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?а???, ??? ????????? ?а???? ????????? ????????, ??а??? ???
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???????? ?????????? [7; 12]. ?а???????? ?? ?а????????? ?????? ?. ?.а???????, ?????????а? ?????, ????? ??????? ????-
???????????? ????????? ?а????????? ?а?????? ?. ?.а???????????? 171
?????? л?????? ?????????? ?а ????? ???????╗ ?????????????? ??????? ?????? [1, 406]. ?а ?????? ?а ????? ?????????
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????????? ????????? ????? ?а ?????????????? ????????????? ?а??????????? ?????????? л?????????╗ ?а???????????
?а???????????? ??????????????? [4; 7; 3; 9]1.
л???╗, л???╗ ?а л?????????╗ ??????????? ?????, ???????????? ??а???????, ?а???????? ??????????? ??? ????????
?????????????? (???????) ?????????? ????. ???, ?а???????? л???╗ 1835 ???? ??????????? ??????????? ???????
??а?????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????
[12, 165?170]. ?????? ?????? ?а????? ?????????? ????? ????? ?а???????? ???????, ?а??????? ???????? ??????? ??а??????????????? ???? ????????? ????? ?????????????? ??????, ???? ??? ?а?????? ???????? ?а??????? ?а????? ?????2.
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????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ?а????? ???????:
л??????????╗ ??????-??????? ????? (??? ????????? ???????? ????????? ??а???: ?????????? ????, ?????? ???? ???????
??????3 ?а?. ?.) ?а????????? ?? ????? ?????. ???????? ?????? ??? ??а??????? ???????? ?????? ??? ????????? ??????.
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172
?а ?????????, ??????????? ?????? ???? ???????? ??????????, ?????????? ??? ????????? ?????? (?????а/ ????),
???????? ?а ???????? л????????????╗ ????????, ?а ???????
?????? ?????. ???? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ????? ??????????-?????????5 [15] ??????????, ??а ??????????? ??? ????? ???????? ?а ?????? ??????? л??????????╗
?????. ??а????? ??а???????? ?а???????? ????? ??? ?????????? ?а???? ??????, ????? ??а????????? ??????, ?????????
?а??????? ??? ??????????: л???,а? ??????????,а? ?а????,
/ ??? ???????, ????????, / ??? ??а???????? ??????? ??!╗ (239).
???????????, ????????? ????? ?а ??????????? ???????
???????? ????? ????? ?а ???????? ?а ???????а ? ?а ???????,
?а ??????? ??????????? ????? 1810?1820-? ??. ????????
????? ?а ????? ????????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????: ?????????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?а ???
???? ??????????? ?а????? ??????? ??????, ?а???? ???????? л????????╗ ???????? ??????, ??????? ??? ??? ?????
????????:
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???? ????????? ????? (231).
?????? ??????? ???????????? ??а??? ????????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????а ? ????????? ?????, ???????
?????? ???????? ????????? ?ал?????????╗а? л??????╗а? ???????, ??????????? ??а????????? ????????? ?а12 ??? ??а14
???? [14, 77?78; 17]. ??????????? ?????? ?????????????
?а ???? ????? ??????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????
????????а ? ?????????, ?????????? ?а ???????? ????? ???-
???????????? ????????? ?а????????? ?а?????? ?. ?.а???????????? 173
??????, ?а ??? ?а ??????, ??? ?а ??????????? ?а ????? ?????
????????? ?а?????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ?а???????...
???????? ?????? ?а?????? ????????? ?????? ?????, ??? ????????, ?????? ?а??????????? ????????, ???????????? ?????? ????? ????????????? ???? ???????? ???????. (? л????????? ??????╗, ?????? ???????, ?????? ??а??????? ?а??????
??????????? ????????? ?а???????? ??????????а? ???????? ?????????? (23 ????), ???? ?????? (24 ????), ????
?а???????? (25 ????). ??? ???????? ??????? ?а????? ?????????? ??а ????, ????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ???????: л? ?????? ????????? ???? / ??? ?????? ???????? ??????? / ??? ??????? ??а?????. <?> ??? ???????, ??? ??????? /
??????? ????? ??????; / ????????? ?????? ???????? / ???????? ????? ??а????╗ (239).) ????????? ????????? ??? ?????
?????????? ?а???????: ????? ????? ???????.
?????? ?а? ???????? ?ал????????? ??????????╗ ???????????? [18], л????????? ?????╗ ?ал???╗ ???????? ???????????
???????????? ????????????. ?а ?????????????? ???? ???????????? ??? ??а ?????? ??????????? ???????????????
?а???????, ??????, ?????, ????????? ????, ??????????6 ?
?а ?а ????????? ??а л????╗ ????????????? ????? л???╗ ????
?????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?а???????? ?????: ?а??????? ?????????? (!) л??????????? ???????╗ (?????????????? ????): л?? ???????: ???????? / ????????? ??????? ???╗;
?а ? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ???? ??????? ?????????.
?а?????? ???????????? ????????? ???? ????? ???????????? ?????. ?????? ?а????? ???????????????????? ????????
???????? ??????????????? ??? ?????, ??????? ?а ?????.
?а?а???? ????? ???????????? ??? ???? ?????????? ?????????? ?а л????╗: ????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????
???? (л??????? ?а???????? / ???? ??????? ????╗) ?а??????????? ?? ????? ???????? ?а????? ??ал???????????╗: л??? ????????? ?????? / ???? ??????????? ????? ???╗ (251)?
?????? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ????????? ????????? ?ал???╗ ?а?????? ???? ???????????? ?а??????? ??????????? ??????? (л?????? ??а???? ??????????, / ???? ??????????
??????, / ?а????? ?????? ??????? / ???? ??а???? ??????????╗
(231)). ?а??????????? ??????? ?????? ???? ?а???? ?????????
174
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????????????? ?а?????? ?????? ???????. ????????? ???????????? ??????????? л????????????╗ ??????????? ?????а?
?????, ????? ???????? ???????: л? ????? ??????? / ?а?????
?????? ??? ?а ????а / ???????? ?????? ?????????╗. ??а ????
??а ????? ??????? (????? ?????????? ???? (237)) ???????,
????????, ??????: ????? ??????? ????. ?а ???? ??????
???????????? ???????????? ?????, ????????? ?????? ??а??????? ??????, ??????, ??????????? ???????? ?а ????????:
л???????: ????, ??????? ?а????, ??а???? ?? ?????╗ (??. 11:35).
????? ???????????? ?????? ???, ????????? л??????????????╗ ???????? ???????-??????, ??????????? ?????????? ??а????????: л?? ??????? ???? ??? ???? ?? / ??а???????:
?а????? ??????╗ (236),а? ?а??????? ??????; л?????? ????, ??????? ???!╗ (??? ??)а? ?а??????? ???????? ????? ???????.
????????? ??а???????? ???????? ?????? ?????, ?а???????
????????? ??????????? ?????? ?а ??????? ????? ????: л?,
??????? ????????? ????? <?> ?а ?а ???? ?????????, ????, /
???? ?а?????????? ?????????, / ???? ????????? ??????? /
???? ????? ?????????╗ (233). ??? ??????????, ????????????????? ???????? ?а??????????? (?????????) ????? ?????????? ??а?????? ??? ???? ????????????. ??? ????????? ?????? ??????????????? ?а ? ????????????? л????? ?????????
???? ????????╗ (1939), ?а??????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ????? ????? л???????????? ???????╗, ?а ???????????
????? ????????????? (? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?а?????? ????????????) ?????????? ?????? ????????? ????. ?????????????, ??? ???????? ????
??????? ??????????, ??а ??????? ????? ?а ????????? ??????? ???, ?????? ??а ?????? ?а ???????????? ????, ??а ? ?а ??
?????????-????????????????: л???? ????? ???? ????????╗
(235). ????? ????-??????????-????????? ??????????? ?а ?
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????: л??? ?????, ????? ?????╗ (241). ????? ??а??????????
?????? ???????? ??????????? ???, ??а ??? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ?а??? ????? ??? ???????????
?а???????? ?а??????? ???????????? ?????? ?????, ???????
?????? ????????? ??????: ?? ????????? ?????? 1810?1820-?
????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ???????? [15] ?а ??????-
???????????? ????????? ?а????????? ?а?????? ?. ?.а???????????? 175
??? ?а????????? ????? ???????-??????. ????? ????? ????
?????? ??а????????, ??а?????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ??????, ?а ????????? ????? ??????? ????????? ??? ?????. ?????? ???, ??????????????? ?? ??а??? ??а?????? ??????????? ?????, ??????? ?а ?????? ????? ??а ???????
????????. ??? ????? ??????, ??? ???? ?а????, л??? ???? ??????, ??????╗ (241), ??? ????????? ??????, ??? ????? ???????
??????? ?а?????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ???. ???????
???????? ????????? ?????? ??? ?????-???? ????????? ??????????. ????????????, ??? ????????? ???????? ???? ???????? ??????? ??а ??????? ?????????? ????????: ???????
??а????????? ?????, ?а???????? ???.
?? ???? ???? л????????╗ ????? ????????? ??????????, ??????? ???????? ??????? (? ?ал???╗ ?ал????╗а? ????) ?????????? ??????? ?а????, ?а????? ?а? ?????? ???????. ?а??????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ???????-???????? ????????????
???????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ??а ???????? ????,
?????-?? ?????? ?????? ???????, ????????????????? ?? ??????. ????? ??? ????? л??????????╗ ????? ???????? ?а??????: ???а? ???????, ?а????а? ??????. ??а??????-?? ???????
?? л?? ???????╗, ????? ???? ??а????????. ???, ??????? ???????? ???? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ?а ???????? ???????? ?а? ?????? ??????а? ?а?????????? ???? ?????????
?а ??????, ??????? ?а ???? ?????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?а л???? ????????? ???????╗ ???????. ?????? ?????
?а????? ??? ????????????? ?а???????, ??а? ??а????? ???????? ??а????: ??? ??? ??? ?? л?? ?????╗ ?????? ??????а? ????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?а????????? ???????,
?????? ???????? ???? ?????? ?ал??????????? ???????╗, ???
????????? ?????? ????? ?а ????? ?а ??????? ??????????
