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2014
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???. 15
???. 2
????????????????? ????????????
??? 7.03+7.04
?. ?. ?????????
??????? ??? ????????????????? ?????
?а?????????? ??????? ?а????
?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????,
?????????? ?????????, 199034, ?????-?????????, ??????????????? ???., 7/9
? ?????? ????????, ??? ????? ?????? ?а????? ???? ?а????? ?????????? ???? ?????????????
???????????? ?а??????? ??? ??????? ???? ?????????? ????????????, ???????? ???????????
?????????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????. ?????? ?а???? ???????? ??????? ??? ????????????????? ?????. ?? ?а??????? ?? ??????? ???? л??????? ????????╗ (??????? ?а?????? ??????? ?????? ????????), ?????? ???????, ???????????????? ?а?????? ?а?????????? ???????,
?? ???????????? ?а??????? ????????????? ?а????????????? ???????? ?????. ????? ??????, ??
?? ??????? ?а???????? л????? ?????? (le lieu de mщmoire)╗, ??????? ???? ???? ???????????????
????? (???? ??? ?????????, ?????????, ???????, ??????, ????, ???????), ????????????? ?а????
???????????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ?а??????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ????????????? ????????, ??????? ????????????? ??????????, ?????? л?????????? ??????? ?а?????????╗.
?а??? ??????? ???? ????? ???????, ??? ??? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??? ????????????????? ?????, ??а?а??? ????? ??????. ????????. 16а????. ??.а2.
???????? ?????: ????, ??????, ???????, ??????? ????????, ????????????????? ?????, ????? ??????.
THE TOWN SQUARE AS A SOCIO-POLITICAL TOPOS IN WORKS OF
BAUDELAIRE AND DEGAS
M. ?. Chernysheva
St.Petersburg State University, 7/9, Universitetskaya nab., St.Petersburg, 199034, Russian Federation
The article aims to show that Charles Baudelaire and Edgar Degas were notably receptive to the square
as a special urban space which tends to strengthen civic consciousness of individuals. Baudelaire and
Degas treat a town square as a socio-political topos. But unlike Degas?s painting ?Place de la Concorde?
(to which a particular attention is paid in the article), motives of squares in Baudelaire?s poems and essays do not form a reflection of modernity?s collective historical consciousness. In other words, they are
not associated with the concept of ?place of memory (le lieu de mщmoire)?. Using this notion Pierre Nora
described the places (be it monuments, terrains, events, texts and ideas) that attract collective cultural
memory of the nation and belong more to historical present then to historical past as ?the points of
managing the past in the present?. And we can say about Degas?s painting that it represents the square of
Concorde not only as a socio-political topos but also as a place of memory. Refsа8. Figsа2.
Keywords: Degas, Baudelaire, the town square, Place de la Concorde, socio-political topos, place
of memory.
197
? ?????? ????? ??????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ???????, ?????? ?????????? ??????? ????????а? ??? ?????? ??а????????????? л??????╗:
л???, ?а??????? ?????? ???????, ?????
???????? ?, ???????? ?????? ?? ?????.
??? ??, ?????? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ?а????!
?????????? ????? ???????, ??? ??????.
?????? ?????? ?????? ????? ???????:
??? ??????? ?? ????????? ?????? ?????,
?????, ?????, ?? ????а? ??????? ????,
????? ????, ????????? ??????? ??????╗ [1, ?. 144].
???????????? ??????? ???????? ????? ?????? ?а??????? ???????, ??????????? ?а????????????? ???????????, ?а????? ????????? ???????, ???????????? ???
????????? ???? ?????????? ???????????? ????, ????????????? ??????? ??????
??????????, ?? ?????? ???????? ?а?????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????????
????????, л????????╗ ?ал????????╗ ?а???????????? ?а???????? ????????? ?а??????? ?а?????????????? ???????????.
????? ???? ???????????????? ???????? ??? ??????? ??? ????????? III ????????? ???????????? ???? ??????? ???????, ??????? ?а1853а???? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????, ?????? ??? ???????????? ?? ??????,
?????????????? ????????? ?а???????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ????? ?а?????? ??????? ??????? ??????????????? ?????????? ?а?????.
? ????????????? л??????╗, ??????????? ??????? ????, ?????????? ??????
??????? ?????? ????? ????????? ??????????, ?????? ?а??????? ?????????? ?а?????? ???????? ?а???????? ?а???, ??? ??????? ??????????, ??? ??? ????????, ?. ? ???????????? ?а ?????????? ???????. ??????? ?????? ??? ????? ???????1. ?а ???? ????????? ?а????????????? ?????? ?а???????, ??????????? ??а??????, ??????? л????????????? ?????? ????? ????? ????????╗ ?а????????? ?? ????? ????? ????????
