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«Старинный триптих» С. Н. Дурылина и «Почему так случилось» И. С. Шмелева поэтика христианского реализма.pdf

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zhenyakorshunova@gmail.com
л????????? ???????╗ ?. ?. ????????
? л?????? ??? ?????????╗ ?.??. ???????:
??????? ????????????? ????????
?????????. ?????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????
?. ?.а??????? ?а?. ?.а????????, ????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ????,
??????????? ?а????????. ??????? ?? ???????? ??а?????? ????? ??????????? ????????, ??а? ??????????? ?????. ???????, ??а??? ??????, ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????? ??а ??????? л?????????? ????????╗
?. ?.а???????? (1919?1923) ?ал?????? ??? ?????????╗ (1944) ?. ?.а???????, ????? ??а?????????????? ????????????????? ???????. ??? ?????
??а ????????????? ????????? ???? ???????, ???????? ????? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ?а???????. ???????????? ???????? ??????? ?????
?????? ?????????????, ??а??????? ???????????? ?????????: ??????????-????????? ?а ???????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????.
?а??????, ?а??????? ???????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??а????????? ??????, ??????????????? ????????????? ?а ???????????? ???????????
????? ????? (? ??????????а ? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ????,
?а????????а? ???????? ????). ??????? ?а????????? ???????? ???? ????
????????, ???? ???????? ????, ???? ??????? ?а???? ???????????. ??????? ???????? ????????? ???? ???? ????? ?а????????????? ??????.
???? ????????? ?ал???????? ?а????????╗ ?????????? ?а?????????????
?????. ???????? ????? ?а????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????????
??? ???????. ????????????? ????? ?а ????? ?а ?????????? ????? ????
???????, ??? ??? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ??? ??????? ??????????. ?????? ?а ??????? ?????????? ?????? ??а ????????
???????а? ???????? ?????????-????, ???????????? ?а????? л???????
???????????╗. ?????????? ?а???????? ????? ???????: ?????????????,
?????????????? ?????????????? ????????????, ?????????? ???????,
????????????????? ??????? ?а???????????? ??????????. ??? ?????????
????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ?а ???????? ?а ??????????
????????????? ????????, ????????????? ???? ?????????????? ???????? ?а??????? ????.
???????? ?????: ???????????? ???????, ???????, ??????????, ??????????, ????????.
л????????? ???????╗ ?. ?. ???????? ?ал?????? ??? ?????????╗? 557
?
????????? ?. ?.а???????, ???????? ?????? ????? ???????
?????????, ?????? ???????????? ??а?????? ?а1990-? ????.
??? ????? ???????? ?????? ?.а ?. ????????, ????????????
?а ?????? ?? ?????????? ?????????: ??а ?????????? ?????????????? ????????????, ??????? ?????. ??? ??? ????????
??? ??????? ??а??????????. ???, ????????, ???? ?? ?????
??????? ???????????? ????????а ? ?????-??????? л????????╗ (1929) ?????? ???? ?а2009 ????. ????????????? ?. ?.а???????? (? 1922 ?. ????????? ????????? ???) ?????? ???
?а???? ??? ?а?. ?.а???????? ?а?. ?.а????????. ??? ??????????? ???????? ?. ?.а ??????????, л??????????? ?, ???????,
???????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ?а ???????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????╗ [5, 47].
??????????? ?????? ???? ????? ?а????? ???????? ??? ????????? ????????????, ??? ??????? ?. ?.а???????? л????????? ???????╗ (1919?1923) ?а??????? л?????? ??? ?????????╗
(1944) ?. ?.а???????.
?а???????? л?????? ??? ?????????╗ ???????? ??????????
?а??????????? ???????????????? ????????, ?????????????
????? ????. ?????? ?????????? ??? ???????? л?????
????╗ ?????? ???????????-??????????.
?????????? ?????????, ??? ??? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????, ?а ????? ????? ?????? л???????? ??? ?????╗, ????????? ?????? ?а???? ?а????? ??????? ????? л??????
??? ?????????╗а? л? ??????а? ????????? ?а???, ??? ?????????, ??? ?? ?????????╗1 (???; V, 253). ???? ?????? ?ал??????? ???????╗ (1889) ??? ???????? ?????? ????? ???? ????????? ???????? (????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ????,
???????????? ??????? ?????), ?? ?????? ??? ????? ???????
??а??????????, ??????? ????????????. ????? ???? ??????
????????????? ?????: ??????????? ?????? ???????? ????????, ?????????? ??? ???? ???????????????? ????????. ???
??????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ??????? ?а????????????? ????????. ????? ??а ???????-?????????? ?????????????, ??????????????? ?????????????, ????????????? ????????? ???? ?а ???????? ????? ?а л???????????? ??????
???????????? ?????? ?а ?????????? ???????? ?????? ???
