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ISSN 2073-1574. Вестник АГТУ. Сер.: Морская техника и технология. 2015. ? 1
??? 621.436.3
?. ?. ???????, ?. ?. ???????, ?. ?. ????????, ?. ?. ????????
МОДЕРНИЗАЦИЯ СУДОВЫХ МАЛОРАЗМЕРНЫХ ДИЗЕЛЕЙ
КОНСТРУКТОРСКО-ТЕХНОЛОГИЧЕСКИМИ МЕТОДАМИ
ПРИ ИХ ФОРСИРОВАНИИ НАДДУВОМ
????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????, ?????????? ?? ?? ?????????
????????????????? ??????????, ?????? ????? ????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????????, ????????? ????????????? ? ????????????? ????????????. ? ????????
??????? ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ????????????? ??????? ???? ? 8,5/11
? ? 9,5/11 ????? ???????????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ?? ???????? ?????????????? ???????. ????????? ????????? ? ???? ?? ????? ?????????
????? ????? ? ?????????? ?????????????? ? ????? ?????? ??????? ???????????????? ???????????, ?????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ??????. ??? ?? ????? ??? ?????????
(? 2-, 4- ? 6-??????????? ??????????) ? ?????????????? ????????? ?? ?? ???? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ?? ????? ? ? ?????????????? ? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????, ??? ??????????????? ? ??????? ??????? ??????-??????????? ? ????????? ??????????????? ????????? ? ??? ???????????? ??????-?????????? ? ??????-????????????????
????????. ??????????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ?????????????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ???? ? 9,5/11 ??? ??? ????????????
????? ?????????????? ???????. ????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ???
????????? ??????? ???????. ??????????? ????????????? ????????????? ???? ???????????
?????? ? ???????????? ????????? ?????????????? ? ???????????????? ????????? ?????????. ?????????? ?????? ??????????????? ????????????? ????????????? ????? ???? ???????? ????????. ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????? ????? ????????????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????????. ??????????????? ?????????, ??? ????????????????? ?????????, ? ????? ??? ??????????????? ???????? ????, ???????????? ??????? ???????, ???????
?????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ??????? ? ????? ? ??????
? ???????? ?????????? ?????????.
???????? ?????: ??????? ??????, ????????????? ????????????????, ?????????????
??????, ???????????? ?????????, ????????????????? ????????, ???????? ????????, ????????????????? ??????.
????????
????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? (????????????? ??? ?????????), ?????????? ?? ?? ????????? ????????????????? ??????????, ?????? ????? ????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????????, ????????? ????????????? ? ?????????????
????????????. ???????????? ?? ???? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ?? ????????????? ????????, ? ??? ?????, ?? ???????????, ?? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ????????????????
??????? ???????????? ????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ????????????, ????????, ????????????????? ???????????. ? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ????????????? ??????? ???? ? 8,5/11 ? ? 9,5/11 ?????
???????????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ?? ???????? ?????????????? ???????.
?????? ????????????
????????? ????????? ? ???? ?? ????? ????????? ????? ????? ? ?????????? ?????????????? ? ????? ?????? ??????? ???????????????? ??????????? [1], ?????????? ??????? ???
?????????? ??????. ??? ?? ????? ??? ????????? (? 2-, 4- ? 6-??????????? ??????????)
? ?????????????? ????????? ?? ?? ???? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ?? ????? ? ? ?????????????? ? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????, ??? ??????????????? ? ??????? ??????? ??????-??????????? ? ????????? ??????????????? ????????? ? ??? ???????????? ??????-?????????? ? ??????-???????????????? ???????? [2]. ???????????-????????????? ????
?????????? ? ????????? ?? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ??? ? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ??74
Судовые энергетические установки и машинно-движительные комплексы
?????, ??? ? ? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????? ????????? ???? 4?? 9,5/11
?. ?. ?????????? ????????????? ? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ????? ? ????? ??????????????????
??????-???????????.
? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ???????????? (?????????? ? ?????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ?????? ??????????
???????? ???? (??? ???), ?? ???????????? ? ?????????????? (??? «????? «?????????»), ???
???????? ???? ????????????????? ????? ?? ???????????? ?????? 4? 9,5/11 (???. 1) ???????????
?????????????? ??????? ????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ????????????????? ??-6 ?? ?????
???????????? ??????????????, ??????????? ? ??????? ????????? (??????????, ?????? ? ??.).
???. 1. ????? ??? ????????????????? ????????? ? ??????? 4? 9,5/11,
????????????????? ? ?????? 4?? 9,5/11
?????? ???? ? 8,5/11 ??????????? ? ??????????? ? ????????????? ????????
????????????????. ????? ??????? ???? ? 9,5/11 ???? ??? ?????? ? ???????-?????????
????????????????? ? ??????? ???????? ? ?????? ? ?????? 5?2 (2? 9,5/11) ??? ????????????
??????-????????? ? ??????-??????????? ????????? «??????-40» (4??? 9,5/11) ??? ?????? ??
???????????? ???????. ??? ??????? ???????????????? ????? ???????????? ??? ???????,
??????? ???????? ?????????????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ??? ????
??????????? ???????. ????????? ? ??????? ???????? ? ?????? ??????????????? ????????
????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ???????,
??????, ????? ????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ????????, ??? ???????????????
«??????????» ???????? ????????, ??? ????????? ????? ???????????? ??????????: ???????
??????? ???? ? ????????, ???????? ???????????? ?????, ????? ????????? ?????????????
???????? ?? ???? ?????????? ????? ??????????????? ???????? ????????? ????????????, ???
??????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? [3].
????????????? ????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ???????, ??????????
??????????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????? ????????????????
??????, ????????? ? ???????????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ???????????? ? ?????? ????????
? ???????. ???? ?? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ????????, ????? ??? ??????? ?????????,
???????? ? ???????? ????? ????, ????????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????? ? ??????? ??????
???????????. ?????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????????? ?????????? «??????»
??????? ?????????, ???????????? ?????? ??????? ???? ? ???????? ? ????? ?????????
???????????? ?????. ??????? ?? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ???? ?????????? ???????????
?? ?????????? ?????????????? ? ?? ??????? ????? ?????????? ??????????.
75
ISSN 2073-1574. Вестник АГТУ. Сер.: Морская техника и технология. 2015. ? 1
?????????? ?????????
?????????? ? ??????????????? ? ????????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ??????
4? 9,5/11 ? ????????????? ?????????????????. ????????? ??? ????????? ???????? ??? ??????
? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????????? ??? «??????????» (???. 2), ? ? ???????????
?????? ???? ??????????? 24 ???????-????????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ??????????????
????????? ???????? (?? 6-?? ??????, ? 2-? ??????? ???????????????? ???????????? ? ? ?????????
??????? ?????? ? ? ????????? ??? ??????????? ????).
???. 2. ?????? ?????? ????????? ? ?????????
? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ?? ????? ????? ???????????
????????????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????????? ????????? ???????????? ?? ???. 3.
P, ???
?, ???
???. 3. ??????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ?? 9,5/11
? ????. 1 ? 2 ????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? 4?? 9,5/11 ??? ?????? ??
??????? ??????????? ? ???????? ?????????????. ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????? 4? 9,5/11 ? 22 ??? ??? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ???? 1500 ???-1 ? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? 0,279 ??/(??? · ?). ??????????? ???????? ?????? 4?? 9,5/11 ?????????? 27 ??? (n = 1500 ???-1) ??? ???????? ??????????? ???????
??????? 0,24??/(??? · ?). ???????? ? 27 ??? ???? ??????? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ??
?????????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ? ???????????; ???????? ???? ? ?????;
??????????? ???????????? ?????; ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ? ????????, ??? ??? ???????? ???????? ????????????. ?????????? ?????? ???????? ???????? 30 ???, ?? ??? ???? ?????