?????, ????????? ?а???????? ??????? ????????, ??????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ??? ????????? ????, ?????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ?????, ?а??????? ??????
?а????????? ????????? ???????.
????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?а ?????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ???????, ?а????????а? ????????????? ??????????? ?а??????????. ?? ???????? ???????? ?а???????????????. ?????? ??????, ??? ??????? ???????? ????????????
???????, ??? ?? ??????????? ?? ????????????? ???, ??????????? ?а????????????
?????. ?????? ???? ????????????? ????? ????????? ????????? ???????, ?????? ??
?? ???????????? ??????.
???????????? ?а????? ???????, ?????????? ???????????? ?а?????????? ???????????? ?????????, ?????????? ?а???? ??????? л?а????????? ??????????? ??????????????╗ (1857). ?????? ????????? ??????? ????? ?????, ???????????? ?????
?а?????? ???????? ?????? 1832а????: л???????????? ????? ????? ????? ?? ???? ????????? ????, ????????? ?????????? ??????? ?а?? ????????? ????????, ?а?? ??1
? ?????? ?????????? ????????????? л??????╗ 1860а???? ???? ??? ?алce vaste Carrousel╗, ?а??????? 1861а???? ??? ?????????????? ???? ???????? ?? ????????????? ???????а? лLe nouveau Carrousel╗ [2, ?. 1403]. лVaste╗ ????? ?????????? ?а??? л???????╗, л??????????╗, ?а??? л??????╗ (???????).
198
?????????? ?????. ????? ?????? ?а?????? ????. ?а?????? ????, ??????? ?????, ???????? ????. ??????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ????, ????????? ???? ??? ?а???.
????????? ?а ??????? ????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ????????, ??? ??????
????????? ???????, ???????????? ?а??????????? ????? ????????? ?????╗ [3, ?. 163].
????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ?а????????????? л????????? ????╗ (1843),
??????? ???????? ?а?????? ???????? ????????? ???????, ???? ??? ????????? ???????????.
л???? ?а???????, ??а??? ?? ??????? ??????;
???? ?? ?? ?????? ??????.
?????? ?????, ????? ???? ??,
??????????, ?а??? ????????? ?????.
???????? ????? ???????? ??? ??????? ????????? ?????,
??? ?????? ?????,
????? ??а??????? ?????????????? ????
????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????.
??????? ??????, ???????????? ???? ?а??????????? ???????????
??????, ????, ????? ????????;
? ?????? ??? ??????? ?? ???????????? ?????,
????? ???????? ???? ?а???????? ????????,
? ?????????? ????? ?а????? ????????.
???? ???????????? ?? ????????? ????????,
?????? ???? ????? ??????, ??????? ?а????????,
?????, ???????? ?а??????????.
?????? ????? ?а???? ?????:
?????? ??????? ??????? ?????????.
????? ?? ???? ?а????? ????????????? ???????,
???? ??? ?????, ??? ???????? ???? ?????,
????????, ?????? ?? ??? ???? ???????????? ??????;
???????? ?????????? ??????? ?????, ?????? ???????,
???-??? ??????? ????? ????,
?????? ?а????? ???????? ?? ?????.
????? ????? ????? ?а??? ??????;
????? ??????????? ???????? ?а????;
????? ???? ?????????? ????;
????? ?? ???? ????????? ???????
??????? ????? ??? ???????? ?а???????? ??????.
??????????, ??? ???????: ?а???? ????? ???? ???? ??????!╗ [2, ?. 46]2.
????? ???? ??????? ????? ?а??????? ?????. ?а?????? ??????а? ??? ??????????
??????, ?????? ??????, ?????, ?????? (??????? ????????), ????? (???? ???), ????,
????????? ????? ???????? (?????), ????????? ?а ????? (??????? ??????, ???????),
?????? ??????? ?????, ??????????????, ??а ?а ????????? ?????????????? ????????
?? ?????? ??????, ????, ?????. ?? ?????? ??????а? ??? ???????, ??????? ?а???????,
?????, ?????????????? ??????, ????????? ?? ?????? ?????, ??????? (????? ?а??????, ??????????? ????), ??????????? (???????? ??????). ???? ??????? ????? ???2
?????? ?? ????????????? л????????? ????╗ ?????????? ?а???????? ?????? ??????.
199
???????? ?а????? ???????. ?????? ??????? ?????, ??????, ????? ?????????????
????????????? ?а??????????, ??? ??????? ?????, ??????? ?????????.