??а?????. ??? ?????? ??а????????, ?а?????? ???? ??а????????
??????????? ?????????? ????????. ???????? ???????? ????????? ?а? л????╗.
?????? л????? ?????? ???????╗ ???? л???????? ???????? ???? ????╗. ???????? ??, ????? ??????? ???????????: ????? ????? ?а ???????, ??? ?а ???????? ???? ????. (???????,
??? ????? ?а??-??????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ??????
?а ????????.) ?????? ?????а ? ????????? ????? ??????????
176
?. ?. ?????????
???? ?, ????????, ?? ??????????? ???????? ??????, ????????? ?а ??????????, ?????? ????????? ?????7. ????????????
???? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??????, ??? ??????? ?????????? ???а? ?????????? ?а???? ?????, ?????? ?а?????
??????: ??????, ??????. ??? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?а ?????? ?а ??????????? ????? (??? ?а ???), ?????? ??????????? ????? ????????. ?????? ?а ??????? ???? ?????????? ??????????? л??????? ?????╗: л?? ???????? ????... ??, /
??а?????? ?а??????? ???????; / ??????, ??? ??????? ???????,
/ ???? ??????? ?а???????╗ (263). ????? ????а? ??????? ?а???????? ?????????????? ??????.
?а ???? ????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ?а???????? ???????? ?ал????╗. ?????? ?а????????????? ?а????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ?а л???╗ ???? ???????????? ??????????? ?а ????????. ?а ?????? ????????
?????????? ?а л????╗ ????????????? ???????????? ????????: ?????? ???? ?а??????, ????????? ???????? ?????а/ ????,
??????????? ?а??????????? ????????, ?а???????????? л?????╗ ????????? ????. ??? ?????? ??? ?????????? ?а??????
л???╗, ??а? л????╗ ??? ???????????? ?а???????????? ???????.
?????????????? ???????? ?????а? л??????? ?????╗. ??????????, ??? ????? ??? ??????? ?а????? ?????????? ?а??????
????? ?????: ??????? ??? ?? ?а????? л? ???? ???????????
????╗. ???? ????????? ?а ? ??????????? ??????? ??????
????: л??? ?????? ????? ???????, / ??? ?????????????? ????????, / ?????? ????????? ????????, / ??????? ???????
?????? ???а? / ??????????? ??? ???????, / ?????? ?а??????
?????? ???╗ (253). (? ???? ????????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? (?? ??????? ?????????) ?а ?????? ????, ????????? ??а?????? л??????╗.) ?????? ????? ???????? ???? ????????? ?????? ??а???? ???????? ????? ?а???????? л??????╗
????, ????????? ??а???? ???????? ???????, ????????????
???????. ?????????????, ??? ?????????? л????╗а? л??????
???????╗, ?????????? ???????? ????????, ?а ???????????
????????? ???????????а? ???????? ???? ?а??????? ????
?а????????? ??????? ?????, ???????? ?а????????. ???? ??????? ????, ??а????, ??????????????а? ??? ???????? ?????????? ??а ???????????? ????. ??? ????? ??????? ???????
???????????? ????????? ?а????????? ?а?????? ?. ?.а???????????? 177
?????????? ???? ????????? ???????, ???????????????
???????? ?????. ????? ???????? ????????? ??????????????????? ????? ?а??????????? ???? ???????, ??? ?????? ??????. ??????????, ????????? ???????? ?а ?????????? ?????
?а???? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????????? (? ????????а ? ???????????????) ????????? ?????.
?а??а???? ???? л????????╗ л???╗а? ????? ???? ?????????????
?????.
??? ???????? ??????? ????????????, ??????? ????? ???????? л??????????╗ ????????????? ????? ??????? ?а???????????? ???????? ?????? XIX ???? [5]. ?а??????? ????? ??????????? ????? ??????????, ??? ????? ???????? ?а ?????
??????а? ????? ?????8. ????????? ???? ?а??????? ????????
??????? ?а ??????????? ????????? (25 ???????) ?а ?????? (?
25-?? ??????? ??а?????????? ?????????а? 5 ??????). ??????
??????????? ????????? ??????????????? ????? (??????????) ?а????????? ?????? ???????, ??????? ???????????? ????? ??а?????????. ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ????? ????????????? ??????????????? ????????: ????????? ?а????
??????? ????? ?а??????, ??а??????? ?????? ?а???????? ?????? ??? ??????? [8, 12]... ?а ???????????? ?а ????????????
?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а ?????? ????????
??????????а ? ????, ?????????, ???? ??а ???????, ???????????? ?а?????????????? ???? ?а??????? ???? ?а?????????????? ???????????. ???????? ???????????? ?а ????????
????? ???? ????? ???????? ?????? ?. ?.а?????? ?а???????????? (???????, ????? 14, 1827 ????) ?а???????????? ???????
??????????: л?????? ?????, ???????? ????? ??????, ????
??????? ?????????? ????????? ?а ???????? ?????; ??? ?????
???? ????? ??????????, ????? ?а?????? ?а?????????╗ [11, 190].
????????????? ?а???, ??? ???????? ??? ????????? л???╗
????????????? ?????, ?а?? ????? ?????????? ??а????? ????,
???????????? ?а??????? ??? ???? ????????, ??? ??а???????
????? ??????? л???????╗а ? ??????? ?а ??????. ??а ????
??????????? ?????? ???????? ?а?????? ??????, ?а???????????? ???? ????? ??????? ????????? ?????????а? ????????
???????? ???? ?а????????? ???????????. ??а???? ?????????, ????? ?????а ? ????????? ???????? ??????? ??????.
178
?. ?. ?????????
????????? ??????? л????╗ ????????????? ?а????????? ??????? ??????? л???????╗, ?а ??????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ?? ?????????? ??????-???????????? ???????
?а ??????? ??????????? ???????? ?????. ???????, ??? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ????, ??????????? ???????????? ??а???????? ?????, ?????? ????????? ?????? (л??????? ???? ?????????? ????, / ??????????? ??????
???????, / ??? ?а????? ????? ??????╗ (264)) ????????? ???????? ??а????? ????а? ?????? ?????, ????????, ?а?? ?????? ???????? ?????: ???????? ????? ??а??????? ????? ???????????? ?а????? ??????????? ??????9. ????? ????? ???????
?а???????? ???? ?а? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?а??????? ??????? л????╗. ?????? ????? ?а?????? ???? ?????????? ??????
л???????????? ???????╗: ????? ???????????? ???????????? ???? л??????? ????????╗, л??????? ??????╗ ??а?????????, ???????, ???????, ?????? ?? ???????????? ??а ????
?????? ??????? (????????? ?а ???? ??????? ??????), ??????? ??ал????????╗ ???????? ???????? ????????
???? ?а л???╗ (1824?1825) ?а л????╗ (1825?1828) ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ?а??????? ???? ?????????? ???????? ??????, ?? ?ал???????╗ (1829?1830, ?????????????? ???????? ?????а? л?????????╗) ???????? ?????
???????????? ?а????? ??????????? ???. ??????????, ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ????????? ??????, ???????? ??? ?????? ?????????????. ?????? ?????????, ??? ?а 1829 ???? (?? ????? ?????? ??? л??????????╗)
??????????? ??????? ???????? л?????????????╗ ?????
?а ?????, ?а ??????? ?????? ???????? ????????????? л????????????╗ ?ал???????????╗ ?а??? ????? ??????? л???????╗
????????????? [11, 37]. ?а???????? ?????? ??????? ?а????????? ?????, ?а???????, ??а???????????? ????????? ????????????, ??? ??????? ??????????? ??????? л?????????????╗
?а?????????? ?а????????. ????????? ?а??, ??? ?а?????? ?а?????? (????? ???? ?????? ????, 1831) ??????????? ??? л???
?????╗, л??????????? ????????╗, ?????????? ?а ???????
?а????? [11, 262]. ?а?????? ??а?????? ???????????? ??????
???????? ????? ??а????? ????????? ????????? ????? ???????????? ?а ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????
?а??? ??????? ?а?????? ?а??????.
???????????? ????????? ?а????????? ?а?????? ?. ?.а???????????? 179
???????? ????? ??, ??? ????? ??????????? ?????????
???? ???????? ???????. ???, ??????? ????? ??????????
?а?????: ??а??????? ?а????????? ??а??????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ???? ??????????, ??????????? ??? ?????
??? ??????????? ?????. ?а ???? ??????? ???????? ?????
??а ???????? ?????????? ?а ???????? ???????? ???????
??а ??????? ????? ?????. ?????????? ????????? ???????
???????? ????? ???????а? ????????? ?а???а? ????, ??а?????? ??? ?а???????? ???????а? ?????, ???????? ???????????
????????????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ?????, ??????? ???
???? ??????? ????? ?????????? ??а ????? (????????????
л????╗ ?????????????? ?????????) ???????? ???? ???????
?а????? ??????? ?????? (л? ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????. /
??????? ????? ????????, / ??, ???????????, ???? ?? ????? /
?а ???? ????? ????? ??а ???╗ (280)). л??????? ???? ?????????╗, ????? ????? ??????? ??а?????, ?а??????? ?а????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ??????а ? ???????? ??????? ????????а ? ????? ??? ???????? ????????? ?а ?????. ?????
??а??????????? ??????? ?а???????? ???????? ????? ?а????????? л???????????? ??????? ??????????, ?????? ????
??????╗ ??????? ?????????, ??????????? ???????????. ???????? ???????? ?а ??????????? ????? ?????????? ??а ???
?????????? ?????? ??????? ???????: ??а????????? ?????????
???????? ??????, ??????????????? ????, ?а????? ?????????? ???а? ??????? ?????????? ?а???????? ?????, ????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?а ???????
??? ????????????? ?а????? ???????: л?? ?? ????? ???????
???????: / ????, ?а??????? ??? ?? ?? / ???????? ???? ?????
?????. / ???????? ?????? ???????, / ?? ???? ???????? ????? / ?????????? ???? ?????; / ??а????????????? ??????? /
???? ??? ????? ??????? / ??? ????? ???????? ???????╗ (289).
?а л???????╗ ??????????? ?????? ???????? ?а ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????, ?????? ?????????