??????????? ???????, ????????? ? ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? (??????? ????? ?????? ?????????), ????????????? ??????????????????? ??????? ??????? ??????????,
? ??????? ?????????.
76
Судовые энергетические установки и машинно-движительные комплексы
??????? 1
?????????? ????????? ?? 9,5/11 ?? ??????? ??????????? ??????????????
??????????
??????????? ???????? Ne, ???
??????? ??????????? ???????? ??, ???
??????? ?????? ??????? G?, ??/?
???????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? g?, ??/(??? ? ?)
???????? ???
0
?
1,46
?
?????
50 %
13,5
0,34
3,56
0,264
25 %
6,75
0,17
2,39
0,354
75 %
20,3
0,52
4,75
0,234
100 %
27
0,69
6,5
0,24
??????? 2
?????????? ????????? ?? 9,5/11 ?? ??????? ???????? ??????????????
??????????
?????
75 %
1 360
22,4
0,633
4,77
0,213
50 %
1 190
17
0,549
3,67
0,216
??????? ???????? n, ??/???
??????????? ???????? Ne, ???
??????? ??????????? ???????? ??, ???
??????? ?????? ??????? G?, ??/?
???????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? g?, ??/(??? ? ?)
100 %
1 500
27
0,687
6,5
0,240
?????????? ????????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ??? ??????? ????? ???? [4], ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??? ?? ?????????, ??? ? ?? ??????? ???????? (???. 4).
z
1
2
I
1
0
A
0
I
?
???. 4. ??? ????????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ? ????????? ??????:
1 ? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????;
2 ? ?? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?????????
??? ???? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????? ???????? (? ????????? ??????? ?????? 262 °? ? ?????????????? ?????? ? 215 °? ? ????????? ??????),
????? ??? ? ????????? ???? ?????? ????????? ???????? ???? ?????????? ?????? ? 228ч232 °?
? ?????????????? ?????? ? 199ч202 °? ? ????????? ??????. ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? MY62 ?????? ???????? 0,5. ????? ????????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ??????????????? ? ???????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????
? ??????????? ? ??? ??????? ? ???? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????????? ????? ? ????
????????????? ??????????. ??? ??????????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ? ?????? ??????? (?????? ????? ? ?????????? ????????????), ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ? ???????? ???????. ?????? ??????? ????????????????? ????????? ?????? ? ?????? ???????, ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????? ? ????????????????? ??????, ????? ???? ????? ????????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ????????, ??????? ????? ???? ???????? ? ?????????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????? ????????????? ????? ??????. ? ?????? ?????? ????? ???? ???????? ???????????????? ????????? ???????????????? ????? ?????????????? ?????? (????????? ???????), ? ???? ???????? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ??????:
?2T/?r2 + 1/r(?T/?r) + 1/r2(?2T/??2) + ?2T/?z2 = 0,
77
ISSN 2073-1574. Вестник АГТУ. Сер.: Морская техника и технология. 2015. ? 1
??? ? ???? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?? 4-? ???????, ? ??????????? ????????? ???????????
?? ????????, ??? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ? ????????? ??????? ? ??????????????? ????????????? [5]:
?2T/?r2 +1/r(?T/?r) + ?2T/?z2 = 0,
??? ? ? ???????????, ? (°?); r, z, ? ? ???????????? ??? ?? ???????, ??? ? ???? ???????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ??????.
?? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????? ????? ????? ?????????? ?????
? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????, ?????????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????????.
???????? ???????? ? ????????????????? ??????
????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ???????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ? ???????
?????????? (?? ??? ? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????, ????? ????????????? ?? ?????????????? ???????????? ????? ? ?????? ?????????) (??. ???. 2). ????????
???????? ????? ???? ???????? ????? ?????????? ???????????, ?????????? ? [6]. ???? ???
? ???, ??? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ???????????????? ???????
(???. 5), ??????? ????, ??? ??? ??????? ? [7].
