭɱɚɟɜ
ɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɚ ɧɨɫɢɬ ɤɨɫɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ, ɜɵɪɚɠɚɹɫɶ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɩɨɫɥɨɜɢɰɵ, ɩɨɝɨɜɨɪɤɢ, ɰɢɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ, ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɳɢɟ ɧɚɫɦɟɲɤɭ,
ɢɪɨɧɢɸ.
ɋɪɟɞɫɬɜɚ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɨɣ ɪɟɩɪɟɡɟɧɬɚɰɢɢ ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɜɚɠɧɵɦ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɨɦ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨɣ
ɦɚɬɪɢɰɵ. əɡɵɤɨɜɚɹ ɮɨɪɦɚ ɱɭɠɨɝɨ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɚ,
ɹɜɥɹɹɫɶ ɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɦ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɨɩɟɪɚɰɢɣ
ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ, ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɢ
ɞɥɹ ɪɟɩɪɟɡɟɧɬɚɰɢɢ ɫɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɚ. Ⱦɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɨɟ ɡɧɚɧɢɟ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬ ɡɧɚɧɢɟ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɯ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɵɯ ɮɨɪɦ
(ɩɪɨɢɡɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɨɜ ɫɥɨɜ, ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɨɣ ɥɟɤɫɢɤɢ ɢ ɝɪɚɦɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪ,
ɮɪɚɡɟɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɟɞɢɧɢɰ ɢ ɩɚɪɟɦɢɣ), ɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ, ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɹ ɨ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɯ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɵɯ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɚɯ ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɜɟɫɶɦɚ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɨɦ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɦɚɬɪɢɰɵ.
ɇɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɨɜ ɜɵɫɬɪɚɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɦɨɞɟɥɶ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɚ,
ɫɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɸɳɚɹɫɹ ɢɡ ɹɞɪɚ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɚ ɢ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɦɚɬɪɢɰɵ. ɋɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɹɞɪɚ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɚ ɫɥɭɠɢɬ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɫɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɵɯ ɟɞɢɧɢɰ. Ʌɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɵ
ɢɦɟɸɬ ɮɨɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ ɢ ɥɟɤɫɢɤɨ-ɝɪɚɦɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ ɪɟɩɪɟɡɟɧɬɚɰɢɸ. ȿɫɥɢ ɫɟɦɚɧɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ
ɩɪɢɪɨɞɚ ɥɟɤɫɢɤɨ-ɝɪɚɦɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɟɞɢɧɢɰ
ɹɡɵɤɚ ɧɟ ɩɨɞɜɟɪɝɚɟɬɫɹ ɫɨɦɧɟɧɢɸ, ɬɨ ɨ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɪɟɩɪɟɡɟɧɬɚɰɢɢ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɯ
ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚɦɢ ɮɨɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɟɞɢɧɢɰ
ɹɡɵɤɚ ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɫɤɚɡɚɬɶ ɨɫɨɛɨ.
Ɍɚɤɚɹ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɨɫɧɨɜɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ, ɜɨɩɟɪɜɵɯ, ɧɚ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɟ ɫɚɦɢɯ ɮɨɧɟɦ, ɚ ɜɨ-ɜɬɨɪɵɯ, ɧɚ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɢ ɮɨɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ ɩɟɪɟɞɚɜɚɬɶ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɭɸ
ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɸ. ȼɵɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɮɨɧɟɦ ɜ ɹɡɵɤɟ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɨ ɧɚ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɢ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ ɜɨɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɶ, ɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɬɶ, ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɡɜɭɤɢ
ɪɟɱɢ ɢ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɨɛɪɚɡɵ ɡɜɭɤɨɜ. Ɏɨɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɫɟɝɦɟɧɬɵ ɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɸɬ
17
Ƚɭɦɚɧɢɬɚɪɧɵɟ ɧɚɭɤɢ. I. ɉɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɬɟɨɪɢɢ ɢ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɥɨɝɢɢ
ɭɠɟ ɧɟ ɩɪɨɫɬɨ ɤɚɤ ɤɨɥɟɛɚɧɢɹ ɜɨɡɞɭɯɚ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɨɬɵ ɢ ɬɟɦɛɪɚ, ɚ ɤɚɤ ɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɫɭɳɧɨɫɬɢ, ɨɛɥɚɞɚɸɳɢɟ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶɸ
ɜɨɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɶɫɹ ɚɜɬɨɧɨɦɧɨ [16, ɫ. 78-79].
Ȼɨɥɶɲɨɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ
ɜɨɫɩɪɢɹɬɢɹ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɨɜ ɢ ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɣ ɩɪɨɯɨɞɢɥɢ ɤɚɤ ɷɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɵ ɫ ɮɨɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ
ɟɞɢɧɢɰɚɦɢ (ɫɦ., ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, [25]). Ɏɨɧɟɦɚ ɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɟɬ ɧɟ ɩɪɨɫɬɨ ɤɚɤ ɧɚɢɦɟɧɶɲɚɹ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɧɚɹ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɚ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ, ɚ ɢ ɤɚɤ ɡɜɭɤɨɬɢɩ, ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɹ ɫɨɛɨɣ ɧɟɤɢɣ ɩɪɨɬɨɬɢɩ,
ɨɛɥɚɞɚɸɳɢɣ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɚɦɢ, ɧɚ
ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɟ ɡɜɭɤɢ ɪɟɱɢ
ɩɪɢɱɢɫɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɤ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɣ ɮɨɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɢ.
