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Концепт «Истина» в романе М. А. Булгакова «Мастер и Маргарита».pdf

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481
????????? ????????? ?????????
?????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ?а????????????,
?????????????? ?????????,
?????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
(????????????, ?????????? ?????????)
lis0vskaa@yandex.ru
??????? л??????╗ ? ??????
?.??. ????????? л?????? ? ?????????╗
?????????. ????????? ?????? ???????????? ???? ??????? л??????╗ ?а?????? ?. ?.а????????? л?????? ?а?????????╗. ??а???????????
?. ?.а?????????: л???????а? ??? ??? ?? ??????? ???????? ?а????????
????????; ??, ?а???? ???? ???????? ?????? ?а?????????? ??? ????????. ?,
?а?????? ???????, ???????а? ??? ??, ??????????? ???? ???????а? ???????, ??????? ???????, ??ал?????? ?????????? ?????????╗а? ??? ?????? ?а????????, ?а? ????????? ??????? ?а?????? ??а???╗ [13, 32]. ?а??????? ???????? л??????╗ ?? ??????? ??а ??????????????????? ???
????????? ?а?????????? ????? л??????╗.
????? ???????????? ???? ???????? ????????????? ?????? ???? ???????? ?????? ?а????????, ?????? ?????????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?а??? ??? ???? ?????? ?а??? ??? ?????? ??а????????????? ???? ?????? ??а???????? ?а????????.
?????????? ???????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ??????: ??????а ? л?????? ????????╗ (1930?1932), ??????а ? л??????? ???????╗
(1932?1934) ?а???????? ??????? л?????? ?а?????????╗. ?а???? ????????? ????? ????????? ????, ?а??? ????????, ?а??????. ?а????????? л?????? ????????╗ ?ал??????? ???????╗ ?. ???????? ??????????? ???????
л??????╗ ?а??????-??????????? ?а?????????? ???????. ?а????????????? ?????? ?????? ????? ???????? ?????????, ??????? ?????????
?а?????? ??????.
???????? ?????: ???????, ??????, ?. ?.а ????????, ????? л??????
?а?????????╗, ?????????.
?
?????? л??????╗ ???????? ???????? ?а?????? ????????? л?????? ?а ?????????╗, ?? ???????????? ?? ???? ???????? ????????? ?????? (?? ????????????? ?????? ???
?а??????? ?. ?.а????????? [14], ?. ?.а??????? [4], ?. ?????? [6],
[7] ?. ?.а?????????? [2], ?. ?.а???????? [8], [9], [10], [11], [12]),
?а ??? ????? ?а ????????? л?????? ????????╗1, л???????
???????╗2 ?а? ????????????? ?????? ?????? л?????? ?а?????????╗3.
482
?. ?. ?????????
???????? ?????? ?а ?????? ??????????????? ?а ???????
?????? ?а?????. ?? ???????? ?а?????????? ??????? ????????? ??а??????:
????? ?????? ???: ???? ?? ????? ????? ???????: ?? ????????,
??? ?а????. ?а??а?? ??????? ?а?? ?? ?????? ?а???, ????? ????????????????? ?? ??????; ??????, ??? ??а??????, ??????? ????? ?????.
????? ?????? ???: ??? ???? ??????? ?, ?????? ???, ????? ?????
?а?????? ?а?????? ??: ?а??????? ???? ??а?????? ?а??? (??. 18:37?
38).
?а ???????? 1930?1932 ????? л?????? ????????╗ ?????
?????? ???????????? ??????: л??? ???? ???????╗. ??????? ?????: л?????? ?а???, ??? ?а???? ????? ??????╗ (?. ?., 218),а? ??
??а ????????????: л????? ?????? ?а ? ???? ????????╗ (?. ?.,
218). ?????? ??????? ??????????? ????? (л? ???? ???? ????
?????? ???? ?а??????? ???????╗) (?. ?., 219), ????? ?????????
??????? ?а???????????. ????? ?????????? ???????: л? ????
????? ???? ??????╗ (?. ?., 219). ????????? ??????, ????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?????.
?а???? ???????? ????? ???????? л???????╗, л????? ??????╗, л??????? ????????╗ (?. ?., 223). ????? ????????????
???????? ?а ???????????? ????????. ?????? ??а ???? ?????
??а?????? ??????? ???????. ?ал?????? ????????╗ ?а? л??????? ????????╗ ?????????? ???-??????? ???????? ???????: ??? ?????????? л??????????╗.