?????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ???????а? ?????????? ????????? ?а?????, ???? ??? ?????? ????????? ?????, ??? ?а??????? ??а???? л?а?????????
??????????? ??????????????╗, ??? ?????????????? ??????, ??? ?а?????????????
л????????? ????╗. ?? ?????? ?а?????? ????? ??????? ????????? ??? ???????????
???????????? ?а?????, ?а?? ??? ?????????? ???????, ???????????? ?а????????????,
?а??????????????????. ????? ?? ?а?????? ???????а? ??? ???????? ??? ???????? ???,
?? ??????? ????, ??? ???????????????.
????????? ????????? ?????? ??а??????? ??????? л??????? ????╗, ?????????????? ??а ???????? ?? л??????? ?????╗ ?а ????????????? ???????, ????? ?? ??????
?а???? л???? ??????????? ?????╗ (1863). ??? ???а? ?????????? ??????????? ?????,
??,а? ??? ???????????? ??????? ????????,а? ?????????? ????????????? ??????
?????????????? ??????. ???????? ??????? ????? ?а?????? ?????? ???? л??? ?а??????????? ????╗, ?. ?. ??????????? ??? ?????? ?а?????????? ?? ???, л?? ?? ???? ??
????????? ?? ???????, ???? ???? ?? ???????????? ??? ?? ????╗ [4, c. 99, 200]3. ???????? ?? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ???? ?, ????? ??????????? ??? ??????????
????? ?????, ??????????? ?а ?????, ?????????? ?? ???????. ????? ?а ????????????
??????.
?????? ?????????????? ??????? ????????????? ?????? ????????????????
????????? ?????. ????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?а ??????????? ???? ?? ??????
??????, ??? ????? ?а??????, ??а?а??????, ??? ??????? ?? ???????. ???????а? ???????????? ?????????, ??????????????, л???????╗ ????????????, ????? ?? ??? ?????????? ????????????? ?а??????????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????. ????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ??
??? ??????????? ?а??????????? ????? ????????? ????????? ????? ????????? (???
????????????? ????) ??? ????????. ????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????: ???,
??? ?а ????????? ??, ????? ?а ??????????? ????? ???????, ?а ????????? ?????????
?а????????, ???????, ?????????? ????? ????.
???????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????????????? ?а?????????? ??????? ?????,
??а?а???????????? ?? ???????????? ?а??? ???????, ??????? ????? ?? ?????????? ???
????????????? ???????. ???? л?????????╗ ?ал???????╗ ?а?????? ?? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ???????. ??? ??????????? ??????? ?????????4а? ??? ??????????
????????, ?????????? ????? ????????????, ?? ????????????? ?? ????????. ??????? ????????????? ??????? ????? ??????????? ???????????????? ???????, ???????? ?? ????????? ?????????????, ??? ??? ????????????, ??? ?а??? ??????????????
?????? ?а?????????? ???????. ??????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????, ????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ????????????? ?а ????? ???????????: ????????????, ?????????, ???????????.
?? ??????? л??????? ????????╗ ????? ???? ?????????? ?????? ????? ????????-????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ???????????????, ??????? ?? ????????? ???? ??3
????? ??а??????? ??????? ?а???? ?? ???????, ??????? л??-?? ??????? ??????? ??????????
??????? ???????????? ???╗ [5, ?. 359].
4 ???????? ?????, ??? ?????????а? ??????? ????? ??????? ???????. л????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ???? ???????? ??????, ?? ???????? ????? ????????????? ????????????, ????????? ?????
????? ?????, ?а??????????? ?а??????╗ [4, ?. 167].
200
???. 1. ???? ?. ??????? ???????? (??????? ???????
?????? ?а ????????). 1876. ??????????????? ???????,
?????-?????????. (??????? ??????????????? ?а ?????????? ???????????????? ????????)
?????? ?? ??? ????????, ?? ?? ????? ?????????????? ?а????? ?????????? ?а???????????? ?????? (???.а1). ????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?а?????? ???????? ??, ???????? ????????? ?? ??? ??????? ????????? ??? ????????.
?????????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ?а ?????? ?????
?????????? ?? ?а??????? ????????? ??, ?. ?. ????????, ??????? ??? ?? ?????????
??????? ?? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ??????, ?? ????????? ?а???????????,
?? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ???????????????, ??????? ??????, ????????????? ?? ??????????, ??а?????????? ????????? ?а????????????? ??????? ??????.
???? ????????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ??????????????? ?а???, ??? ?? ?????????
???????? ????????? ???????????, ?а?????????????, ?а???????? (л??????? ????????╗а? ??????? ?????????? ?а??? ??????????), ?а???, ??? ???????? ??????????????
