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416
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(???????, ???????)
darenskiy1972@mail.ru
???? ????????
? ??????? ?. ?. ?????? л??? ????╗
????????? ??а????, ??? ?????? ???? ?а?????? ???????
(??. 11, 29)
?а ?а ???? ???????????, ?а ?????? ??????????
?а ????? ?а ?????? ??????? ??а ??? ???????, ????
?????, ????? ?????? ??????? ????????, ???????????? ???????? ????? ??а?????, ???????????? ????????????? ???, ?а????????, ???? ?????????, ???
????????? ??а???? ?????, ???, ????? ????, ??? ??
???? ?????? ?а??????, ????? ???????? ?а??????
????? ??????
?. ?.а????? л???? ?а????????╗
?????????. ??????? ?????? л??? ????╗ ???????? ?а1895 ????; ??а?????????, ??? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ?а??????, ??? ??? ???? ?? ?а?????, ???? ??? ?а1891 ???? ?? ?????? ?????? ?а????? ???????? ??????,
???????? ?а??? ???????. ??????????, ??? ??????? ????? 200 ???????????????? ??????? ?а???? ???????. ??? ?????, ??? ?????, ????????
??????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??? ??????, ???????????? ??
л???????╗ ??????. ??а??????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????
?? ???????? л???????????????╗; ?а??? ??? л???????-?????╗, ??а????
???? ????? л???????-??????????╗. ???????, ??? ??? ??? ?? ?????????? л?? ??а???╗. ????????, ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ????????? ?а???
????? ??????? ????? ????????? ???????????, ????????? л???? ????╗,
л??? ??????╗ ?ал???????? ???╗ ???? ??????? ??? ?? л???????????╗.
????? ???? ???-?? ???????, ???-?? ?????????, ??а???????? ?а????????? ????? ?????? ??а ??????????, ?а ???? ???? ?????? ???????????
?а???????. ??а???? ??? ????????, ??? ????? ?? ???????????? ?а?????
????? ????? ?????????????? ???????????: ??? ??а??????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????, ??а ?????????? ??????????? л??????╗ ???????????? ?????а? ????? ?а??? ?? ?????? ?????????? ????????????????????. ?а ???????? ????????????? ?????????? ?? ?????
???????????.
???????? ?????: ?. ?.а?????, ??????? л??? ????╗, ????????.
???? ???????? ? ??????? ?. ?. ?????? л??? ????╗
?
417
????????????? ??????? л??? ????╗ ??????????? ?а ?????? ????????? ??????? ?а????? ?а?????????? ??????:
????? ?а??? ?? ?????, ????????? ?????, ??????? ?ал?????,
?ал??? ?а?????????╗. ?????? ?а???? ???????а? ???????????? ??а???? ??????? ???????? ??????а? ?????? ???? ?????????? ?????. ??а ?????? л?????? ????╗, ????????? ?????
????????????? ??? л?????╗ ??? ????????а ? ?а ??? ??? ??
??? ?????-?? ?????? ?????????????? ????, ???????????
????? ??????. ????? ?? ??????? ????????? ???????? ??а????
??????.
???????, ??? ???? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?а ?????? л??? ???????╗ ?????? ??????????
??а????????. ?а???? ????? ???????? ?а?????????????? ??????, ??? ??????? ????????, ?а???? ????? ???????? ????? л????????╗ ??????. ?? ?????: л? ?????? ??а ???????? ?а ?????
????????? ????????? ??а ?????? ???????? ?????? ??? ????????????? ??????????, ??? ?????????? ?а ????????????
?а???????? ?а???? ??????, ?????? ?а??????-???? ??????? ???????? ????????. ????? ?а???????? ?????????? ????? ????????????, ??? ???????, ??????????? ??? ???? ??????. ?? ?????,
??? ??? ?а ???????? ??а ??? ?????, ??? ?????? ??? ???????
???????????????. ?? ??а ???? ??а ???????? ???????? ?????????????? ?, ??а??????? ??а???? ??????? ?????, ????? ???
???????, ????? ????? ???? ??а???? ??а???? ???????? ?????
?а?????╗ [1, 252].
л???? ?? ?????,а? ????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ?? ????
?. ?.а?????? (????????),а? ??????? ???? ??????-?????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????, ?? ?????? ??? ??
??????? ??? ?????? ???????????????? ??? ?????? ??????????. ??? ?????, ??а ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????
???? ??? ????????? ?а????????╗ [5, 212?213]; ?а????? ????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ???? ?????? ?а???? ?????? ?????? ????????? ???? л??????????? ??????????, ???????? ???????? ???? ???????? ??? ????????? ????????????, ??????????,
?????????? ??????????╗ [5, 205]. ?а???? ?????, ?????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????????? ???? ??????, ???????? ?а ??????? л??? ????╗
???? ??, ??? ????? ?????????? л?????? ??????????╗ ?????
418
?. ?. ?????????
л?????? ?а ???? ??? ???????? ?а ????????, ?????????? ???
?????╗ [5, 214].
