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ПРОБЛЕМЫ ПУБЛИКАЦИИ РУКОПИСНОГО ТЕКСТА ДОСТОЕВСКОГО (на материале черновых рукописей)..pdf

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3
DOI 10.15393/j10.art.2016.2861а
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??????? ??????? ?????????
????????? ??????? ?????????? (?????????? ???) ???
(?????-?????????, ?????????? ?????????)
nsova74@mail.ru
???????? ??????????
??????????? ?????? ????????????
(?? ????????? ???????? ?????????)*
?????????. ?????? ????????? ????????? ????????????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ???????? ????????? ????????????а? ????????? ?а???????? ???????? ?а????????
????????? ??????. ?а?????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? 1860?1870-?а????? ?а??????? л???????????? ?а?????????╗, л?????╗, л?????????╗ ?ал?????? ??????????╗. ???????? ??????????????? ??????? ??????? ?а????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????, ??????????? ?а1920-??1930-?а???? ?а?????????? ???????? ?а ????? ??????? ?????, ????? ?????????????? ?????????
?????????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????????. ?? ?????? ????? ???????
???????????? ???? ????????, ??????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ?????????????????
?а??? ????? ????????, ??????? ?а???????????, ?? ??????? ??????? ????????.
???????? ?????: ???????????, ???????????, ???????? ????????, ??????????
????????
?
?????, ?????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ????????? ????????????, ?????? ?а???, ??? ???????? ?????????????????? ?????? 1.
?а1920-??1930-? ???? ?????????? ??? ????????? ???????: ???? ???????????? ?? ???????? ??????????????? ??????? ???, ??? ??? ??????????? ?? ????????; ??????а? ?? ???????? ???? ??????????? ???????? ?а????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ??? ???????
?????? ???????? ??????????? ????????????а[15, 8?9].
?. ?. ????????, ?????????? ??????? ?. ?. ????????? л??????????
???????????? (1821?1881?1921)╗, ???????????, ??? л????? ?????? ?????????, ????? ????????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ??????, ??????
????? ?????????, ??? ???????? ???????, ???????? ??? ???????????
???????? ???????????? ????????╗ [2, 436]2. ???? ??? ?а??????????
?.а?. ?????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????, ?????????? ???? л????? ???????? ????????╗, ????????? ?? ???????? ??????? ?ал?????╗ ?а??. ????????? ?. ?. ????????? ???????? ???????????
4
?. ?. ????????
??????????? ?а?????????????? ????????, ??????????? ???????,
?а1930-? ????, ????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ?а???????
?????? ?а????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????.
????????? ????????????????? ????????? ??????? ?а?????? ???
???????????? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ?. ?. ????????а[9] ?а?. ?. ????????а[7]. ?????? ?????? ?????????? ?. ?. ????????? ?а??????????? ?а??????? ????????? ?????? л?????╗а[8].
?а1930-? ???? ??? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ?. ?. ?????????,
??????????, ??? л??????? ??????????? ???? ????????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ?????????????????? ?а???????? ?а????????
??????? ?а????? ??????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ?????????????╗
[10, 265]. ?????, ?????????? ?? ??????????? ??????????????????
?????????? ?????? ???????? ??? ???????, ?????????? ??????????
?а???????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ????????????. ???????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ?а?????? л???????????? ??????????╗ (???????? ???????) [20]; [12], л???????????? ?????????╗ (????? л????????????
?а?????????╗)а[22] ?а?а????????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????????а[4]3.
?а????????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ???? ????????4. ?????????? ??????????? ???????
??????? ??????? ????????????а[6]; [5], ?а????? ?????????? ?а???????
???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?а??????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????5 ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???? ????????.
?????????? ????????? ?????????, ??????? ???????, ??? ????????????? ??????????????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ???, ???, ??-??????,
?а?????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????
??????????? ????????, ?? ????????? ?? ???????? ????????, ??-??????,
?а?????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ???????. ???????? ?а??????? ??????????? ????????, ????????? ?????????? ?а??????
??????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ?а?? ???????????? ?а??????????. ???????????????? ??????? ???????????
?????????? ?????????? ?????????, ??????? ?? ????????? ???????????
???????????? ??????? ??? ??????????. ???????? ??? ???????? ??????
?????????, ??????? ?а????????, ????????????? ?а??????? ???????
???????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????????
5
??????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????, ???
????? ??? ??? ????? ???????? ???????????????. ?? ???????? ?а???
?? ??????, ??? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?. ?. ????????, ?. ?. ????????? ?????? ?????????, ???????? ?а??????????? ??????? ????????? л??????? ???????????╗: л????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????,
?????????? ?? ?????, ?а??? ???? ?? ?????? ?????????? ?????,а? ??????????????? ???? ?? ??????????? ?а??????? ?????????? ?????? ??
?????????? ????????; ???? ?? ????????????? ??? ???? ??????, ?? ??
??????? ???? ???????????? ???? ?а??????????? ???????????╗ [10,
269?270]. ?????? ?а??? ???? ???????, ????? ??????????? ?????????
?????? ?а?????? ???????, ????????? ?????, ???????? ????????????
(?????????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ???????), ?а?а???? ?????? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????????? ?????? ??????????
??????????????.
???, ?а???????? ??????? ?а???????? ????????? ?????? л???????????? ?а?????????╗ (?????. ?. 212.1.4) ?а????? ?. 109 ????? ???? #:
???. 1
??????????? ?????? ??? ??????????????? ?????? ????????? ??
?. 27 ??? ?? ???????:
???. 2
?. ?. ????????
6
????? ????????, ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ?? ??????
????????? ?а?? ????????? ???? ?? ?????, ?????????? ?????. ????????
????????????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????????? ????
?а?????? ??????? ?? ????????? ??? ?а???????? ???? ???????, ?????
????? ?????????????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ????????????? ??????????????? ??????. ????????, ????? ??? ???? ?. 30?31
?????????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ????????????, ???????
??????? ????? ?????, ?? ??? ????????? ????????? ????? (?? ???. 3
??? ????? ╫1, ╫2, ╫3, ╫4, ╫5) ?а?????????????? ?????, ??????????? ??
??????? ?? ?.а31 ?а??????? ?? ?. 30.
???. 3
???? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ?а?????? ????? ????????????? ?? ?????? ?а?????????, ?? ?а?а????????? ???????? ??????.
???????? ?а??????? ????????? ????????????, ???????? ????????,
?????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ?а????????????? ???????
??? ???? ????????? ??????. ????? ????? ????? ?????????? ?????
??????????, ??????? ???????? ???????, ???? ????? ???? ?а????????
??????????: ??-??????, ?? ?????? ?????? ????? ???????????? (???
???????????) ????? ???????? ??????? ?а?????????? ??????????;
??-??????, ?а????? ???????? ??????????????? ???????? ??? ?????
???????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????????
7
??????????, ???????????? ?????????????, ?????? ?????????
????????? ????????????? ????????? ?а?????? ??????. ??????????
???????? ?а???, ??? ?????????? ????????? ?а????????? ???? ????????
?????? ????????????? ?а??????????????, ?????? ????????? ?????????? ?а???????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?????, ?а????????? ?????????? ?а??????? ?а???????? ?????. ????? ????? ????????? ??????
?а????????? ?????, ?а?а?????? ??? ???? ????????????? ??? ????????,
???????? ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ?? ???? ??????????
???????, ????????? ?а????????.
??????? ??????????? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ????????? ?????????
?????? л?????????╗. ?а???????? (????а???.а?. 93.I.6/1. ?. 1, ?????????
?????????а? л?????а1╗) ?????????? ???????????а? ???????????
?а????????? ?????, ?а????? ??????????, ??????? ????? ???????? ???????????? ???????, ???????? ?? ????? ????????? ?а????? ?а????????
????? ??????:
???. 4
? ?30 ???????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ?а???? ?????????
?????? (17, 37, 40):
?. ?. ????????
8
???. 5
???????? ??????????? ?а???, ??? ??????????, ??????????? ??
?????? ????????, ?? ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ?а??????,
?а???? ????????, ????????????? ??? ????????, ?? ?????? ????? ?а??????? ??? ???????? ???????? ????????? ?????????????????? ???????.
??? ????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ????????? ?????????, ??????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????? ????????????6:
???????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????????
9
?[?а?<?????>]{?}?????! ????????, ?а??????? ?????? ?????i? ????? ????? ?а??????, [?а???? ???? [??????] <?а?30 ???? ?????? ?? ???????.а? 17, 37> ????????? ?? ???????????, ?? [????] <?а?30 ???? ?????? ?? ???????.а ? 17, 37> ??????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????
<?а?30 ????????: ???????????а? 17, 37>] {?}а????? ?? ????? ?? ?????? [{????}] ??? ???? ???? {??}??????? ????? ??????????i?!
???? ?????? ???? ?????, {?}а????<,> ??? [????] {?}а?????[???]{???}.
[??] <?а?30 ???????.а? 17, 37> ?? ???? [?????] {?????}, ?? ????????
?а????? ??????????, ?а???? ???? ?а?????, {???? ???????????? ?} [????]
?????????, ?? ???????<,> [???] {?а ????? ??? ????} ????????? ????
?????i?, ?а ?????? ?? ????????. ?а ????? ???? ??? ??? ??? ??????
?а ???? ????? ?????????,а ? ?????? ?????[?]{,} ? <?а ?30 ???????:
?????, ?а? 17, 37> ???? ???????? ?????????[,]{!} [?]{?} ???? ?? ????,
??? [{???-??}] ??????i?[-??] ??????, ?????????? ????????, (???????