Ɂɜɭɤɨɜɨɣ ɪɹɞ ɫɜɹɡɚɧ ɫ ɫɟɦɚɧɬɢɤɨɣ ɹɡɵɤɚ
ɱɟɪɟɡ ɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ
ɮɨɪɦɨɣ ɡɧɚɤɚ, ɩɟɪɟɞɚɸɳɟɣ ɧɟɤɨɟ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ. ɉɨɦɢɦɨ ɷɬɨɝɨ, ɫɚɦɚ ɮɨɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ ɹɡɵɤɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɦɨɠɟɬ
ɩɟɪɟɞɚɜɚɬɶ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɸ. ȿɫɥɢ ɤɚɠɞɚɹ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɚɹ ɮɨɧɟɦɚ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɫɦɵɫɥɨɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɭɸ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɸ ɢ ɩɟɪɟɞɚɟɬ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɣ
ɫɦɵɫɥ, ɫɜɹɡɵɜɚɹ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫ ɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ
ɡɜɭɱɚɧɢɟ ɫ ɫɟɦɚɧɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɨɣ, ɬɨ
ɫɢɧɬɚɝɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɮɨɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɪɹɞ (ɫɥɨɜɨ, ɮɪɚɡɚ) ɢɥɢ ɩɚɪɚɞɢɝɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɪɹɞ
(ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ ɮɨɧɟɦ ɢ ɚɥɥɨɮɨɧɨɜ) ɦɨɝɭɬ ɩɟɪɟɞɚɜɚɬɶ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɸ ɨɛ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɹɯ ɩɪɨɢɡɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɷɬɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ, ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɵɯ ɢɥɢ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɯ ɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚɯ, ɚ ɡɧɚɱɢɬ, ɢɦɟɬɶ ɫɜɨɟ
ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ, ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɨɟ.
ɗɬɨ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɧɟ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɥɟɤɫɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɫɥɨɜɚ, ɚ ɜɵɪɚɠɚɟɬ ɬɨ, ɱɬɨ ɜ ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɥɢɧɝɜɢɫɬɢɤɟ ɜɫɟɝɞɚ ɨɛɨɡɧɚɱɚɥɨɫɶ ɬɟɪɦɢɧɨɦ «ɤɨɧɧɨɬɚɰɢɹ».
Ⱦɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɨɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɜɵɞɟɥɹɥɨɫɶ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɦɢ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɹɦɢ ɢ ɧɟ ɪɚɡ ɨɩɢɫɵɜɚɥɨɫɶ
ɜ ɥɢɧɝɜɢɫɬɢɤɟ, ɧɨ ɨɧɨ ɪɚɧɟɟ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɢɜɚɥɨɫɶ
ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɭ ɥɟɤɫɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɟɞɢɧɢɰ. ɇɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ,
Ⱦ.Ⱥ. Ʉɪɭɡ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬ ɷɬɨɬ ɬɢɩ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ «ɜɵɡɵɜɚɟɦɵɦ» (evoked) ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟɦ [26], ɬɚɤ ɤɚɤ
ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɟ ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɟɧɢɟ, ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɜ ɒɨɬɥɚɧɞɢɢ ɫɥɨɜɚ glen ɜɦɟɫɬɨ valley ɜɵɡɵɜɚɟɬ ɭ
ɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɨɜ ɫɜɹɡɶ ɫ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɹɦɢ, ɩɟɪɟɞɚɸɳɢɦɢ ɡɧɚɧɢɟ
ɨ ɲɨɬɥɚɧɞɫɤɨɣ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɟ ɢ ɲɨɬɥɚɧɞɫɤɨɦ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɟ ɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɹɡɵɤɚ. ȼ ɧɚɲɟɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɤ
ɚɧɚɥɨɝɢɱɧɨɦɭ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɭ ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɮɨɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ. ɋɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɹ
ɩɪɨɢɡɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɫɥɨɜɚ ɜ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɚɯ, ɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɢ ɹɡɵɤɚ ɜɵɞɟɥɹɸɬ ɨɬɥɢɱɚɸɳɢɟɫɹ ɮɪɚɝɦɟɧɬɵ ɡɜɭɤɨɜɨɝɨ ɪɹɞɚ ɢ ɫɨɨɬɧɨɫɹɬ
ɢɯ ɫ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɨɣ ɜɚɪɢɚɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶɸ:
18
«It’s so funny about New Yorkers. They say
‘bottle’ [E$5O] for [E45O], and they say ‘battle’ [E45O] for [EL|5O]!» [27].
Ʉɚɤ ɧɚɦ ɜɢɞɢɬɫɹ, ɩɪɢ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɨɞɧɨɣ
ɥɟɤɫɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɵ ɜɦɟɫɬɨ ɞɪɭɝɨɣ ɢɥɢ ɨɞɧɨɣ ɮɨɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɵ ɜɦɟɫɬɨ ɞɪɭɝɨɣ
ɜɫɬɭɩɚɟɬ ɜ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ ɨɞɢɧɚɤɨɜɵɣ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦ
ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ. ɂ ɜ ɬɨɦ, ɢ ɜ ɞɪɭɝɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɡɧɚɱɢɦɵɦ ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɟ ɬɚ ɢɥɢ ɢɧɚɹ
ɮɨɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɢɥɢ ɫɟɦɚɧɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ, ɚ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɟ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɩɟɪɜɨɣ ɢ ɜɬɨɪɨɣ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɚɦɢ. ɉɨɯɨɠɢɟ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɦ ɭ
ɍ. ȼɚɣɧɪɚɣɯɚ, ɨɬɦɟɱɚɜɲɟɝɨ, ɱɬɨ ɡɚɦɟɧɚ ɨɞɧɨɣ ɮɨɪɦɵ ɧɚ ɞɪɭɝɭɸ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɩɪɚɝɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ
ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ [28].
Ɉɱɟɜɢɞɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶ ɮɨɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ ɩɟɪɟɞɚɜɚɬɶ ɫɜɨɟ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟ
ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɨɛɳɟɟ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɫ
ɚɧɚɥɨɝɢɱɧɨɣ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɫɢɧɬɚɤɫɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ. ɉɨ ɜɫɟɣ ɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɨɫɬɢ, ɮɚɤɬɵ ɬɚɤɨɝɨ ɪɨɞɚ ɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɸɬ ɧɚ ɬɨ, ɱɬɨ ɜ ɹɡɵɤɟ ɧɟɬ
ɟɞɢɧɢɰ, ɧɟ ɜɵɪɚɠɚɸɳɢɯ ɜ ɬɨɣ ɢɥɢ ɢɧɨɣ ɫɬɟɩɟɧɢ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ. əɡɵɤ, ɤɚɤ ɨɞɧɚ ɢɡ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɯ
ɫɢɫɬɟɦ, ɫɟɦɚɧɬɢɱɟɧ ɩɨ ɫɜɨɟɣ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɟ, ɢ ɜɫɟ
ɟɞɢɧɢɰɵ ɹɡɵɤɚ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɸɬ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɨɥɧɨɝɨ ɫɦɵɫɥɚ ɜɵɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɧɢɹ.