????????? ???????. ???, ?????, ?а ???? ???????????????
????????? л???╗, ???????????? ?а ?????????? ??????????
?а ????? ?а ????: л?????? ???? ??а ?????, / ?????? ???????
?????, / ??? ??? ????????? ??? / ????? ??????? ?а??? ??????╗ (293). ??????? ???? ?????????????? ??????? ??????????
180
?. ?. ?????????
???? ???? л?? ???? ?????? ?а??????╗, ?а????? ?????????????? ?????? ????? ?????? ???? ????? ????????. ?????? ????????? ????? л?????????╗ ???????, ???????? ?????????????,
???????: ???????? ???????, ?а???????? ???????а? л????????? ???????╗а? ????????? ??? ????, ??? ?а???? ???????????,
л????? ??????????? ????????╗ ?а?????????? ?? ?????????
????. ??а ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????
??а ??????????. ?а ????????? ?????????? л?????╗ ?????????
?а???????????? ?а????????? ???????? ?а???? ?????, ?а???????
?????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ???? ??????
??????? ??????: л???? ??? ??????, ???? ???????! / ?? ??????????? ?а?????, / ?а???????? ?? ????????╗ (300). ??????
?????? л?????????╗ ????????? ??????? ?а??? ????...
?????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????. ?????????????? ?????????а? л?????????╗а? ????? ???????? ??а??????? ????????????? ???????? ?????а? ???? (? ?а???????? ?а????????????
???????????? ?????????, ?а?? ???? ?а??????????? ????????),
???? ????? ?а???????????, ??? ????????????? ????????? ????? ???? ????? (????? ?ал???╗), ?а????? ???? ?а???????????
(?????????? ??????? ??а ????????? ?а ?????? ?а л????╗).
?а????????????? ?? ????????а? л???????╗а? ??а???????????? ??????? ?????????? (????) ??????????? ?а ????????.
?а?а?????? ?????? ?????????, ??а????? ??????,а? ??????????? ?а??????????? ??? ???? ?????????? ???, ?????? ??????? ???????? ????? ?????? ???????. ?а????? ???? ??????????.
?а?????????? ????????????? ????а? ??????, ??а???????
???????? ????, ????? ???????????? ?????????? ?а ?????????????? ??????? ????? ?а ??????? ???, ??????????
??а???????, ??а????? ??????????? ?а?????? ???????? ?, ???????, ???????? ?а ????????? ????????. ??????? ???? ?????
??????????: ??а ?????? ????????? ?????, ?а ??????? ?а ???????? ???????? ????????. ?????????? ???????? ????????
??а??????? ?а????? ?а???? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ?????. (???? ????????????? ?????????? ????? ?????????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ????? ??а ????.
???, ?а?????????? ????? ????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ????????????? ?а???, ??????????? ?????
???????????? ????????? ?а????????? ?а?????? ?. ?.а???????????? 181
?а????????????? ??????: л???? ???, ?????? ??????? / ????????? ?????, ??? ??? / ?????? ???????????? ????????.
<?> ????? ??????? ?????? ????. / ?????? ???? ??? ????? /
??????? ????? ????????╗ (276?277)10. ?????? ??? ???????
??????????? ?а ????? ????? ?????????? ?а ????? ?? ???????? (????? ????? ?????) ????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ?а????? ??а?????????: л???? ???????? ?????? / ???? ????? ???? ??????? <?> ?? ?????? ??????? ??????????; /
????? ????? ???, ????????, / ????? ???????, ??????? ???. /
????? ????????? ???????????? / ??, ??? ?? ???????? ??????????╗ (285). ?а ????? ?а ???????????? ???? ????? ????????
(?????????? ???? ????????? ?????) ?а??????????? (?????????). ?а????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ????????
????????, ?????????? ??а ??????, ?????????????? ????????.
????????, ?а ????? ????????????/???????????? ??????????
??????, ??????? ???????????? ????? ?а???, ?????????????
????????? ????? ????? ????, ?а ??????? ??????????? ?а ???????????.) ??????, ??? ?????????? ?????? ?а???????? ?????? ????????????? ????, ?а?????????????? ???? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ?а ?????, ???????????
??????. ??????? ???? ???????? ??????, ?????????? ????????
?а ?????, ?а ?????? ?а ??????? ?????????? ?а ???? ?а ?? ?????
??????? ???? ?а???, ??? ?? ??????? ?а???? ??????????? ?????????????, ??? ???????????? ??????? ????, ?????????? ????? ?а????????????????? ??? ?а???????????? ??????, ???????????? ?????????? ???? ????????а? л?????????╗, ??а???????
?а ?????? ???????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????, ??????????????????? ??а?????? ???????.
??? ????? ???????????? ?а??????????? л?????╗ ???????????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????. ?????? ???????,
?????? ????????? ?а ?????? ???? ?а л???????╗ (л??????
????.а/ ??????, ???????? / ?????? ??а??????????? ???????╗
(282)). ?????? ??? ??????????? ?а ? ???? ??????, ???????
?????? ???? ????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?а ????. ?а ???
??????????? ??????????? ???????? ??а ?????? л?????╗ ???????-??????????????? ????????? ?????? ?а??????? ????????11 [13]. ??????????? ?а ???????????? ???????? ???????
?????? ???????? ???? ????????????? ?????????? ???????
182
?. ?. ?????????
[2, 80?132], ?????????????? ?а ??????????? ????????????
???? ?????? ???????. ??????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?а???????? ??????????? ???????????? ??а?????? ?????????????? ???????? ????? ???????????
????? ?????: л??????? ??? ??а?????? ??? / ??? ?? ????????????? ???????╗ (283). ??а??????? ?????????????????? ??????????? ?а???, ??? ?ал???????╗ ?????????? ???????? ??а?????????? ?а??? ????????? ????12. ?а??????? ?????????? ????????
???? ???? л??????? ?а????????╗ ????? ???? ?? ?????????,
??????? ?????? ??а ???????, ?а ??? ???????????? ??????а ?
??? ?а?????а? ??????? ????? ?????? ???????????. ???? ????? ??? ????? ??????????????? ??а ??????????????? ???????? ?а???????? ?????????? л????? ????╗ ????.
???????, ??? ???????? ?????????? ?а л????╗ ?а л???????╗
?????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ????????, ??????
??? ??а??????, ??? ??????????? ?????? ???? ?а???????????? ???????????. ?? ???? ???? л????????╗ ???????????? ????
????? ??????????? л???????????╗ ???????: ?а??????? ???
???? ??????????????? ??а ???????; ????? ??????? ???? ??????????? ???? ????; ???? ?????????? ????? ???? ?????????? ?а?????? ?а?????? ????? ????????? ????????, ??? ????...
??? ?????????? ???? ???????? ?????????? ?а ?????????
??????? ?а?????????????? ???? ??????? [3], ?????? ??????
????????? ?а???? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????? ????, ?а ??? ????? ???????????? ?а ???????, ?а ???????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????? ?а ????? ?а ????????? ???????????? ??????.
?а ???? ?????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????????????
л?????? ?а ?????? ?????╗ 1838 ???? ??? ??????? ???????????? ????? ????????????? ??? ????????? ???????????
л????╗. ??? ????????? ??а ???????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? (????????????????? ?а ????? ???????????????
?????? ?????а ? ????????) ?а ??????? ?????? (? ???????
??????????) [16]: л?????? ?а ?????? ?????, / ????? ?????
?????,а / ?????? ??????? ???????а / ????? ??????????? ??????.а/ ?, ???????? ????????,а/ ????????, ?????? ?а???? ???,а/
??а????? ???? ???????,а/ ?а???? ?????????? ???╗ (180).
???????????? ????????? ?а????????? ?а?????? ?. ?.а???????????? 183
????? ???????, ??????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????
??????????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????? (??? ????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ????, ?а????????а? ????????????? ??????? ????? ????????????? ?????????), ????? ????,
???? ??????????? ???????????? ?а????????? ???????? ??????. ?а??????????? ????????? л????????? ?????????╗ ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ??а????????
??????????????? ?????? ??? ?????.
??????????
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
??а????????? ??? ??????????? ???? ????????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????, ??., ?а???????, ??????
?. ?.а???????? [4], ?. ?.а???????? [7], ?. ?.а???????????? [3], ?. ?.а????????? [9] ?а??..
??????????, ???? ??? ????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ?а л???????╗, ?????? ??? ??????? ??а л???╗ ????????????. ??? ????????,
??а?????? ?а?????? ??????? ?????? л???╗ ??????????? ???????????
??????? ??а???, ?а????? ????????? ??? ?а???????? ???? ????????
???????-??????, ??????????? ?а???????, ?а?????? ?????? ??а???????????? ?????? ?а????? 1824 ???? ?а???? 1825 ?????? ?????? ????????, ?????????? л???╗. ??., ?а???????: ???????? ????? ?а?????????? ?. ?.а ???????: ?а 4 ?.а / ????. ?. ?.а ?????????? (1799а ? ????.
1826), ?. ?.а??????? (????.1826а? 1837)а/ ???. ???. ?. ?.а????????. ?.:
?????-Slovo, 1999. ?.а462, 465, 468, 556 ?а?. ?..
??????????? ????????? ??? ??????? ?а???????? ????????. ?????
?а???????????? ??????? ?????? ???а? ?. ?.
??????????? ?. ?.а ?????? ???????? ?????????????. ?.: ???. ????????, 1957. ?.а228?229. ????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ??а????? ??????? ?а????????? ?????? ??????? ?а??????? ??????? ??а???????.
???????? ?а???????????????? ?а????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ??. ?а?????? ?. ?.а?????????? [15].
??а??????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????? ??а???????? ????? ???
????????? ?????????? ?а????????????.
??а?????? ?????? ?????, ????????????а? ???????? ??а??????? ????????, ????? ??????????? ??????? ?а???????? ??а????. ?а???? ????
???????? ?????? ??? ???????? ????? ????????? ???????.
????? ??????????????? ????, ??а? ??????? ????????, ??? ?????.
??а ??????? ????? ?а ??? ????? ???????? ???????? ????????????
??а?????? ??а????????? ?а??????????? ????????.
184
9
10
11
12
?. ?. ?????????