1
Ш 35
???. 5. ????? ???????? ?????? ????????:
1 ? ???????????????? ?????
?????? ??????????????? ? ??????????????? ?????, ??????????? ? ???????? ? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????, ????????? ????????????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ??????? ??????. ?????????? ???????, ?????????? ??????? ?????, ??????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ????????. ?? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ? ??????????
??????? (?????????, ?????????? ??? ?????????? ??????) ??? ???????? ? ?????????? ????????? (?????????, ?????????? ??? ???????????? ??????). ???? ??????? ?????????, ?? ????
?? ????????? ???????????? ?????? (dV = 0), ?? ????? ???????, ??? ??? ?????????? ??????? ????
?? ????????? ???????: ?Q = dU. ?? ???. 6 ??????? ????????????? ????????????????? ??????????????? ???? ?????????? ????????? (???? ????????? ? ??????) ? ??????????? ? ? V ? T ? S.
?? ???? ????? ???????? ???????? ???? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????.
? ???? ????? ? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ???? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ??
??????? (V ? const) ? ??????? 2?3, ??? ???? ??? ?????????? ??????? ???? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ?Q = dU. ?? ????????? ???????, ? ????? ? ??????? ???????? ?????? ? ??????????????? ??????????? ?????? V, ??????? ??????? ??????? ????????????, ?? ??? ?? ??????? (? ? const) ?? ??????? 3?4.
78
Судовые энергетические установки и машинно-движительные комплексы
q1
p
3
q1
4
q1
q1
2
4
3
5
q?
2
5
q2
q2
1
1
V
S
???. 6. ????????????? ????????????????? ???? ????????? ? ??????
???? ??????? ????????? (? ? const), ?? ????????????? ??????????? dQ = dU + ?dV ?????
?????????? ??? ????????????
dQ = d(U + pV)
????????? ???????
H = U + pV,
???????, ?? ??????????? ??????, ???????? ????????????????, ? ? ????????????? ??????????
??????????. ?? ?????????? ????? ? ???, ??? ??? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????
(???????????????) ????? ?????????? ???????, ??????????? ????? ? (?Q)V, S = dH, ? ????:
? ?? ????????? ?????????? ??????? dU (????? ????????? ??????????? ????);
? ?? ?????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?dV (????? ????????? ??????).
?????? ???????????? ????????? ??? ????????????? ???????? ????? ????? ???
dH = dU + (?dV + Vd?) = TdS ? ?dV + ?dV + Vd? = TdS + Vd?.
?????? ???????, ??? ??? ????????, ??????????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ? ? ????????
S, ?????????? ?????????? ??????? dH ? ?????? ????????????. ?????????????, ???? ???????
? (?????????) ? ??????? ????????????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ? S. ?????
??? ?????????? ????????????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ???????? ???? ? ??? ?????????? ? ? S ?? ???? ?????????? ?????? V
(?? ???? ?????????? ???? ??????) ? ????????? ??????????? ???? ?.
????, ???? ???????????, ??? ??? ????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ????????
??????, ? ????????? ?????????? ?????????, ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ???? (?? ???? ????????? ???????????) ? ?????????? ?????? (?? ???? ?????????? ??????).
?????????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????????? ?????????, ??? ??????? ???????????
?????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ????????? ?????????, ????? ????????? ? ?????????????
?. ?. ? ?????????? ???? ?????? [8, 9].
?????? ????? ??? ???????? ???????? ????????? ????????????????? ????????????? ??????, ???? ?? ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????? ??? ???????? ??????? ????????? ? tz ??? ?z (єC ??? ?). ?????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????? ???? ?? ??????? ???? ?????????? ??? ??????????????? ?, ?????????????, ?????????????????.
?????? ???????????? ????????? ? ?????? ???????? ??????????, ?????????? ?? ?????? ????????? ?????? 4?? 9,5/11, ???????????? ?? ???. 3 ? 7 ??????????????. ????????????
????????? ???????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ??