Ɇɨɠɧɨ ɜɵɞɟɥɢɬɶ ɬɪɢ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɚ. Ʌɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɵ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɸɬ ɤɚɤ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɣ ɜ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɟ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɯ ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɨɜ. ɋ ɩɨɡɢɰɢɢ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɥɢɧɝɜɢɫɬɢɤɢ
ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɣ ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɬɶ
ɤɚɤ ɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɟ ɞɜɭɯ ɩɪɢɧɚɞɥɟɠɚɳɢɯ ɪɚɡɧɵɦ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɦ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɦ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɯ
ɟɞɢɧɢɰ, ɢɦɟɸɳɢɯ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɨɟ ɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɢɟ, ɜ
ɟɞɢɧɨɟ ɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨ, ɩɨɞ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɦ, ɜɫɥɟɞ ɡɚ ɀ. Ɏɨɤɨɧɶɟ, ɦɵ ɩɨɧɢɦɚɟɦ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɶɧɭɸ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɭ, ɫɨɫɬɨɹɳɭɸ ɢɡ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɢ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɣ ɦɟɠɞɭ
ɧɢɦɢ, ɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɸɳɭɸ ɜ ɯɨɞɟ ɦɵɫɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ
ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ [29]. ɉɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɣ ɜɵɲɟ ɩɪɢɦɟɪ ɜɵɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɧɢɹ 15-ɥɟɬɧɟɣ ɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɢɰɵ
Ⱦɟɬɪɨɣɬɚ, ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ, ɡɚɬɪɨɧɭɬɨɣ ɋɞɜɢɝɨɦ
ɫɟɜɟɪɧɵɯ ɝɨɪɨɞɨɜ ɩɨ ɫɯɟɦɟ [,] Æ [(] Æ [„]
Æ [] Æ [$] Æ [4] Æ [L], ɢɥɥɸɫɬɪɢɪɭɟɬ
ɭɪɨɜɧɢ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɮɨɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɚ.
ɇɚ ɩɟɪɜɨɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ ɮɨɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɵ ɞɜɭɯ ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɢɪɭɸɳɢɯ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɨɜ (Ⱦɟɬɪɨɣɬ ɢ ɇɶɸ-Ƀɨɪɤ, ɫɨɜɩɚɞɚɸɳɢɣ ɜ ɞɚɧɧɨɦ
ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɫ ɨɛɳɟɚɦɟɪɢɤɚɧɫɤɢɦ ɬɢɩɨɦ) ɫɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɫɨɛɨɣ, ɢ ɜ ɧɢɯ ɜɵɞɟɥɹɸɬɫɹ
ɨɬɥɢɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɵ:
ȼɟɫɬɧɢɤ ɌȽɍ, ɜɵɩɭɫɤ 4 (40), 2005
bottle [E45O] (Ⱦɟɬɪɨɣɬ) – [E$5O] (ɇɶɸɃɨɪɤ),
battle [EL|5O] (Ⱦɟɬɪɨɣɬ) – [E45O] (ɇɶɸɃɨɪɤ).
ɇɚ ɜɬɨɪɨɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɹɞɪɨ
ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɚ ɜ ɜɢɞɟ ɫɯɟɦɵ ɫɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ. Ɉɬɥɢɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɵ ɱɭɠɨɝɨ
ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɚ (ɮɨɧɟɦɚ [$] ɧɚ ɦɟɫɬɟ [4] ɢɥɢ ɮɨɧɟɦɚ [4] ɧɚ ɦɟɫɬɟ [L|]) ɫɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɫ
ɚɧɚɥɨɝɢɱɧɨɣ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɟɣ ɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɚ
(ɪɢɫ. 2):
/4/
[Ll]
[4]…
Ⱦɟɬɪɨɣɬ
ɇɶɸ-Ƀɨɪɤ
Ɋɢɫ. 2. Ɏɨɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɚɹ ɫɯɟɦɚ
Ɍɚɤɢɟ ɫɯɟɦɵ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ ɭ ɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɟɣ
ɹɡɵɤɚ ɜ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɨɜ ɫ ɢɧɵɦɢ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɚɦɢ ɢ ɯɪɚɧɹɬɫɹ ɜ ɩɚɦɹɬɢ. ɉɪɢ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤ ɨɛɪɚɳɚɟɬɫɹ ɤ ɦɟɠɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɦ
ɫɯɟɦɚɦ ɞɥɹ ɬɨɝɨ, ɱɬɨɛɵ ɩɨɧɹɬɶ ɪɟɱɶ, ɡɜɭɱɚɳɭɸ ɧɚ ɞɪɭɝɨɦ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɟ.
ɋɯɟɦɵ, ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɢɪɭɸɳɢɟ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɟ
ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɵ, ɦɨɝɭɬ ɢɦɟɬɶ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɣ ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ
ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɧɨɫɬɢ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɢɡɦɟɧɹɬɶɫɹ.
Ɉɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɵ ɢɥɢ ɨɛɪɚɡɰɵ ɫɯɟɦɵ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɶɫɹ ɫɚɦɨɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɫɯɟɦɚɦɢ,
ɤɚɤ, ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɫɯɟɦɚ ɜɫɬɚɜɤɢ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɨɝɨ ‘r’
ɞɥɹ ɩɪɟɨɞɨɥɟɧɢɹ ɯɢɚɡɦɚ ɜ ɛɟɡɷɪɧɵɯ ɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɢɯ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɚɯ, ɜɵɞɟɥɢɜɲɚɹɫɹ ɢɡ ɫɯɟɦɵ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɨɛɳɟɝɨ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɨɝɨ.
ɇɚ ɬɪɟɬɶɟɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɚɹ ɦɚɬɪɢɰɚ, ɬɨ ɟɫɬɶ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɚ. ȼ ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɨɦ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɟ ɦɚɬɪɢɰɚ ɜɤɥɸɱɚɟɬ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ «ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɹ» (…about New-Yorkers) ɢ «ɨɰɟɧɤɚ»
(It’s so funny…). Ȼɵɥɨ ɛɵ ɧɟɜɟɪɧɵɦ ɫɱɢɬɚɬɶ,
ɱɬɨ ɜɫɟ ɭɪɨɜɧɢ, ɨ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɛɵɥɨ ɫɤɚɡɚɧɨ,
ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ. ɉɪɢɜɨɞɢɦɨɟ
ɧɚɦɢ ɪɚɡɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ ɭɫɥɨɜɧɨ, ɨɧɨ ɥɢɲɶ ɩɨɞɱɟɪɤɢɜɚɟɬ ɡɚɞɟɣɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɯ
ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɨɜ ɜ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɟ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɚ, ɫɥɨɠɧɵɣ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɦɚɬɪɢɰɵ ɢ ɢɟɪɚɪɯɢɸ ɫɜɹɡɟɣ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɚɦɢ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ.
Ɉɱɟɜɢɞɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɜɫɟ ɭɪɨɜɧɢ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɚɤɬɢɜɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɨɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨ,
ɩɪɢɱɟɦ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦ ɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɧɢɹ ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ
ɡɚɞɟɣɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɧɵɦ ɧɚ ɜɫɟɯ ɷɬɚɩɚɯ.
ɋɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɹɞɪɚ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɨɜ
ɨɬɥɢɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɨ ɫɜɨɟɣ ɩɨɥɧɨɬɟ ɭ ɪɚɡɧɵɯ ɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɹɡɵɤɚ. ȼ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɢ ɫ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɨɦ
ɫɯɟɦɵ, ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɢɪɭɸɳɟɣ ɹɞɪɨ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɚ, ɜɵɞɟɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɬɪɢ ɬɢɩɚ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɚ. ɋɚɦɵɦ ɩɪɨɫɬɵɦ ɬɢɩɨɦ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɡɧɚɧɢɟ ɨ ɬɨɦ,
ɱɬɨ ɜ ɹɡɵɤɟ, ɧɚ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɦ ɦɵ ɝɨɜɨɪɢɦ, ɟɫɬɶ
ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɵ. ɋɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɫɯɟɦɵ ɤɚɤ ɹɞɪɚ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɚ ɜ ɷɬɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɨ ɚɛɫɬɪɚɤɬɧɨ,
ɜ ɧɟɣ ɪɟɩɪɟɡɟɧɬɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɨɛɳɢɣ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤ «ɬɨɠɞɟɫɬɜɨ-ɨɬɥɢɱɢɟ». ɂɧɵɦɢ ɫɥɨɜɚɦɢ, ɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶ
ɹɡɵɤɚ ɡɧɚɟɬ, ɱɬɨ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɬ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ, ɝɞɟ
ɝɨɜɨɪɹɬ ɢɧɚɱɟ, ɱɟɦ ɬɚɦ, ɝɞɟ ɠɢɜɟɬ ɨɧ ɫɚɦ ɢ
ɞɪɭɝɢɟ ɝɨɜɨɪɹɳɢɟ ɧɚ ɬɨɦ ɠɟ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɟ.
Ȼɨɥɟɟ ɫɥɨɠɧɵɣ ɬɢɩ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɚ
ɜɤɥɸɱɚɟɬ ɱɚɫɬɧɵɟ ɫɯɟɦɵ ɫɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɜ
ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɢɪɭɸɳɢɯ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɚɯ. ȼ ɬɚɤɨɣ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɟ ɫɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɹ ɜ ɧɚɛɨɪɟ ɞɢɮɮɟɪɟɧɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɨɜ ɮɨɧɟɦ, ɫɯɟɦ ɫɥɨɝɨɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɥɟɤɫɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢ ɝɪɚɦɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɣ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɵɯ ɟɞɢɧɢɰ, ɱɚɫɬɨɬɧɨɫɬɢ ɢɯ ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɟɧɢɹ. Ɍɚɤɨɣ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɟɧ, ɜ ɧɟɦ ɞɟɬɚɥɢɡɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɬɢɩɢɱɧɵɟ ɫɥɭɱɚɢ ɪɚɫɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɣ
ɦɟɠɞɭ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɵɦɢ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɚɦɢ. ɇɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ
ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɨɜ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɬɢɩɚ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ ɛɚɡɨɜɵɟ
ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɟ ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɢ.
ɇɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɫɥɨɠɧɵɣ ɬɢɩ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɚ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɢɬ ɫɯɟɦɵ ɫɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɯ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɣ, ɜ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɫ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɜɵɫɨɤɢɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɟɦ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɬɪɚɠɚɸɬɫɹ
ɦɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɟ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɹ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɵɦɢ
ɟɞɢɧɢɰɚɦɢ ɜ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɚɯ. ɗɬɨɬ ɬɢɩ
ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɚ ɥɟɠɢɬ ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɯ ɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɣ ɬɟɪɦɢɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ, ɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɧɨɝɨ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ.
Ʌɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɵ ɪɟɩɪɟɡɟɧɬɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ
ɜ ɹɡɵɤɟ ɩɪɢ ɩɨɦɨɳɢ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯ ɟɞɢɧɢɰ ɹɡɵɤɚ, ɨɛɥɚɞɚɸɳɢɯ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɦ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟɦ. Ɇɵ ɢɫɯɨɞɢɦ ɢɡ ɬɨɝɨ, ɱɬɨ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ
ɹɡɵɤɨɜɵɯ ɟɞɢɧɢɰ ɜɤɥɸɱɟɧɨ ɜ ɨɛɳɭɸ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɭ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɚ ɢ ɩɟɪɟɞɚɟɬ ɥɢɲɶ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ [30]. ȼ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɟ
ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɜ ɪɟɱɢ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɨɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɨɣ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɵ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɢ ɩɨɦɨɳɢ
ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚ ɩɪɨɮɢɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɩɪɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɦ ɮɨɤɭɫ ɧɚɲɟɝɨ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ
ɜɵɫɜɟɱɢɜɚɟɬ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɢ ɧɚ ɮɨɧɟ ɜɫɟɯ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɢɯ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ. Ʌɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬ, ɤɚɤ ɭɠɟ
ɛɵɥɨ ɫɤɚɡɚɧɨ, ɜɤɥɸɱɚɟɬ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɟ
19
Ƚɭɦɚɧɢɬɚɪɧɵɟ ɧɚɭɤɢ. I. ɉɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ ɬɟɨɪɢɢ ɢ ɦɟɬɨɞɨɥɨɝɢɢ
ɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɢ ɞɜɭɯ ɟɞɢɧɢɰ, ɩɪɢɧɚɞɥɟɠɚɳɢɯ
ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɦ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɦ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɦ.