??а???? ?????????, ????????? ????????? ???? ????????? ???? ???????????? ???????? ??а??????? ???????? л??????? ???????╗ 1833
????: ?????? ????? ??? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?а???????? ???????? ??????? ????? ????? л???????? ??????╗. ??????????, ???
??????? ???? ?а???????????? ?а?????? л???????╗ ?????????????,
?а? ?????????? ?????? ?а??????а? ??????. ?. ?.а??????? ????????????? ???????????, ??? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?а??????? ?????????? ??а????????? ??????? [7, 149].
??? ????????????? ?????, ?????????? ????????? ????? ??а????????? ?????, ??????? ??? ?? ?????? ?????? л?????????╗ ??????????
?а????? л????????? ??????? ?????????? ??а1831 ???╗, ???????????
?а??????? ??????? л?????????╗. ??. [11, 268].
????? ???????? ?а????????? ???? ?????? ??????????? ?а???????
????????, ??????? ??ал????????╗ ?????????? ?ал??????╗ ???????
?а????????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ?а???????? ??????-??????, ?а ???????, ?а ???????: л?????? ??????╗ ??????????,
л???? ????????╗ ??????? ?а??..
??????????, ?а?????? ????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ???????????, ??? л?????????╗ ??? ???????????? ?а л???????╗ ??? ???????????? ????????????? ??ал??????????╗ ??????? ???????. ?????? ??????????, ??? ?????? ?а??????????? л???????????╗ ????
????? ??? ?а???????? ????????, ?а?? ????????? ?????? ??а???????? ?????-???? ?????, ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?а ??????????? ?а ?????????. ???, ??????????
?а????? ??????? ????? л?????????╗ (л???????╗) ??????? ??????????? ?а ?????? ????????, ??????? ?????????? ???????? 1829 ????.
?а ??? ?а ?????? 1830 ???? ??????? ?а ?????? ?а ???????? ???????
?а л???????╗ ???????????? (л??????? ?а ?????? ??????╗) ??? ???????????. ?а?????? ?а??????? ???? ?? 1830 ????, ????? ???????? ????????, ?????? ??????????? ?а??????????? ?а??????. ?????? ?????
??????? ??????????: ?????? ?????? ????? л??????? ???????╗, ???
????????, ??а??? ??????, ??????????? л???? ?а??????╗, ?а???????????? ?а????????? ?????????, ?а????????? ????? л???????╗ [10, 1170].
???????????, ?а???? ???????, ???????? ??????? ?ал??????????╗
[11, 247?248]? ??? ??? ?????????? л??????╗ ??а???? ???????? ???????????? ?а?????? ??? ?????? ??? л??????????╗ (л????????╗).
??? ???? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?а ????????????
?????????, ??????????? ??????????????, ??????? ?? ????????????? ?а? ?????? ???????. ???????? ?? ??? ??????????? ????????????а?
?????? ??????????? ??????????.
???????????? ????????? ?а????????? ?а?????? ?. ?.а???????????? 185
?????? ??????????
1. ?????? ?. ?.а ??????? ?????????? ?а ????????: ???????????? ?????? ???. ?.: ???. ???., 1975. 502 ?.
2. ???????????? ?. ?.а????????? ?????? ???? ?а?????????????? ????
?. ?.а ???????: ????. ??????? ??? ?????. ???????: ?????-????????, 2011. 196 ?.
3. ???????????? ?. ?.а ????????? ????????? ?а ?????????????? ????
??????? (??? ??????, ??????? ????): ???. ? ????. ?????. ????:
10.01.01; ???????. ???. ??-?; ????. ???. ?. ?.а ???????. ???????: ?. ?.,
2006 . 242 ?.
4. ??????? ?. ?.а????????? ????????????? ????????? ?а?????????????
????????????а// ????? ??????? ?а???????? ????????????: ??. ????.
??.а/ ???. ???. ?. ?.а???????; ??????. ????????????, 1994. ?.а37?49.
5. ???????? ?. ?.а??????? ??? XVIIIа? ?????? XX ????. ?????, ???????, ????????? [??????????? ??????]. URL: http://flibusta.
net/b/276168/read (???? ????????? 26.05.2014).
6. ??????? ?. ?.а????? ?а?????? ?. ?.а????????????. ??????: ???-?? ??????. ??-??, 1994. 172 ?.
7. ??????? ?. ?.а???????????? л?????????╗ ??????????? л???????╗ (?
???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ?а??????)а// ????????????
????? ?а ??????? ?????????? XVIII?XX ?????: ??????, ?????????????, ?????, ?????, ????. ????????????, 1994. ?.а131?150.
8. ??????? ???. ??????? ??????????????? ?????????а / ????., ?????. ??.
?а??????. ?. ?.а??????????; ??. ?. ?.а??????????. ?.: ??????, 1991. 496 ?.
9. ???????? ?. ?.а ?????? ?а ???? ?????????? ?????????а // ????????
????????. ?. ?.а?????? ?а????????? ??????? ????????. ???.: ?????,
1999. ?.а74?80.
10. ???????? ????? ?а?????????? ?. ?.а???????: ?а4 ?.а/ ????. ?. ?.а?????????? (1799а? ????. 1826), ?. ?.а??????? (????. 1826а? 1837); ???.
???. ?. ?.а????????. ?.: ?????-Slovo, 1999.
11. ???????? ????? ?а?????????? ?. ?.а????????????. 1800?1844.а/ ????.
?. ?.а??????. ?.: ????? ???????????? ?????????, 1998. 496 ?.
12. ???? ?. ?.а???????? ???????? ??????????. ?.: ?????? ?????, 1995.
384 ?.
13. ?????? ?. ?.а ????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? (XIXа ?
?????? XX ????). ???????: ?????-????????, 2011. 129 ?.
14. ????? ?. ?.а ??????? ???????? ????????? (???? ????????-???????????????? ????????????). ?.: ???-?? ???????. ??-??, 1963. 143 ?.
15. ????????? ?. ?.а?????? ???????, ??? ????????? ??????????. ?.:
????? ???????????? ?????????, 1999. 462 ?.
16. ???????? ?.а?. л?????? ?а?????? ?????╗ ?а????????? ????? ?????? л???????╗ ?. ?.а????????????а// ???????????? ??????а? 2011.
?. ?. ?????????
186
??????? ??????????: ???????????? ???????? ?а ???????????? ???????????: ???-?? ? ??????. ????. ????., ????. 100-????? ??а ???
???????? ?. ?.а?????????: ?а3 ?. ????????????: ????. ??-?, 2012. ?.а2.
?.а323?328.
17. ???????? ?. ?.а ???????-?????? ??????????? ?????? ???????, ????????? ?а????????? XIXа? ???. XX ?. ?.: ?????, 1979. 287 ?.
18. ??????? ?. ?.а????????? ????????? ?а??????? ??????????: ????????
XIX ???? ?а?? ????????? ?а???. ???????, 1997. 108 ?.
Lyudmila Vasil?yevna Styebyenyeva (Gayvoronskaya)
Ph.D., Associate Professor of Academy of Social Management
(??scow, Russian Federation)
lvstebeneva@mail.ru
CHRISTIAN SYMBOLS AND CALENDAR IN
EUGENE BORATYNSKY?S POEMS
Abstract. The calendar symbolism is always the component of the artistic
message of the author (usually dating events by the dates of the Orthodox
calendar). Although the time in Boratynsky?s poem Eda is poetically clichщd,
some folklore meanings still can be traced in the sensual atmosphere of the
?magical? spring. In all three poems the author demonstrates the destructiveness
of love passion in the fate of the heroines. In the romantic poems Eda and The
Ball the theme of love temptations is developed by contrasting motivs of
darkness of the night and glowing ?light? of the romance. At the decisive
moment for the heroines the artifact of the Orthodox culture presents a
certain guardrail from the fatal step, the reference point in attesting to the
Truth. As the logic plot of the examined poems indicates, the possibility of
happiness in the life tainted by the sin is negated in Boratynsky?s artistic world.
The poetics of night determines the dynamics of the poems Eda and The
Ball. A calendrical way of thought characterizes the large epic genres and
organizes the plot of Tsyganka (The Gypsy) (Easter, July, the Christmastide
fun and the Eve of Lent), which is a kind of attempt to the author?s ?eclectic?
novel in prose. Boratynsky diverges from literary and cultural traditions not
only in the development perspective of a romantic plot, but also in the
semantics of winter and blizzard.
Keywords: romantic poem, poetics of contrasting motifs, folklore, the
Orthodox calendar
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???????????? ????????? ?а????????? ?а?????? ?. ?.а???????????? 187
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features: Materials of the 10th Russian scientific conference dedicated to the
100th anniversary of I.а A.а Dergachev in 3 volumes [Dyergachyevskiye
chtyeniya ? 2011. Russkaya lityeratura: natsional'noye razvitiye i
ryegional'nye osobyennosti: matyerialy X Vsyerossiyskoy nauchnoy
konfyeryentsii, posvyashchyennoy 100-lyetiyu so dnya rozhdyeniya
I.а A.а Dyergachyeva: v 3 tomakh]. Yekaterinburg, Ural University Publ.,
2012, vol. 2, pp. 323?328.
17. Sokolovaа V.а K. Spring-summer calendar rituals of Russians, Ukrainians
and Belarusians during the XIX ? early XX centuries [Vyesyennye-lyetniye
kalyendarnye obryady russkikh, ukraintsev i belorusov XIX ? nach. XX v.].
Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1979. 287 p.
18. FaustovаA.аA. The author's behavior in Russian literature: approaching the
middle of the XIX century [Avtorskoye povyedyeniye v russkoy lityeraturye:
Syeryedina XIX vyeka i na podstupakh k ney]. Voronezh, 1997. 108 p.
й ????????? ?. ?., 2014
а???????? ?? ?а????????? ?????? ?. ?.а???????, ?????????а? ?????, ????? ??????? ????-
???????????? ????????? ?а????????? ?а?????? ?. ?.а???????????? 171
?????? л?????? ?????????? ?а ????? ???????╗ ?????????????? ??????? ?????? [1, 406]. ?а ?????? ?а ????? ?????????
?????? ?а????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ?????????