?а ???????? л?????? ????????╗ ???????????? ?????????? (???? ?а???????? ?????????: л?????? ??, ???? ??????╗
(?. ?., 222) ?а????????? ????? ????????????? ?а??? ?????????? ??????????? ?а???????? ????????????????. (л?????
??????? ?????????? ????? ?а ????? ????? ??????????
??-????????, ????????╗ (?. ?., 218).
?????????? ??????????? ????? ?а???? ???????? ???????
???, ??? ???????????? ??????? ???? ?а????? ?????? ???????.
??а???????, ??а?????? ??? ???, ?а???? л????????? ??а??????╗
(?. ?., 216).
?а ???????? 1932?1934 ????? л??????? ???????╗ ??????
?????? ???????: л??? ????? ???????╗ (?. ?., 111). ??? ?????
??????? ???????? ?????????? ?а? ???????? ??????. ?. ?.а????-
??????? л??????╗ ?а?????? ?. ?.а????????? л?????? ?а?????????╗ 483
??? ???????, ??? ????? ??????? ?????? ??????????. л?????
??????????? ???????? ?????? ??? ???????????????? ?????????╗ [15, 416]. ??? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ???????
??????, ??? ?а??????????? ????? ?а???????????? л?????????? ??а???????╗ ??? ???????.
?а ???????? ???????? л??????? ?а ?????????╗ (??? ?а ?
л?????? ????????╗ ?ал??????? ????????╗) ????? ????????
??а??? ??????? ??????.
?а ????????? ????? ?????? ??а ????????? ?а ??????????????? ??????. ?????? ????, ??????????, л????????╗ ???
?????? ????, ???? ?? ??? ?????. ??? ??? ???????????? ?????
????????? ?????, ?? ?????, ??? ??? ??????, ?а ???????????
???????? ????????? ?а ?????? ??? ????????????? ??????,
?а??????? ???????? ????? ??а?????? л??? ???? ??????╗.
? ????? ???????? ??? ??????????????? ?а ??????????, ??
?????? ??а??????? (??. 27:12).
??-????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?а??????, ??????. ?а????? ????? ??????, ?а ????????? ????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ???????-?????, ?а ??????? ??????????? ??????.
???????????? ??????? л????????-??????╗ ???????? ?????????? ??а???????? ??????? л???????-??????╗.
?ал??????? ?а?????????╗ ????? ??????????? ?????????
???????? ????:
??????, ?????? ????? ?а???, ??? ?а???? ????? ?????? <?> ???
????? ?????? <?> ?? ????? ????? ??а??????? <?> ??? ????? ????? ????????? (IX, 26).
?. ?.а ?????? ??? ???????????????? ???? ??????: л??????-??????????? ??а??????? ???????? ??????? ???? ???????????? (????????? ??-????????????). ?а ??? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??а???? ???????, ???????? ?????????? ??????,
??????? ?????????? ???? ?а ???????? ????????? ???? ?????. ?а???а? ?????? ????????? ????????? ?а???? ??????????????? ?????, ??? ?а????-?? ?а?????? ?????? ????? ??????╗
[1, 149].
????????? ?. ?.а ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?????
???????, ??а?? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????????
??????. ??а?????? ????????? ??? ??????? ?а????????, ???-
484
?. ?. ?????????
?????????????? ?а ???????????????? ??????? ??????: ?????? ??????, ??????? ?а???????????? ????, ????????? ?а????
??а ??????, ???????????. ??????? ?????????? ???????, ????? ????? ?????? ?а?????? ???????? ?а????? ??? ????, ?????????????? ??а?????????. ???????? ????????? ?а?????????
??? ???????????? ??????? ?????а ? ???????????? ???а ?
???????? ????, ????????? ??а ???????? ???????, ?а ????????????, ????? ????? ???????, ????? ?????????. ?????? ????????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????? ?????????????
?????.
?а ?????? ????? ??? л?????????? ??????╗, ???? л???????????? ???????? ???????? ??????╗4, ?а?????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ?а?????????? ??????, ??а??
???????? ??.
????? л????????????╗ ????? ?????? ?? ??????, ??а ???????? ???? ?????? ??а л????????????╗ ?????? ?????. ??? ???????? ?????? ??а??????? ??а????? ???????????? ???????.
???? ?а???????? л?????? ????????╗ ????? ???? ???????
???????? ????? ?????????, ?? ?а ???????? ???????? ???