?????? ?????? ??????????? ?а???? ??????. ???, ????????,
?а????? ?????? л? ??????╗ ?.а????????? ?????: л?????? ???????? ????, ??? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????? ???, ??? ???????? ????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ?а ?????????, ???????? ??????? ?????а ? ??а ? ???, ????? ????? ????????
??? ??????????, ?а? ???, ????? ????????, ??? ??? ????? ??????????? ?а??????????? ?а???? ????? ?????????????? ??
?????, ??? ???? ???? ????????? ???? ??????????, ???? "????????? ???????", ???? ????????? "?????". ?а??????? ????????
?? ???????? ?а ???????? ??, ?а ??????? ??????, ?а ??????
?а???????, ?а???????? ??????, ?а??????????? ???????а? ???
?????? ??? ????, ????? ??????? ????? ????????????. ???
?????? ??????? ?? ?а????? ???????? ?а? ????? ????????????
????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ??????а? ?а? ?? ???????????, ??????, ??????? ?а????????, ?а? ?? ????????, ?а????????, ?????╗ [9, 361]. ??? ?????, ????? ???????, ??? ??????
??????????????? ?а?????????? ?????, ?????????? ?а?? ?????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???? ??????????????? ???? ??????.
????? ????, ?а???????? ????????????????? ?а???????? ??
???? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????, ???????? ??????? ????? ?????????????? ?а?????? ??????? ???
л???? ???????╗, ????????? ??????? ??? ???????????????
???? ???????? ??????? ????? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ????, ?а ??????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????????
????? ???? ????, ???????? ???????? ????? ????????? л??????????╗ ???????????? ???? ?а ????? ?????? ?а ??????????? ???????????? ?????????; ??????? ??????? ???? ???????
??????а? л?? ?а???????????? ????????? ????????? ?а?? ?????????, ?а ? ???????????, ??????????? ????????? ????????╗ (??. ???????) [???. ??: 7, 146, 140]. ??? ????????????
??????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ??? ????????
?????? ?а ?????????????, ??? ????? ??? ??? ???????? ???
?а?? л??????? ??а???????╗.
??????? л??? ????╗, ?????? ????????? ??ал?????? ????╗
?а ??????? ?а л???? ??????╗, ??? ?? ??????????? ????????,
???? ???????? ? ??????? ?. ?. ?????? л??? ????╗
419
???????? ???? ???????????? ??? ????????? ??а???????????
???? ???????, ????? ?а???? ????????? ??????? ???? ?а?????
???????????? ????????, ????????????? ?а ????? ??????
?????.
??? ??????? ???????. ??????? ????????? ?????? ?????
?а????? ??а??????? ?а????, ????? ???????? ????????? ?а?????? ????? ?а ????? ? ?????? ???? ?????????. ??????????
?????????????, ?? ?а ??????????? ????????? л?????????
?а???, ??? ??? ????? ???? ?????, ??? ????????? ?????? ????
??????, ???, ???????, ??? ??????? ?????, ?а???? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????╗; ?????? ?а???, л????? ?а???????, ???
???? ?? ?????? ??? ????????, ??? ????? ??????, ?? ?? ??а??????? ??, ??? ????????╗ (7)1.
??а???? ????????? ????? ???????? ???????? ??:
...???????????, ??????????? ???????, ?а????? ???????? ???. ??
??а ???????? ??; ?????????? ?а ???? ???? ????????????, ??? ??
??? ??а ?????????, ??? ??а ????? ???????? ?????, ??? ???????,
??а??? ?? ?? ???? ???????, ??? ????? ??? ????????? ?????. <...>
Cа?????? ????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ??? ???????╗, ????????,
????? л???-?????? ???????? ?? ?а?????? ??, ??? ??? ?????????
????????? (21).
??? ?????????? ???????????? ??????: ????? ????, ???
???? ???????? ??, ??? ????:
...? ??????? ?????, ?????????, ??? ????? ???? ????? ?а ??? ????????????╗, ??ал??????? ?????? ?? ??? ???? ???? ???? (22).
?а???????:
??? ???????? ????: ?????? ?? ??? ?????????, ??? ???????? ???????? ?????? ??????, ??? ?? ??а ???????? ??? ???????????.. ??
?а????????? ???????, ???? ?????, ????? ?а???? ?????? ?а????
??? ?а????????, ???????? ?а????, ???????????? (22?23).
?????
???? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ???????, ????? ????? ??а?????? ?, ?????? ???? ?а?????, ????? ??а?????? ????????, ???????? ?а ????????: л???????, ??????????! ???????,
???????!╗ (23).
?. ?. ?????????
420
??а ??? ?????????? ????????????, ?а ??? ?????? ?????????? ??а??????, ????? ?а???? ???????????????:
??? ??????? ??а?????? ?????? ???? ?а??????, ??? ???? ??????
????????? ????? ?а????? ?????, ?а???? ??? ????? ????? ???????
?????, ?? ??? ?????? ??, ?.а?. ???? ??????????? ??а??????????? ???????, ???? ?? ??????, ?? ???. ????? ????????? ??????? ????????.