????????? ????????? ????? ?а ?????????????? ????????????? ?а??????????? ?????????? л?????????╗ ?а???????????
?а???????????? ??????????????? [4; 7; 3; 9]1.
л???╗, л???╗ ?а л?????????╗ ??????????? ?????, ???????????? ??а???????, ?а???????? ??????????? ??? ????????
?????????????? (???????) ?????????? ????. ???, ?а???????? л???╗ 1835 ???? ??????????? ??????????? ???????
??а?????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????
[12, 165?170]. ?????? ?????? ?а????? ?????????? ????? ????? ?а???????? ???????, ?а??????? ???????? ??????? ??а??????????????? ???? ????????? ????? ?????????????? ??????, ???? ??? ?а?????? ???????? ?а??????? ?а????? ?????2.
???????? ???????? ????? ???? ??а ?????? ???????????
??????? ????????? ????????, ??а ??????????? ?а ?? ?????????? ???????. ???????? ?????????? ?а ?????? ????. ???
????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ?а????? ???????:
л??????????╗ ??????-??????? ????? (??? ????????? ???????? ????????? ??а???: ?????????? ????, ?????? ???? ???????
??????3 ?а?. ?.) ?а????????? ?? ????? ?????. ???????? ?????? ??? ??а??????? ???????? ?????? ??? ????????? ??????.
???????? ??????? ??????????????? ?а???????? ??????????,
?а??????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ?а?????, ????????????
?????? ???????? ????? ?а?? ????????? ?????????? ?????:
????? ?? ?????? ?а??? ????;
<?>
??????? ?????? ??????? ??, ?
??? ???? ?????? ?????? ????
????? ???????? ????????:
????? ?????? ???????,
??? ????????? ?????????
???????????? ???? ?????
?а??а????????? ???? ???????,
????????? ????, ??????? ???????4 .
?. ?. ?????????
172
?а ?????????, ??????????? ?????? ???? ???????? ??????????, ?????????? ??? ????????? ?????? (?????а/ ????),
???????? ?а ???????? л????????????╗ ????????, ?а ???????
?????? ?????. ???? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ????? ??????????-?????????5 [15] ??????????, ??а ??????????? ??? ????? ???????? ?а ?????? ??????? л??????????╗
?????. ??а????? ??а???????? ?а???????? ????? ??? ?????????? ?а???? ??????, ????? ??а????????? ??????, ?????????
?а??????? ??? ??????????: л???,а? ??????????,а? ?а????,
/ ??? ???????, ????????, / ??? ??а???????? ??????? ??!╗ (239).
???????????, ????????? ????? ?а ??????????? ???????
???????? ????? ????? ?а ???????? ?а ???????а ? ?а ???????,
?а ??????? ??????????? ????? 1810?1820-? ??. ????????
????? ?а ????? ????????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????: ?????????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?а ???
???? ??????????? ?а????? ??????? ??????, ?а???? ???????? л????????╗ ???????? ??????, ??????? ??? ??? ?????
????????:
??????? ???????? ???????,
?? ????????????? ????????
?? ??а???????? ????? ????;
?????? ??а???? ??????????,
???? ?????????? ??????,
?а????? ?????? ???????
???? ??а???? ??????????.
??а?????? ??????? ?????
????? ?????? ???????????
<?>
????? ????? ???????
???? ????????? ????? (231).
?????? ??????? ???????????? ??а??? ????????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????а ? ????????? ?????, ???????
?????? ???????? ????????? ?ал?????????╗а? л??????╗а? ???????, ??????????? ??а????????? ????????? ?а12 ??? ??а14
???? [14, 77?78; 17]. ??????????? ?????? ?????????????
?а ???? ????? ??????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????
????????а ? ?????????, ?????????? ?а ???????? ????? ???-
???????????? ????????? ?а????????? ?а?????? ?. ?.а???????????? 173
??????, ?а ??? ?а ??????, ??? ?а ??????????? ?а ????? ?????
????????? ?а?????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ?а???????...
???????? ?????? ?а?????? ????????? ?????? ?????, ??? ????????, ?????? ?а??????????? ????????, ???????????? ?????? ????? ????????????? ???? ???????? ???????. (? л????????? ??????╗, ?????? ???????, ?????? ??а??????? ?а??????
??????????? ????????? ?а???????? ??????????а? ???????? ?????????? (23 ????), ???? ?????? (24 ????), ????
?а???????? (25 ????). ??? ???????? ??????? ?а????? ?????????? ??а ????, ????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ???????: л? ?????? ????????? ???? / ??? ?????? ???????? ??????? / ??? ??????? ??а?????. <?> ??? ???????, ??? ??????? /
??????? ????? ??????; / ????????? ?????? ???????? / ???????? ????? ??а????╗ (239).) ????????? ????????? ??? ?????
?????????? ?а???????: ????? ????? ???????.
?????? ?а? ???????? ?ал????????? ??????????╗ ???????????? [18], л????????? ?????╗ ?ал???╗ ???????? ???????????
???????????? ????????????. ?а ?????????????? ???? ???????????? ??? ??а ?????? ??????????? ???????????????
?а???????, ??????, ?????, ????????? ????, ??????????6 ?
?а ?а ????????? ??а л????╗ ????????????? ????? л???╗ ????
?????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?а???????? ?????: ?а??????? ?????????? (!) л??????????? ???????╗ (?????????????? ????): л?? ???????: ???????? / ????????? ??????? ???╗;
?а ? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ???? ??????? ?????????.
?а?????? ???????????? ????????? ???? ????? ???????????? ?????. ?????? ?а????? ???????????????????? ????????
???????? ??????????????? ??? ?????, ??????? ?а ?????.
?а?а???? ????? ???????????? ??? ???? ?????????? ?????????? ?а л????╗: ????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????
???? (л??????? ?а???????? / ???? ??????? ????╗) ?а??????????? ?? ????? ???????? ?а????? ??ал???????????╗: л??? ????????? ?????? / ???? ??????????? ????? ???╗ (251)?
?????? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ????????? ????????? ?ал???╗ ?а?????? ???? ???????????? ?а??????? ??????????? ??????? (л?????? ??а???? ??????????, / ???? ??????????
??????, / ?а????? ?????? ??????? / ???? ??а???? ??????????╗
(231)). ?а??????????? ??????? ?????? ???? ?а???? ?????????
174
?. ?. ?????????
????????????? ?а?????? ?????? ???????. ????????? ???????????? ??????????? л????????????╗ ??????????? ?????а?
?????, ????? ???????? ???????: л? ????? ??????? / ?а?????
?????? ??? ?а ????а / ???????? ?????? ?????????╗. ??а ????
??а ????? ??????? (????? ?????????? ???? (237)) ???????,
????????, ??????: ????? ??????? ????. ?а ???? ??????
???????????? ???????????? ?????, ????????? ?????? ??а??????? ??????, ??????, ??????????? ???????? ?а ????????:
л???????: ????, ??????? ?а????, ??а???? ?? ?????╗ (??. 11:35).
????? ???????????? ?????? ???, ????????? л??????????????╗ ???????? ???????-??????, ??????????? ?????????? ??а????????: л?? ??????? ???? ??? ???? ?? / ??а???????:
?а????? ??????╗ (236),а? ?а??????? ??????; л?????? ????, ??????? ???!╗ (??? ??)а? ?а??????? ???????? ????? ???????.
????????? ??а???????? ???????? ?????? ?????, ?а???????
????????? ??????????? ?????? ?а ??????? ????? ????: л?,
??????? ????????? ????? <?> ?а ?а ???? ?????????, ????, /
???? ?а?????????? ?????????, / ???? ????????? ??????? /
???? ????? ?????????╗ (233). ??? ??????????, ????????????????? ???????? ?а??????????? (?????????) ????? ?????????? ??а?????? ??? ???? ????????????. ??? ????????? ?????? ??????????????? ?а ? ????????????? л????? ?????????
???? ????????╗ (1939), ?а??????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ????? ????? л???????????? ???????╗, ?а ???????????
????? ????????????? (? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?а?????? ????????????) ?????????? ?????? ????????? ????. ?????????????, ??? ???????? ????
??????? ??????????, ??а ??????? ????? ?а ????????? ??????? ???, ?????? ??а ?????? ?а ???????????? ????, ??а ? ?а ??
?????????-????????????????: л???? ????? ???? ????????╗
(235). ????? ????-??????????-????????? ??????????? ?а ?
??????? ????? ???????? ????? ????????? ?а ???????????
????: л??? ?????, ????? ?????╗ (241). ????? ??а??????????
?????? ???????? ??????????? ???, ??а ??? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ?а??? ????? ??? ???????????
?а???????? ?а??????? ???????????? ?????? ?????, ???????
?????? ????????? ??????: ?? ????????? ?????? 1810?1820-?
????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ???????? [15] ?а ??????-
???????????? ????????? ?а????????? ?а?????? ?. ?.а???????????? 175
??? ?а????????? ????? ???????-??????. ????? ????? ????
?????? ??а????????, ??а?????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ??????, ?а ????????? ????? ??????? ????????? ??? ?????. ?????? ???, ??????????????? ?? ??а??? ??а?????? ??????????? ?????, ??????? ?а ?????? ????? ??а ???????
????????. ??? ????? ??????, ??? ???? ?а????, л??? ???? ??????, ??????╗ (241), ??? ????????? ??????, ??? ????? ???????
??????? ?а?????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ???. ???????
???????? ????????? ?????? ??? ?????-???? ????????? ??????????. ????????????, ??? ????????? ???????? ???? ???????? ??????? ??а ??????? ?????????? ????????: ???????
??а????????? ?????, ?а???????? ???.
?? ???? ???? л????????╗ ????? ????????? ??????????, ??????? ???????? ??????? (? ?ал???╗ ?ал????╗а? ????) ?????????? ??????? ?а????, ?а????? ?а? ?????? ???????. ?а??????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ???????-???????? ????????????
???????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ??а ???????? ????,
?????-?? ?????? ?????? ???????, ????????????????? ?? ??????. ????? ??? ????? л??????????╗ ????? ???????? ?а??????: ???а? ???????, ?а????а? ??????. ??а??????-?? ???????