?????????? ?????? ???????????? ??а??????. (л<?> ????, ???????, ??а ???????? ?? ????????????? ?а ?????????╗; л???
???? ??????: ?????? ???????? ???? ????????? ????????╗;
л???????? ??????? ???????? ??????????????╗) (IX, 28).
????? ???????? ????????? ?, ??а ??????? ?????? ???????, ???? ??. ??-????? ??????? ?а??????? ??????, ?а???????
???????? ???????, ??? ???????? ??? ?а????????????? ?а???????????? ?????????. л? ??????? ????? ?????????, ?а????????? ??а???? ??????? ??????, ?????????: ??????? ???? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?а ?????? ???, ?а ?????
??????????? ?? ???? ?????╗ (????. 11:15). л????? ??????????
????????? ??????? ??????╗ (???. 8:3). л?????? ?????????
??а?????, ?а?????? ????????? ?а?????╗ (??. 84:12).
???????????? ?????? л?????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????, ????? ?????, ??а ??????????? ???????
????????. ?а???? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????╗ (?.а?., 332). ?а?????????? ?????????? ???????? л??????╗ ?а ????? ??????? л?????????? ?????????
?????? ?а ?????? ?а ????╗ [5, 191]. ?. ?.а ?????? ??????????,
??????? л??????╗ ?а?????? ?. ?.а????????? л?????? ?а?????????╗ 485
??? л??? ??????? ?а???????? ?????? (???????) ??????? ??????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ????? ?а ???????? ?????? (???????) ???????? ???????????? ????????????,
??????? ????????? (???????-?????? ???? ?????? ??????
??? ?????????)╗ [5, 193].
???????? ??а ????????? ??????????? ????? ?а ??????? ??????. ????? ??????????? ???????? ??ал?????????????????
???????? ?????╗ [15, 419], ?????????????? ????????? ?????? (? ?????? ???? ??????????????? ?а??????????), ????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ?а??????.
?а???????? ???????? ???? ?? ?????? ??????? ?а? ?????????? ?????? (л??? ???????? ?????????╗). ?а ??????? ??а ???????????? ??????? ????? ?????????????? ?а????? ???????
?? ?????? ?а ???????????, ??????? ??????????: ??????????
???????? ????? ?????????? ??????, ??? ?? ????????? ?а ??????????? ?????????????.
?????? ?? ??? ???????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????
????????? л??????а ? ????╗, ???? ????????? ??????????
??????????:
???????, ??? ???? ????? ?????? ??????, ?а ?????а ? ???????!
??? ?????? ????????? ??????, ?? ???? ??а ????????????, ?а ????
??????? ??????????? ????? ?а ??????, ??? ????? ???????, ?????
?????? ??????, ?а?????? ??????????? ????????, ?а?? ???? ???????
??а????? ???? ??а???????????, ??, ???, ????????????? ????????
?????? ??а??? ???? ??а????????? ??????? ?а?????, ?а??? ???????
(IX, 309).
?. ?.а ??????, ????????? ?????????? ?????? ?а ????????
?. ?.а???????, ?. ?.а???????? ?а?. ?.а????, ????????? л??????????? ?а????????? ????????????╗ [5, 175]. л???????????
???????????? ?????????: ????? ???????? ????????????
?а??????? ????? ??? ??????????? ????, ?а????? ?????????
?а???????????? ?а???????????????? ????????? ?????????:
????????? ?? ?? ??, ??? ??а????? ???? ?????? ?а??? ??? ????
????????, ??? ?? ?? ?????? ???????? ?а?????? ???????????
?а ???????????. ????? ????????, ????????, ????????? ??а ??,
?а????? ????????? ?а??????-???-???????????????? ????????? ?????????╗ [5, 176].
?. ?. ?????????
486
?????? ???????? ??????, ??????? л??????╗ ?а??????????
?????? ?????? ???? ???????? ??ал??????╗. ???????? ?????????? ?а???????????, ?а???????????? ?????? ??????? л??????╗, ??????? л????????╗ ?а???????????? ??????.
????????? ?????а? ????????, ?а? ?????????? ????? ??????????????а? ??? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????.
???????????? ???????? л??????╗ ?а ????????? л??????
????????╗ ?ал??????? ???????╗ ???????? ??а????????????
?а ?????????????? ??????. ?а ???????? ???????? ?????а ?
??? ???????, ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????,
??? ??????????? ???????? ????? ????????????? л??????
???? ???????????? ?а??????╗ [15, 422].
??????????