????????!) ? <?а ?30 ???????.а ? 17, 37> ??? ???????? ???????????
???? ???,а? ???-?? ??????i?,а? ???????? ???а? ???? ??????? ????
??? ?????[,]{:} л?а ??? ??<,> ??????, ???? ??????; ?? ?? ????? ??,
?????! ?а???? ??????!╗7 ???? ??? ???? ????? ????????? ??? ?? ???,
{?? ?????? ?????? ??????i?} ?а???? ?????, ???????<,> ?? ?????, ?????? {???} ??????!8 {?а???? ?? ?????????? ????[?]{???} ??? ????????,
???? ??????, ???? ?????????, ?а??? ?????? ????<,> ??? ?а???? ???:
???? [{????}] ??????????? ?? ????????, ??? ??????i? <?а?30 ????????: ???? [???] ??? ???????? ?????????? ?а????????.а? 17, 40>}9.
[??] ???? ????? ?а ???? ??????. ?а ????? ???? ??????, ???? ?????10.
[?,а?а?? ????????? ??????: ???? <?а?30 ????????: ??????; ???а? 17,
40> ??? ???????i? (?? ?а????????i?) ?????????i?. ???? ?? ?????????i?,
???? [????<??i?>] <?а?30 ???????.а? 17, 40> {??????i?}]11<,> [?]{?}
<?а?30 ???? ?????? ?? ???????.а? 17, 40> [?????????] {???<,> ???}
????а{?} {???? ????} ???????i?{??} ?? ???????: л??????[,] [???????12,]
<?а?30 ???????? ?????? (?????????? ?а?????????????) ?? ???????.а?
17, 40> ?? ?????????? ?????╗ ???? ????-?? ?а ??????? л??? ????╗
<?а?30 ??????? ???????: ??? ????а? 17, 40>, ???????? ??? ????, ???
??? ?????????? ???????? ???????i?.13 {?????? ??????????, ??????
????? [?а????????<??????>] ????? ??????????: ???? <?а?30 ????????: ?????????; ????а? 17, 40> ?? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ?а??????????, ??
?а ??<,> ?????? ????<,> ?а ???????? ??????????. л?а ???? [??? ???
??????, ???? ?????<???> <?а ?30 ????????: ?????<??>а ? 17, 40>]
????? ???????? ?????, ????????? ?а?????????????, ?? ??????? ?????? ???? ?????????, ?? ??????? ?????? ???? ?????????? <?а?30 ????????: ????????????а ? 17, 40>, ???? ?? ?? ????????, ???? ??
??а?????╗}14 .
10
?. ?. ????????
?????????????? ??????????????? ????????? ???? ?????? ??????????, ???????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????, ???????
?а???????? ????? ?а???????? ???????????, ??????? ?????????????
????? ?????? ?а?????????? ????????? ??????. ????????? ??????, ????? ????, ????????? ???????? (?????????????) ??? ??????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????????? ????????? ?а?????????
(?????????) ??????: ???????????? ??? ?????? ??????, ?а??????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ??????????, ??????????? ???????, ???
?????????? ???????? ????? ?а??????????? ?????????, ??????????????? ??? ?? ??????????????? ??????.
??? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?а?? ????????????? ??????????
???? ???????? ??????: ?а????????? ???????, ?????? ?????????
????????? ???? ?а??????????, ????????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ??????????? ??????. ??? ???? ?????????????? ??? ???? ???????? (??????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????? ????????,
?? ?а?? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????): ???????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ????? ????????????????? ???????? ?а?? ?????? ?????. ?а?????????, ?а????????? ????
??????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ????????:
?. ??? ??? ??? ????? ????????? ??? ?? ???, ?а??? ?????, ???????, ??
?????, ?????? ??????! ?? ??? ????. ?. ??? ??? ??? ????? ????????? ???
?? ??? ?а ?????? ?????? ????????, ?а ??? ?????, ???????, ?? ?????,
?????? ??? ??????!...
??? ??????? ? ?????????? ??, ??? ???????? ?а??????? ???? ??????,
??? ?а? ?? ???????. ??? ??????? ???????????? ?а?????а? л?а??????
?????? ????????╗ ?ал???╗а? ??????????, ????? ???????, ???????????? ??????????. ?????? ??? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?а?????? ????????:
?а??? ??????? л???╗: л???? ??? ???? ????? ????????? ??? ?? ???,
{?? ?????? ?????? ??????i?} ?а???? ?????, ???????<,> ?? ?????,
?????? ??????!╗
?а??? ??????? л?? ?????? ?????? ??????i?╗: л???? ??? ???? ?????
????????? ??? ?? ???, ?а???? ?????, ???????<,> ?? ?????, ??????
{???} ??????!╗
???????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????????
11
????? ???????? л???????╗ ?????? ????????? ?????? ????????,
????? ?а???????? ??????????? ??? ????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ???????????, ????????? ???????. ??? ????? ???????
?а?????????????? ???????????? ????? л?????????????╗ ????????,
?????????? ?? ?????????????? ????????? ????? ??????, ????? ????????????? ?а?????, ?а?? ???????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????? ?а?????????????? ?а?????????
??????????????? ??????.
?? ??? ???????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????, ??????????? ???? ???????? ????????? ??????: ???, ?а?????? л?????╗, ?а??????? ?? л?????????╗, ??????????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?а???????? ???????? ????????????. ??????????????, ?а?????? ?????? ??????
?а????????? ????????? ?а???????? ?????????? ?? ?????. ?? ?????????
???? ???????? ???????, ????????? ?а????????????? ??????? ???????
?а???????????? ?????????????????? ??????????? ????????. ?? ????
?????? ????????? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ?????????????, ?????????? ????????, ???, ?????? ???????, ?????????????? ???????????
????????, ????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?????????. ????????
?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?а???????? ?а?????? л?????╗ (?????.
?.а212.1.5. ?. 37), ????????? ???????????????? ?????? ?????????, ??????????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ??????.
???. 6
12
?. ?. ????????
Z15 ??? ?????????? ?? ????[. ?]{?}? ??????. ???? ??? ????? ??????.
???????, ????????? ??????, ?????????? ???????? ??? ??????. ????
??????? ?? ???? ??????????. ?????? ?? ???????. ??? ??? ????????.
???? ????????. ?????????? ??? ?? ?????. ???? ???????? ???????, ?????; ???????????? ????; ??????????? ????????????16 . л?? ?а ???????
?а?? ???????? ???? ?? ??i???.╗ ?а????? ?? ???????; ???? ???????? ???????????.
?? ????? ?????? ??????: л???? ???????? ???????а~ ???????????
????????????╗а? ??????? ??????: л(?????????????? ??i?????, ??
?????????)╗. ?а?30 ???????? ???????? ????? ???????? ????а? ??????, ?? ??????? ???????????? ?а?????????? ???????? ???? ???????????: л??? ?????? ?? ???? ??????????. (?????????????? ???????,
?а?????????)╗ (9,а143). ??? ?????? ????????????????? ?????????????,
??????? ?? ??????? ????????????? ?а?????????: ????????? ????????
?????????? ?а?????? ?????, ?а???????? ??????? ?? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ????????, ???? ???????? ??? ???? ???????? ?а???
??????? ????? ??? ????????? (?? ?? ?????? ?????) ?????? ????а? ???????? ?????????? ???????????. ?? ????? ???????? ????? ?? ??????????, ??????? ????????? ??????? ?????????, ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ??? ?? ???? ???????, ??? ?а???????, ????????
???????? ?????????. ?а?????? ?????? ???????? ????? ??????????
?а?????? ????????? ?а???? ???????? ????? ?????? ????? ?а????, ???
??????? ????? ???????????? ?ал?????????????? ???????, ?а?????????╗, ?а??????????? ??? ????????????? (л??????? ???????╗, л??????????? ????╗, л?????????? ????????????╗, л?? ?а??????? ?а?? ????????
???? ?? ??????╗). ?а????????? ??????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ?????
?????????????? ?????? ??????, ????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ?а????????? ????????? ?а??? ??????????, ????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????17, ??????, ?а??????? ?? ????? ?????????, ?а?????????
????? ?? ??????????? ????? ????????, ??? ????????????? ?а???????????.
?????????????? ?????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ??-???????:
??-??????, ??? ???????? ?а???????? ????, ?а??????? ????????????,
??-??????, ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ???? ?????? (??? ??????????? ??????? ?????????????) ?а?????????? ????????? ?????
?????? ?а??????????? ???????????, ??????????, ????? ????, ??????????? ???????????? ????????? (?????? ????? ???????????????
???????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????????
13
???????????? ?а?30). ???? ?????????? ??? ???????, ?? ??????а? ????????????????а? ?????? ?????? ??? ??????????, ?? ?????? ????????
??? ??????????? ???????? ??????; ?????? ?????? ??????????, ?? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ?а???????? ??? ????????.
?????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ?а?????????????????
?????, ??? ??? ????????????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????
????????? ???????? ?а???????? ???????? ???????????????? ??????18.
??????? ????????????????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ?а??????????? ?? ????, ????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ?а??
??????? ????????: ?????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????; ??????
?а???????????? ????????; ?????? ?а???????? ?????????????? ??????.
?? ?? ????? ??????? ??????? ?а?а?????????? ???????? ??????, ?а?????
?????????? ?а????????? ????? ?? ???????.
????????? ???????????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ???