?? л?? ???????╗, ????? ???? ??а????????. ???, ??????? ???????? ???? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ?а ???????? ???????? ?а? ?????? ??????а? ?а?????????? ???? ?????????
?а ??????, ??????? ?а ???? ?????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?а л???? ????????? ???????╗ ???????. ?????? ?????
?а????? ??? ????????????? ?а???????, ??а? ??а????? ???????? ??а????: ??? ??? ??? ?? л?? ?????╗ ?????? ??????а? ????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?а????????? ???????,
?????? ???????? ???? ?????? ?ал??????????? ???????╗, ???
????????? ?????? ????? ?а ????? ?а ??????? ??????????
??а?????. ??? ?????? ??а????????, ?а?????? ???? ??а????????
??????????? ?????????? ????????. ???????? ???????? ????????? ?а? л????╗.
?????? л????? ?????? ???????╗ ???? л???????? ???????? ???? ????╗. ???????? ??, ????? ??????? ???????????: ????? ????? ?а ???????, ??? ?а ???????? ???? ????. (???????,
??? ????? ?а??-??????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ??????
?а ????????.) ?????? ?????а ? ????????? ????? ??????????
176
?. ?. ?????????
???? ?, ????????, ?? ??????????? ???????? ??????, ????????? ?а ??????????, ?????? ????????? ?????7. ????????????
???? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??????, ??? ??????? ?????????? ???а? ?????????? ?а???? ?????, ?????? ?а?????
??????: ??????, ??????. ??? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?а ?????? ?а ??????????? ????? (??? ?а ???), ?????? ??????????? ????? ????????. ?????? ?а ??????? ???? ?????????? ??????????? л??????? ?????╗: л?? ???????? ????... ??, /
??а?????? ?а??????? ???????; / ??????, ??? ??????? ???????,
/ ???? ??????? ?а???????╗ (263). ????? ????а? ??????? ?а???????? ?????????????? ??????.
?а ???? ????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ?а???????? ???????? ?ал????╗. ?????? ?а????????????? ?а????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ?а л???╗ ???? ???????????? ??????????? ?а ????????. ?а ?????? ????????
?????????? ?а л????╗ ????????????? ???????????? ????????: ?????? ???? ?а??????, ????????? ???????? ?????а/ ????,
??????????? ?а??????????? ????????, ?а???????????? л?????╗ ????????? ????. ??? ?????? ??? ?????????? ?а??????
л???╗, ??а? л????╗ ??? ???????????? ?а???????????? ???????.
?????????????? ???????? ?????а? л??????? ?????╗. ??????????, ??? ????? ??? ??????? ?а????? ?????????? ?а??????
????? ?????: ??????? ??? ?? ?а????? л? ???? ???????????
????╗. ???? ????????? ?а ? ??????????? ??????? ??????
????: л??? ?????? ????? ???????, / ??? ?????????????? ????????, / ?????? ????????? ????????, / ??????? ???????
?????? ???а? / ??????????? ??? ???????, / ?????? ?а??????
?????? ???╗ (253). (? ???? ????????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? (?? ??????? ?????????) ?а ?????? ????, ????????? ??а?????? л??????╗.) ?????? ????? ???????? ???? ????????? ?????? ??а???? ???????? ????? ?а???????? л??????╗
????, ????????? ??а???? ???????? ???????, ????????????
???????. ?????????????, ??? ?????????? л????╗а? л??????
???????╗, ?????????? ???????? ????????, ?а ???????????
????????? ???????????а? ???????? ???? ?а??????? ????
?а????????? ??????? ?????, ???????? ?а????????. ???? ??????? ????, ??а????, ??????????????а? ??? ???????? ?????????? ??а ???????????? ????. ??? ????? ??????? ???????
???????????? ????????? ?а????????? ?а?????? ?. ?.а???????????? 177
?????????? ???? ????????? ???????, ???????????????
???????? ?????. ????? ???????? ????????? ??????????????????? ????? ?а??????????? ???? ???????, ??? ?????? ??????. ??????????, ????????? ???????? ?а ?????????? ?????
?а???? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????????? (? ????????а ? ???????????????) ????????? ?????.
?а??а???? ???? л????????╗ л???╗а? ????? ???? ?????????????
?????.
??? ???????? ??????? ????????????, ??????? ????? ???????? л??????????╗ ????????????? ????? ??????? ?а???????????? ???????? ?????? XIX ???? [5]. ?а??????? ????? ??????????? ????? ??????????, ??? ????? ???????? ?а ?????
??????а? ????? ?????8. ????????? ???? ?а??????? ????????
??????? ?а ??????????? ????????? (25 ???????) ?а ?????? (?
25-?? ??????? ??а?????????? ?????????а? 5 ??????). ??????
??????????? ????????? ??????????????? ????? (??????????) ?а????????? ?????? ???????, ??????? ???????????? ????? ??а?????????. ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ????? ????????????? ??????????????? ????????: ????????? ?а????
??????? ????? ?а??????, ??а??????? ?????? ?а???????? ?????? ??? ??????? [8, 12]... ?а ???????????? ?а ????????????
?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а ?????? ????????
??????????а ? ????, ?????????, ???? ??а ???????, ???????????? ?а?????????????? ???? ?а??????? ???? ?а?????????????? ???????????. ???????? ???????????? ?а ????????
????? ???? ????? ???????? ?????? ?. ?.а?????? ?а???????????? (???????, ????? 14, 1827 ????) ?а???????????? ???????
??????????: л?????? ?????, ???????? ????? ??????, ????
??????? ?????????? ????????? ?а ???????? ?????; ??? ?????
???? ????? ??????????, ????? ?а?????? ?а?????????╗ [11, 190].
????????????? ?а???, ??? ???????? ??? ????????? л???╗
????????????? ?????, ?а?? ????? ?????????? ??а????? ????,
???????????? ?а??????? ??? ???? ????????, ??? ??а???????
????? ??????? л???????╗а ? ??????? ?а ??????. ??а ????
??????????? ?????? ???????? ?а?????? ??????, ?а???????????? ???? ????? ??????? ????????? ?????????а? ????????
???????? ???? ?а????????? ???????????. ??а???? ?????????, ????? ?????а ? ????????? ???????? ??????? ??????.
178
?. ?. ?????????
????????? ??????? л????╗ ????????????? ?а????????? ??????? ??????? л???????╗, ?а ??????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ?? ?????????? ??????-???????????? ???????
?а ??????? ??????????? ???????? ?????. ???????, ??? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ????, ??????????? ???????????? ??а???????? ?????, ?????? ????????? ?????? (л??????? ???? ?????????? ????, / ??????????? ??????
???????, / ??? ?а????? ????? ??????╗ (264)) ????????? ???????? ??а????? ????а? ?????? ?????, ????????, ?а?? ?????? ???????? ?????: ???????? ????? ??а??????? ????? ???????????? ?а????? ??????????? ??????9. ????? ????? ???????
?а???????? ???? ?а? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?а??????? ??????? л????╗. ?????? ????? ?а?????? ???? ?????????? ??????
л???????????? ???????╗: ????? ???????????? ???????????? ???? л??????? ????????╗, л??????? ??????╗ ??а?????????, ???????, ???????, ?????? ?? ???????????? ??а ????
?????? ??????? (????????? ?а ???? ??????? ??????), ??????? ??ал????????╗ ???????? ???????? ????????
???? ?а л???╗ (1824?1825) ?а л????╗ (1825?1828) ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ?а??????? ???? ?????????? ???????? ??????, ?? ?ал???????╗ (1829?1830, ?????????????? ???????? ?????а? л?????????╗) ???????? ?????
???????????? ?а????? ??????????? ???. ??????????, ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ????????? ??????, ???????? ??? ?????? ?????????????. ?????? ?????????, ??? ?а 1829 ???? (?? ????? ?????? ??? л??????????╗)
??????????? ??????? ???????? л?????????????╗ ?????
?а ?????, ?а ??????? ?????? ???????? ????????????? л????????????╗ ?ал???????????╗ ?а??? ????? ??????? л???????╗
????????????? [11, 37]. ?а???????? ?????? ??????? ?а????????? ?????, ?а???????, ??а???????????? ????????? ????????????, ??? ??????? ??????????? ??????? л?????????????╗
?а?????????? ?а????????. ????????? ?а??, ??? ?а?????? ?а?????? (????? ???? ?????? ????, 1831) ??????????? ??? л???
?????╗, л??????????? ????????╗, ?????????? ?а ???????
?а????? [11, 262]. ?а?????? ??а?????? ???????????? ??????
???????? ????? ??а????? ????????? ????????? ????? ???????????? ?а ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????
?а??? ??????? ?а?????? ?а??????.
???????????? ????????? ?а????????? ?а?????? ?. ?.а???????????? 179
???????? ????? ??, ??? ????? ??????????? ?????????
???? ???????? ???????. ???, ??????? ????? ??????????
?а?????: ??а??????? ?а????????? ??а??????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ???? ??????????, ??????????? ??? ?????
??? ??????????? ?????. ?а ???? ??????? ???????? ?????
??а ???????? ?????????? ?а ???????? ???????? ???????
??а ??????? ????? ?????. ?????????? ????????? ???????
???????? ????? ???????а? ????????? ?а???а? ????, ??а?????? ??? ?а???????? ???????а? ?????, ???????? ???????????
????????????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ?????, ??????? ???
???? ??????? ????? ?????????? ??а ????? (????????????
л????╗ ?????????????? ?????????) ???????? ???? ???????
?а????? ??????? ?????? (л? ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????. /
??????? ????? ????????, / ??, ???????????, ???? ?? ????? /
?а ???? ????? ????? ??а ???╗ (280)). л??????? ???? ?????????╗, ????? ????? ??????? ??а?????, ?а??????? ?а????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ??????а ? ???????? ??????? ????????а ? ????? ??? ???????? ????????? ?а ?????. ?????
??а??????????? ??????? ?а???????? ???????? ????? ?а????????? л???????????? ??????? ??????????, ?????? ????
??????╗ ??????? ?????????, ??????????? ???????????. ???????? ???????? ?а ??????????? ????? ?????????? ??а ???
?????????? ?????? ??????? ???????: ??а????????? ?????????