??????????????? ???????? ?????╗ [2, 224]. ????????
558
?. ?. ?????????
??????? ??? ??????????? ?а ????????: л??????? ?????????? ?????? (????????? ?????) ??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????а? ????????? ???????? ??????????????? ??а? ????? ????????? ??????, ?а? ????? ???????????,
?????????????????: ??????? ?????? ????????? ????? ?а ??????? ??а???? ????????????╗ [6].
?????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????, ????? ??? ?а ?????????
??а???????? ???????, ??????? л? ?????╗ (??????? ?а????????),
?????????? ???? ???????? ??а ????? ?а ??????. ?а ???????
л????? ???╗ (?????? ????? ????????) ????? ???????? ????
???? ???????? ????? ????????: ?? ??????????????? ?а ????????????. ???????? ????? ????????????, ????? ??а ??????????? ??а?????? ?????? ????? ??????????, ??а?????? ??а?????????? ????? ??? ???????? ???????????. ???? ??????
???????????? ????????? ??а ?????? (л??? ??????? ????
???????╗), ???????? ?а ???, ??? ??????????? ???? ???????
????????????. ??????????? ?? ????? ?????????? ?????????
???????? ????????? ????? ?, ????? ????, ????????, ??????????? ??????? ?а ???, ??????????? ?а ??????, ?а ????, ?????
?????????, ?а?????. ?а??? ???, ??? ??????? ?????????? ?а??????? ????????????? (????? ????? ????????? ?а ???????????????? ????????? ????, ????????????? ??????? ????????
??????) ??????? ?????? ?а ?????????? ???? ?????????. ?????????????, ??? ??? ??????????, ?????? ???????????? ????
?а?????? ?????, ??????? ??а??? ????? ????????? ????????
??а????????? ????:
???? ??????? ???? ?????? ?а??????. ?????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ????а? ?а???? ?????????, ????????? ??????????
?????. <?> ?а?????? ?????????, ????????????? ????? ?а?????,
??а????????? ?????? ????? ????????? ??????? ?????? 2 (?; 57?58).
?????? ?а???? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ???? ?????????????, ???????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ???? ?????????? ????, ?????????????, ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ????,
?????????? ???? ??? ?а?????????? ??????:
??а????? ???? ??????? ????, ??? ?? ????? ??а????? ??? ????:
??????? ??а ??????????, ??а ?????? ??? ???? ???? ?????, ?????,
л????????? ???????╗ ?. ?. ???????? ?ал?????? ??? ?????????╗? 559
???????,а ? ????? ?????? ??а ???? ?а ????????? ??????. <?>
?а???? ???? ????????? ?????, ??? ??????? ?????? ?, ???? ??а?????? ???-?? ?а???-?? ?????? ??, ???????, ?? ?????????? ????????
(?; 59).
????????? ????, ??????? ????????? ??а ???? ????????:
???????, ??????, ?, ????????, ???????????? (л?????? ??????????╗) ?а???? ??????, ???????? ??а?????? ?????????????
????? ?????????, ??а?????, ?????????? ?а?????? ????????
??????????, ?????????????? ??????? ??????, ??? ????? ???????: л?? ???? ??????? ????????, ???????????? ????, ???
??????, ??? ??????, ??? ???????????, ??а??? ?????? ???????? ?а??????? ???????, ??? ???????. ????? ???? ??а????? ????????, ??а?????????, ?а???????? ?????????? ??а??????????? ????? ?а???????? ?????????, ????, ??? ?а?????? ????: ??
??? ??а ??????? ????!?а ? ?????? ????? ?????????? ?????.
?а???. ??? ??? ??? ????????╗ [1]. ?а???? ??? ???????? ?а??????? ???? ???????? ?????? ?а????. ??? ???????? ??? ??????
???? ????????????? ??????????, ???????? ??????????????
?а ????????????? ?????? ????? ?????????. ????? ?????
?а???? ?????? ?????????? ????? ???? ???????????? ?а????
?а?????? ?????? ??? ????????????. ?????? ???????? ????
???????????????? ????? ??????????:
? ???, ?????, ??????? ??? ??????! ??????, ??????????. ???
??????, ??? ??????? (?; 60).
????????? ????? ??????????? ?????????: ?????? ??
?а???????? ???????? ???????? ?а??????? ???????? ???????, ??????? ?а ?????? ??????? ?а ??? ??а ??????, ????? 90-?
??????.
?????? ?а??? ?????, ?? ???, ??????????? ??????????????? ???????: ?????? ??а???? ????????????, ????????????
?а?????????????? ????????????. ?????? л???????? ??????╗,
л???????? ??????╗, ?а ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ???????, ????????????? ?а???? ??а???????. ????? ????, ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ???? ??????:
??????? ???????????? ????????, ??? ?????а? ?а??????, ?а???????? ??????? ?а??????? ?????? <?> ??? ????????, ??????????