??? ?? ?????????, ??? ??????, ??а????? ????? ??? ??а???? ??а??,
??а???, ?а??? ?????? ?а???, ??? ????? ??????, ???? ???????, ?????????? ???? ?????. ????? ??????? ??, ??? ?????????? ?а ??????????? ???? ???????, ??а??? ?? ?а?????? ???????????? ???? ??????? ?а ????? ????????? ???? ?????????. ?? ???????? ???????
???????: ???? ?????, ?????? ?? ????????? ?? ?????; ???? ?????,
??? ????????? ??а??? ???... (24).
?а???, ????? ????????????? ??????:
?? ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ?????, ??? ???? ???, ??????????? ?????? ?????? ?????, ?а?????? ??а?????? ??а???? (24).
??? ?????? ????????????? ???????.
???? ????? ?а?????, ??? ????? ????? ??? ?????, ??? ?????? ???????:
??? ??????????, ???? ????? ?а??????? ???? ??????, ??? ?????????? ???????????, ???????, ???????? ???????? ?????? ??????,
??? ?? ??а????????? ??? ???????, ??? ?????? ?а???????, ?а?? ???
????? ???? ???????? ??? (26).
???? ????????? ???????? ????????? ?а???????? ???????:
л???? ?? ?? ?????, ??? ?а?????????!╗ (26). ??а??? ??? ?????
????????? ???? ???????, ???? ??? ????? ?а???????.
??????? ?а?????? ?а???? ???????, ????? ?????????? ????? ?????????: ??????
??????? ??а ??????? ?????? ????????? ?????-?????? ???????? ????? ???? ?????, ??????????? ?а???? ????, ???? ????????? ??? ??????? ???? ?????????? ???????, ?????????? (37).
??а????? ???????, ????? ???????? ?а????????? ???????
??????? ???????:
? ????, ???? ?а?????? ????????? ????????????? ?а??????, ????
?а????????. ?????? ??? ????? ????. ????? ?а???????, ??? ??????
???? ???????? ? ??????? ?. ?. ?????? л??? ????╗
421
?????? ????, ?а? ?а????? ?а???? ??????? ?а?????? ??????. ?????
??? ????? ???? (32).
?? ??а?????? ?????, ??а?????????? ???? ?а?????????????
??а????, ??? ??? ??а???, ??? ?????? ???? ??а??? ????????. ???
??? ????? ???????, ??а?? ???? ????????? ???? ??????, ????
?? ????? ?а???????. ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ????
?а???????? ??а??????? ?а?? ????:
???????????? ??????, ?а??????? ??????? ????, ??? ???? ????????? ????, ??????????? ?? ???? ?а??????: л??? ??? ???. ???,
???????, ?????? ??а?????╗ (38).
?а???? ???????, ?????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ??? ??а??????? ????????, ??????? ????? ????? ?????????????, ??а ???? ????????? ???? ??????,
???? ?? ????? ?а???????. ?????? ????? ????????? ?а?????? ???????, ?????? ??? ??? ???????????? ?????? ???????.
??????? ????? ????? ??????, ?а ??, ?????? ???????, ???
??а?????, ??? ??а??????? ??? ????? ????? ??? ????? ???? ????? ??????? ???? ?а ????? ?????? ???? ???????? ?а ???????, ??, ?????
??а???, ?????? ?а??????????: л??? ??? ???????, ??а? ??? ????????
?а????╗ ?? ?а?????? ????????? ?? ?а???? (45).
????????? ???????, ??????????? ????? ??а ?????????
?????????; ?а?????? ???? ????????????? ?а?????????? ????? ?????. ???????? ??, ??? ????? ??????????
??а??а?????-?? ????, ??????? ??? ?????????, ??? ????????
???? ?а?????? ???? ?????, ?а??????? ?? ?????????а? ?а??????????, ?а??????а? ??а????? ??? ???????, ????? ???? ????????, ????? ?????? ???????. ?а??? ????? ??? ????:
л?? ??????, ?а????? ????,а? ??????? ??? ?а??????????.а? ??
??? ?????... ?а???? ???? ?а?????????, ??а???? ???╗.
????? ??????????:
??? ??????????? ??? ?а?????, ?а? ???? ???? ????? ???????, ???
????? ?? ??? ????? ??а??? ??? ??? ??????, ?а???????? ??? ?????????? (91).
???????? ??, ????? ????????а? ?????? ?а???, ????? ????????? ??, ?а??? ????? ?????-?? ???? ??а???? ?а???????а? ??? ????
??? ????????. ??а???? ??? ????????? ????? ?????????????а?
422
?. ?. ?????????
?????? ???????? ?а ?????? ?????????????а ? ?????? ??? ???
?а??????????, ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ??а????? ?????????, ??а ??? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ????? ?????,
?а??????, ??? ????????.
??? ??? ????????? ??????, ??? ????? ?????? ???? ??а????
????????, ????????? ??а????? ????????????? ????? ?? ???
?????????? ?????а? ??а??????, ????? ????? ???? ??а????