Ɂɧɚɱɢɦɵɦ ɡɞɟɫɶ ɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹ ɧɟ ɫɚɦɚ ɮɨɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɮɨɪɦɚ ɢɥɢ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɬɨɣ ɢɥɢ ɢɧɨɣ
ɹɡɵɤɨɜɨɣ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɵ, ɚ ɬɨ, ɱɬɨ ɨɬɥɢɱɚɟɬ ɨɞɧɭ
ɟɞɢɧɢɰɭ ɹɡɵɤɚ ɨɬ ɞɪɭɝɨɣ. ɂɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɹ ɨɛ
ɢɧɨɦ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɟ ɩɟɪɟɞɚɟɬɫɹ, ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ,
ɱɟɪɟɡ ɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɟ ɮɨɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɫɟɝɦɟɧɬɨɜ,
ɨɬɥɢɱɚɸɳɟɟɫɹ ɨɬ ɚɧɚɥɨɝɢɱɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɹ ɜ
ɪɨɞɧɨɦ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɟ ɢɥɢ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɟ ɜ ɫɟɦɚɧɬɢɤɟ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɨɣ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɵ. ɗɬɨ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɟ ɨɛɪɚɡɭɟɬ ɩɪɨɮɢɥɶ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɨɝɨ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɨɣ
ɟɞɢɧɢɰɵ. Oɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɨɝɨ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ
ɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɟɬ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ, ɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɸɳɟɟ ɩɪɢ ɫɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɢ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɨɣ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɵ ɫ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɟɣ ɪɨɞɧɨɣ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ. Ʉɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɚɹ
ɦɚɬɪɢɰɚ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɚ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɟɬ
ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɣ ɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬ, ɧɚ ɮɨɧɟ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨ ɚɤɬɭɚɥɢɡɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɨɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ.
ȼ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɨɜ ɥɟɠɚɬ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɵɟ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɵ, ɩɪɢɧɚɞɥɟɠɚɳɢɟ ɜɫɟɦ ɭɪɨɜɧɹɦ ɹɡɵɤɚ, ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ,
ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ ɟɞɢɧɢɰ ɹɡɵɤɚ, ɩɟɪɟɞɚɸɳɢɯ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɚ, ɦɨɠɟɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɦ:
1) ɮɨɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ, ɨɬɪɚɠɚɸɳɚɹ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɟ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɹ ɜ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ
ɩɪɨɫɨɞɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɜ: ɬɨɧ, ɢɧɬɨɧɚɰɢɨɧɧɚɹ ɦɨɞɟɥɶ, ɚɤɰɟɧɬɧɚɹ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ. Ʌɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɣ
ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬ, ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɦɨɠɟɬ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɧɚ
ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɣ ɜ ɫɯɟɦɟ ɭɞɚɪɟɧɢɹ – interesting
>ˆ,QWl
UHVW,1] (Ⱥɦ.) – [
,QWUlVW,1]
(Ȼɪɢɬ.);
2) ɩɪɨɢɡɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬ ɫɥɨɜɚ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɩɪɨɮɢɥɢɪɭɟɬ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɨɟ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɟ, ɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɧɨɟ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦ ɚɥɥɨɮɨɧɨɦ ɢɥɢ
ɤɨɦɛɢɧɚɰɢɟɣ ɚɥɥɨɮɨɧɨɜ, ɫɯɟɦɨɣ ɫɥɨɝɨɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɧɟɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɵɦɢ ɞɥɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɪɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɚ: better [E(Wl] (RP) – [E(l]
(Ȼɪɢɬ. ɞɢɚɥ.) – [E(5lU] (Ⱥɦ.); car [NDº]
(ȼɨɫɬ. ɇ. Ⱥɧɝɥɢɹ) – [N$U] (ɋɪ. Ɂɚɩɚɞ) – [NU]
(Ɏɢɥɚɞɟɥɶɮɢɹ); idea of [D,G,lUlY] (RP,
ȼɨɫɬ. ɇ. Ⱥɧɝɥɢɹ, ɇ. Ɂɟɥ.) – [D,G,llY]
(ɩɪɟɢɦ. ɋɒȺ, ɘ. Ⱥɮɪɢɤɚ);
3) ɥɟɤɫɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɚ, ɪɟɩɪɟɡɟɧɬɢɪɭɸɳɚɹ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬ, ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɣ ɜ ɞɚɧɧɨɦ
ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɟ. ɗɬɨɬ ɬɢɩ ɪɟɩɪɟɡɟɧɬɚɰɢɣ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɟɧ ɞɥɹ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɨɜ, ɨɯɜɚɬɵɜɚɸɳɢɯ ɝɪɭɩɩɵ
ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ, ɨɬɥɢɱɚɸɳɢɟɫɹ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɨɣ ɫɚɦɨɛɵɬɧɨɫɬɶɸ – ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɵ ɢɥɢ
ɷɬɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɵ. Ʌɟɤɫɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɵ
ɷɬɨɣ ɝɪɭɩɩɵ ɩɟɪɟɞɚɸɬ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɡɧɚɧɢɟ ɨ ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɟ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɣ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɨɣ ɨɛɳɧɨɫɬɢ:
20
Thanksgiving (ɚɦɟɪɢɤɚɧɫɤɢɣ ɩɪɚɡɞɧɢɤ, ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɣ ɜ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɚɧɝɥɨɹɡɵɱɧɵɯ ɫɬɪɚɧɚɯ),