??? ?????? ?а ?????? ?????, ?а ??????? ?????? ??? ??а ?????:
560
?. ?. ?????????
??????? ????? ???????? ??? ?????. <?> л?? ????! ??????!
??а????╗ (?; 60).
??, ??? ?а ???????? ?а ??????? ???????? ????????, л???
????, ????? ??????????? ?????????? ??а ?????? ?????????,
??а?а? ?а???????а? ?????? ????????? ????????: ???????????
??? ?????? ??а??????. ???????????а? ??? ??а??????????? ??????, ??а???????????? ?????????? ?????. ??? ??????? ?а??????????? ???? ?????????, ??????????? ?????? ???????????
????????? ????????╗ [3, 125]. ?????????????? ???????????
?????? ????????????? ????????? ??????????? ????????
????????????. ??????, ??? ?? ????? ?????????а? ?????:
?а??а????? ?а???? ??а???? ????????, ?а??? ??????? ????? ?????
(?; 60).
??????? ???????? ???? ???? ????????, ???? ????????
????, ???? ??????? ?а???? ???????????. ??????? ????????
????????? ???? ???? ????? ?а????????????? ??????. ???? ????????? ?ал???????? ?а????????╗ ?????????? ?а????????????? ?????. ???????? ????? ?а????????? ?????? ????? ?????
????????????? ???: л? ????? ??????? ????? ?????╗ ( ?; 61).
????????????? ????? ?а????? ?а?????????? ????? ???? ???????, ??? ??? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????
??? ??????? ?????????? [3]. ????????? ????????? ???????
??????? ?а????????????? ????????????? ????????, ???????? ???? ??????? ?а??????? ????.
?ал?????? ??? ?????????╗ ?????? ???????? ???? ??а?????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????, ??а ? ?????????
?а ?????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??????????а ?
??а ??????? ??а ????????. ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????, ????????????? ?а ????????????? ??????????.
?. ?.а ????, ?. ?.а ??????, ?. ?.а ??????, ?. ?.а ?????????,
?. ?.а ????????????, ?. ?.а ???????????, ?. ?.а ???????,
?. ?.а???????а? ?????? ??а?????? ?????? ?????????????????
??????????. ?????????? ??????????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????, ????????? ???????????. ??? л?????????????????╗,
??????????????????????. ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? (???? ????????? ????????? ?а??.).
??? ??? ???? ????????, ???? ?а???????? ???????? ????????
?а?. ?.а??????. ????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????
л????????? ???????╗ ?. ?. ???????? ?ал?????? ??? ?????????╗? 561
?а?. ?.а???????. ?????????? ?а??????? ??? ?а?????????????
??????? л????????????╗, ????????? ???????? ????????
??а ????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????:
? ??????????? ??? л?╗: л? ???, ??????????? ?-?????, ?-???????
?-????? ??? ???????╗. ????? ??? ??? л?╗: л???????????? ????????? ????? ???? ???? ??-?-????? ????-?-???? ??-?-???╗. ?а????
л?╗ ????????????? ??? ??????????-??????? ???? л??????????.
???????? ?а ?????? л?╗, ??? ?????? ??????????? ????????:
л??а? ?а??????????? ????? ????? ????╗, л?...а? ?????? ???????, ?? ?????? ????? ????? ?а??? ? ?а? ?-? ?а?а? л??????╗! л??
????? ????????? ??а??????╗ (???; V, 254).
????????? ??????, ????? ???????? ?а ????????. ??
?????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ?. ?.а?????????, ??????? ??????? ??? ????????????? л50-? ??????? ??? ?????
????????????╗.
?????? <?> ???а? ??? ????????? ??????, ???????? ????-????? (???????? ??????) (???; V, 253?254).
?????????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ??????:
??????? ?а??? ??. ??? ?????? ????????, ?????: ?а?????????
?????; ??а???а? ???. ????? ?а????, ????? ?а?????, ???????? ????,
?????? ???? ??а??????. ???
????? ??? ????????? ???????? ?????? ????
????????? ?а50-? ??????? (л??????? ??, ????╗). ??? ?? ??????, ???????????? ?а??????????. ????? ?? ?????? (???; V, 253).
????????????? ????????? ??а ?????????? ?????????: ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ?а ????????? ????????
?а???????? ????????, ????? ??????? ?а????????? ?а?????? ?????????? ??а???. ????????? ???? ?????????? ???????????? ?а ?????????? ????? ??????? ????????. ????? ???????,
????? ?????????? ??а л??????? ????????╗ ?????????? ?????
??? ????????????, ??? ?а??????????? ??????.
????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ????: ?????? ?????? ?а??????? ????? ??ал??????╗ ?а??????? ?а????