?????????? ??????????? ?????? ?а??????, ?? ???????, ??????, ???????????????? ?? ???? ?а??????????????? ?????????, ????? ???????????????? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????.
????? ?????? ???????????????? ??????? ?????? ???? ?????????
?а?????: ????????, ????????????? ?????? ?????? ????? ??? ???????????? ?а?????????? ??????? ??????, ?а????? ??? ???????????? ?????.
???? ?? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ?а????????, ??????????? ????????? ?????????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????????? ???????? ????????, ???????? ????????????????? ????????
?? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????. ?а?30 ???? ???????? ????????, ?? ????????????? ???????? ????????????????? ????????,
??????? ???????????? ??? ????????? ????????? ???????? ?а???????
?????????? ????????????,а? ?????? ?????, ??? ?????????? ?????? ???
??????????? ???????????? ??????. ?????? ???? ?????? ????????????
?? ?????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ?а??????????????.
???? ?? ????????? ???????????????? ?????? (?а?30 ?? ?????????
? ???????? ????????? ?? ?? ???????????), ?? ?????????? ?????????
????????? ???????? ?????????? ?а???????????? ??????? ?? ?????
?а?? ???????????. ????? ????? ???????? ?а??????? ????????? л??????? ???????????╗ ??? ????????? ?. ?. ???????? [21]19, ?а???????
???? ?? ?????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????,
?? ?а???????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? (????? ????????????),
??????????? ?? ????? ????????. ?а??????????? ??????????? ??????
?. ?. ????????
14
????? ???????????? ????? ?? ???????????????. ?а???????? ???????
????????? л??????? ???????????╗, ?????????????? ?. ?. ???????????а[24], ???????? ????? ???????????? ??????????????? ????? ???????????????, ??? ?а????????, ????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????. ????? ????, ?????????? ????????, ?? ????????? ?а????????
?????????, ???????? ????? ??????, ?а??? ??????? ??? ????????: л????????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ??.а??????, ?. ?. ??????????? ??
???????????????? ?а?? ?????????а<?> ??????? ???????? ?а???
????, ???? ??? ???? ????? ???????? ???????? ??????. ??????, ????????????? ?а????, ??? ?? ?????? ????????????, ?а???????? ??????
?а????? ?????????? ????? ?????????╗ [21, 348].
????????? ?????????????? (?30) ?а????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ????????????, ??? ?а?????? ??????????? ???? ????? ????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????,
?? ??? ???? ?????? ????????? (???????????) ?????? ??????. ?а?30
?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??????????, ?? ??? ???? ??????????
???????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????.
????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? л??????
??????????╗ (????а???. ?. 93.аI.2.1/19. ?. 8) ??????????, ??? ?????????????? ????? ?а??????????? ?? ????????? ?????????, ?а??? ?????
?????????????????:
???. 7
????????: л??????а? ??????-????????? ???? ???? ?????????╗.
???????: ???<???>?а(283).
?30: ?????а(7, 322).
?а??????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????: ???????? ?? ??, ??? ?а???????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ?????, ?????
????????? ?а???????????? л???<???>?╗. ?????? ????????? ?????????? ?а?30 (?а?????????? ???????????????? ?????? ??????: л?????╗ ?????? л????╗). ???????????, ??? ????а? ???????? ????, ??????????,
?????????? ????????? ?????????? ?а??? ?????? ??????????? ???????:
л??? ??? ?? ????? ?????? ???????????? ??? IXа?????? ????????????
????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????
???????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????????
15
???????? ??????????? ??????-????????????? ??????? ?????????
?????????, ??????????? ?????? ??????? ????? (????????? ????????
????а? ????? ???????? ???????!). ??? ???? ?? ??????? ??????????,
?а?????? ????????????, ????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ?????????
????? ?????? ?а???? ?? ????????? (?????????, ?? ??? ??? ???????????
?а??????????????? ???????)╗ [19,а272].
???????????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ?а?????? ?а???,
??? ???????? ???????а? ????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?а????? ?????????. ????????? ??????????? ?а???, ??? ??????????????? ???? ??
??????????? ??????????, ?? ???? ??? ???????????? ??????? ????????
????????????? ?????????????-??????????? ?а?а?????? ???????????
?????? ?а???????? ?????? ????????, ?????????? ????????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ????????????. ?? ????? ???????? ???????
??????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ???? ?? ????? ??????
?а?????? ?????????????, ?? ?а????????????а? ????????? ? ???????,
??????????? ?? ??????, ?????? ????? ?? ????????, ?????????. ?????
????? ?? ?????? ????? ???? ?????????????, ??????????, ???????????? ?а???????? ?????????????, ?? ?а????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?? ???? ???? (????? ?????????? ???????). ?а????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ????????, ?? ???????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ???? ??????? ?а??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????
(??????????? ?а???, ????????? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ??????
?а?????), ????? ???????? ???????. ?а????? ??????, ??? ????????? ??
л???????????╗ ??????????????? ????????? ???????????, ??????????? ????????? ???????????, ???????????? ??? ??????????? ????????
??????. ??????????? ??????????? ????? ?? ???????????? ????????????????; ???????????, ??? ?а??????? ?а??????? ????????,а? ????????????????, ????????-???????????? ?а????????.
??? ???? ???????????????? ??????: ??? ?????????, ???? ????????
??????? ???????? ????????? ?а?????????? ?????????????? ????????????? (????????, ?а??????? ?а????????????? ???????? ????????????)? ????? ???? ?? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??????а? ?а??????????? ????? ???????, ??? ????? ???????????????. ??, ????????
????????? ????? ?????? ?????, ?????????? ????????? ?а??????????
??????? ?????????????, ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ??????
???????? ?????????? ?? ???? ???????? ?а????????? ????????????
16
?. ?. ????????
??? ??????? ?а???????? ?? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????
???????????? ? ??????. ???? ?????? ???????? ????????.
???????? ?? ???? ???????? ?а???????? ?????????? ?????????????
???????? ???????????? ?????? ???????? 1860-?а? ?????? 1870-?а?????20 . ?а?????? л????????????╗ ??????????????? ?????? ????????
???????? ??? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ???????
??????? ?????? ???????. ?? ???????? ?а?????? ???????, ?????????????? ?а????????? ???, ??? ????? ???????, ??? ???????, ????????
????????? ????????, ??? ????????? ?? ?? ????????????? ?????????????????, ???????????? ?? ?????? ???????,а? ????????? ?? ?а??????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????. ?а?30
????? ???????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ?????, ?а???????????? ?а???????????, ??????? ?а??????????? ??????? ???????????????? (????? ??? ????????? ??? ?а????????) ?а?? ?????? ???????? ???????????
????????????. ????? ???????????? ???????????????? ???????? ????
?? ?????????? ???? ????? ???????, ?????????? 1866?1872а??????,
?а????? ??????? ?а????? ????, ??? ??? ??? ???????? ???????? ????
?а??????, ??????? ???????? ??? ????? ?????????? ????????, ??? ?????
???????, ??? ?а???????????. ??? ????? ?а??????, ??? ??????? ????????? ????????? ???? ???????? ?а??????-?? ?????? ????????????
????? ???????? ?а??????????? ????????????? ?а?????????? ???????
?????????????? ???????? ??????.
?а????????? ????? ????? ??????????????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ?а?????????? ??????????? ?????? ?а????????? ????? ???? ??????????? ???????? ????????????, ?а??????
???????????? ???????, ???????????, ???????? ????????. ?????? ??
????????? ?????? (???????, ???????? ?????????, ???????) ??????
???? ?????? ?????????? ??? ??????????, ???? ?????????? ????????,
?а??? ???? ????????, ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????, ??? ??? ??????? ??????????
?????? ???? ?? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ??? ?????, ?? ?????? ??? ?а?????????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? 21. ??????????
????? ?????????, ??? ????????????, ????????? ?а??????????? ?а??????? ?????????? ????????????, ?????????????, ?а??? ????????????
?????? ???????????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?а??????????
?????????? ????????????? ????????: ?а??????? ?????? ???? ???????, ???????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????????? ???????.
???????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????????
??????????
???????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ???? (????),
?????? л???????? ??????????? ???????? ? ???????? ???????? ?. ?. ???????????? 1868?1870 ??. (????? ??????? ? ????????????? ??????? ????????)╗
? 15-04-00130?.
??. ?????????: [16,а119?129, 332?363].
??????? ????? ???????? ?. ?. ??????: л??? ?????????????? ??????????
?????? ?????????? ???????, ????? ??????????? ???????? ?а??? ????, ?а?????
?? ???????????? ??????, ?? ????? ??????????? ??????? ? ?? ???????? ??????
?????????╗ [23,а162].
?????а? ?30; ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ?????????? ?а?????? ?????? ?а?????????
???? ?а???????? ?а??????? ???????.
?. ?. ?????????, ?????? ?а???????? л????????????? ?????????? ??????????
???????? ?????? ????????????╗, ???????????, ??? ?а????? ??????? л??????
???????? ??? ????????????? ??????, ?а??????? ??? ???????? ?а??????? ????????????? ??? ?? ?????????╗ [14, 92]. ??. ?????: [3, 52?53]; [11, 80].
????? ?????? ?????????? ?а??????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????, ?????????
?а??????, ?а????????? ?а?????, ?? ????, ???? ???, ??? ?а??. ??., ????.:а[1].
?а?????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????, ?а????????
???????а? ?????????.
????? ?????? ?а????????? ???? ???????а1.
????? ?????? ???? ???????а1.
??????? ????? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ???????а1.
????? ?????? ???? ???????а2.