?. ?. ???????? [10] ???? ?? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ???? ?????????? ? ??????????:
pV = GRT,
(1)
??? ? ? ????????, ???; V ? ?????, ?3; R ? ????????????? ??????? ??????????, ??/(???? · ?);
? ? ???????????, ?.
79
ISSN 2073-1574. Вестник АГТУ. Сер.: Морская техника и технология. 2015. ? 1
T, K
V, ?
???. 7. ?????? ?????????????? ??????????
????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ???? (????) ?? ????, K, ????? ?????????? ??
???????
??? = ??(V)dV,
????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ???? ?? ????, K, ??????????? ???
?i = ???/Vh, ?,
??? Vh ? ??????? ????? ????????, ?3.
?????????, ??? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ????? ? ??? ???????? ??????????
??????????? ???????? ????, ???????????? ??? ??????????????? (?????????), ? ?????????????,
????????????????? ? ??????? ????? ?????. ?????????? ?i ????? ??????????? ??? ??????
??????????????, ??????? ???????? ????? ??????? ????????? ????????????? ??????,
? ????????? ????? ???? ??????. ? ???? ?????? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ??
???? ???, K · ?3, ????? ????? ????????????
??? = ?i Vh,
?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ? · ?3. ??? ????? ?? ????????? (1) ???????
???????????? ??? ????????????, ? ?????? V?. ???????:
VT = GRT 2/p.
??????????? ??????? ????????? ????? ?? · ? · ?2/? ??? ?? · ?/??.
???????? ??????????? ??? ?? Vh , ??????? ?.
????? ???????, ????????????????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ???? ? ????????
?????????, ?????? ??????? ??????????? ???? ?? ???? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????
??????? ??????????? ????????????????? ???? ?, ??? ?????????, ?????????????? ???????????
????????? ????????????? ?????? ?????? ? ??????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????.
? ???? ????? ????????????? ?????????? ??? ? ?i ????? ????????? ????? ???????? ? ?z ? ?i,
??????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ???? ? ?? ???? ??????????? ???????
??????? ??????????? ????? ????????????????? ????.
??????????
??????? ????? ???????????????, ????? ???????, ??? ?????? ???????????? ??????????
??????????? ???????? ??????????? ? ????????????????, ? ????? ? ? ?????????? ?????????
? ????????????? ??????? ?????? ???? ???????? ????????????????, ???????????????? ? ??????80
Судовые энергетические установки и машинно-движительные комплексы
????????-?????????????? ?????. ??????????? ?????? ??????? ????? ????? ????????? ? ???????? ????????????????? ????????????, ??????????? ?????????????? ? ???????? ????????????
???????????? ? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ??????.
?????? ??????????
1. ???????? ??????? ? ????????? ?????????. ?????????: ?????????????, 1995. 16 ?.
2. ?????? ? 8,5/11 ? ? 9,5/11. ??????????? ? ??????????? ?? ????????????. ?.: ?????????????,
1990. 230 ?.
3. ?????????? ?. ?. ????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ???????. ?.: ????????????, 1980. 224 ?.
4. ??????? ?. ?. ????????????? ????????? ??? ??????? ????????????? ??????? / ?. ?. ???????,
?. ?. ???????? // ?????????????????. 1986. ? 11. ?. 51?52.
5. ???????? ?. ?. ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? / ?. ?. ????????,
?. ?. ??????? // ?????. ????????. ???. ????. ??-??. ???.: ??????? ??????? ? ??????????. 2013. ? 2.
?. 143?148.
6. ???????? ?. ?. ????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????? ????????????? / ?. ?. ???????? // ?????. ????????. ???. ????. ??-??. ???.: ???????
??????? ? ??????????. 2014. ? 4. ?. 39?47.
7. ?. ?. ???? ? 1638341 ?? 11.04.89. ??. F02F1/24. ??????? ????????? ????????? ???????????
???????? / ??????? ?. ?. ?? ? 12, 30.03.91.