brother ɢ sister, ɨɬɪɚɠɚɸɳɢɟ ɫɩɨɫɨɛ ɨɛɪɚɳɟɧɢɹ ɤ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɸ ɫɜɨɟɣ (ɚɮɪɨɚɦɟɪɢɤɚɧɫɤɨɣ) ɪɚɫɨɜɨɣ ɝɪɭɩɩɵ;
4) ɥɟɤɫɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɚ, ɪɟɩɪɟɡɟɧɬɢɪɭɸɳɚɹ ɪɚɡɧɵɟ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɵ ɜ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɚɯ. Ɍɚɤ, ɫɥɨɜɚ basement ɢ cellar ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ
ɫɢɧɨɧɢɦɚɦɢ ɜ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɟ ɇɨɜɨɣ Ⱥɧɝɥɢɢ
(ɋɒȺ) ɢ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɧɟ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɩɨ
ɫɜɨɟɣ ɫɟɦɚɧɬɢɤɟ. Ɉɧɢ ɩɟɪɟɞɚɸɬ ɟɞɢɧɵɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬ «ɩɨɦɟɳɟɧɢɟ ɧɢɠɟ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ ɡɟɦɥɢ». Ɉɬɫɸɞɚ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɚ ɡɚɦɟɧɚ ɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɫɥɨɜɚ ɞɪɭɝɢɦ,
ɱɬɨ ɞɚɟɬ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɝɨɜɨɪɢɬɶ ɨɛ ɢɯ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɨɦ ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɟɧɢɢ, ɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ ɜ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɚɯ ɷɬɢ ɫɥɨɜɚ ɪɟɩɪɟɡɟɧɬɢɪɭɸɬ ɪɚɡɧɵɟ
ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɵ. ɋɥɨɜɨ basement ɞɥɹ ɠɢɬɟɥɹ ɂɧɞɢɚɧɵ, ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɩɟɪɟɞɚɟɬ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ
ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɢ «ɠɢɥɨɟ ɩɨɦɟɳɟɧɢɟ», «ɢɦɟɟɬ ɜɵɯɨɞ ɜ ɞɨɦ», ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɞɥɹ
ɠɢɬɟɥɹ Ɇɚɫɫɚɱɭɫɟɬɫɚ (ɇɨɜɚɹ Ⱥɧɝɥɢɹ), ɧɟ
ɪɚɡɥɢɱɚɸɳɟɝɨ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ ɢ ɜɥɚɞɟɸɳɟɝɨ
ɟɞɢɧɵɦ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɨɦ «ɩɨɦɟɳɟɧɢɟ ɧɢɠɟ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ
ɡɟɦɥɢ», ɧɟ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵ. ɋɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ,
ɷɬɨɬ ɟɞɢɧɵɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬ ɜ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɟ ɇɨɜɨɣ Ⱥɧɝɥɢɢ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɪɟɩɪɟɡɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɫɥɨɜɨɦ
cellar, ɬɨɝɞɚ ɤɚɤ ɧɚ ɨɫɬɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ
ɋɒȺ ɡɚ ɷɬɢɦ ɫɥɨɜɨɦ ɫɬɨɢɬ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬ «ɧɟɠɢɥɨɟ ɩɨɦɟɳɟɧɢɟ ɧɢɠɟ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ ɡɟɦɥɢ»;
5) ɥɟɤɫɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɚ, ɪɟɩɪɟɡɟɧɬɢɪɭɸɳɚɹ ɧɨɜɵɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬ, ɩɪɢɫɭɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɣ ɜ ɨɞɧɨɦ ɢɡ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɨɜ ɹɡɵɤɚ. Ʌɟɤɫɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɵ ɫɬɪɨɹɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɢ
ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɯ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɣ ɜ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɟ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ
ɥɟɤɫɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɵ ɱɭɠɨɝɨ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɚ. ɗɬɢ
ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɵ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɸɬ
ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɫɞɜɢɝ, ɨɬɪɚɠɚɸɳɢɣ ɧɟɫɨɜɩɚɞɟɧɢɟ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɨɜ
ɜ ɞɜɭɯ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɯ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɯ. ȼ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɟ ɨɬ
ɮɨɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɨɜ, ɜ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɟ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɦɚɬɪɢɰɵ ɫɟɦɚɧɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɯ
ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɨɜ ɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɟɬ ɧɨɪɦɚɬɢɜɧɚɹ ɨɰɟɧɤɚ
(ɭɦɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɶ ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɟɧɢɹ).
ɉɨ ɞɚɧɧɵɦ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɨɝɨ ɨɩɪɨɫɚ Ƚɚɪɜɚɪɞɫɤɨɝɨ ɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬɚ [31], 29,23 % ɪɟɫɩɨɧɞɟɧɬɨɜ ɫɱɢɬɚɸɬ ɭɦɟɫɬɧɵɦ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ
anymore ɜ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɢ ɬɢɩɚ ‘Pantyhose are
so expensive anymore that I just try to get a
good suntan and forget about it’, ɢ ɧɟɭɦɟɫɬɧɵɦ
67,26 %. ɉɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ‘Forget the nice clothes
anymore’ ɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɨɰɟɧɢɥɢ 22,08 %
ɪɟɫɩɨɧɞɟɧɬɨɜ, ɚ ɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ – 70,17 %. ȼ ɬɨ
ɠɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɜ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ ɫɢɧɬɚɤɫɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɤɨɧɬɟɤ-
ȼɟɫɬɧɢɤ ɌȽɍ, ɜɵɩɭɫɤ 4 (40), 2005
ɫɬɚɯ ɱɢɫɥɨ ɝɨɜɨɪɹɳɢɯ, ɫɱɢɬɚɸɳɢɯ ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɟɧɢɟ anymore ɞɨɩɭɫɬɢɦɵɦ, ɝɨɪɚɡɞɨ ɧɢɠɟ.
Ɍɨɥɶɤɨ 4,98 % ɪɟɫɩɨɧɞɟɧɬɨɜ ɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɸɬ ɤɚɤ
ɞɨɩɭɫɬɢɦɨɟ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ‘He used to nap on
the couch, but he sprawls out in that new lounge
chair anymore’, ɢ 5,41 % ɪɟɫɩɨɧɞɟɧɬɨɜ ɞɨɩɭɫɤɚɸɬ ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ‘I do
exclusively figurative paintings anymore’.