?????? ?? ????? ?а ??????? ?????????. ???? ??????????? ????????????? ????????
?а?????????, ??????? ??? ???? ??????? ?????????? ?а???????????? ???????????,
????????? ????????????? ???????????? ????, ??? ?????.
??????? ???????? ?а?????? ???????????????? ??????????? ?????, ???? ?а??????? ???????? ??? ?????. ?? ??????? ???? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ????.
?а????? ??????а? ??? ????????? ?????? ?а????????а? ????????????? ?а????????
???????????, ?????????? ??? ?? ?????, ??? ?? ?????. ?а??????? ?? ????, ??? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ?????, ????? ??????? ???????? ????????, ????????? ???
?????.
? л??????? ????????╗ ????????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ??????????
???????, ???????, ????? ?????????? ?????? ????????, ?????????????? ???????
????????? ?????????? ?????????, ?а?????????????, ?а??????? ?? ?????????, ????????? ?? ???? ???????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????. ???????
?????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?а ???????? ?????????? ????????,
??а? ?а???????? ???????? ????? ?????, ???????????? ???? ??????????? ???????????
??????? ?а????????.
201
? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ???????, ??????? ?а????? ???????, ??? ??????? ????????, ???????? ?? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ?а??????? ?? ?а?? ???????????? ????????.
????????????? ????? ?????? ?????? ???????? XIX ????, ??????????? ?????????????? ??????, ??????? ?? ????????? ?????, ?????????? ??????? л???????????а?
????????а? ???????????????╗, ?а???????? ?????, ?? ??????? ???????????????? ??????
л????????????а? ???????а? ?????????╗ [6]. ??????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ??????? л?????????╗ ??????. ?а????? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ?? ??? ???? ???????, ?????? ???????, ??????? ???????? ?а ?????????????? ???????????? ?????
?? ???, ?????, ? ?а???????????????а? ?? ??? ?????????? ????? ?а??????? ??????
?а?????? ???????????? ?????, ??????? ?????? ????????? ?? ??????? ?????????.
??????? ???????? ???????? ?а???????? XVIII ???? ??? ??????? ???????? XV
?а ???????????? ?а ???? ??????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?а ??????. ????
??? ??????? ??? ??????????? ?а ?????? ??????? ??????? ?а????? ?????????????
??????????. ?????? ?????????? ?????? ???-??? ???????? ??????? ?? ?? ???????, ??????????????? ????, ???????? ?а????????????????? ?????, ?а???????????
?а??????????. ????????? ???? ???????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???????? XV.
?? ????? ????????? ???? ???????? ??? ????????? ?????? ??? ????, ????? ?????????? ????? ??? ????????? ???????? XVI, ????? ??????????. ????? ?? ?? ???????
???? ??????????????? ?а?????? ????????????? ??????? ?????? ? ?а?? ????? ???????
???? ????, ????-????? ????, ???????? ?????? ?а?????? ??????? ???????? ???? ??????. ?????????? ???? ??????????, ??? ????-???? ??????????? ?????????? ???????
????????. л?? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ????, ?????? ?? ?? ?????? ?????, ???
???? ??????????? ?????????╗ [7, c. 281].
??? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ?а????? ????? ????????? ?а????????????? ?а ??????? ????????а ? ?????????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????
??.а????????? ?а?????? ?????? ????????? ?? ??? ?? ??? ?? ??????????????? ?????? ????. ????? ??????? ???????? ????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??? ????????? ???????????а? ????? ??????????????? ??????.
?? ??????? ????????? ???? ??????????? ????? ???????? ???? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ???? ????????????? ?а????????????????? ???????
???????: ??????? ?????????, ??????? ????????, ??????? ???????? XV, ???????
???????? XVI, ??????? ?????????? ????, ???????, ?а????? 1830а???? ????? ?а???????????? ??????? ????????. ?????? ????? ????? ?а?????? ??????? ??? ??????????
??????????? ??а ??????? ???????, ?? ????? ???????? ?? ???? ????????? ??????
??? ?а ?????? ?????, ?а ?? ????????? ???????а ? ?????????????? ?????? ??????
??????????? ??????? ?а????? ???а? ??????????, ??????? ???????. ?? ?????? ?????
?????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ????????, ???, ????? ??????????
??????? ?а ??????????? ??????????? ????????????, ???????? ???????? л???????
?????? ?? ?????????, ????? ???????? ???????╗ [8, c. 148, 151].
?? ???? ??????? ?? ??????, ??????? ????? ???????? ???? ?????? ?? ???????
????????. ??????? ?????? ?а??????????? ??? ???? ????????? ??????-???????? ????? 1870?1871а?????. ????? ????, ??? ???????? III ?????? ?а???????? ?а????????