8. ????? ?. ?. ??????? ??????? ?????????????? / ?. ?. ?????, ?. ?. ????? // ????????? ???????????????, ?????? ?????????????? ?????. ?.: ??????????????, 2005. 512 ?.
9. ????????? ?. ?. ??????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? / ?. ?. ?????????, ?. ?. ?????. ?.:
????????, 2008. ?. 1. 283 ?.
10. ???????? ?. ?. ??????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? / ?. ?. ????????. ?.: ????????????,
1977. 392 ?.
?????? ????????? ? ???????? 14.01.15
ИНФОРМАЦИЯ ОБ АВТОРАХ
Матвеев Юрий Иванович ? Россия, 414014, Астрахань; Каспийский институт морского
и речного транспорта, филиал Волжской академии водного транспорта; д-р техн. наук,
профессор, зав. кафедрой «Эксплуатация судовых энергетических установок»;
eseu665@aqua.sci-nnov.ru.
Дорохов Павел Александрович ? Россия, 414056, Астрахань; Астраханский государственный технический университет; младший научный сотрудник лаборатории проблем
моторной энергетики; drkhv.pavel@rambler.ru.
Пахомова Надежда Владимировна ? Россия, 414014, Астрахань; Каспийский институт морского и речного транспорта, филиал Волжской академии водного транспорта;
начальник Управления конвенционной подготовки и повышения квалификации;
nb.13@mail.ru.
Алексеев Виктор Валерьевич ? Россия, 414014, Астрахань; Каспийский институт
морского и речного транспорта, филиал Волжской академии водного транспорта; зав.
судомеханическим отделением; vktr3@list.ru.
81
ISSN 2073-1574. Вестник АГТУ. Сер.: Морская техника и технология. 2015. ? 1
Yu. I. Matveev, P. A. Dorokhov, N. V. Pakhomova, V. V. Alekseev
MODERNIZATION OF MARINE SMALL-SIZE DIESEL ENGINES
USING DESIGN-ENGINEERING METHODS
WHILE THEIR POWER BOOSTING
Abstract. Manufacturers of internal combustion engines, regardless of their final operational
purposes, always face a triune task ? to provide energy efficiency, fuel efficiency and environmental safety. As an example, the paper considers the issue of modernization of marine small-size
diesels of types ? 8,5/11 and ? 9,5/11 by forcing the average effective pressure by equipping them
with a system of gas turbine boost. These engines are among the most archaic types of vehicles
in the Russian diesel engineering in the terms of the underlying operational performance, which is
the basis of the abovementioned triad. However, these motors (2-, 4- and 6-cylinder performance)
and energy complexes on their basis are rather widely used in the Navy and industry as the main
engines of boats, as an auxiliary in the marine diesel generators and a variety of combined aggregates, as well as industrial diesel generators and diesel electric units. The paper discusses the methods and the results of experimental studies of the main operational performance of marine diesel
engine of type ? 9,5/11 at its forcing with gas-turbine boost. A set of external parameters of the engine at moderate boost is defined. The comparative temperature ranges of the cylinder sleeve and
the indicator diagram of the forced and derated engines are fixed. The basics of mathematical modeling of heat transfer through the body of the working cylinder are given. The paper studies the
possibilities for improving the starting qualities of swirl-chamber diesel by screening the volume
of the swirl chamber by means of increasing the thermal resistance of heat transfer. The enthalpy as
a thermodynamic potential, as well as the enthalpy of the working fluid, determining a latent energy, which reveals the possibility of conversion of internal energy into heat and then into the
work, in conditions of a piston engine are considered.
Key words: marine diesel, swirl-chamber mixing, gas-turbine boosting, indicator diagram,
thermometering of cylinder, starting parameters, thermodynamic analysis.
REFERENCES
1. Prospekt dizelei i dizel'nykh agregatov [Design of the diesels and diesel aggregates]. Makhachkala,
Dagknigoizdat, 1995. 16 p.