??? ???? ?????????, ?? ???? ????? ?????? ???-?? ??? ???? ???????. ??а?а??? ?????? ???? ??а??? ?????? ?а???? ???? ????????, ???????????? ?а????????????? ????? ?а?? ?????.
?? л????????? ????????╗ ??а????? ?????? ???? ?????????,
??????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ?а?????????
???????? ?а ?????? ??????? ????? ????, ??? ?а ??? ????????
???. ???? ???????, ????????, ??????? ?????????? ??????,
л????????????╗ ???????? ?а ???????. ?????? ?? ?а ??????
?????????? ?? ?????? ???????. ?а ??? ?а ???? ????? ??????????а ? ?????? ?а ???? ????? ?а ?????, ??а ????, ??????
??а ??????????, ?? ???? ??а ?????????? ????????а ? ???????????? ?? ???????? ????? ??????, ???????? ?а ??????. ????
??? ??????? л?????????╗ ??а ????? ?????а ? ??? ??????,
??? ?? ???????, ??????? ??????????, ???????????? ?? ?????
???????, ?а ??? ????? ?а ??? ?? ?????? ?????. ??а ?????? ????????? ??? ??? ??????? ?а?? ??????????. ??? ????????????
?????????? ?????? ?а???, ??? ????? ???? ?????, ???????а?
??а?????, ??????? ????? ?????????, ????????? ?????? ?а???????? ???? ???.
????, ??? ?? ???????? ?????, ??????? ?????? ??? ??? ???????:
1) ????? ??а ??????, ?а ?????????? ???????? ?????? ???????????;
2) ????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ????????а? ?а?????????? ??????????? л?????? ???????╗ ????????? ?а??????
?????, ?? ????????????;
3) ????? ???? ???? ?а??????????? ???????? ?????? ????????????? ?????? ????, ???? ??? ?????-???? ?????? л??????? ???????????╗а? ???????? ????? ???? ????? ?????????????? ?а?? ????, ??а???? ?????? ?а???????????.
???? ???????? ? ??????? ?. ?. ?????? л??? ????╗
423
?а ????? ??а ????? ????? ????? ???????, ??? ??а ???????
??а??????? л?????????? ??????╗ ?.а???????? ???? ??? ????
????????, ?а ?????? ??????? л??????? ?а ???????????╗. ???
?? ?????????? ??????? л??? ????╗ ?????????? ????????
????? ??????, ??????????? ?? ??а????? ???? ??????? ?.а????????: ?а ???, ??? ????????? ??а ???????? ??????? ?????
?а?????? ?????????а? ??а?????? ????? ????????а? ??а? ??????????, ?а ???????????? ????? ?а ?? ?????. ??? ?????
???? ????? ???? ????????? ????????? ?а????????? ???????
л???? ?а????????╗: л??? ???????? ???? ????? ??, ???? ????????? ?а????? ???????, ??????? ??? ?а????????? ?, ???????????, ??? ??? ?? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?а????????,
??? ??? ???????а? ?а??????? ????? ???????, ?а????? ???????? ?????, ?????????? ?????; ?а????? ???? ????, ??? ??а????? ??? ??????-?????? ?а??? ????? ??????? ?а??????? ??????
??? ??????????╗.
??????? л??? ????╗ ????????? ????? ?????? ??????
??а???????????? ????????? ??????????. ??? ???????? ??????:
л???????? ????? ?????, ??? ?? ???? ??????? ????????╗
(??. 5:3). ??? ???????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ??????
??????, ??? ??а ??????????? ?? ???????????? ?????? ?а ????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ????????, ??????????? ?а ????? ?????, ????????? ??????????????? ???? ???????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????
????????????? ???????, ????????? ??? ?? ??????. ????????? ????? ???? ???????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????
??????? ????????: л?????? ???? ???????? ??а?????-?? ????????, ?????????? ?????, ??а??? ???????? ????????? ????????, ??????? ????? ?????? ????????. ?а??а????????? ?????
?????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ????. ??? ???
?????? ???????, ??? ?????? ??а????????? ??????? ??????:
1) ?????? ?а????? ?????? ????? ??????, 2) ?????? ?а?????
?????? ????? ???????, 3) ?????? ?а????? ?????? ????? ????
??????? ????а ? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??????????
?а???? ???????????, ??????? ????????????? ?????? ?, ???????, ???????? ?а??????? ?а??????? ?а???? ?а??????. ??????????, ??? ????????, ??????? ??????????? ??а ???????????
????????? ????? ??????????, ???? ?????? ???? ????????????,
424
?. ?. ?????????
?????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ???? ????? ?а????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ??а ????? ????? ???????????, ?????
?а???? ??? ????????? ?????? ?а? ???? ??? ???????? ??? ??????╗2. ??? ?????, ??? ???????? ???? л?????╗ ????????? ?????, ??а?????? ???????, ??????? ???????? ??????????? ?а???????. ?????? ????? ??? л?????╗ ???????? ???????? ?????
??????? л??? ????╗, ??????? ??? ???????.