???????? ??? ?????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ???????
?а????, ?а??????? ??????? ????????????? ?????? ???????? ???? ?а???????. ?????
??????? ??? ?????????? ????? ??????????, ?????, ?? ???????? ???????? ????. ????,
202
??? ?а?????? ??? ????????????????, ??????? ????????? ??????? ??????-????????
?????. ?? ????????? ?а?????????????? ??????; ????????? ???????????? ?а???????????? ???????; ?????????? ?????? ????? ??????, ??????? ?? ???????????? ???
???????????? ??????????5.
?? ??????? ???? ?????? ??????? ??????, ?????????????? ?а??????? ?????????
?а??????????? ?а???????? ?????, ???????? ?????? ??????????, ???????? ????????? ??????? ?а???? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????. ????????? ??? ????
???????? ?????? ?а 1870а ???? ?а ?? ???????? ??????? ???????? 1871а ???? ???????
?а??????? ??????? ?а?????????? ?а????????. ?????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ?????
??????-???????? ????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ?а?????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?а?????????????????? ???? ?????????.
???????????? ????????????? ???? ?а??????? ???????? ??????????????? ?а???,
??? ??? ????????? ?????????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ?? ?? ??????? ????????? ?????
??????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ???????? [9, ?. 202].
????? ?????????????? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??????
?????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ???? ???????. ????? ??а ??? ??????
?а1984а???? ???????????? ?а????? ????? ?????? ?????: л??????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ??????? ?????? ?а???????? ????????? ????╗ [10, c. 75, 117]. ???? ??????
?а ?????? ?? ???? ??????? ????????, ??? ???? ??????? ?а ????? ????? 1990а ???? [11]
?? ??? ????????? л??????? ????????╗ ????, ?? ?? ???????? ?????? ?а ??????????.
?????? ?? ????????? ??????? ??????: л? ??????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????????
?????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?? ????????? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ? ?????? ????????????╗ [7, c. 281]. ?а?????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????
?????????? ?а ????? ??????, ??????????? л??????? ????????╗: л? ??? ?? ?????
?????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????, ????????? ??????????, ?????
?а ?? ???????????, ??а ?????? ??????????? ????? ???????????????? ??????????╗
[12, c. 27]. ?????????? ????? ?а???? ?????? ????? ??? ???????? ???????????? ????????????, ????????? л??????? ????????╗ ??????????? ????????. ????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????????, ??????? ???????? ??????????? ???????
???? ?????? ?а????????-???????????? ??????? ?а????????? [9].
?? ??? ??????, ???????????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ???????? ?а ????????
????????-???????????? ?????????? л??????? ????????╗, ??????? ?????? ????
????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ??????? (???? ?? ???? ????? ?????????????
???????) ?????? ????? ??????, ??? ??? ???????????? ?? ?????? ?????????????
?а????? ???? ??????, ?????????? ????, ??а?а???? ?? ??????, ??????? ?????????????
?а???????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????.
????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ???????????-????????, ??????? ???? ?? ?? ??? ???????????? ????. ?а ??????????????
????????? ??????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?а ?????? ?а ?????????? ?????? ?????.
?а???? ?? ?????????? ???? ????????? ?а????? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ??????????, ??????? ???????????? ?а?????? ??????????? ????????? ?????, ?а???????? ??
????? ????. ??? ????? ?????? ???? ??????? ???? (????? ?? ???????)6а ? ?а ?????
5 ? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ???? ??????? ????? ?? ????????. ?а?????? 1870-? ????? ?? ?????
????? ?а????? ?а??????????? ????? [9, ?. 198].
6 ? ?????????? ?а???? ????? ????????? ???? ?????? ?? ??????? [13, c. 46; 12, c. 75?79]. ??????
???? ??????????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?ал??????? ????????╗ ?а???, ??? ??? ???????? ?? ???????-
203
?????????????? ????? ??? ???????-????? ?а????????? ??????? ?а1807-? ????, ???
?????????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?а??????? ??????? ????? ???????? ???????? ????? ?а????????? 1806а????. ??? ????? ???? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???????, ??? ??? ?а??? ????????? ?а????? ?а???????
?????? ??? ???????? ?????? ?????-??? ?????. ?? ??????, ??????????? ??? ?????,
???????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ????????, ?а???????????? ????????
??? ??????? ?????? ?а?????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ???????7. ??????? ????????? ?? ????????? ??????-??? ??????а? ??????? XVIII ?? ??????? ????? ???????? ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ?а1818а????. ?а1864а???? ?а????? ???????? ?????? ????
??????? ???? ??а????????? ????. ??? ??? ????? ???? ?????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ?а????????? ??????? ???????????? ????