2. Dizeli Ch 8,5/11 i Ch 9,5/11. Konstruktsiia i rukovodstvo po ekspluatatsii [Diesels Ch 8,5/11 and
Ch 9,5/11. Structure and guideline on exploitation]. Moscow, Vneshtorgizdat, 1990. 230 p.
3. Alivagabov M. M. Dvigateli spasatel'nykh shliupok i katerov [Diesel engines of emergency boats].
Leningrad, Sudostroenie Publ., 1980. 224 p.
4. Dorokhov A. F., Bochkarev V. N. Temperaturnoe sostoianie TsPG sudovykh malorazmernykh dizelei [Thermal conditions of the cylinder-piston marine small-size diesels engines]. Dvigatelestroenie, 1986, no. 11, pp. 51?52.
5. Pakhomova N. V., Dorokhov A. F. Odnokonturnaia sistema okhlazhdeniia sudovykh dizelei [Direct
cycle cooling system of the diesel engines]. Vestnik Astrakhanskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta. Seriia: Morskaia tekhnika i tekhnologiia. 2013, no. 2, pp. 143?148.
6. Alekseev V. V. Uluchshenie puskovykh kachestv vikhrekamernogo dizelia putem uvelicheniia termicheskogo soprotivleniia teploperedache [Improvement of the starting parameters of the swirl-chamber diesel
by means of increasing thermal resistance to heat transfer]. Vestnik Astrakhanskogo gosudarstvennogo
tekhnicheskogo universiteta. Seriia: Morskaia tekhnika i tekhnologiia, 2014, no. 4, pp. 39?47.
7. Avtorskoe svidetel'stvo SSSR ? 1638341 ot 11.04.89. Kl. F02F 1/24. Golovka tsilindrov dvigatelia
vnutrennego sgoraniia [Authorized certificate of the USSR ? 1638341 dated 11.04.89. Kl. F02F 1/24. Internal
combustion engine cylinder head]. Dorokhov A. F. BI ? 12, 30.03.91.
8. Konks G. A., Lashko V. A. Mirovoe sudovoe dizelestroenie [World marine diesel engineering]. Kontseptsii konstruirovaniia, analiz mezhdunarodnogo opyta. Moscow, Mashinostroenie Publ., 2005. 512 p.
9. Voznitskii I. V., Punda A. S. Sudovye dvigateli vnutrennego sgoraniia [Marine internal combustion
engines]. Moscow, MORKNIGA Publ., 2008. 283 p.
10. Vansheidt V. A. Sudovye dvigateli vnutrennego sgoraniia [Marine internal combustion engines]. Leningrad, Sudostroenie Publ., 1977. 392 p.
The article submitted to the editors 14.01.15
82
Судовые энергетические установки и машинно-движительные комплексы
INFORMATION ABOUT THE AUTHORS
Matveev Yury Ivanovich ? Russia, 414014, Astrakhan; Caspian Institute of Sea and River
Transport, Branch of Volga Academy of Water Transport; Doctor of Technical Science; Professor; Head of the Department "Operation of Ship Power Plants"; eseu665@aqua.sci-nnov.ru.
Dorokhov Pavel Aleksandrovich ? Russia, 414056, Astrakhan; Astrakhan State Technical University; Junior Research Assistant of the Laboratory of Motor Power Engineering;
drkhv.pavel@rambler.ru.
Pakhomova Nadezhda Vladimirovna ? Russia, 414014, Astrakhan; Caspian Institute
of Sea and River Transport, Branch of Volga Academy of Water Transport; Head of the Department of Conventional Training and Professional Development; nb.13@mail.ru.
Alekseev Viktor Valerievich ? Russia, 414014, Astrakhan; Caspian Institute of Sea and
River Transport, Branch of the Volga Academy of Water Transport; Head of the Marine Engineering Department; vktr3@list.ru.
83
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