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Экспериментальное исследование параметрических колебаний валопроводов судов..pdf

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Судостроение, судоремонт и эксплуатация флота
??? 629.5.035-233.1-233.2:534
?. ?. ??????, ?. ?. ????????, ?. ?. ????????
ЭКСПЕРИМЕНТАЛЬНОЕ ИССЛЕДОВАНИЕ
ПАРАМЕТРИЧЕСКИХ КОЛЕБАНИЙ ВАЛОПРОВОДОВ СУДОВ
?????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ??????????????? ????????? ??????? ????????????.
????????, ??? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ????????????????? ????? ?????. ???????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ??????????. ???????? ??????????? ?????? ???? ??? ??????????? ?????? ??????????. ?????? ????? ? ???, ??? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???????? ??????. ? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ????????
???? ?? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ??????????. ??????? ???????????????? ????????????????? ????????? ? ????????????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????. ????????????, ??? ??? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ???????????, ??????? ?????????? ??????
????????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????. ? ???? ????????? ?? ????????????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ? ????????????? ? ??????????? ????? ??????? ????? ????? ?? ??????. ???????????? ????????? ???????????? ? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ??? ????????? ????? ?? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????. ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ????? ??????? ? ??????, ? ????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ?? ??????????? ????? ?? ???????? ??????? ?? ???????? ?????.
???????? ?????: ??????? ??????????, ?????????? ?????????, ??????????????? ?????????, ????? ????.
????????
? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ???????????. ????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????. ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ?????? ????? ??????? ?????
? ??? ???????? ?????????? ???????????, ??????? ? ???????? ???????????? ?????????????.
? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ? ???????? ??????????????? ????????, ??? ??????????
? [1?3], ????????? ??????????, ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????????. ??????? ????????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ???? ??? ??????? ???????? ?????? ???????????, ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ??????????.
??? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ????? ???? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? (???. 1), ??? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????????? ?????????.
???. 1. ????? ??? ?????? ???????? ????
?? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ??????????
???????? ?????? ???? ??????? ?? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????.
????????????????? ????????????
??? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ??????????
?????????? ???? ?????????????? ????????????????? ????????? (???. 2) [4].
21
ISSN 2073-1574. Вестник АГТУ. Сер.: Морская техника и технология. 2015. ? 1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
???. 2. ????? ??? ????????????????? ?????????:
1 ? ??????????? ?????????; 2 ? ????; 3 ? ??????????? ?????; 4 ? ???????? ?????;
5 ? ????? ???????? ???????; 6 ? ????; 7 ? ??????????????? ??????; 8 ? ?????????;
9 ? ???????; 10 ? ???????? ??????????; 11 ? ?????; 12 ? ????????????: 13 ? ???????
??????? ?????? ????????????????? ????????? ??????? ? ?????????. ??? ????????
???????????? ????????? 1 ??????? 13, ????? ????????? 8 ??????? ??????? 9, ??????? ??????
??? ???????? ?????????-??????????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ???? F ????? ???????? ?????????? 10 ?? ???? 2, ??????? ??????????????? ?? ????? ??????? ?????, ??????????? ?????????? ?????. ??????????? ????? 3, ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????, ??????? ??
??????? ? ????????. ???????? ????? ? ????????.
???????? F ??????????????? ? ??????????? ?? ?????? ?????????. ??????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ???? ???????????? ????????? 1 ?????
??????????????? ??????? ??????????? ???? 7. ???????? ?? ???? 2 ???????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ????? 11 ????????? 8, ??? ???? ?? ?????????? ?? ???????????? 12. ??? ??? ?????
?????????? ???? F ??????? ???????????? ??? ????? 5 ?? ???????? h (??????????????), ?? ??
?????, ??????????? ????????? 3 ? ???????? ????? 4, ??????????? ??????? ???????????
?????, ?????? ?????????? ???? F, ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????.
????????????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????? ????????????????? ????????? ???????????? ????? ??????????, ??????? ??????? ?? ?????????????, ??????????????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ??????????, ?????????? ?? ??????????????????? ?????.
???????????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ? ????????? ???????? ????????? ? ???????? ??????????? ??????????. ????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ? ????????????
?????? ????????????????? ?????????. ??? ????????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????????, ??? ???? ?????????? ??? ?????????????. ??? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ????? ?1-83. ?? ???? ???????????? ???????? ??????????, ????????????????
?????????? ????????????? ?????????, ??? ????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ?????
????????????????? ?????????.
??? ?????? ??????? ? ????????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ?? ????? ?????. ??
?????? ????????? ????????, ??? ??? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ?????????
????????? ????????? ??????? ???????????, ??????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??????? (??????????? ???????).
22
Судостроение, судоремонт и эксплуатация флота
??? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ???? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ????????
??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ????????? d = 14 ?? ? ??????
L = 1 600 ?? ?? ???????? ? ??????????? (???. 3) ?????? ? ?????? ????? ?????? 2 ?? ? ??????