??????? ????? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ???????а2.
??????? ????????, ??? ????? ??????????? ???????????.
????? ?????? ???? ???????а3 (?а???????? ???? ???????? ???????, ?а???? ?????
?????).
??????? ????? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ???????а3.
???? ??????.
?? ????? ?????? ??????: (?????????????? ??i?????, ?? ?????????).
??.: л?????? ???????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? (????? ???
?а?????? ????????)╗ (8,а25); л?????????? ???? ??????? ?а?????? ?????????????.
?????? ?? ?? ????, ????? ?а??? ?????????????, ????????, ??? ???? ?????????
?а???? ????? ??????, ?а??????? ??? ??? ???-?? ???????, ?? ?????? ??? ??????
????? ?а????? ??? ????? ?а????????? ???????? ?? ????????. ??????? ??????
??? ?? ??????, ????? ????? ??????????????, ??????? ??? ???-?????? ?а??????
???????╗ (8,а44); л?а????? ?? ??? ?? ??????? ????, maman, ????????,а? ?????????? ?? ??????????.а? ???? ?????, ????? ????, ??????? ????, ?а????? ??
?????,а? ??????? ??? ?????╗ (8, 48),а?а??.
??. ?????????:а[13].
?????а? ???????; ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?????? ? ?????????
???????? ? ??????? ???????.
??. ?????????: [17].
??.: [18].
*
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
17
?. ?. ????????
18
?????? ??????????
1. ?????????? ???????? ???????????????? ?а??????????? ?а????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????????а: ????????? ????????????? ??????? ???????????, ??????????? 100-????? ?? ??? ????????? ???????????????? ?????
?. ?. ???????? (1911?2011).а? ??????а: ??????????????? ????? ?. ?. ????????,
2011.а? 206 ?.
2. ????????, ?. ?. [???????? ?? ?????] ?????????? ???????????? 1821?1881?1921 ?.
??????? ?????? ?а?????????? ??? ????????? ?. ?. ?????????. ?????????????
??????????????? ????????????. ??????, 1921. 150а???.а/ ?. ?. ????????а// ???????
?????.а? 1922.а? ?. 1.а? ?. 435?438.
3. ??????????, ?. ?. ???? ?а?????? ?????? л????? ?а????╗ (??????? ?????????
?а????????? ??????)а/ ?. ?. ??????????а// ???????? ??????????? ?а??????????
????????. ???? ??????????? ?а?????????? ??????????????а/ ??? ???. ?. ?????? ?а?. ??????????.а? ??????а: ???, 2003.а? ?.а51?63.
4. ???????????, ?. ?. ?????? ???????? ?????????а: ?а30 ?.а/ ?. ?. ???????????.а?
?????????а: ?????, 1972?1990.
5. ???????????, ?. ?. ?????? ???????? ????????? ?а?????а: ?а35 ?.а/ ?. ?. ???????????а/ ???? (?????????? ???) ???.а? ?. 1?4.а? ?????-?????????а:
?????, 2013?2016?.
6. ???????????, ?. ?. ?????? ???????? ?????????а: ???????????? ??????а: [?а15 ?.]а/
?. ?. ???????????а/ ??? ???.а?. ?. ????????.а? ?. 1?9, 11.а? ????????????а: ????? ??????, 1995?2015?.
7. ???????? ??????? ?. ?. ????????????а/ ????. ?а?????? ?. ?. ????????а;
????. ?. ?. ????????? ?а?. ?. ????????.а? ??????а; ?????????а: ACADEMIA,
1935.а? 475 ?.
8. ?? ?????? ?. ?. ????????????. ?????. ?????????? ?????????а/ ??????????а;
??? ???.а?. ?. ???????? ?а?. ?. ??????????.а? ??????а; ?????????а: ????,
1931.а? 320а?.
9. ?? ?????? ?. ?. ????????????. ???????????? ?а?????????. ?????????? ?????????а/ ??????????а; ????. ?а?????? ?. ?. ????????.а? ??????а; ?????????а:
????, 1931.а? 219а?.
10. ?????????, ?. ?. ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?? ???? ?????????.
????? ?????????? 1917?1933 ??.а/ ?. ?. ?????????.а? ??????а: ?????????-???????? ???????????, 1934.а? ?.а258?281.а? (????? л???????????? ??????????╗а;
?. 15).
11. ?????????, ?. ?. ?а??????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?????? ?. ?. ????? (?а?????????? ???????)а/ ?. ?. ?????????а//
??????? ?????????а: ???????? ???????????а/ ???.а???. ?. ?. ?????????.а? ??????????????а: ???????, 2001.а? ?. 73?91.
12. ?????????? ???????????. ???????? ?????? ?а??????? 1860?1881 ??. / ??а????;
???????? ??????? ?????????? ??.а?. ?. ????????а; ???.а?. ?. ????????????,
?. ?. ?????????.а? ??????а: ?????, 1971.а? 728а?.а? (????? л????????????
??????????╗а; ?. 83).
???????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????????
19
13. ??????, ?. ?. ?? ??????????? ???????????-???????????????? ?????????????
????????? ??????? ?????????а/ ?. ?. ??????а// ?????????????? ?????.а? 2015.а?
? 1.а? ?. 75?94.
14. ?????????, ?. ?. ???????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? (?? ????? л????????????? ??????????╗)а/ ?. ?. ?????????а// ??????????? ???????????а:
?????? ?а????????а/ ???? ??. ?. ?. ???????? ???.а? ??????а: ????????,
1997.а? ?. 89?94.
15. ?????????, ?. ?. ?????????? ???????? ????????????а/ ?. ?. ?????????.а?
??????а: ?????, 1981.а? 368 ?.
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??????.а? ??????а: ????????, ???, 2011.а? 392 ?.
17. ????????, ?. ?. ???????? ?????????? ?а??????????????? ?????????????
???????? ???????????? ????? 1860-?а? ?????? 1870-? ?????а/ ?. ?. ????????а//
??????????? ??????????? [??????????? ??????]а: ????????????? ???????
??????.а? 2016.а? ? 3.а? ?. 70?91.а? URLа: http://unknown-dostoevsky.ru/files/
redaktor_pdf/1477998652.pdf (7.11.2016).
18. ????????, ?. ?., ????????, ?. ?. ???????а? ?????????а? ???????????а: ???????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????а/ ?. ?. ????????, ?. ?. ????????а// ??????????? ??????????? [??????????? ??????]а: ?????????????
??????? ??????.а? 2016.а? ? 4.а? ?.а23?46. ? URLа: http://unknown-dostoevsky.
ru/files/redaktor_pdf/1481719297.pdf (14.12.2016).
19. ?????????, ?. ?. ???? ?????? ?а????????? ???????? ????. л?????? ??????????╗.
?????????? ?а????????????а/ ?. ?. ?????????а// ???????????. ????????? ?а????????????.а? ?. 17.а? ?????-?????????а: ?????, 2005.а? ?.а269?274.
20. ?. ?. ??????????? ?а?????? ??? ??????? л?????????╗. ?????????? ????????а/
??а????а; ???????? ??????? ?????????? ??.а?. ?.а????????а; [??????. ??????
?. ?. ????????]а; ???. ?. ?. ????????????, ?. ?. ?????????.а? ??????а: ?????,
1965.а? 520а?.а? (????? л???????????? ??????????╗а; ?. 77).
21. ?. ?. ???????????. ????????? ?а????????????а/ ?? ????а; ???????? ???????
??????????а; ??? ???. ?. ?. ????????.а? ?????????а: ???-?? ?? ????, 1935.а?
603 ?.
22. ?. ?. ???????????. ???????????? ?а?????????а/ ?? ????а; ???. ??????.
?. ?. ????????? ?а?. ?. ?????.а? ??????а: ?????, 1970.а? 809 ?.а? (????? л???????????? ?????????╗).
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Entw№rfe und Fragmente, erlфutert von W. Komarowitsch.а? M№nchenа: R.аPiper,
1928.а? 619 s.
?. ?. ????????
20
Natalia A. Tarasova
Doctor of Philology, Leading Researcher of the Institute
of Russian Literature (Pushkinskiy Dom),
Russian Academy of Sciences,
(Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation)
nsova74@mail.ru
THE PROBLEMS OF THE PUBLICATION
OF DOSTOEVSKY?S MANUSCRIPTS
(based on draft manuscripts)
Abstract. The article is devoted to the textual analysis and publication of Dostoyevsky?s
draft manuscripts, more specifically sketches in his notebooks and coherent draft texts. The
presented results cover the manuscripts created between 1865 and 1879, such as drafts of the
novels ?Crime and Punishment?, ?The Idiot?, ?The Adolescent?, and ?The Brothers Karamazov?.
The Article also considers in detail scientific approaches to the publication of Dostoevsky?s
creative heritage evolved in the 1920s?1930s and developed later, into the scientific concept
of academic edition of the author?s works. Based on this analysis, the range of issues is
determined, important for modern Dostoevsky studies and for new projects related to the
publication of Dostoevsky?s texts, both paper and electronic books.
Keywords: Dostoevsky, textual criticism, draft manuscripts, publishing practice
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19. Fetisenko O. L. Graf Mattei i kommertsii sovetnik Goff. лBrat?ya Karamazovy╗.
Dopolnenie k kommentariyam [Count Mattei and Trade Adviser Goff. ?The Brothers
Karamazov?. Supplements to Commentaries]. Dostoevskiy. Materialy i issledovaniya
[Dostoevsky. Materials and Researches]. St. Petersburg, Nauka Publ., 2005, vol. 17,
pp. 269?274.