?? ??????? ??????, ??????????? ?а???????? ???????? ??????????? ??????.
???? ???????? ??????, ???-????? ?????, ???? ???????, ??? ?????????? ????????? III ?а???????????????? ????????????? ???????, ?????????? ?а?????????
?? ?????????? ?а????????? ????? ?а???????. ?????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????
????????? ????????? ??????? ?????? 1871а????, ?а??? ????????? ????? ????????
???????? ?а????? ???????, ???????? ????? ????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???? ??
?????? ???????? ??????, ??? ?? ???? ?????? ?а???????? 1870-?, ????? ??????? ????
????????.
??????? ?????, ???????? ?а????????, ????????? ?? ??????? ???????, ??а?? ??????? ??????????????? ?????????? ????? ?????.
??????? ?????? ???????? ?? ??, ??? ??????? ?????а? ???????????, ?ал??????? ????????╗ ???. ?? ????????? ???????? ?а????? ???????????? ?????? ????????
????? ?? ????????? ?????????????? ??????. ???? ??????? ?????. ???? ??? ???????
?????? ????? ???????? ?а????????. ???????? ????? ?а??????? ????????????? ???
??????? ?а?????????? ???????, ??????? ???????? ??????????? ?а??????? ????? ????
????????? ??????? ???????. ????? ????, ????? ??????????? ????????? ? ?а??????, ?
?а??????? ??????. ??? ???????? ????????? ?а????? ??? ????????? ?????? ?а??????????? ?а??????, ??????? л??????╗ ????????? ????? ?? ?????????? ?????????????
???????, ?????? ??? ????, ????? ??????? ????? ?????. ???? ??????? ????? ????????????????? ???????????? ??????, ?? ??????????? ????????, ??? ????????????? ?????, ??? ????, ??????????? ?? ??????, ?????? ???????? ???????-??????? ?????????,
?? ??? ?а???? ?????? ????????? ????, ????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????
????????. ???????? ?????????? ?а?? ????? ?????????????? ??? ??????? ??????????????. ???, ???????? ????????????? ?а?????????? ??????? ????????, ??????? ?????? ???????? ???? ?а ??????????? ?? ??????? ???????????????? ?????? ?????
??????? ?????? ???????, ?а70-? ???? XIXа???? ?? ??? ?????????? ?а???????????????????? [9, ?. 204]. ??????? ?а??????, ?а??????-????????, ?а?????? ???? ???????
????, ?????????, ??? ???? ?. ??????????, ??????? ????? ???? ????? ?? ??????? [9, c. 204]. ??????
??? ??????? ?????? ??????: ????-???????-?????????. ?????? ????? ????? ????? ???? ???? ???????
?а????? ??????????? ???????, ??????? ????????? III, ?а????????? ???????, ?????? ??????????? ???????? ?а?????? ????????? III [9, c. 204]. ?а???????? ??????, ??? ????? ?а??? ?????? ?а???? ??.: [14].
7 ? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ??????? ????? ??? ?????? ?а ???? ????????
??????. ?????????? ????? ?????????????? ????????????? ????, ??? ??? ??????? ?????, ???????
????, ??? ?????? ?а??? ?? ????????? ???????, ??????? ?? ??? ????????? ????? ??????. ??????? ?????
?? ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????, ??????? ????????? ?? ????????? ?????, ????? ???? ?????????? ??? ????? ?? ??????? ??? ???? ?а???? [9, c. 204, 218].
204
?, ????????, ??????????? ????? [9, ?. 204?205]а? ????? ?????, ????????????? ????????????? ????????? ???????? ????????????, ?. ?. ??????????? ??????? ??????.
? ?????????? ???? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ?а????????? ?????, ?а???????, ?а????????????. ?????? ?????? ?????? ????, ????? ????????? ?? ????? ??????,
???????????? ?а??????????? ?????. ?? ?????? ????? ?????????? ?а??????????????? ???????????? ??????? ?а??????, ???????? ?????? ???? л????-??????╗, ??????
?а????? ????? ?????????, ??? ????? ?????? ??? ????????? ?а?????? ??????? ??. ????? л????-??????╗ ??????????? ?а?? ????? ?а?????? ??? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ???, ??????? ?а?????? ???????. ???, ??????? ???????????????
???????????? ?????? лLe Grelot╗ ?? 5а??? 1872а???? ??????? ???????? ?а?????????
????????? ???????-?????, ??????? ?а ????? ??????? ?а ?????????? (??? ??????