ɗɬɨ ɨɡɧɚɱɚɟɬ, ɱɬɨ ɜ ɞɚɧɧɵɣ ɦɨɦɟɧɬ ɡɚ
ɧɚɪɟɱɢɟɦ anymore ɡɚɤɪɟɩɢɥɫɹ ɨɫɨɛɵɣ ɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬ – ɷɦɮɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɢ ɧɚɥɢɱɢɢ ɷɤɫɩɥɢɰɢɬɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɧɬɪɚɫɬɚ ɜ ɦɟɧɹɸɳɟɣɫɹ ɜ ɯɭɞɲɭɸ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɭ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ. ɉɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɬɚɤɨɝɨ ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɟɧɢɹ ɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɨɛ
ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɧɨɜɨɝɨ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɚ, ɢɦɟɸɳɟɝɨ ɧɚ
ɞɚɧɧɵɣ ɦɨɦɟɧɬ ɝɟɨɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɢɹ
(ɉɟɧɫɢɥɶɜɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɋɪɟɞɧɢɣ Ɂɚɩɚɞ ɋɒȺ).
6) ɮɪɚɡɟɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɚ, ɨɬɪɚɠɚɸɳɚɹ ɨɫɨɛɨɟ ɜɢɞɟɧɢɟ ɦɢɪɚ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɦ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɵɦ ɤɨɥɥɟɤɬɢɜɨɦ, ɱɬɨ ɩɪɨɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ, ɜ ɬɨɦ
ɱɢɫɥɟ, ɢ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɨɦɢɧɚɰɢɢ ɪɟɚɥɢɣ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɝɨ ɦɢɪɚ ɜ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɚɯ ɢ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɚɯ ɹɡɵɤɚ. ȼ ɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɯ ɧɢɠɟ ɜ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ
ɩɪɢɦɟɪɚ ɚɦɟɪɢɤɚɧɫɤɢɯ ɮɪɚɡɟɨɥɨɝɢɡɦɚɯ ɨɬɪɚɠɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨ-ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɚɹ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɤɚ ɢ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɹ ɚɦɟɪɢɤɚɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚ:
Sunbelt and Snowbelt «ɘɝ ɢ ɋɟɜɟɪ ɋɒȺ
(ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɦɵɟ ɜ ɤɥɢɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɦ,
ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɦ, ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɨɦ ɢ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɦ
ɩɥɚɧɟ)», ball game – ɚɦɟɪɢɤɚɧɫɤɨɟ ɧɚɡɜɚɧɢɟ
ɛɟɣɫɛɨɥɚ, straight goods «ɩɪɚɜɞɚ-ɦɚɬɤɚ»,
Mexican hour «ɪɚɫɬɹɠɢɦɵɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ;
ɧɟɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɨ, ɧɚɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɞɨɥɝɨ», wampum and
war paint – «ɜɟɱɟɪɧɟɟ ɩɥɚɬɶɟ», to feel like two
cents «ɱɭɜɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶ ɫɟɛɹ ɧɟɥɨɜɤɨ», to look like
a million dollars «ɡɚɦɟɱɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɜɵɝɥɹɞɟɬɶ»;
7) ɝɪɚɦɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɹ, ɢɦɟɸɳɚɹ ɢɧɨɟ ɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɫɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɦɨɦ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɟ. ȼ ɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɦ ɹɡɵɤɟ ɤ ɧɢɦ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɨɬɧɟɫɬɢ
ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɟɧɢɟ ɞɜɨɣɧɵɯ ɦɨɞɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɝɥɚɝɨɥɨɜ
might could ɜ ɸɠɧɨɦ ɢ ɚɮɪɨɚɦɟɪɢɤɚɧɫɤɨɦ
ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɚɯ ɚɦɟɪɢɤɚɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɚ, ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟ ɮɨɪɦɚɧɬɚ -s ɜ ɮɨɪɦɚɯ ɩɪɢɬɹɠɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɩɚɞɟɠɚ ɢ 3 ɥ. ɟɞ. ɱɢɫɥɚ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɝɨ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ
ɝɥɚɝɨɥɚ ɜ ɚɮɪɨ-ɚɦɟɪɢɤɚɧɫɤɨɦ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɟ.
ɇɚɛɨɪ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɨɜ ɜ ɹɡɵɤɟ ɧɟ
ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɫɬɪɨɝɨ ɮɢɤɫɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɦ. ɇɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ
ɬɢɩɢɱɧɵɟ ɪɟɩɪɟɡɟɧɬɚɰɢɢ ɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɬɚɸɬ ɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɵɣ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ, ɨɧɢ ɮɢɤɫɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ ɜ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɯ ɫɬɟɪɟɨɬɢɩɚɯ, ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɢɯ ɫɨɛɨɣ ɫɯɟɦɚɬɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɟ ɨɛɨɛɳɟɧɢɟ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɢɡɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ ɢɥɢ ɫɥɨɜɨɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɟɧɢɹ:
ɪɹɡɚɧɫɤɨɟ «ɹɤɚɧɶɟ», ɩɨɜɨɥɠɫɤɨɟ «ɨɤɚɧɶɟ» ɜ
ɪɭɫɫɤɨɦ ɹɡɵɤɟ, ɩɟɪɟɞɧɟɟ [a] ȼɨɫɬɨɱɧɨɣ ɇɨɜɨɣ Ⱥɧɝɥɢɢ, ɸɠɧɨɟ ɩɪɨɬɹɠɧɨɟ ɩɪɨɢɡɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ
(Southern Drawl) ɜ ɚɦɟɪɢɤɚɧɫɤɨɦ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɟ
ɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɝɨ ɹɡɵɤɚ, ɨɬɪɚɠɟɧɧɨɟ, ɜ ɬɨɦ ɱɢɫɥɟ ɢ
ɜ ɩɨɝɨɜɨɪɤɚɯ ɬɢɩɚ «ɍ ɧɚɫ ɜ Ɋɹɡɚɧɢ ɝɪɢɛɵ ɫ ɝɥɚɡɚɦɢ, ɢɯ ɹɞɹɬɶ, ɨɧɢ ɝɥɹɞɹɬɶ» ɢɥɢ «Park the car
in the yard» [SDºN'lNDº,Q'lMDºG]. ɉɨɦɢɦɨ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɵ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɪɟɩɪɟɡɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɥɸɛɵɦɢ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɵɦɢ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɚɦɢ, ɩɨɩɚɞɚɸɳɢɦɢ ɜ ɮɨɤɭɫ ɧɚɲɟɝɨ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɢ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɯ ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɚɯ, ɟɫɥɢ ɷɬɢ
ɟɞɢɧɢɰɵ ɨɬɪɚɠɚɸɬ ɤɚɤɢɟ-ɥɢɛɨ ɨɬɥɢɱɢɹ ɩɨ
ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɸ ɫ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɨɣ «ɫɜɨɟɝɨ» ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɚ.