20. F. M. Dostoevskiy v rabote nad romanom лPodrostok╗. Tvorcheskie rukopisi [Fyodor
Dostoevsky During his Work on the Novel ?The Adolescent?. Artistic Manuscripts].
Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1965, vol. 77. 520аp.
21. F. M. Dostoevskiy. Materialy i issledovaniya [Fyodor Dostoevsky. Materials and
Researches]. Leningrad, Academy of Sciences of the USSR Publ., 1935. 603аp.
22. F. M. Dostoevskiy. Prestuplenie i nakazanie [Fyodor Dostoevsky. Crime and Punishment].
Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1970. 809аp.
23. Chulkov G. I. Kak rabotal Dostoevskiy [The Way Dostoevsky Worked]. Moscow,
Sovetskiy pisatel? Publ., 1939. 339аp.
24. F. ?. Dostojewski. Die Urgestalt der ?Br№der Karamasoff ?. Dostojewskis Quellen, Entw№rfe und Fragmente. Erlфutert v?n W. Komarowitsch [Fyodor Dostoevsky. An Original
Image ofа?The Brothers Karamazov?. Dostoevsky?s Manuscripts, Drafts and Fragments.
TheаComments of Vasily Komarovich]. M№nchen, R.аPiper Publ., 1928. 621аp.
???? ??????????? ? ????????: 10.11.2016
й ?. ?. ????????, 2016
?????? ??? ??????? ????????? ????????????, ?????? ?а???, ??? ???????? ?????????????????? ?????? 1.
?а1920-??1930-? ???? ?????????? ??? ????????? ???????: ???? ???????????? ?? ???????? ??????????????? ??????? ???, ??? ??? ??????????? ?? ????????; ??????а? ?? ???????? ???? ??????????? ???????? ?а????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ??? ???????
?????? ???????? ??????????? ????????????а[15, 8?9].
?. ?. ????????, ?????????? ??????? ?. ?. ????????? л??????????
???????????? (1821?1881?1921)╗, ???????????, ??? л????? ?????? ?????????, ????? ????????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ??????, ??????
????? ?????????, ??? ???????? ???????, ???????? ??? ???????????
???????? ???????????? ????????╗ [2, 436]2. ???? ??? ?а??????????
?.а?. ?????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????, ?????????? ???? л????? ???????? ????????╗, ????????? ?? ???????? ??????? ?ал?????╗ ?а??. ????????? ?. ?. ????????? ???????? ???????????
4
?. ?. ????????
??????????? ?а?????????????? ????????, ??????????? ???????,
?а1930-? ????, ????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ?а???????
?????? ?а????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????.
????????? ????????????????? ????????? ??????? ?а?????? ???
???????????? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ?. ?. ????????а[9] ?а?. ?. ????????а[7]. ?????? ?????? ?????????? ?. ?. ????????? ?а??????????? ?а??????? ????????? ?????? л?????╗а[8].
?а1930-? ???? ??? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ?. ?. ?????????,
??????????, ??? л??????? ??????????? ???? ????????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ?????????????????? ?а???????? ?а????????
??????? ?а????? ??????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ?????????????╗
[10, 265]. ?????, ?????????? ?? ??????????? ??????????????????
?????????? ?????? ???????? ??? ???????, ?????????? ??????????
?а???????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ????????????. ???????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ?а?????? л???????????? ??????????╗ (???????? ???????) [20]; [12], л???????????? ?????????╗ (????? л????????????
?а?????????╗)а[22] ?а?а????????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????????а[4]3.
?а????????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ???? ????????4. ?????????? ??????????? ???????
??????? ??????? ????????????а[6]; [5], ?а????? ?????????? ?а???????
???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?а??????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????5 ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???? ????????.
?????????? ????????? ?????????, ??????? ???????, ??? ????????????? ??????????????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ???, ???, ??-??????,
?а?????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????
??????????? ????????, ?? ????????? ?? ???????? ????????, ??-??????,
?а?????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ???????. ???????? ?а??????? ??????????? ????????, ????????? ?????????? ?а??????
??????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ?а?? ???????????? ?а??????????. ???????????????? ??????? ???????????
?????????? ?????????? ?????????, ??????? ?? ????????? ???????????
???????????? ??????? ??? ??????????. ???????? ??? ???????? ??????
?????????, ??????? ?а????????, ????????????? ?а??????? ???????
???????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????????
5
??????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????, ???
????? ??? ??? ????? ???????? ???????????????. ?? ???????? ?а???
?? ??????, ??? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?. ?. ????????, ?. ?. ????????? ?????? ?????????, ???????? ?а??????????? ??????? ????????? л??????? ???????????╗: л????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????,
?????????? ?? ?????, ?а??? ???? ?? ?????? ?????????? ?????,а? ??????????????? ???? ?? ??????????? ?а??????? ?????????? ?????? ??
?????????? ????????; ???? ?? ????????????? ??? ???? ??????, ?? ??
??????? ???? ???????????? ???? ?а??????????? ???????????╗ [10,
269?270]. ?????? ?а??? ???? ???????, ????? ??????????? ?????????
?????? ?а?????? ???????, ????????? ?????, ???????? ????????????
(?????????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ???????), ?а?а???? ?????? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????????? ?????? ??????????
??????????????.
???, ?а???????? ??????? ?а???????? ????????? ?????? л???????????? ?а?????????╗ (?????. ?. 212.1.4) ?а????? ?. 109 ????? ???? #:
???. 1
??????????? ?????? ??? ??????????????? ?????? ????????? ??
?. 27 ??? ?? ???????:
???. 2
?. ?. ????????
6
????? ????????, ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ?? ??????
????????? ?а?? ????????? ???? ?? ?????, ?????????? ?????. ????????
????????????? ?????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????????? ????
?а?????? ??????? ?? ????????? ??? ?а???????? ???? ???????, ?????
????? ?????????????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ????????????? ??????????????? ??????. ????????, ????? ??? ???? ?. 30?31
?????????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ????????????, ???????
??????? ????? ?????, ?? ??? ????????? ????????? ????? (?? ???. 3
??? ????? ╫1, ╫2, ╫3, ╫4, ╫5) ?а?????????????? ?????, ??????????? ??
??????? ?? ?.а31 ?а??????? ?? ?. 30.
???. 3
???? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ?а?????? ????? ????????????? ?? ?????? ?а?????????, ?? ?а?а????????? ???????? ??????.
???????? ?а??????? ????????? ????????????, ???????? ????????,
?????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ?а????????????? ???????
??? ???? ????????? ??????. ????? ????? ????? ?????????? ?????
??????????, ??????? ???????? ???????, ???? ????? ???? ?а????????
??????????: ??-??????, ?? ?????? ?????? ????? ???????????? (???
???????????) ????? ???????? ??????? ?а?????????? ??????????;
??-??????, ?а????? ???????? ??????????????? ???????? ??? ?????
???????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????????
7
??????????, ???????????? ?????????????, ?????? ?????????
????????? ????????????? ????????? ?а?????? ??????. ??????????
???????? ?а???, ??? ?????????? ????????? ?а????????? ???? ????????
?????? ????????????? ?а??????????????, ?????? ????????? ?????????? ?а???????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?????, ?а????????? ?????????? ?а??????? ?а???????? ?????. ????? ????? ????????? ??????
?а????????? ?????, ?а?а?????? ??? ???? ????????????? ??? ????????,
???????? ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ?? ???? ??????????
???????, ????????? ?а????????.
??????? ??????????? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ????????? ?????????
?????? л?????????╗. ?а???????? (????а???.а?. 93.I.6/1. ?. 1, ?????????
?????????а? л?????а1╗) ?????????? ???????????а? ???????????
?а????????? ?????, ?а????? ??????????, ??????? ????? ???????? ???????????? ???????, ???????? ?? ????? ????????? ?а????? ?а????????
????? ??????:
???. 4
? ?30 ???????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ?а???? ?????????
?????? (17, 37, 40):
?. ?. ????????
8
???. 5
???????? ??????????? ?а???, ??? ??????????, ??????????? ??
?????? ????????, ?? ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ?а??????,
?а???? ????????, ????????????? ??? ????????, ?? ?????? ????? ?а??????? ??? ???????? ???????? ????????? ?????????????????? ???????.
??? ????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ????????? ?????????, ??????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????? ????????????6:
???????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????????
9
?[?а?<?????>]{?}?????! ????????, ?а??????? ?????? ?????i? ????? ????? ?а??????, [?а???? ???? [??????] <?а?30 ???? ?????? ?? ???????.а? 17, 37> ????????? ?? ???????????, ?? [????] <?а?30 ???? ?????? ?? ???????.а ? 17, 37> ??????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????
<?а?30 ????????: ???????????а? 17, 37>] {?}а????? ?? ????? ?? ?????? [{????}] ??? ???? ???? {??}??????? ????? ??????????i?!
???? ?????? ???? ?????, {?}а????<,> ??? [????] {?}а?????[???]{???}.
[??] <?а?30 ???????.а? 17, 37> ?? ???? [?????] {?????}, ?? ????????
?а????? ??????????, ?а???? ???? ?а?????, {???? ???????????? ?} [????]
?????????, ?? ???????<,> [???] {?а ????? ??? ????} ????????? ????
?????i?, ?а ?????? ?? ????????. ?а ????? ???? ??? ??? ??? ??????