??????????? ????? 25 ??.
l4
L
?
1
h
2
F
3
l3
l2
l1
?
???. 3. ????????? ????? ????? ????????????????? ?????????:
? ? ???????? ?????; ? ? ??????????? ?????
?? ???? ?????? 2 ?? ????????? ?????? F = 20 ?. ??????? ???????? ???? ???????????? ???????????????? ??????? 7 (??. ???. 2). ???????? ?????? ? ????? ?????? ? ???????????? ???????
?????????? ?? 0 ?? 5 ?? (???. 4).
1
Ш 40
2
25
???. 4. ????? ??? ???????????? ????
? ???? ????????? ?? ????????????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ? ????????????? ? ??????????? ????? ??????? ????? ????? ?? ??????. ??? ?????????? ?????? ?????
?????????? ??????????? (???. 5).
23
ISSN 2073-1574. Вестник АГТУ. Сер.: Морская техника и технология. 2015. ? 1
?
?
???. 5. ????????? ????? ?? ???????? ?????:
? ? ????????? ????????????; ? ? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ???????
???????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ?????,
?? ????????? ? ???????? ????????? ?? ???????? ????? ?????????? ? ????? ??? ?? ??????????
???????? ??????????? ???????, ? ????? ???????? ?????? (???. 6).
?
?
???. 6. ????????? ????? ?? ??????????? ????? ? ???????:
? ? ????????? ????????????; ? ? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ???????
???????? ??????????????? ??? ????????? ?????? ?????? ????????? R, ??????????
? ?????????? ????????????. ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ??????? N ? ????????
????????? ????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????????? ???? ?????????, ?. ?.
R = ?max ? ?min.
???????? R ??? ?????????? ????? ?? ???????? ?????? ?? ????????? 0,2 ?-1 (????. 1). ?????? ??? ?????????? ????? ?? ??????????? ????? ?????? 25 ?? ? ??????????? ?????? ?????
????? ? ???????????? ??????? ???????? R ????????????? ?? 0,3 ?-1 (????. 2).
??????? 1
???????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ????????? 14 ?? ?? ???????? ??????
l 4, ?
0,2
0,3
0,4
24
N = 20
?, c-1
11,9
9,3
7,5
n
7
9
8
?, c-1
12
9,4
7,6
n
6
4
6
?, c-1
12,1
9,5
7,7
n
7
7
6
???, c-1
?max, c-1
?min, c-1
R, c-1
12
9,39
7,59
12,1
9,5
7,7
11,9
9,3
7,5
0,2
0,2
0,2
Судостроение, судоремонт и эксплуатация флота
??????? 2
???????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ????????? 14 ?? ?? ??????????? ????? ?????? 25 ??
y, ??
0
1
2
3
4
5
????????
?, c-1
n
?, c-1
n
?, c-1
n
?, c-1
n
?, c-1
n
?, c-1
n
12,3
5
11,9
4
11
3
10,3
4
9,3
4
8,4
4
12,4
5
12,0
2
11,1
2
10,4
4
9,4
3
8,5
2
N = 20
12,5
12,6
2
5
12,1
12,2
2
4
11,2
11,3
4
2
10,5
10,6
3
6
9,5
9,6
2
2
8,6
8,7
3
3
12,7
3
12,3
8
11,4
3
10,7
3
9,7
4
8,8
3
?
?
?
?
11,5
6
?
?
9,8
5
8,9
5
???, c-1
12,48
?
12,15
?
11,29
?
10,5
?
9,62
?
8,67
?
?max, c-1
12,7
?
12,3
?
11,5
?
10,7
?
9,8
?
8,9
?
?min, c-1
12,3
?
11,9
?
11
?
10,3
?
9,3
?
8,4
?
R, c-1
0,4
?
0,4
?
0,5
?
0,4
?
0,5
?
0,5
?
??????????? ????????????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????????, ? ????? ???????? ????????
????????? ????? ?? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????.
??????????
??? ??????? ???????????, ? ??????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ??????, ??????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????, ??????? ?????? ?????????? ??????. ??? ????????, ??? ? ???????????-???????????? ??????? ????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????????? ????????? ???????????. ???????? ??????????????? ?????????
???????? ?????? ?????? ????????, ???????????? ? ?????????? ??????????, ? ??????????????
????????????????? ???????? ??????????? ? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????.
?????? ??????????
1. ?????????? ?. ?. ????? ? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ????? / ?. ?. ??????????,
?. ?. ??????. ?.: ?????????, 1970. 232 ?.
2. ???????? ?. ?. ???????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ????? / ?. ?. ????????,
?. ?. ????????. ?.: ?????????, 1975. 160 ?.
3. ???????? ?. ?. ??????????? ??????? ????? / ?. ?. ????????, ?. ?. ?????????. ?.: ?????????,
1970. 140 ?.