?а????? ??????? ?????????), ? ?а??????а? ?а???????? (??? ???????????? ???? ?а?????? ??????? ?????????) [9, ?. 208]. ??? ?а??????, ???? ?? ?????????? ????????????
??? ???????????? ??????????, ??????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ???????а? л????????╗.
?? ?? ??????????, ??? л??????? ????????╗ ???? ???????? ?а???? ???? ?????????? ???? ??????? ???? ????????-???????????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ?????????, ??????? ????? ???????? ??????? ??????. ?? ??? ??? ??????????, ??? ???
??????? ????????? ?а???? ????????, ??????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ?а????????
????? ????????????, ??? ?????????, ?????????, ?а????????? ???????????? ?а???
?????, ????? ?а ?????????? ???????? ?а ?????????? ???????, ????????, ????????,
?????.
???? ????????, ??? ?????? ??????? ????????, ????????? ??????? ??????????? ?а????????? ????? XIX ???? ????? ??????-???????? ?????, ?? ???????? ????
????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????. ?а?? ????? ?????? ?????????????, ??????
?????????????? ??????? ????? ???? л??????? ????????, ????╗ (1882?1883. ?????
??????????, ???-????) ????? ??????? ??????? ????? ??? ?????? л?????? ?а??????
?????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ????? ??????╗ (1872. ??????????????? ??????????)8, ???????????? ?а?????? 1872а????; ??????? ???????? ?? ???????
л??????? ???????? ?а????????? ????╗ (1875. ??????????????? ??????????), ?????
?????????? ???? ?????? ??????? ????; ??? ??????? ?????????? ?????? л???????
????????, ??? ?а??????? ???????╗ (????? ?????????, ?????) ?ал??????? ????????╗ (??. 1878. ??????? ????????); ??????? ????-??? ?????? л??????? ????????╗
(1884. ??????? ????????). ??а???? ???? ????? ?????? ?а?????? ?????????? ??? ????
???????, ??? ????????? ?????? ??????????; ??? ???? ???????? ????? ??????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?????. ??? ??? ???????????? ??????? ???? ??????? ????????
??????? ?????? ????????, ??? ??????? ????. ??????? ???????????? ?а??? ??????
????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????. ?????? ?а????? (?? ???????
л??????? ????????, ??? ?а??????? ???????╗) ??????? ????? ????? ????????????
???????????, ??????????? ???????? ??????? (? ???????а? ??? ????????? ?????,
?а??????а? ???????? ??????). ??????????? ??????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?а?????????? ?а???????????? ????????? ???????????. ??????, ?? ??????? ?????? л???????
????????╗ (??. ???.а 2) ????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????????, ???????????? ?а????????? ???????? 1878а????, ?????? ?а?????? ????? ??????-???????? ??8 ??? ??????????, ??? ?а?????? ???????, ????? ?? ??? ?а??????????????? ???????????????.
?а??????? л??????? ????????╗ ???? ?? ??????? ?????????? [9, ?. 212?213].
205
???. 2. ?????а?. ??????? ????????. ??. 1878. ??????? ????????
???. ??? ???????? ????? ???????????? ????????, ??? ?????? ?а??????? ????????
?а????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????. ???????? ?? ??????? ?а????????
????????????. ?? ?????????, ???????, ???????????, ??? ?????? ?????? ?????????,
??????????????? ?а?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ????? ?а?????????? ?? ???????? ???????, ?????? ?а???????????? ?????? ???????????
?а ????????????? ????????? ???????, ???????? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ?а ?????9.
?????? ?????? ?????????, ?? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ?а????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????, ??а?? ???????????????? ???. ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ????????? ??????? ?а?????????, ??????? ??????? ??????? ????, ??? ???????? ?а???????
???????????? ?????? ?а??????? ?????????? ????????, ?????????? ?а??????????.
?? ???? ?? ??????????? ?а?????, ??, ??? ?? ?????, ??????? ?????????????????? ?????? ????????????? л??????? ????????╗ ???? ????? ?а ???????? ?? ??????
??????, ????????? ??? ???????????. ???, ????????, л??? ?? ??????????? ?????? ?а?????????╗ (1871. ????? ??????, ?????) ????? ???? ?? ???????, л?????
?????? ???????╗ (??. 1871. ????? ?????? ???????, ???????) ??????? ?????????
?ал????? ?????, ?????????? ???????╗ (1878. ????? ?????, ???-????????) ???????
????10. ??? ??????? ????????? ????? ?????????????? ????????? ???????????
???????, ??а??? ?? ?????????? ????????? ???????.
? ??????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?? ????, ?а?????????? ???? ??????????????? ??????????? ????? ????? ???????? ??? ?????? ????????? ?????????, ??????????????? ?????? ?а??????????? ???????????? ?????????, ?а?????????????? ???????, ?????????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ????????