?а ???? ????? ?????????,а ? ?????? ?????[?]{,} ? <?а ?30 ???????:
?????, ?а? 17, 37> ???? ???????? ?????????[,]{!} [?]{?} ???? ?? ????,
??? [{???-??}] ??????i?[-??] ??????, ?????????? ????????, (???????
????????!) ? <?а ?30 ???????.а ? 17, 37> ??? ???????? ???????????
???? ???,а? ???-?? ??????i?,а? ???????? ???а? ???? ??????? ????
??? ?????[,]{:} л?а ??? ??<,> ??????, ???? ??????; ?? ?? ????? ??,
?????! ?а???? ??????!╗7 ???? ??? ???? ????? ????????? ??? ?? ???,
{?? ?????? ?????? ??????i?} ?а???? ?????, ???????<,> ?? ?????, ?????? {???} ??????!8 {?а???? ?? ?????????? ????[?]{???} ??? ????????,
???? ??????, ???? ?????????, ?а??? ?????? ????<,> ??? ?а???? ???:
???? [{????}] ??????????? ?? ????????, ??? ??????i? <?а?30 ????????: ???? [???] ??? ???????? ?????????? ?а????????.а? 17, 40>}9.
[??] ???? ????? ?а ???? ??????. ?а ????? ???? ??????, ???? ?????10.
[?,а?а?? ????????? ??????: ???? <?а?30 ????????: ??????; ???а? 17,
40> ??? ???????i? (?? ?а????????i?) ?????????i?. ???? ?? ?????????i?,
???? [????<??i?>] <?а?30 ???????.а? 17, 40> {??????i?}]11<,> [?]{?}
<?а?30 ???? ?????? ?? ???????.а? 17, 40> [?????????] {???<,> ???}
????а{?} {???? ????} ???????i?{??} ?? ???????: л??????[,] [???????12,]
<?а?30 ???????? ?????? (?????????? ?а?????????????) ?? ???????.а?
17, 40> ?? ?????????? ?????╗ ???? ????-?? ?а ??????? л??? ????╗
<?а?30 ??????? ???????: ??? ????а? 17, 40>, ???????? ??? ????, ???
??? ?????????? ???????? ???????i?.13 {?????? ??????????, ??????
????? [?а????????<??????>] ????? ??????????: ???? <?а?30 ????????: ?????????; ????а? 17, 40> ?? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ?а??????????, ??
?а ??<,> ?????? ????<,> ?а ???????? ??????????. л?а ???? [??? ???
??????, ???? ?????<???> <?а ?30 ????????: ?????<??>а ? 17, 40>]
????? ???????? ?????, ????????? ?а?????????????, ?? ??????? ?????? ???? ?????????, ?? ??????? ?????? ???? ?????????? <?а?30 ????????: ????????????а ? 17, 40>, ???? ?? ?? ????????, ???? ??
??а?????╗}14 .
10
?. ?. ????????
?????????????? ??????????????? ????????? ???? ?????? ??????????, ???????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????, ???????
?а???????? ????? ?а???????? ???????????, ??????? ?????????????
????? ?????? ?а?????????? ????????? ??????. ????????? ??????, ????? ????, ????????? ???????? (?????????????) ??? ??????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????????? ????????? ?а?????????
(?????????) ??????: ???????????? ??? ?????? ??????, ?а??????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ??????????, ??????????? ???????, ???
?????????? ???????? ????? ?а??????????? ?????????, ??????????????? ??? ?? ??????????????? ??????.
??? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?а?? ????????????? ??????????
???? ???????? ??????: ?а????????? ???????, ?????? ?????????
????????? ???? ?а??????????, ????????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ??????????? ??????. ??? ???? ?????????????? ??? ???? ???????? (??????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????? ????????,
?? ?а?? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????): ???????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ????? ????????????????? ???????? ?а?? ?????? ?????. ?а?????????, ?а????????? ????
??????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ????????:
?. ??? ??? ??? ????? ????????? ??? ?? ???, ?а??? ?????, ???????, ??
?????, ?????? ??????! ?? ??? ????. ?. ??? ??? ??? ????? ????????? ???
?? ??? ?а ?????? ?????? ????????, ?а ??? ?????, ???????, ?? ?????,
?????? ??? ??????!...
??? ??????? ? ?????????? ??, ??? ???????? ?а??????? ???? ??????,
??? ?а? ?? ???????. ??? ??????? ???????????? ?а?????а? л?а??????
?????? ????????╗ ?ал???╗а? ??????????, ????? ???????, ???????????? ??????????. ?????? ??? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?а?????? ????????:
?а??? ??????? л???╗: л???? ??? ???? ????? ????????? ??? ?? ???,
{?? ?????? ?????? ??????i?} ?а???? ?????, ???????<,> ?? ?????,
?????? ??????!╗
?а??? ??????? л?? ?????? ?????? ??????i?╗: л???? ??? ???? ?????
????????? ??? ?? ???, ?а???? ?????, ???????<,> ?? ?????, ??????
{???} ??????!╗
???????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????????
11
????? ???????? л???????╗ ?????? ????????? ?????? ????????,
????? ?а???????? ??????????? ??? ????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ???????????, ????????? ???????. ??? ????? ???????
?а?????????????? ???????????? ????? л?????????????╗ ????????,
?????????? ?? ?????????????? ????????? ????? ??????, ????? ????????????? ?а?????, ?а?? ???????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????? ?а?????????????? ?а?????????
??????????????? ??????.
?? ??? ???????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????, ??????????? ???? ???????? ????????? ??????: ???, ?а?????? л?????╗, ?а??????? ?? л?????????╗, ??????????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?а???????? ???????? ????????????. ??????????????, ?а?????? ?????? ??????
?а????????? ????????? ?а???????? ?????????? ?? ?????. ?? ?????????
???? ???????? ???????, ????????? ?а????????????? ??????? ???????
?а???????????? ?????????????????? ??????????? ????????. ?? ????
?????? ????????? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ?????????????, ?????????? ????????, ???, ?????? ???????, ?????????????? ???????????
????????, ????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?????????. ????????
?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?а???????? ?а?????? л?????╗ (?????.
?.а212.1.5. ?. 37), ????????? ???????????????? ?????? ?????????, ??????????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ??????.
???. 6
12
?. ?. ????????
Z15 ??? ?????????? ?? ????[. ?]{?}? ??????. ???? ??? ????? ??????.
???????, ????????? ??????, ?????????? ???????? ??? ??????. ????
??????? ?? ???? ??????????. ?????? ?? ???????. ??? ??? ????????.
???? ????????. ?????????? ??? ?? ?????. ???? ???????? ???????, ?????; ???????????? ????; ??????????? ????????????16 . л?? ?а ???????
?а?? ???????? ???? ?? ??i???.╗ ?а????? ?? ???????; ???? ???????? ???????????.
?? ????? ?????? ??????: л???? ???????? ???????а~ ???????????
????????????╗а? ??????? ??????: л(?????????????? ??i?????, ??
?????????)╗. ?а?30 ???????? ???????? ????? ???????? ????а? ??????, ?? ??????? ???????????? ?а?????????? ???????? ???? ???????????: л??? ?????? ?? ???? ??????????. (?????????????? ???????,
?а?????????)╗ (9,а143). ??? ?????? ????????????????? ?????????????,
??????? ?? ??????? ????????????? ?а?????????: ????????? ????????
?????????? ?а?????? ?????, ?а???????? ??????? ?? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ????????, ???? ???????? ??? ???? ???????? ?а???
??????? ????? ??? ????????? (?? ?? ?????? ?????) ?????? ????а? ???????? ?????????? ???????????. ?? ????? ???????? ????? ?? ??????????, ??????? ????????? ??????? ?????????, ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ??? ?? ???? ???????, ??? ?а???????, ????????
???????? ?????????. ?а?????? ?????? ???????? ????? ??????????
?а?????? ????????? ?а???? ???????? ????? ?????? ????? ?а????, ???
??????? ????? ???????????? ?ал?????????????? ???????, ?а?????????╗, ?а??????????? ??? ????????????? (л??????? ???????╗, л??????????? ????╗, л?????????? ????????????╗, л?? ?а??????? ?а?? ????????
???? ?? ??????╗). ?а????????? ??????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ?????
?????????????? ?????? ??????, ????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ?а????????? ????????? ?а??? ??????????, ????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????17, ??????, ?а??????? ?? ????? ?????????, ?а?????????
????? ?? ??????????? ????? ????????, ??? ????????????? ?а???????????.
?????????????? ?????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ??-???????:
??-??????, ??? ???????? ?а???????? ????, ?а??????? ????????????,
??-??????, ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ???? ?????? (??? ??????????? ??????? ?????????????) ?а?????????? ????????? ?????
?????? ?а??????????? ???????????, ??????????, ????? ????, ??????????? ???????????? ????????? (?????? ????? ???????????????
???????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????????
13
???????????? ?а?30). ???? ?????????? ??? ???????, ?? ??????а? ????????????????а? ?????? ?????? ??? ??????????, ?? ?????? ????????
??? ??????????? ???????? ??????; ?????? ?????? ??????????, ?? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ?а???????? ??? ????????.
?????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ?а?????????????????
?????, ??? ??? ????????????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????
????????? ???????? ?а???????? ???????? ???????????????? ??????18.
??????? ????????????????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ?а??????????? ?? ????, ????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ?а??
??????? ????????: ?????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????; ??????
?а???????????? ????????; ?????? ?а???????? ?????????????? ??????.
?? ?? ????? ??????? ??????? ?а?а?????????? ???????? ??????, ?а?????