????? ?????? ????? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????. ??? ??????????? ??????: ?а???????? л??????╗ ??????? ????, ????? ???????? ??? ??? ????? л????????╗ ?????? ?? ????? ???????????? ??? ???? л????????? ?????╗,
???? ?а?? ????? ??? ??????? ????????. ?а?????? ??? ??????
???? л????╗ ?а ?????? ????? ????????а ? ???????? ???????
?????? ??????? ????????? ????.
????????? ?????? ?а ?????? ??????????????? ???????
?а????????????? ??? ?????? ????????? ??? ??????????????? ????. ??? ????? ?. ?.а??????? ?а???????????? л???????
??????╗: л? ?????????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ????? ???? ?????????? ?а??????? ???????????? ?а????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????
?а ??? ??????, ???? ?? ??? "???????? ????"а ? ??? ?????,
???????, ???????, ?????????. ?а ?????? ??? ????? ????????
???????????? ???????, "?? ???????? ????", ??а????????
??а??????, ????????, ????????. "??????????" ??????? ?????
?а ????????? ?????? ???? ????? ?а ????????? ????????
????а? ??????????????????. ??? ???? ???????? ?а??????;
????? ??? ?? ???? ???????? ?????????????? ?а ???????????????? ????????. ?а ?????????? ???? ??????? ?????????
??????? ?а ????????╗ [2, 279]. ????? ?? ????? ??? л???????????╗? ????????? ?а?????? ???????.
???, ????????, ?????? ??????? ????????? ??? ???????
???? ????????? ??????? ?? ??????. ??а????????? ???????? ??? ?? ????????? ????????, ??? ????? ?????? ?????????
?а ???????, ??, ?????, ???? ?а ????? ??????. ?????? ??????
?а ???????, ??????? ??????, ????? ??а ????? ?, ?????????????, ??????? ??? ??а?????. ????? ?????: ??
...??????? ??? ?а ????? ?????????. ?????? ??? ????????, ???
??а ?????, ????????????? ?????? ????????; ????? ???? ??а ???-
???? ???????? ? ??????? ?. ?. ?????? л??? ????╗
425
???? ????? ?????, ???????. ?????? ??????? ??? ??? ?????, ?а???
????????, ??? ????? ???? ???? ?????? ???????? (18).
??? ??????? ?.а?????? ?а?????? л???????? ??????. ?? ????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?а??????╗: л??????? ??????
??????????? ?а?????? ????? ??????? ?а?????????????? ??а???
?????????????? ??????, ?а??? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????, ????? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ???????. ??? ?????????? ??а ????, ??????? ????????, ????? ?????? ???????, ?????????? ?а ???.
???? ???????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????а ?
"?????? ????????". ?? ??????? ???? ?????? ??? ??????????????? ?а?????????? ?????????????? ??????. ????? ??????
?????? ???? ?а?????? ?? ?а???????, ?? ????????? ????, ????? ????? ???, ??а ?????? "?????? ??? ?а ????? ?а ??????????
????????, ?????????? ????????? ????? ???????? ????????,
????? ?? ??????? ????? ?????, ???? ??? ????????: ??????
???, ???????? ??? ???. ?а??????? ??а?????? ?а???... ?а?????
??????????. ?? ????? ????????!? ?????????,а? ??????? ???
?а??????????.а? ??а????????? ?????? ?а??? ???? (19). ?????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ??? ??? ??а? ????? ??????????
????????????, ?а?? ???? ??????? ??????? ?????? ???????
??? ???????. ????? ??? ????, ???????????? ?а?????? ???????
?а? ?????? ???????? ????????? ?????, ?????????????? ???????? ??? ???????. ???????, ???????????? ???????????
??????????, ??????????? ????? ??? ?????-?????? ???????,
??????? ??? ????????? ?а???????. ?а????????, ?????? ????????????? ????? ????? ??а??????. ????? ????, ??? ???? ????????? ?????. ?????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ?а??????╗
[3, 222?223]. ?????? ?? ?? ?????????, ?а ??? ????????? ?????? ????? ?а????????????? ????? ??????? ????? ???? ???
?????? ??????? ??а???? ????????? ?а??????? ??? ??? ????,
?????? ??а ???? ??а ?????????? ?а ???????. ?а ???? ?а ?????
????? ?? ????????? ?????. ?????? ?????, ??? ??? ???? ??????? ???? ??а???, ??? ????. ?а??????? ??????? ?? ????, ???
???????:
...?? ???? ??????? ?а????, ?, ?????? ????, ??? ??а?????? ?????.
???????, ??? ?а????? ?а??? ????????, ????? ????? ????? ??? ????? ????????. ???????, ???-?? ?а ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ????
426
?. ?. ?????????
???????.. ?а????? ??? ??????? ?а???? ?, ?????, ??? ???? ????????
??? ???? ???????? ?а????????? ????????? ????????? (86).
????? ??а???? ?????? ??? ?а??????????? ?????? ????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????. ????? ?а??????? ??????:
? ???????? ????? ?????? ?а??????? ????? ????? ??а???????? ?????? ?а???????, ?а??????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????,
?а??? ????? ??????. ?? ?????? ??? ?а????? ????: ??? ??. ????