Ɉɛɪɚɳɟɧɢɟ ɤ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɸ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɨɜ ɤɚɤ ɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɢɡ ɜɢɞɨɜ ɡɧɚɧɢɹ, ɪɟɩɪɟɡɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɜ ɹɡɵɤɟ, ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɝɥɭɛɠɟ
ɩɨɧɹɬɶ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɭ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɨɣ ɜɚɪɢɚɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɪɢ
ɦɟɠɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɯ ɢ ɦɟɠɴɹɡɵɤɨɜɵɯ ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɚɯ
ɢ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɟ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɵ, ɥɟɠɚɳɢɟ ɜ ɟɟ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ. Ʌɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɫɨɛɨɣ ɨɫɨɛɵɣ ɬɢɩ ɡɧɚɧɢɹ ɨ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɯ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɹɯ ɜ ɹɡɵɤɟ. ɉɪɨɰɟɫɫ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ
ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɨɝɨ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɨɬɪɚɠɚɟɬ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ
ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚ ɩɪɨɮɢɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ,
ɩɪɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɦ ɮɨɤɭɫ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ ɜɵɫɜɟɱɢɜɚɟɬ
ɨɬɥɢɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɵɯ ɟɞɢɧɢɰ ɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɚ ɧɚ ɮɨɧɟ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɵɯ ɟɞɢɧɢɰ ɞɪɭɝɨɝɨ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɚ. Ⱦɥɹ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɨɜ ɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɟɬɫɹ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶ
ɦɟɬɨɞ ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɨ-ɦɚɬɪɢɱɧɨɝɨ ɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ, ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɸɳɢɣ ɜɵɞɟɥɢɬɶ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ, ɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɳɢɟ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɭ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɚ, ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɶ ɭɪɨɜɧɢ ɟɝɨ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ
ɢ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɶ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɭ ɹɞɪɚ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɚ – ɦɟɠɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɟ ɫɯɟɦɵ. Ʌɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɵ ɪɟɩɪɟɡɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɵ ɜ ɹɡɵɤɟ
ɹɡɵɤɨɜɵɦɢ ɮɨɪɦɚɦɢ, ɨɞɧɚɤɨ ɧɚɛɨɪ ɷɬɢɯ
ɮɨɪɦ ɧɟ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɫɬɪɨɝɨ ɮɢɤɫɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɦ.
ɗɬɨ ɦɨɝɭɬ ɛɵɬɶ ɤɚɤ ɡɚɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɟ ɜ
ɫɥɨɜɚɪɹɯ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɧɵɟ ɟɞɢɧɢɰɵ ɹɡɵɤɚ, ɬɚɤ ɢ
ɫɥɭɱɚɣɧɵɟ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɵɟ ɮɨɪɦɵ, ɩɨɩɚɞɚɸɳɢɟ ɜ
ɮɨɤɭɫ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ ɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɟɣ ɹɡɵɤɚ ɩɪɢ ɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɚɯ ɫ ɞɪɭɝɢɦɢ ɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɚɦɢ.
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ɉɨɫɬɭɩɢɥɚ ɜ ɪɟɞɚɤɰɢɸ 30.08.2005 ɝ.
ɄɈȽɇɂɌɂȼɇȺə ɋɍɓɇɈɋɌɖ əɁɕɄɈȼɕɏ ɄȺɌȿȽɈɊɂɃ,
ɈɉɊȿȾȿɅəɘɓɂɏ ɄɈɇɐȿɉɌɍȺɅɂɁȺɌɈɊȺ
Ɉ.ȼ. Ɇɚɝɢɪɨɜɫɤɚɹ
Magirovskaya, O.V. The cognitive nature of linguistic categories defining the conceptualiser. The
article discusses one of the topical issues in cognitive linguistics – linguistic categorisation. Cognitive activity
is vividly revealed in a group of categories determining a conceptualiser. These lexico-grammatical
categories enable tracing some peculiarities of his/her active role in the language, analysing the creative
character of using linguistic means and determining the extent to which she/he is represented in it.
ɉɪɨɛɥɟɦɚ ɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɹɡɵɤɨɜɵɯ ɟɞɢɧɢɰ ɢ ɥɟɠɚɳɢɯ ɜ ɢɯ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ
ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪ ɡɧɚɧɢɣ ɬɪɟɛɭɟɬ ɞɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɢɯ ɥɢɧɝɜɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɢ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ.
Ɉɩɢɪɚɹɫɶ ɧɚ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɢ ɩɪɟɞɲɟɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɣ ɹɡɵɤɨɡɧɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɞɪɭ22
ɝɢɯ ɧɚɭɤ, ɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɚɹ ɥɢɧɝɜɢɫɬɢɤɚ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɩɨ-ɧɨɜɨɦɭ ɩɨɫɦɨɬɪɟɬɶ ɧɚ ɹɡɵɤ ɢ ɟɝɨ ɫɭɳɧɨɫɬɶ. Ⱦɚɧɧɨɟ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɨɬɤɪɵɜɚɟɬ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɭɜɢɞɟɬɶ ɦɢɪ «ɠɢɜɨɝɨ» ɹɡɵɤɚ, ɧɟɪɚɡɪɵɜɧɨ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɫ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɨɦ ɢ ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚ ɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ-
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