?а???????????? ???????. ???? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??? ??????????,
??а?а??? ?????????? ???????????? ??????, ??? ????????????????? ?а????????????
????? ??????????? ????????. ?? ??????, ??? ?а ?????????????????? ??????????
??????? ??? ??????????? ?а ??????. ?????? ???? ?? ????????? ?? ????????????
9
????????? ??? ????????, ?а??????? л??????? ????????╗ ???? ??? ???????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????.
10 ?? ???? ??.: [15].
206
?а?????? ?а?????????? ??????? ??? ????????????, ??? ?а??????? ???? л??????? ????????╗. ?????????? ?а??????? ?а??????? ?а????? ??????????, ?а????? ????????????, ??? ?а????. ????? ????, ???????????????? ?а??????? ??????? ?????? ???????
?? ???????????? ?а??????? ????????????? ?а????????????? ???????? ?????. ?????
??????, ?? ?? ??????? ?а???????? л????? ?????? (le lieu de mщmoire)╗, ??????? ????
???? [6] ??????????????? ????? (???? ??? ?????????, ?????????, ???????, ??????,
????, ???????), ????????????? ?а???? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ?а??????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ????????????? ????????, ??????? ????????????? ??????????, ?????? л?????????? ??????? ?а ?????????╗ [16,
?. 13]. ?а??? ??????? ???? ????? ???????, ??? ??? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ???
????? ??????.
??????????
1. ?????? ?. ????? ??? /а???. ?а??. ?.: ?????, 1970. 480а?.
2. Baudelaire. Oeuvres completes. Paris: Gallimard, 1954.
3. ?????? ?. ?? ????????? /а???. ?а??. ?.: ?????????, 1986. 422а?.
4. ???????? ?. ????? ?????? ?а????? ??????? ??????????? //а???????? ?. ????? ???????. ????
?а???????? ?а?????????? /а???. ?а???. ?а??. ???.: ?????????, 2004. C. 47?234.
5. ?????? ?. ?. ?. ????????????. ??????? /а???. ?а???. ?.: ??????, 1990. 400а?.
6. Agulhon M. Paris, la traversщe d?Est en Ouest //аLes lieux de mщmoire. 4аtomes /аDir. P. Nora. Paris:
Gallimard, 1997. P. 4589?4624.
7. Meller M. K. Degas?s ?Place de la Concorde: Vicomte Lepic and His Daughters? //аThe Burlington Magazine. Vol. 145. No. 1201а(apr.). 2003. P. 273?281.
8. Tartakowsky D. La construction sociale de l?espace politique: Les usages politiques de la place de la
Concorde des annщes 1880ар nos jours //аFrench Historical Studies. Vol. 27. No. 1а(winter). 2004. P. 145?173.
9. Dombrowski A. History, memory, and instantaneity in Edgar Degas?s Place de la Concorde //аArt Bulletin. Vol. 93а(2). 2011. P. 195?219.
10. Clark T. J. The Painting of Modern Life. Paris in the Art of Manet and his Followers. Princeton:
Princeton University Press, 1984.
11. Varnedoe K. A Fine Disregard: What Makes Modern Art Modern. New York: Abrams, 1990.
12. ?????????? ?. ?. ????? ????. ??????? ????????. ??????? ?а ???????. ???.: ????????????
???????????????? ????????, 2012. 152а?.
13. Boggs J. S. Portraits by Degas. Berkeley, Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1962.
14. Buchanan H. Edgar Degas and Ludovic Lepic: An Impressionist Friendship //аCleveland Studies in
the History of Art. Vol. 2. 1997. P. 32?121.
15. ????????? ?. ?. ???????? ??? ????????????? ?????. ??? ??????? ??а ??????????? ???????? 1870-? ????? //а ???????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????. ???????. ????????? ??????? ???????????, ??????????? ?????? ?. ?. ??????????????; ??? ???. ?. ?. ?????????. ???.:
?.-????????????? ??????????????? ???????? ????????, ?????????? ?а??????????? ??. ?. ?. ??????,
2011. ?. 142?149.
16. ???? ?., ???? ?., ?? ?????? ?., ????? ?. ???????-?????? /а???. ?а??. ???.: ????????????
?.-?????????????? ????????????, 1999. 328а?.
?????? ????????? ?а???????? 20а?????? 2013а?.
?????????? ??????????
????????? ????? ?????????????а? ???????? ????????????????, ??????;
mariachernysheva@mail.ru
Chernysheva Maria A. ? Candidate of Arts, Associate Professor; mariachernysheva@mail.ru
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