?????? ???????? ??а??????, ?????? ?а??????? ??????????.
? ?????,а? ??????? ???.а? ????? ?? ?????????? ??? ?а?????, ??
?????? ??? ?а?????,а? ?, ???????, ??? ?? ?????????? ???????, ???
???????:а? ???? ?????, ??????????, ??????????? ????????. ???
???? ??? ??????.
?а????? ??? ???? ?а???? ?а??????? ?а????? ???????? ??а??????
(86).
?????? ?????, ??? ????? ???????? ?.а ??????, л??????
??????????? ?????, ???????????? ????????? ???????.
??????? ?????? ??? ??? ??????? ?????, ????????? ???????
????? ???? ?????????? ??????????????-???????????????
????????? ??????????? ?????. ??? ???? ????? ???????? ???????. ??а??? ??? ?? ??а???? ???????????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????. ??? ???? ?????? ??????? ?а???? ???? ?а?
?????????, ?а? ?????????. ?а????? ??????? ?????? ?????????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????. ????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???????, ?? ?а ?????? ????????
?а?????? ?а????? ???????? ?????. ?????, ??? ????? ???????
?а????? ???????, ???? ????? ??? ???? ???????? ??????????
???????????? ?а ?????? ????, ??????? ??? ????? ??а ??? ???????? ?????, ????? ?????????? ?????? ?а ????? ?а ???, ???
?????????????: л??? ???? ??? ??????... ????? ????? ???????? ??а??????╗. ??а?????? ????? ??а??????????? ??? ??????
??????. ?а?? ?????? ???: ??????, ?ал???????? ?а???????╗ ??????????? ???????????? ???????, ??? ??????????? ??????????? ????????. ?? ?? ?а?????? ????? ??????? л??? ????╗а?
??? ???????? ???????????? ??????. ?а ???????, ?????? ??
?????, ??? ?????? ?????? ????????????-?????????? ????,
?? ?????????? ??? ????, ????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ??????. ???????????? ??????? ???? ???????? ??????-
???? ???????? ? ??????? ?. ?. ?????? л??? ????╗
427
???? ?????????? ?????. ??? ?а???? ???????? ????????? ??????. ??? ?????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????????
??????? ??а ????????? ???????? ???????. ???????, ?????????? ????? ??а????, ?а????, ?????? ??????, ??? ??? ??? ????
?????? ??????? ??????, ?????????? ?????????, ?а? ????? ???
??? ??? ?? ?????? ???????? ???????. ??????, ????????,
??а??? ???-?? ?а?????. ?а?????? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ??? ??? ?????? ???????, ?а??????? ??? ?????? ?а???? ??????? ??а?????????????, ?????? ??? ?? ?????, ?а??? ???? ??????????. ?????? ???? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?????
????????, ???? ????? ??? ??????????, ??а???????, ?????? ???
??? ???? ?? ??????????? ?а??????, ?а??? ??? ???????? ???
????? ??????╗ [3, 225].
??? ???????? ????? ???????????? ?????, ?????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ?а ???????а ? ??????? ??????? ????а ?
л??????? ?а ???? ??? ??????????? ????????, ?????????
?????? ?а????????? ??????? ?а??? ????. ????? ?????? ?????? ???????, ??????????????? ????? ?????????? ??????,
????? ??????? ?а?? ??? ???????? ??? ?????????? ???????:
????? ??????, ?а??? ??? ?????? ?а??? ?????, ??? ?а????? ????? ??????? ????, ?а ???????? ???. ?????? ????????, ??????,
????? ????????????. ???????????? ???????а ? ???? ??????,
???????, ????????. ???? ???????? ???????а? л??? ????╗а?
?????? ????????????? ?????? ????????????. ????? ????
????????? ?????? ??? ???? ???????? ????????? ??????? ????
??????, ?? ???? ??????? ?а??? ????? ??????????. ????? ????,
?????? ?????, ????? ?? ????? ????????? ???????? ??? ????????, ?????? ???????? ???????? ???? ??????????, ??? ???????? ???????? ?? ????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ???! ???
??? ????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?а ?????????, ?????
??а?????????????? ?????! ????? ?????? ?а??? ?????? ?а??????, ???????????? ???????? ?а ?????? ???????? ?????.
?????? "???????", ??????? ??????, ???????? ?????????????? ??????????????? ???????? ??? ??????? ?а?????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????? ????? ???????????????. ??????а ? ?а ???? ???????. ?????????????? ??????????
????????????. ??????? ??????????? ????? ?????╗ [3, 226].
????? ???????, ?????? ??? л?????????? ??????????????╗
428
?. ?. ?????????
??? ??? ?????? ????????????? ???? ????????? ???????????? ????????, ??????? ?? ??????? ?а?????????????? ????
??????: ???? ?а???????? ?????? ???? ????? ?????, ???????????. ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ?а?????
????? ??????????? ??? ????.
?. ?.а???????, ???????? ??а?????? ?. ?.а????????? л?????