???????? ??????, ??????????????? ????, ?а????? ?????????? ???а? ??????? ?????????? ?а???????? ?????, ????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?а ???????
??? ????????????? ?а????? ???????: л?? ?? ????? ???????
???????: / ????, ?а??????? ??? ?? ?? / ???????? ???? ?????
?????. / ???????? ?????? ???????, / ?? ???? ???????? ????? / ?????????? ???? ?????; / ??а????????????? ??????? /
???? ??? ????? ??????? / ??? ????? ???????? ???????╗ (289).
?а л???????╗ ??????????? ?????? ???????? ?а ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????, ?????? ?????????
????????? ???????. ???, ?????, ?а ???? ???????????????
????????? л???╗, ???????????? ?а ?????????? ??????????
?а ????? ?а ????: л?????? ???? ??а ?????, / ?????? ???????
?????, / ??? ??? ????????? ??? / ????? ??????? ?а??? ??????╗ (293). ??????? ???? ?????????????? ??????? ??????????
180
?. ?. ?????????
???? ???? л?? ???? ?????? ?а??????╗, ?а????? ?????????????? ?????? ????? ?????? ???? ????? ????????. ?????? ????????? ????? л?????????╗ ???????, ???????? ?????????????,
???????: ???????? ???????, ?а???????? ???????а? л????????? ???????╗а? ????????? ??? ????, ??? ?а???? ???????????,
л????? ??????????? ????????╗ ?а?????????? ?? ?????????
????. ??а ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????
??а ??????????. ?а ????????? ?????????? л?????╗ ?????????
?а???????????? ?а????????? ???????? ?а???? ?????, ?а???????
?????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ???? ??????
??????? ??????: л???? ??? ??????, ???? ???????! / ?? ??????????? ?а?????, / ?а???????? ?? ????????╗ (300). ??????
?????? л?????????╗ ????????? ??????? ?а??? ????...
?????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????. ?????????????? ?????????а? л?????????╗а? ????? ???????? ??а??????? ????????????? ???????? ?????а? ???? (? ?а???????? ?а????????????
???????????? ?????????, ?а?? ???? ?а??????????? ????????),
???? ????? ?а???????????, ??? ????????????? ????????? ????? ???? ????? (????? ?ал???╗), ?а????? ???? ?а???????????
(?????????? ??????? ??а ????????? ?а ?????? ?а л????╗).
?а????????????? ?? ????????а? л???????╗а? ??а???????????? ??????? ?????????? (????) ??????????? ?а ????????.
?а?а?????? ?????? ?????????, ??а????? ??????,а? ??????????? ?а??????????? ??? ???? ?????????? ???, ?????? ??????? ???????? ????? ?????? ???????. ?а????? ???? ??????????.
?а?????????? ????????????? ????а? ??????, ??а???????
???????? ????, ????? ???????????? ?????????? ?а ?????????????? ??????? ????? ?а ??????? ???, ??????????
??а???????, ??а????? ??????????? ?а?????? ???????? ?, ???????, ???????? ?а ????????? ????????. ??????? ???? ?????
??????????: ??а ?????? ????????? ?????, ?а ??????? ?а ???????? ???????? ????????. ?????????? ???????? ????????
??а??????? ?а????? ?а???? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ?????. (???? ????????????? ?????????? ????? ?????????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ????? ??а ????.
???, ?а?????????? ????? ????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ????????????? ?а???, ??????????? ?????
???????????? ????????? ?а????????? ?а?????? ?. ?.а???????????? 181
?а????????????? ??????: л???? ???, ?????? ??????? / ????????? ?????, ??? ??? / ?????? ???????????? ????????.
<?> ????? ??????? ?????? ????. / ?????? ???? ??? ????? /
??????? ????? ????????╗ (276?277)10. ?????? ??? ???????
??????????? ?а ????? ????? ?????????? ?а ????? ?? ???????? (????? ????? ?????) ????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ?а????? ??а?????????: л???? ???????? ?????? / ???? ????? ???? ??????? <?> ?? ?????? ??????? ??????????; /
????? ????? ???, ????????, / ????? ???????, ??????? ???. /
????? ????????? ???????????? / ??, ??? ?? ???????? ??????????╗ (285). ?а ????? ?а ???????????? ???? ????? ????????
(?????????? ???? ????????? ?????) ?а??????????? (?????????). ?а????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ????????
????????, ?????????? ??а ??????, ?????????????? ????????.
????????, ?а ????? ????????????/???????????? ??????????
??????, ??????? ???????????? ????? ?а???, ?????????????
????????? ????? ????? ????, ?а ??????? ??????????? ?а ???????????.) ??????, ??? ?????????? ?????? ?а???????? ?????? ????????????? ????, ?а?????????????? ???? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ?а ?????, ???????????
??????. ??????? ???? ???????? ??????, ?????????? ????????
?а ?????, ?а ?????? ?а ??????? ?????????? ?а ???? ?а ?? ?????
??????? ???? ?а???, ??? ?? ??????? ?а???? ??????????? ?????????????, ??? ???????????? ??????? ????, ?????????? ????? ?а????????????????? ??? ?а???????????? ??????, ???????????? ?????????? ???? ????????а? л?????????╗, ??а???????
?а ?????? ???????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????, ??????????????????? ??а?????? ???????.
??? ????? ???????????? ?а??????????? л?????╗ ???????????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????. ?????? ???????,
?????? ????????? ?а ?????? ???? ?а л???????╗ (л??????
????.а/ ??????, ???????? / ?????? ??а??????????? ???????╗
(282)). ?????? ??? ??????????? ?а ? ???? ??????, ???????
?????? ???? ????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?а ????. ?а ???
??????????? ??????????? ???????? ??а ?????? л?????╗ ???????-??????????????? ????????? ?????? ?а??????? ????????11 [13]. ??????????? ?а ???????????? ???????? ???????
?????? ???????? ???? ????????????? ?????????? ???????
182
?. ?. ?????????
[2, 80?132], ?????????????? ?а ??????????? ????????????
???? ?????? ???????. ??????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?а???????? ??????????? ???????????? ??а?????? ?????????????? ???????? ????? ???????????
????? ?????: л??????? ??? ??а?????? ??? / ??? ?? ????????????? ???????╗ (283). ??а??????? ?????????????????? ??????????? ?а???, ??? ?ал???????╗ ?????????? ???????? ??а?????????? ?а??? ????????? ????12. ?а??????? ?????????? ????????
???? ???? л??????? ?а????????╗ ????? ???? ?? ?????????,
??????? ?????? ??а ???????, ?а ??? ???????????? ??????а ?
??? ?а?????а? ??????? ????? ?????? ???????????. ???? ????? ??? ????? ??????????????? ??а ??????????????? ???????? ?а???????? ?????????? л????? ????╗ ????.
???????, ??? ???????? ?????????? ?а л????╗ ?а л???????╗
?????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ????????, ??????
??? ??а??????, ??? ??????????? ?????? ???? ?а???????????? ???????????. ?? ???? ???? л????????╗ ???????????? ????
????? ??????????? л???????????╗ ???????: ?а??????? ???
???? ??????????????? ??а ???????; ????? ??????? ???? ??????????? ???? ????; ???? ?????????? ????? ???? ?????????? ?а?????? ?а?????? ????? ????????? ????????, ??? ????...
??? ?????????? ???? ???????? ?????????? ?а ?????????
??????? ?а?????????????? ???? ??????? [3], ?????? ??????
????????? ?а???? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????? ????, ?а ??? ????? ???????????? ?а ???????, ?а ???????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????? ?а ????? ?а ????????? ???????????? ??????.
?а ???? ?????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????????????
л?????? ?а ?????? ?????╗ 1838 ???? ??? ??????? ???????????? ????? ????????????? ??? ????????? ???????????
л????╗. ??? ????????? ??а ???????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? (????????????????? ?а ????? ???????????????
?????? ?????а ? ????????) ?а ??????? ?????? (? ???????
??????????) [16]: л?????? ?а ?????? ?????, / ????? ?????
?????,а / ?????? ??????? ???????а / ????? ??????????? ??????.а/ ?, ???????? ????????,а/ ????????, ?????? ?а???? ???,а/
??а????? ???? ???????,а/ ?а???? ?????????? ???╗ (180).
???????????? ????????? ?а????????? ?а?????? ?. ?.а???????????? 183
????? ???????, ??????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????
??????????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????? (??? ????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ????, ?а????????а? ????????????? ??????? ????? ????????????? ?????????), ????? ????,
???? ??????????? ???????????? ?а????????? ???????? ??????. ?а??????????? ????????? л????????? ?????????╗ ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ??а????????
??????????????? ?????? ??? ?????.
??????????
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
??а????????? ??? ??????????? ???? ????????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????, ??., ?а???????, ??????
?. ?.а???????? [4], ?. ?.а???????? [7], ?. ?.а???????????? [3], ?. ?.а????????? [9] ?а??..
??????????, ???? ??? ????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ?а л???????╗, ?????? ??? ??????? ??а л???╗ ????????????. ??? ????????,
??а?????? ?а?????? ??????? ?????? л???╗ ??????????? ???????????
??????? ??а???, ?а????? ????????? ??? ?а???????? ???? ????????
???????-??????, ??????????? ?а???????, ?а?????? ?????? ??а???????????? ?????? ?а????? 1824 ???? ?а???? 1825 ?????? ?????? ????????, ?????????? л???╗. ??., ?а???????: ???????? ????? ?а?????????? ?. ?.а ???????: ?а 4 ?.а / ????. ?. ?.а ?????????? (1799а ? ????.
1826), ?. ?.а??????? (????.1826а? 1837)а/ ???. ???. ?. ?.а????????. ?.:
?????-Slovo, 1999. ?.а462, 465, 468, 556 ?а?. ?..
??????????? ????????? ??? ??????? ?а???????? ????????. ?????
?а???????????? ??????? ?????? ???а? ?. ?.
??????????? ?. ?.а ?????? ???????? ?????????????. ?.: ???. ????????, 1957. ?.а228?229. ????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ??а????? ??????? ?а????????? ?????? ??????? ?а??????? ??????? ??а???????.