4. ???????? ?. ?. ????????????????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ????? / ?. ?. ????????, ?. ?. ???????, ?. ?. ????????, ?. ?. ??????? // ?????. ????????.
???. ????. ??-??. ???.: ??????? ??????? ? ??????????. 2012. ? 2. ?. 41?44.
?????? ????????? ? ???????? 31.12.2014,
? ????????????? ???????? ? 16.02.2015
ИНФОРМАЦИЯ ОБ АВТОРАХ
Кушнер Гурий Алексеевич ? Россия, 414056, Астрахань; Астраханский государственный технический университет; аспирант кафедры «Судостроение и энергетические
комплексы морской техники»; dinalt_13@mail.ru.
Мамонтов Виктор Андреевич ? Россия, 414056, Астрахань; Астраханский государст-
венный технический университет; д-р техн. наук, профессор; профессор кафедры «Судостроение и энергетические комплексы морской техники»; sopromat112@mail.ru.
Халявкин Алексей Александрович ? Россия, 414056, Астрахань; Астраханский государственный технический университет; соискатель кафедры «Судостроение и энергетические комплексы морской техники»; sopromat112@mail.ru.
25
ISSN 2073-1574. Вестник АГТУ. Сер.: Морская техника и технология. 2015. ? 1
G. A. Kushner, V. A. Mamontov, A. A. Khalyavkin
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY
OF THE PARAMETRIC OSCILLATIONS OF SHIP SHAFTING
Abstract. The paper considers the issue of parametric oscillations of ship shafting. It is noted
that the result of wear of the stern tube bearing is the loss of the working capacity of the whole
ship. The lower values of the natural frequency in the transverse oscillations with increasing gap
in the stern device are shown. The possibility of the shaft breaking away if the bearing wear is high
is stated. The conclusion is that the range of the breaking away depends on the rate of wear. As
a specified example, the case of breaking away of the propeller shaft from the aft stern tube bearing
in the transverse oscillations is considered. The designed experimental installation and the measuring system for the study of the mechanical displacements of the beam are described. It is stated that
if the frequencies of the forced and natural oscillations coincide the amplitude of the system oscillations is maximum, therefore, the maximum range of the amplitude corresponds to the resonant frequency. During the tests, while using the experimental installation of the transverse oscillations
of the beam in subresonance and resonance zones the breaking away of the beam from the sleeve
was observed. The indication of the oscilloscope and the waveform of the voltage over time for the
oscillations of the beam on point and extended supports are shown. The increase in the intensity
of isolation while increasing the clearance between the sleeve and the beam, and the difference
of the values of the natural frequencies of the beam on the long leg from the values of the frequency on the point support are demonstrated.
Key words: ship shafting, stern bearing, parametric oscillations, shaft breaking away.
REFERENCES
1. Vinogradov S. S., Gavrish P. I. Iznos i nadezhnost' vintorulevogo kompleksa sudov [Wear and reliability of the marine propeller complex]. Moscow, Transport Publ., 1970. 232 p.
2. Balatskii L. T., Begagoen T. N. Ekspluatatsiia i remont deidvudnykh ustroistv morskikh sudov [Exploitation and repair of the stern tools of the marine vessels]. Moscow, Transport Publ., 1975. 160 p.
3. Balatskii L. T., Filimonov G. N. Povrezhdenie grebnykh valov [Damage of the propeller shafts]. Moscow, Transport Publ., 1970. 140 p.
4. Khaliavkin A. A., Komarov M. P., Mamontov V. A., Salamekh A. Kh. Eksperimental'naia ustanovka
dlia issledovaniia poperechnykh i prodol'nykh kolebanii valoprovodov sudov [Experimental installation for the
study of the transverse and longitudinal oscillations of the ship shafting]. Vestnik Astrakhanskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta. Seriia: Morskaia tekhnika i tekhnologiia, 2012, no. 2, pp. 41?44.
The article submitted to the editors 31.12.2014,
in the final version ? 16.02.2015
INFORMATION ABOUT THE AUTHORS
Kushner Guriy Alekseevich ? Russia, 414056, Astrakhan; Astrakhan State Technical University; Postgraduate Student of the Department "Shipbuilding and Energy Complexes of Marine Engineering"; dinalt_13@mail.ru.
Mamontov Victor Andreevich ? Russia, 414056, Astrakhan; Astrakhan State Technical
University; Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor; Professor of the Department "Shipbuilding and Energy Complexes of Marine Engineering"; sopromat112@mail.ru.
Khalyavkin Aleksey Aleksandrovich ? Russia, 414056, Astrakhan; Astrakhan State Technical University; Candidate of the Department "Shipbuilding and Energy Complexes of Marine Engineering"; sopromat112@mail.ru.
26
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