*
1
2
3
4
???????????? ????????? ? ?????? ???????????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? (??? N 651-14).
???????? ?. ?.а?????? ????????. ?.: ???: ???????, 2007. 570 ?. ????? ?????? ?????? ??а????? ??????? ?а??????????? (?. ?.) ?а????????? ????????.
???????? ?. ?.а??????? ???????. ?.: ???????, 1992. 544 ?. ????? ?????? ?????? ??а ????? ??????? ?а ??????????? (?. ?.) ?а ?????????
????????.
???????? ?. ?.а????. ???.: ?а10 ?. ?.: ?????, 1999. ?.а9. ?????? ?а?????????. 608 ?. ????? ?????? ?????? ??а????? ??????? ?а?????????
???? ?а????????.
???????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ??а??? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?а ?????? ??????: [? 3 ??.]. ?????????: ??-? ????????
??????. ???????. ???., 1987. ??. 1. ?.а 125. ????? ?????? ??????
??а????? ??????? ?а??????????? (?.а?.) ?а????????? ????????.
?????? ??????????
1. ?????? ?. ?. л?????? ?а???, ??? ????? ??????╗.а// ????????. 1991. ?а1.
?.а310?316.
2. ????????? ?. ?.а?????????? ?????????: ?????????? ???????. ???????????. ???????????? ????????. ???.: ???-?? ??????, 2007. 284 ?.
3. ???? ?. ?.а ???????? ?а ?????? ??????? ????????????? ????????????: ??????? ???????: ??? ????????? ?а?????????????? ?????????????? ???????????, ????????-???????????. ?.: ??????: ?????, 2010.
248 ?.
??????? л??????╗ ?а?????? ?. ?.а????????? л?????? ?а?????????╗ 487
4. ??????? ?. ?.а??????? ?. ????????? ?а??????? ?????????. ?.: ???,
1999. 432 ?.
5. ?????? ?.а ?. л??????╗ ?а л??????╗ (???????? ????????????????
???? ?а ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????)а // ????. ?????. ???????????? ????. ????? л?????????. ?????????╗. 2006. ?а1
(4). ?.а173?209.
6. ????? ?. ????? ?. ?.а????????. ?????, 2000. ?а4. ?.а76?78.
7. ????? ?. ???????? ??а?????а// ???????? ?. ?. ??????? ???????. ?.:
???????, 1992. ?.а3?23.
8. ??????? ?. ?. ?. ?.а ????????: ??????? ??????????. ?.: ?????, 2005.
322 ?.
9. ??????? ?. ?. ?.а????????. ?????? ?а?????????. ?????? ??????????
???????. ?.: ?????, 1991. 176 ?.
10. ??????? ?. ?????????????? ????????. ????? л??????? ?а?????????╗. ?.: ????, ?????, 2006. 608 ?.
11. ??????? ?. ?.а ??? ????? ??????? ?????????. ?.: ????? ???, 1997.
432а?.
12. ??????? ?. ?.а ???????????? ????????????. ?.: ?????-???, 2000.
592а?.
13. ???????? ?. ?.а?????????. ??????? ??????? ????????. ???? ????????????. ?.: ????? л????? ??????? ????????╗, 1996. 288 ?.
14. ???????? ?. ?.а?????????? ?????? ?????? ?. ?.а????????? л??????
?а?????????╗а// ??????? ??????????. 1976. ?а1. ?.а218?254.
15. ??????? ?. ?.а?????????????? ??? ??????? ?????????. ?.: ?????
?????????? ????????, 2001. 424 ?.
Anastasiia Sergeevna Korneenko
Master of Arts 1st year of training, philological faculty,
Petrozavodsk State University
(Petrozavodsk, Russian Federation)
lis0vskaa@yandex.ru
ConCept of "truth" in the novel of Mikhail
Bulgakov's Master and Margarita
Abstract: The subject of our study was the concept of "truth" in Bulgakov's
novel Master and Margarita. S. Stepanov gave the definition of the concept.
Concept is like a clot of culture in human consciousness; then, in the form of
which culture is the part of the mental world of a man. And, on the other
hand, the concept is that by which a manа? an ordinary, normal person, not
a "creator of cultural values"а? himself is included in the culture, and in some
?. ?. ?????????
488
cases, affects it. In the analysis of the concept of "truth" we proceed from its
cultural-and-etymological understanding of the word "truth".