?????????? ?а????????? ????? ?? ???????.
????????? ???????????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ???
?????????? ??????????? ?????? ?а??????, ?? ???????, ??????, ???????????????? ?? ???? ?а??????????????? ?????????, ????? ???????????????? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????.
????? ?????? ???????????????? ??????? ?????? ???? ?????????
?а?????: ????????, ????????????? ?????? ?????? ????? ??? ???????????? ?а?????????? ??????? ??????, ?а????? ??? ???????????? ?????.
???? ?? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ?а????????, ??????????? ????????? ?????????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????????? ???????? ????????, ???????? ????????????????? ????????
?? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????. ?а?30 ???? ???????? ????????, ?? ????????????? ???????? ????????????????? ????????,
??????? ???????????? ??? ????????? ????????? ???????? ?а???????
?????????? ????????????,а? ?????? ?????, ??? ?????????? ?????? ???
??????????? ???????????? ??????. ?????? ???? ?????? ????????????
?? ?????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ?а??????????????.
???? ?? ????????? ???????????????? ?????? (?а?30 ?? ?????????
? ???????? ????????? ?? ?? ???????????), ?? ?????????? ?????????
????????? ???????? ?????????? ?а???????????? ??????? ?? ?????
?а?? ???????????. ????? ????? ???????? ?а??????? ????????? л??????? ???????????╗ ??? ????????? ?. ?. ???????? [21]19, ?а???????
???? ?? ?????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????,
?? ?а???????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? (????? ????????????),
??????????? ?? ????? ????????. ?а??????????? ??????????? ??????
?. ?. ????????
14
????? ???????????? ????? ?? ???????????????. ?а???????? ???????
????????? л??????? ???????????╗, ?????????????? ?. ?. ???????????а[24], ???????? ????? ???????????? ??????????????? ????? ???????????????, ??? ?а????????, ????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????. ????? ????, ?????????? ????????, ?? ????????? ?а????????
?????????, ???????? ????? ??????, ?а??? ??????? ??? ????????: л????????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ??.а??????, ?. ?. ??????????? ??
???????????????? ?а?? ?????????а<?> ??????? ???????? ?а???
????, ???? ??? ???? ????? ???????? ???????? ??????. ??????, ????????????? ?а????, ??? ?? ?????? ????????????, ?а???????? ??????
?а????? ?????????? ????? ?????????╗ [21, 348].
????????? ?????????????? (?30) ?а????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ????????????, ??? ?а?????? ??????????? ???? ????? ????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????,
?? ??? ???? ?????? ????????? (???????????) ?????? ??????. ?а?30
?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??????????, ?? ??? ???? ??????????
???????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????.
????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? л??????
??????????╗ (????а???. ?. 93.аI.2.1/19. ?. 8) ??????????, ??? ?????????????? ????? ?а??????????? ?? ????????? ?????????, ?а??? ?????
?????????????????:
???. 7
????????: л??????а? ??????-????????? ???? ???? ?????????╗.
???????: ???<???>?а(283).
?30: ?????а(7, 322).
?а??????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????: ???????? ?? ??, ??? ?а???????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ?????, ?????
????????? ?а???????????? л???<???>?╗. ?????? ????????? ?????????? ?а?30 (?а?????????? ???????????????? ?????? ??????: л?????╗ ?????? л????╗). ???????????, ??? ????а? ???????? ????, ??????????,
?????????? ????????? ?????????? ?а??? ?????? ??????????? ???????:
л??? ??? ?? ????? ?????? ???????????? ??? IXа?????? ????????????
????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????
???????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????????
15
???????? ??????????? ??????-????????????? ??????? ?????????
?????????, ??????????? ?????? ??????? ????? (????????? ????????
????а? ????? ???????? ???????!). ??? ???? ?? ??????? ??????????,
?а?????? ????????????, ????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ?????????
????? ?????? ?а???? ?? ????????? (?????????, ?? ??? ??? ???????????
?а??????????????? ???????)╗ [19,а272].
???????????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ?а?????? ?а???,
??? ???????? ???????а? ????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?а????? ?????????. ????????? ??????????? ?а???, ??? ??????????????? ???? ??
??????????? ??????????, ?? ???? ??? ???????????? ??????? ????????
????????????? ?????????????-??????????? ?а?а?????? ???????????
?????? ?а???????? ?????? ????????, ?????????? ????????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ????????????. ?? ????? ???????? ???????
??????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ???? ?? ????? ??????
?а?????? ?????????????, ?? ?а????????????а? ????????? ? ???????,
??????????? ?? ??????, ?????? ????? ?? ????????, ?????????. ?????
????? ?? ?????? ????? ???? ?????????????, ??????????, ???????????? ?а???????? ?????????????, ?? ?а????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?? ???? ???? (????? ?????????? ???????). ?а????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ????????, ?? ???????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ???? ??????? ?а??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????
(??????????? ?а???, ????????? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ??????
?а?????), ????? ???????? ???????. ?а????? ??????, ??? ????????? ??
л???????????╗ ??????????????? ????????? ???????????, ??????????? ????????? ???????????, ???????????? ??? ??????????? ????????
??????. ??????????? ??????????? ????? ?? ???????????? ????????????????; ???????????, ??? ?а??????? ?а??????? ????????,а? ????????????????, ????????-???????????? ?а????????.
??? ???? ???????????????? ??????: ??? ?????????, ???? ????????
??????? ???????? ????????? ?а?????????? ?????????????? ????????????? (????????, ?а??????? ?а????????????? ???????? ????????????)? ????? ???? ?? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??????а? ?а??????????? ????? ???????, ??? ????? ???????????????. ??, ????????
????????? ????? ?????? ?????, ?????????? ????????? ?а??????????
??????? ?????????????, ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ??????
???????? ?????????? ?? ???? ???????? ?а????????? ????????????
16
?. ?. ????????
??? ??????? ?а???????? ?? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????
???????????? ? ??????. ???? ?????? ???????? ????????.
???????? ?? ???? ???????? ?а???????? ?????????? ?????????????
???????? ???????????? ?????? ???????? 1860-?а? ?????? 1870-?а?????20 . ?а?????? л????????????╗ ??????????????? ?????? ????????
???????? ??? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ???????
??????? ?????? ???????. ?? ???????? ?а?????? ???????, ?????????????? ?а????????? ???, ??? ????? ???????, ??? ???????, ????????
????????? ????????, ??? ????????? ?? ?? ????????????? ?????????????????, ???????????? ?? ?????? ???????,а? ????????? ?? ?а??????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????. ?а?30
????? ???????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ?????, ?а???????????? ?а???????????, ??????? ?а??????????? ??????? ???????????????? (????? ??? ????????? ??? ?а????????) ?а?? ?????? ???????? ???????????
????????????. ????? ???????????? ???????????????? ???????? ????
?? ?????????? ???? ????? ???????, ?????????? 1866?1872а??????,
?а????? ??????? ?а????? ????, ??? ??? ??? ???????? ???????? ????
?а??????, ??????? ???????? ??? ????? ?????????? ????????, ??? ?????
???????, ??? ?а???????????. ??? ????? ?а??????, ??? ??????? ????????? ????????? ???? ???????? ?а??????-?? ?????? ????????????
????? ???????? ?а??????????? ????????????? ?а?????????? ???????
?????????????? ???????? ??????.
?а????????? ????? ????? ??????????????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ?а?????????? ??????????? ?????? ?а????????? ????? ???? ??????????? ???????? ????????????, ?а??????
???????????? ???????, ???????????, ???????? ????????. ?????? ??
????????? ?????? (???????, ???????? ?????????, ???????) ??????
???? ?????? ?????????? ??? ??????????, ???? ?????????? ????????,
?а??? ???? ????????, ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????, ??? ??? ??????? ??????????
?????? ???? ?? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ??? ?????, ?? ?????? ??? ?а?????????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? 21. ??????????
????? ?????????, ??? ????????????, ????????? ?а??????????? ?а??????? ?????????? ????????????, ?????????????, ?а??? ????????????
?????? ???????????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?а??????????
?????????? ????????????? ????????: ?а??????? ?????? ???? ???????, ???????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????????? ???????.
???????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????????
??????????
???????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ???? (????),
?????? л???????? ??????????? ???????? ? ???????? ???????? ?. ?. ???????????? 1868?1870 ??. (????? ??????? ? ????????????? ??????? ????????)╗
? 15-04-00130?.
??. ?????????: [16,а119?129, 332?363].
??????? ????? ???????? ?. ?. ??????: л??? ?????????????? ??????????
?????? ?????????? ???????, ????? ??????????? ???????? ?а??? ????, ?а?????
?? ???????????? ??????, ?? ????? ??????????? ??????? ? ?? ???????? ??????
?????????╗ [23,а162].
?????а? ?30; ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ?????????? ?а?????? ?????? ?а?????????
???? ?а???????? ?а??????? ???????.
?. ?. ?????????, ?????? ?а???????? л????????????? ?????????? ??????????
???????? ?????? ????????????╗, ???????????, ??? ?а????? ??????? л??????
???????? ??? ????????????? ??????, ?а??????? ??? ???????? ?а??????? ????????????? ??? ?? ?????????╗ [14, 92]. ??. ?????: [3, 52?53]; [11, 80].
????? ?????? ?????????? ?а??????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????, ?????????
?а??????, ?а????????? ?а?????, ?? ????, ???? ???, ??? ?а??. ??., ????.:а[1].
?а?????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????, ?а????????
???????а? ?????????.