??? ?????????╗ (1905), ??? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ?????????? л???????? ?а ??????? ???????? ??????????????? ?а???????????? ????????╗а? ???????? л???????
????????╗, ???????? ?а??????, ??? ????? ?????????? ??, ???
л?? ????????? ???????╗, ?а??? ???? ??а????????? л?? ??????
??????????, ?????????-???????????? ?а ???????????, ??????, ?????????? ?????? ???????, ??????? ???? ????????, ???
?????????????? ???????╗ [6, 189]. ????? ?????: л??????
???????????? ?????? ?а?????? ???? ???????? ?????-?? ??????????? ????????????, ??а ?????? ???????????? ?? ????????????????? ????? ?а??????????? ????????? ??????????
?а????? ??????????? ?а????? ????? ?????? ???? ?а?? ??а? ???
???????, ??????????? ???????????? ??а ????????? ????
?а?????, ?????????? ?????? ?? ?????, ???????, ????????, ??
???????а? ?а???? ?????а? ??????╗ [6, 190?191]. ?????????
????????? л??????????╗, ????? ??а л????????? ?????????╗,
??а ?????? ?. ?.а ????????, ?????????? ?????? ???, ???
л????? ?а????????? ???? ??????????????? ???????? ????????????????, ?а ????? ????? ????????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????????????, ?????????????,
??а???????а? ?????????????? ?а????????╗ [6, 189].
?.а ????? ?а ?.а ????? ????????????? ?а ??????? ?????:
л???? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ??? ?????? ????? ??????, ??? ?????? ????? ?????????????, ?????
???????, ??? ?а ?????? ?а ???????? ??????, ????? ??????????
????а? ?????? ???? ?????? ????? ????????. ??? ????? ?????????а? ?а?????????а? ??а????????? ??а????? ????. ????
????? ??????? ????????? ?а??? ???? ??? ??????????????????? ??????. ??? ??а ?????? ?????????? ?????? ???????
??????а ? ?????????????? ???????╗; ?а ? ?????? л???????????? ??????? ????????????? ??????? ?????-?????? ????????????? ?а??????????? ??? ?а?? ?????????? ?? ???????-
???? ???????? ? ??????? ?. ?. ?????? л??? ????╗
429
???? ????? ??а??? ??????? ????а? ?а????????????? ?????╗
[4, 180?181]. ????? ??????? ??????????? ?а ????? ????????:
?????????????, ??????, ???? ????? ?????? ???????? ??????а? ?????? ?а???????? л????????????? ?????╗. ??а???????? ??????????????? ???? ?????? ???????? ??а???а? ???
?????????? ???? ??? ?????????? ????? ?а ?????? ????а ?
??а ?????? ?? ????????????, ?а ??????? ??????? ?????? ?????, ????????? ???????? ????? ?????????? л???????????╗,
?????? ?????????? ?????????? ??а????, ?????? ?????? ????????? ???? ????????? ??? ??????????? ?????.
л???????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????,а ? ????? ??? ?????????? ???? ?. ?.а ?????? (????????),а? ???????????? ?а?????????? ?а???????????, ?а???????????? ??а ????? ?????? ?????? ?а ????????????????
?а??????????????? ????????????. ??????? ???????? ??????
?а???? ?????????? ?????? ??а??????? ????????, ?а????? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ????????, ???? ?а????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??????????а? ????????, ???????????? ??????????
??????? ?????????????? ??????????. ???? ?? ???? ?????
?????? ????????, ????? ???????????? ????? ????? ?????????,
?а?????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ????????????????, ???? ????? ?? ????????, ??? ????? ????? ??а???? ???? ????????, ??????? ???????????? ?а??? ?????????????? [5, 169].
??а????????????? ?.а????????, л????? ???????????? ??????? ????????????? ?а ??? ??а ??????? ????, ????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ?????╗ [2, 488]. ??? ???????? ???
????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ??а?? ??, ??? ??ал??????? ????╗ ????????????? ??????????а? ???? ??????? ??а???????? ???????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????
?????? ??а??????????? ???????????, ??????? ?а??????
????????????: ????? ???? ????????, ??? ?????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ??? ?????.
??????????
1
????? ?а????? ?????? ?????????? ??а???????: ????? ?. ?.а??????
???????? ????????? ?а ?????: ?а 30 ?.а ?.: ?????, 1974?1982. ?.а 9.
????????. ???????. 1894?1897. 544 ?. ?а??????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ????????.
?. ?. ?????????
430
2
????????? ??????? ????????. ???? ??????. ????????? ?????????
???????????? ??????. ?.: ??????, 2004. ?. 215?217.
?????? ??????????
1. ???????? ?.а??????????? ?а???????. ??????. ???.: ??????-????????,
2006. 288 ?.
2. ??????? ?. ?а?????? а// ??????? ?.а???????? ????. ????????????
??????. ?.: ???????, 1996. ?. 478-490.
3. ?????? ?.а ???????? ??????. ?? ????????? ?????????????? ??????