???????? ?а???????????????? ?а????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ??. ?а?????? ?. ?.а?????????? [15].
??а??????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????? ??а???????? ????? ???
????????? ?????????? ?а????????????.
??а?????? ?????? ?????, ????????????а? ???????? ??а??????? ????????, ????? ??????????? ??????? ?а???????? ??а????. ?а???? ????
???????? ?????? ??? ???????? ????? ????????? ???????.
????? ??????????????? ????, ??а? ??????? ????????, ??? ?????.
??а ??????? ????? ?а ??? ????? ???????? ???????? ????????????
??а?????? ??а????????? ?а??????????? ????????.
184
9
10
11
12
?. ?. ?????????
??а???? ?????????, ????????? ????????? ???? ????????? ???? ???????????? ???????? ??а??????? ???????? л??????? ???????╗ 1833
????: ?????? ????? ??? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?а???????? ???????? ??????? ????? ????? л???????? ??????╗. ??????????, ???
??????? ???? ?а???????????? ?а?????? л???????╗ ?????????????,
?а? ?????????? ?????? ?а??????а? ??????. ?. ?.а??????? ????????????? ???????????, ??? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?а??????? ?????????? ??а????????? ??????? [7, 149].
??? ????????????? ?????, ?????????? ????????? ????? ??а????????? ?????, ??????? ??? ?? ?????? ?????? л?????????╗ ??????????
?а????? л????????? ??????? ?????????? ??а1831 ???╗, ???????????
?а??????? ??????? л?????????╗. ??. [11, 268].
????? ???????? ?а????????? ???? ?????? ??????????? ?а???????
????????, ??????? ??ал????????╗ ?????????? ?ал??????╗ ???????
?а????????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ?а???????? ??????-??????, ?а ???????, ?а ???????: л?????? ??????╗ ??????????,
л???? ????????╗ ??????? ?а??..
??????????, ?а?????? ????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ???????????, ??? л?????????╗ ??? ???????????? ?а л???????╗ ??? ???????????? ????????????? ??ал??????????╗ ??????? ???????. ?????? ??????????, ??? ?????? ?а??????????? л???????????╗ ????
????? ??? ?а???????? ????????, ?а?? ????????? ?????? ??а???????? ?????-???? ?????, ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?а ??????????? ?а ?????????. ???, ??????????
?а????? ??????? ????? л?????????╗ (л???????╗) ??????? ??????????? ?а ?????? ????????, ??????? ?????????? ???????? 1829 ????.
?а ??? ?а ?????? 1830 ???? ??????? ?а ?????? ?а ???????? ???????
?а л???????╗ ???????????? (л??????? ?а ?????? ??????╗) ??? ???????????. ?а?????? ?а??????? ???? ?? 1830 ????, ????? ???????? ????????, ?????? ??????????? ?а??????????? ?а??????. ?????? ?????
??????? ??????????: ?????? ?????? ????? л??????? ???????╗, ???
????????, ??а??? ??????, ??????????? л???? ?а??????╗, ?а???????????? ?а????????? ?????????, ?а????????? ????? л???????╗ [10, 1170].
???????????, ?а???? ???????, ???????? ??????? ?ал??????????╗
[11, 247?248]? ??? ??? ?????????? л??????╗ ??а???? ???????? ???????????? ?а?????? ??? ?????? ??? л??????????╗ (л????????╗).
??? ???? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?а ????????????
?????????, ??????????? ??????????????, ??????? ?? ????????????? ?а? ?????? ???????. ???????? ?? ??? ??????????? ????????????а?
?????? ??????????? ??????????.
???????????? ????????? ?а????????? ?а?????? ?. ?.а???????????? 185
?????? ??????????
1. ?????? ?. ?.а ??????? ?????????? ?а ????????: ???????????? ?????? ???. ?.: ???. ???., 1975. 502 ?.
2. ???????????? ?. ?.а????????? ?????? ???? ?а?????????????? ????
?. ?.а ???????: ????. ??????? ??? ?????. ???????: ?????-????????, 2011. 196 ?.
3. ???????????? ?. ?.а ????????? ????????? ?а ?????????????? ????
??????? (??? ??????, ??????? ????): ???. ? ????. ?????. ????:
10.01.01; ???????. ???. ??-?; ????. ???. ?. ?.а ???????. ???????: ?. ?.,
2006 . 242 ?.
4. ??????? ?. ?.а????????? ????????????? ????????? ?а?????????????
????????????а// ????? ??????? ?а???????? ????????????: ??. ????.
??.а/ ???. ???. ?. ?.а???????; ??????. ????????????, 1994. ?.а37?49.
5. ???????? ?. ?.а??????? ??? XVIIIа? ?????? XX ????. ?????, ???????, ????????? [??????????? ??????]. URL: http://flibusta.
net/b/276168/read (???? ????????? 26.05.2014).
6. ??????? ?. ?.а????? ?а?????? ?. ?.а????????????. ??????: ???-?? ??????. ??-??, 1994. 172 ?.
7. ??????? ?. ?.а???????????? л?????????╗ ??????????? л???????╗ (?
???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ?а??????)а// ????????????
????? ?а ??????? ?????????? XVIII?XX ?????: ??????, ?????????????, ?????, ?????, ????. ????????????, 1994. ?.а131?150.
8. ??????? ???. ??????? ??????????????? ?????????а / ????., ?????. ??.
?а??????. ?. ?.а??????????; ??. ?. ?.а??????????. ?.: ??????, 1991. 496 ?.
9. ???????? ?. ?.а ?????? ?а ???? ?????????? ?????????а // ????????
????????. ?. ?.а?????? ?а????????? ??????? ????????. ???.: ?????,
1999. ?.а74?80.
10. ???????? ????? ?а?????????? ?. ?.а???????: ?а4 ?.а/ ????. ?. ?.а?????????? (1799а? ????. 1826), ?. ?.а??????? (????. 1826а? 1837); ???.
???. ?. ?.а????????. ?.: ?????-Slovo, 1999.
11. ???????? ????? ?а?????????? ?. ?.а????????????. 1800?1844.а/ ????.
?. ?.а??????. ?.: ????? ???????????? ?????????, 1998. 496 ?.
12. ???? ?. ?.а???????? ???????? ??????????. ?.: ?????? ?????, 1995.
384 ?.
13. ?????? ?. ?.а ????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? (XIXа ?
?????? XX ????). ???????: ?????-????????, 2011. 129 ?.
14. ????? ?. ?.а ??????? ???????? ????????? (???? ????????-???????????????? ????????????). ?.: ???-?? ???????. ??-??, 1963. 143 ?.
15. ????????? ?. ?.а?????? ???????, ??? ????????? ??????????. ?.:
????? ???????????? ?????????, 1999. 462 ?.
16. ???????? ?.а?. л?????? ?а?????? ?????╗ ?а????????? ????? ?????? л???????╗ ?. ?.а????????????а// ???????????? ??????а? 2011.
?. ?. ?????????
186
??????? ??????????: ???????????? ???????? ?а ???????????? ???????????: ???-?? ? ??????. ????. ????., ????. 100-????? ??а ???
???????? ?. ?.а?????????: ?а3 ?. ????????????: ????. ??-?, 2012. ?.а2.
?.а323?328.
17. ???????? ?. ?.а ???????-?????? ??????????? ?????? ???????, ????????? ?а????????? XIXа? ???. XX ?. ?.: ?????, 1979. 287 ?.
18. ??????? ?. ?.а????????? ????????? ?а??????? ??????????: ????????
XIX ???? ?а?? ????????? ?а???. ???????, 1997. 108 ?.
Lyudmila Vasil?yevna Styebyenyeva (Gayvoronskaya)
Ph.D., Associate Professor of Academy of Social Management
(??scow, Russian Federation)
lvstebeneva@mail.ru
CHRISTIAN SYMBOLS AND CALENDAR IN
EUGENE BORATYNSKY?S POEMS
Abstract. The calendar symbolism is always the component of the artistic
message of the author (usually dating events by the dates of the Orthodox
calendar). Although the time in Boratynsky?s poem Eda is poetically clichщd,
some folklore meanings still can be traced in the sensual atmosphere of the
?magical? spring. In all three poems the author demonstrates the destructiveness
of love passion in the fate of the heroines. In the romantic poems Eda and The
Ball the theme of love temptations is developed by contrasting motivs of
darkness of the night and glowing ?light? of the romance. At the decisive
moment for the heroines the artifact of the Orthodox culture presents a
certain guardrail from the fatal step, the reference point in attesting to the
Truth. As the logic plot of the examined poems indicates, the possibility of
happiness in the life tainted by the sin is negated in Boratynsky?s artistic world.
The poetics of night determines the dynamics of the poems Eda and The
Ball. A calendrical way of thought characterizes the large epic genres and
organizes the plot of Tsyganka (The Gypsy) (Easter, July, the Christmastide
fun and the Eve of Lent), which is a kind of attempt to the author?s ?eclectic?
novel in prose. Boratynsky diverges from literary and cultural traditions not
only in the development perspective of a romantic plot, but also in the
semantics of winter and blizzard.
Keywords: romantic poem, poetics of contrasting motifs, folklore, the
Orthodox calendar
References
1. Bakhtin M. M. Questions of literature and aesthetics: Studies of different
years [Voprosy lityeratury i estetiki: Isslyedovaniya raznykh lyet]. Moscow,
Khudozhestvyennaya lityeratura Publ., 1975. 502 p.
???????????? ????????? ?а????????? ?а?????? ?. ?.а???????????? 187
2. Gayvoronskaya L. V. The semantics of the seasons in Pushkin?s artistic
world [Syemantika vryemyen goda v khudozhestvyennom mirye
A.а S.а Pushkina]. Voronezh, Voronezh State University, NAUKAYUNIPRYESS Publ., 2011. 196аp.
3. Gayvoronskaya L. V. Semantics of the calendar in Pushkin?s artistic world
(days of the week, seasons of the year): Ph.D. dissertation [Syemantika
kalyendarya v khudozhestvyennom mirye Pushkina (dni nyedyeli,
vryemyena goda): dissyertatsiya kand. filol. nauk]. Voronezh, 2006. 242 p.
4. Zakharov V. N. Symbolis
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