The aim of the study was to conduct a comparative analysis of the three
editions of the novel and to find out what semantic meanings Bulgakov
operates in a particular case and how it affects the transformation of the idea
of the novel from edition to edition.
Three editions of the novel were the material of the research: the first is "
Engineer Hoof " (1930?1932), the second is Grand Chancellor (1932?1934)
and the final version of "The Master and Margarita." In these three editions
Yeshua involves everyone who he is talking to in the dialogue. In the editions
Engineer Hoof and Grand Chancellor M. A.а Bulgakov uses the concept of
"truth" in scientific- philosophical and sacred meanings (plans). In the final
text Yeshua appears as a philosopher who is in the search of the truth.
Keywords: concept, truth, Bulgakov?s novel Master and Margarita, Gospel.
References
1. Dunaev M. M. лThe truth is that a headache╗ [лIstina v tom, chto bolit
golova╗]. Zlatoust, 1991, no. 1, pp.а310?316.
2. Erykalova I. E.а Fiction of Bulgakov: creative history. Textual criticism.
Literary context [Fantastika Bulgakova: Tvorcheskaia istoriia. Tekstologiia.
Literaturnyi kontekst]. St. Petersburg, SpbSU Publ., 2007. 284аp.
3. Esin A. B.аPrinciples and methods of analysis of the literary work [Printsipy
i priemy analiza literaturnogo proizvedeniia]. Moscow, Flinta, Nauka
Publ., 2010. 248аp.
4. Lesskis G. A.аTriptych M. Bulgakov about the Russian Revolution [Triptikh
M. Bulgakova o russkoi revoliutsii]. Moscow, OGI Publ., 1999. 432аp.
5. Lishaev S. A. "Truth" and "truth" (linguistic conceptualization of the
world and thematic originality of Russian philosophy) [лPravda╗ i лistina╗
(iazykovaia kontseptualizatsiia mira i tematicheskoe svoeobrazie russkoi
filosofii)]. Bulletin of the Samara Academy of Humanities. The series
"Philosophy. Philology " [Vestnik Samarskoi gumanitarnoi akademii. Seriia
лFilosofiia. Filologiia╗], 2006, no. 1 (4), pp. 173?209.
6. Losev V. Lively M. A. Bulgakov [Zhivoi M. A.аBulgakov]. Slovo, 2000, no.
4, pp. 76?78.
7. Losev V. Manuscripts do not burn [Rukopisi ne goriat]. M. A.аBulgakov
The Grand Chancellor [M. A.аBulgakov Velikii kantsler]. Moscow, Novosti
Publ., 1992, pp.а3?23.
8. Sokolov B. V. M. A.а Bulgakov: mysteries of creativity [M. A.а Bulgakov:
zagadki tvorchestva]. Moscow, Drofa Publ., 2005. 322аp.
9. Sokolov B. V.аMikhail Bulgakov The Master and Margarita. Essays creative
stories [M. Bulgakov Master i Margarita. Ocherki tvorcheskoi istorii].
Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1991. 176аp.
??????? л??????╗ ?а?????? ?. ?.а????????? л?????? ?а?????????╗ 489
10. Sokolov B. Decoded Bulgakov. Mystery of The Master and Margarita
[Rasshifrovannyi Bulgakov. Taina лMastera i Margarity╗]. Moscow,
Iauza, Eksmo Publ., 2006. 608аp.
11. Sokolov B. V.а Three Lives of Mikhail Bulgakov [Tri zhizni Mikhaila
Bulgakova]. Moscow, Ellis Lak Publ., 1997. 432аp.
12. Sokolov B. V.аEncyclopedia Bulgakovskaya [Entsiklopediia Bulgakovskaia].
Moscow, Lokid-mif Publ., 2000. 592аp.
13. Stepanov Iu. S. Constants. Dictionary of Russian culture. Research
experience [Konstanty. Slovar' russkoi kul'tury. Opyt issledovaniia].
Moscow, Iazyki russkoi kul'tury Publ., 1996. 288аp.
14. Chudakova M. O.аCreative destiny of the Bulgakov?s novel The Master and
Margarita [Tvorcheskaia sud'ba romana M. A.а Bulgakova лMaster i
Margarita╗]. Voprosy literatury, 1976, no. 1, pp.а218?254.
15. Iablokov E. A.а Art world Mikhail Bulgakov [Khudozhestvennyi mir
Mikhaila Bulgakova]. Moscow, Iazyki Slavianskoi kul'tury Publ., 2001.
424аp.
й ????????? ?. ?., 2014
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