????? ?????? ?а????????? ???? ???????а1.
????? ?????? ???? ???????а1.
??????? ????? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ???????а1.
????? ?????? ???? ???????а2.
??????? ????? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ???????а2.
??????? ????????, ??? ????? ??????????? ???????????.
????? ?????? ???? ???????а3 (?а???????? ???? ???????? ???????, ?а???? ?????
?????).
??????? ????? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ???????а3.
???? ??????.
?? ????? ?????? ??????: (?????????????? ??i?????, ?? ?????????).
??.: л?????? ???????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? (????? ???
?а?????? ????????)╗ (8,а25); л?????????? ???? ??????? ?а?????? ?????????????.
?????? ?? ?? ????, ????? ?а??? ?????????????, ????????, ??? ???? ?????????
?а???? ????? ??????, ?а??????? ??? ??? ???-?? ???????, ?? ?????? ??? ??????
????? ?а????? ??? ????? ?а????????? ???????? ?? ????????. ??????? ??????
??? ?? ??????, ????? ????? ??????????????, ??????? ??? ???-?????? ?а??????
???????╗ (8,а44); л?а????? ?? ??? ?? ??????? ????, maman, ????????,а? ?????????? ?? ??????????.а? ???? ?????, ????? ????, ??????? ????, ?а????? ??
?????,а? ??????? ??? ?????╗ (8, 48),а?а??.
??. ?????????:а[13].
?????а? ???????; ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?????? ? ?????????
???????? ? ??????? ???????.
??. ?????????: [17].
??.: [18].
*
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
17
?. ?. ????????
18
?????? ??????????
1. ?????????? ???????? ???????????????? ?а??????????? ?а????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????????а: ????????? ????????????? ??????? ???????????, ??????????? 100-????? ?? ??? ????????? ???????????????? ?????
?. ?. ???????? (1911?2011).а? ??????а: ??????????????? ????? ?. ?. ????????,
2011.а? 206 ?.
2. ????????, ?. ?. [???????? ?? ?????] ?????????? ???????????? 1821?1881?1921 ?.
??????? ?????? ?а?????????? ??? ????????? ?. ?. ?????????. ?????????????
??????????????? ????????????. ??????, 1921. 150а???.а/ ?. ?. ????????а// ???????
?????.а? 1922.а? ?. 1.а? ?. 435?438.
3. ??????????, ?. ?. ???? ?а?????? ?????? л????? ?а????╗ (??????? ?????????
?а????????? ??????)а/ ?. ?. ??????????а// ???????? ??????????? ?а??????????
????????. ???? ??????????? ?а?????????? ??????????????а/ ??? ???. ?. ?????? ?а?. ??????????.а? ??????а: ???, 2003.а? ?.а51?63.
4. ???????????, ?. ?. ?????? ???????? ?????????а: ?а30 ?.а/ ?. ?. ???????????.а?
?????????а: ?????, 1972?1990.
5. ???????????, ?. ?. ?????? ???????? ????????? ?а?????а: ?а35 ?.а/ ?. ?. ???????????а/ ???? (?????????? ???) ???.а? ?. 1?4.а? ?????-?????????а:
?????, 2013?2016?.
6. ???????????, ?. ?. ?????? ???????? ?????????а: ???????????? ??????а: [?а15 ?.]а/
?. ?. ???????????а/ ??? ???.а?. ?. ????????.а? ?. 1?9, 11.а? ????????????а: ????? ??????, 1995?2015?.
7. ???????? ??????? ?. ?. ????????????а/ ????. ?а?????? ?. ?. ????????а;
????. ?. ?. ????????? ?а?. ?. ????????.а? ??????а; ?????????а: ACADEMIA,
1935.а? 475 ?.
8. ?? ?????? ?. ?. ????????????. ?????. ?????????? ?????????а/ ??????????а;
??? ???.а?. ?. ???????? ?а?. ?. ??????????.а? ??????а; ?????????а: ????,
1931.а? 320а?.
9. ?? ?????? ?. ?. ????????????. ???????????? ?а?????????. ?????????? ?????????а/ ??????????а; ????. ?а?????? ?. ?. ????????.а? ??????а; ?????????а:
????, 1931.а? 219а?.
10. ?????????, ?. ?. ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?? ???? ?????????.
????? ?????????? 1917?1933 ??.а/ ?. ?. ?????????.а? ??????а: ?????????-???????? ???????????, 1934.а? ?.а258?281.а? (????? л???????????? ??????????╗а;
?. 15).
11. ?????????, ?. ?. ?а??????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?????? ?. ?. ????? (?а?????????? ???????)а/ ?. ?. ?????????а//
??????? ?????????а: ???????? ???????????а/ ???.а???. ?. ?. ?????????.а? ??????????????а: ???????, 2001.а? ?. 73?91.
12. ?????????? ???????????. ???????? ?????? ?а??????? 1860?1881 ??. / ??а????;
???????? ??????? ?????????? ??.а?. ?. ????????а; ???.а?. ?. ????????????,
?. ?. ?????????.а? ??????а: ?????, 1971.а? 728а?.а? (????? л????????????
??????????╗а; ?. 83).
???????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????????
19
13. ??????, ?. ?. ?? ??????????? ???????????-???????????????? ?????????????
????????? ??????? ?????????а/ ?. ?. ??????а// ?????????????? ?????.а? 2015.а?
? 1.а? ?. 75?94.
14. ?????????, ?. ?. ???????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? (?? ????? л????????????? ??????????╗)а/ ?. ?. ?????????а// ??????????? ???????????а:
?????? ?а????????а/ ???? ??. ?. ?. ???????? ???.а? ??????а: ????????,
1997.а? ?. 89?94.
15. ?????????, ?. ?. ?????????? ???????? ????????????а/ ?. ?. ?????????.а?
??????а: ?????, 1981.а? 368 ?.
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??????.а? ??????а: ????????, ???, 2011.а? 392 ?.
17. ????????, ?. ?. ???????? ?????????? ?а??????????????? ?????????????
???????? ???????????? ????? 1860-?а? ?????? 1870-? ?????а/ ?. ?. ????????а//
??????????? ??????????? [??????????? ??????]а: ????????????? ???????
??????.а? 2016.а? ? 3.а? ?. 70?91.а? URLа: http://unknown-dostoevsky.ru/files/
redaktor_pdf/1477998652.pdf (7.11.2016).
18. ????????, ?. ?., ????????, ?. ?. ???????а? ?????????а? ???????????а: ???????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????а/ ?. ?. ????????, ?. ?. ????????а// ??????????? ??????????? [??????????? ??????]а: ?????????????
??????? ??????.а? 2016.а? ? 4.а? ?.а23?46. ? URLа: http://unknown-dostoevsky.
ru/files/redaktor_pdf/1481719297.pdf (14.12.2016).
19. ?????????, ?. ?. ???? ?????? ?а????????? ???????? ????. л?????? ??????????╗.
?????????? ?а????????????а/ ?. ?. ?????????а// ???????????. ????????? ?а????????????.а? ?. 17.а? ?????-?????????а: ?????, 2005.а? ?.а269?274.
20. ?. ?. ??????????? ?а?????? ??? ??????? л?????????╗. ?????????? ????????а/
??а????а; ???????? ??????? ?????????? ??.а?. ?.а????????а; [??????. ??????
?. ?. ????????]а; ???. ?. ?. ????????????, ?. ?. ?????????.а? ??????а: ?????,
1965.а? 520а?.а? (????? л???????????? ??????????╗а; ?. 77).
21. ?. ?. ???????????. ????????? ?а????????????а/ ?? ????а; ???????? ???????
??????????а; ??? ???. ?. ?. ????????.а? ?????????а: ???-?? ?? ????, 1935.а?
603 ?.
22. ?. ?. ???????????. ???????????? ?а?????????а/ ?? ????а; ???. ??????.
?. ?. ????????? ?а?. ?. ?????.а? ??????а: ?????, 1970.а? 809 ?.а? (????? л???????????? ?????????╗).
23. ??????, ?. ?. ??? ??????? ???????????а/ ?. ?. ??????.а? ??????а: ???. ????????,
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Entw№rfe und Fragmente, erlфutert von W. Komarowitsch.а? M№nchenа: R.аPiper,
1928.а? 619 s.
?. ?. ????????
20
Natalia A. Tarasova
Doctor of Philology, Leading Researcher of the Institute
of Russian Literature (Pushkinskiy Dom),
Russian Academy of Sciences,
(Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation)
nsova74@mail.ru
THE PROBLEMS OF THE PUBLICATION
OF DOSTOEVSKY?S MANUSCRIPTS
(based on draft manuscripts)
Abstract. The article is devoted to the textual analysis and publication of Dostoyevsky?s
draft manuscripts, more specifically sketches in his notebooks and coherent draft texts. The
presented results cover the manuscripts created between 1865 and 1879, such as drafts of the
novels ?Crime and Punishment?, ?The Idiot?, ?The Adolescent?, and ?The Brothers Karamazov?.
The Article also considers in detail scientific approaches to the publication of Dostoevsky?s
creative heritage evolved in the 1920s?1930s and developed later, into the scientific concept
of academic edition of the author?s works. Based on this analysis, the range of issues is
determined, important for modern Dostoevsky studies and for new projects related to the
publication of Dostoevsky?s texts, both paper and electronic books.
Keywords: Dostoevsky, textual criticism, draft manuscripts, publishing practice
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???????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????????
21
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and 
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