?а?????? а// ?????? ?.а????? ???????????? ?а??????. ?????? ?а???????. ?.: ?????????????? ??????????, 1973. ?. 221?229.
4. ????? ?., ????? ?.а ?????? ????. ????? ??????? ???????????. ???.
2-?, ?????. ?.: ??????????? ??????, 1995. 192 ?.
5. ?????? (????????) ?. ? .а?????? ?а?????? а// ?????? (????????)
?.а?.а????. ???.: ?а3 ??. ?.: ?????? ???????, 2005. ??. I. ?. 165?304.
6. ??????? ?. ?.а?????????? ???????? ?а??????? ?????? ?????? ???????? XX ????. ?.: ?????, 1998. 312 ?.
7. ???????? ?. ?.а?????????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????: ?а??????? ???????? ??????? ??????????. ?.: ???????????, 1990. 206 ?.
8. ??????? ?. ?.а??????? ??????. ?.: ?????, 1971. 292 ?.
9. ????????? ?. ?а?????? а// ????????? ?. ?а?????. ??????? ??????. ?.:
?????????????? ??????????, 1969. ?. 357?370.
Vitaliy Jurievich Darenskiy
Associate Professor
of Lugansk University named after Volodymyr Dahl.
(Lugansk, Ukraine)
darenskiy1972@mail.ru
IDEA OF HUMILITY IN ANTON CHEKHOV?S
NOVELLA THREE YEARS
Abstract. Anton Chekhov wrote his novella Three years in 1895, and this
title could be chosen because it took Chekhov three years to finish it, given
that entries from his diary dating back to 1891 were included into novella. It
is estimated that while preparing for writing this book Chekhov made about
200 notes. Therefore, Three years can be perceived as the author?s lengthy
reflection on life, materialized through some ?alien? story. One special thing
about this book, however, is its ?incompleteness?: there is no event at the end
of the story which would draw a final lineа? all we see is a series of open ends,
so it seems that it all ends with nothing. Novella Three years is believed to be
the first time when Chekhov used his new drama poetics in his prose, since
???? ???????? ? ??????? ?. ?. ?????? л??? ????╗
431
his plays Uncle Vanya, Three Sisters and The Cherry Orchard also have ?open
ends?. Someone is leaving and something is happening there, but spiritual
and real-life connections between people are not brokenа ? they obviously
await some development in the future. It means, then, that in Three years we
see some new type of artistic integrity, which is created not by coherence of
the seemingly completed plot line, but by inner cohesion of the lifetransforming flow of events, representing reality with its inner unpredictability.
What is even more important is that by completing his story Chekhov would
probably destroy the inner integrity of his text.
Keywords: Anton Chekhov, novella Three Years, humility.
References
1. Adamovitch G.а Solitude and freedom. Essays [Odinochestvo i
svoboda. Ocherki]. Saint-Petersburg, Azbuka-klassika Publ., 2006. 288аp.
2. Aldanov M.аAbout Chekhov [O Chehove]. Aldanov M. A night in Ulm.
Articles about literature [Ulmskaya noch. Literaturniye statui]. Moscow,
Novosti Publ., 1996, pp.а478?490.
3. Belkin A.аWonderful umbrella. Chekhov?s artistic detail skill [Chudesny
zontik. Ob iskusstve hudozhestvennoy detali u Chehova]. Belkin
A.а Reading Dostoyevsky and Chekhov. Articles and reviews [Chitaya
Dostoevskogo i Chehova. Statyi i razbory]. Moscow, Hudozhestvennaya
literatura Publ., 1973, pp.а221?229.
4. VailаP., Genis A.аNative speech: Lessons of belles-lettres [Rodnaya rech.
Uroki izyashchnoy slovesnosti]. 2nd ed., revised and expanded. Moscow,
Nezavisimaya gazeta Publ., 1995. 192аp.
5. Glinka (Volzhsky) A. S.аEssays on Chekhov [Ocherki o Chehove]. Glinka
(Volzhsky) A. S.аCollected works in 3 vols. Vol. I [Sobr. soch.: v 3 kingah. Kn. I].
Moscow, Modest Kolerov Publ., 2005, pp.а165?304.
6. Musatov V. V.аPushkin?s traditions in Russian poetry of the first half of
the 20th century [Pushkinskaya traditsiya v russkoy poeziyi pervoy
poloviny XX veka]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1998. 312аp.
7. Sokhryakov Y. I.аArtistic discoveries of Russian writers: Global impact of
Russian literature [Hudozhestvenniye otkryitiya russkih pisateley: O
mirovom znacheniyi russkoy literatury]. Moscow, Prosveshcheniye Publ.,
1990. 206аp.
8. Chudakov A.а P.а Chekhov's poetics [Poetika Chehova]. Moscow,
Nauka Publ., 1971. 292аp.
9. Eihenbaum B.аAbout Chekhov [O Chehove]. Eihenbaum B.аAbout prose [O
proze]. Leningrad, Hudozhestvennaya literatura Publ., 1969, pp. 357?370.
й ????????? ?. ?., 2014
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