???????????. ??????? ???????????? ???? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ????????, ???????? ?????? ?????? ?????????????? ??????????? (? ?????? ???? ?? ???????)
562
?. ?. ?????????
?а??????????. ??? ??????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????
???? ??а ??????????? ????????? ?а ????? ???????? ??????
?ал??????????? ???????╗ (1932). ??? ????? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ????????????????????? ??????: ???????
????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ?а???????? ????????? ???????, ??? ???????? ???? ??? ????? ??????? ???????????. ?а????? ????????? ??? ???????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??? ??????? ?а ????-????????,
????-?????????, ?а ????????? ???????, ?????? ????????????? ??????? ?а??????? ?????.
??????? ???????????? ?а л??????╗ ????????? ??????????? ???????????: ??????? ?а ???? ???????????, ???????
л??????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????????╗ (???;
V, 254) ; л???????, ??? ???????????????╗, ??????? ?а????????
???????, ??????? ????????? ????????, ?????????? ???????????? ?а?????? ??????????. ????? ????????? ????????
л??????????????╗ ??????????? ????????????? ?????? (л?????╗ ????, л?????? ??????????╗ ????????????, ???????а ?
л?????? ?а ?????????╗ ?????????). ????? ??а ???????????
?????? ?????? ????? ???????????, ???????? ????? ???????? ??????? л?????????╗ ??????????. ?????? ??????????
?а???????????? ????? ?????????????? ??????: ??? л????????╗ ?а??? ???????? ??????. ?????? ???? ??????????? ????,
???? ????????????, ???????? ???????? ???????? ?а?????????? ????????????, ?? ?????????? л????????╗, ???????
?а???????????, ?????????? ??? ?а??? ??????, ????????? ?????? ??а?????? ????? л?????? ??? ?????????╗, ?а???? ??? ?????, ???? ?а????????. ??????? ????? ?а??????? ??а??????????? ??????????, ??а???, ???????? л?????? ????╗, ??????????
???????? ?????? ??????. ????????? ???? ????????????????, ?????? ???????? ?а ???? ?а ????????????? ?????????:
??а?????????, ??? ???????????, ??????? ?а???? ???, ???????? ????? ???????? ???????, ?а????? ??????? ????????????
???????? ?????????? ????? ???? ????? (???????), ?? ??????????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????????. ????????
?????? ?а ????? ??????? ???????? ?а ???, ????? л???????╗
?????????, ?????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????.
л????????? ???????╗ ?. ?. ???????? ?ал?????? ??? ?????????╗? 563
?????? ??ал?????????╗ ?ал???????????╗ ????????? ?????????????? ????????? ?а???????? ???????. ??? ??????????
??????????? л????????????╗ ??а ?? ????????????, ?а ?? ???????? ?????????: ?????????? ?а???????? ??????? ?????
?а ????????????? ??????, ?? ???? ?????????? ????????
?????????. ????????, ??? ??????????? ?? ???? ?а ?????
???? ????????? л???????????╗, ????????, ??? ??????????????????? ????????, ????????? ??????????? ?а??????? ??????????? ?а????????? ?а???????????? ????????? ???? ???????????? ???? ???????? ??? ?????? ????? ?а ????? ??????
??????? ??????????, ??? ???? ?а??????? ??????????? ????
?а ??????. ????????? л???????????╗а ? ???, ??? ???? ??????????? ??????????? ???????, ??????????? ???????? ??????? ?а??????? ???????? ????? ???????? ???????? ?а??????,
???????? ??а???????? ?????????.
?????????? ?а ???????????? ??????? ??????????, ?????? ??????? ???? ??????? ????????, ??????? ?а ??? ??????????????????? ?а ????????????? ????????? ????????
??????. ????????????????? ????, ????? ???????, ??а ???????? ???????????? ?а?????????, ?а??????????? ??????????
???????а? л?????????╗ ???????? ???????????? ?а???????
????????? ??????? ??????? ?а ??????? ??????????, ?а ???
??????? ?????????? ??????. ?????? ??? ????? ????? ?????????? ???? ???????????? ?а ???????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ????????: ???????????? ?а?????????????.
???, ?????? ????????????? л???????????╗ ????????
???????? ?????????, ????????? ?????????? ?а ??? ????????? ??????????. ?????? ?????? ?????????????, ????????? ?а???? ????? ??????, ??а??????????? ????????? ????????: л??? ?????? ??? ???? ???????????! ??????╗ (???; V,
257). ?а??????? ????????? л???????????╗ ?ал???????????
??????╗ ?. ?.а????????, ?а???????, ?????? ?а?????? ?а??????????, ???????? ???????? ??????????? ?а ????????? ?????????????? ?????????:
??????? ?а ? ???, ?а ????-????, ??а л????????╗!а ? ??????????
??? ??? ??а????????, ?? ??????????, ?а?????? ??????? ?????????╗ (???, V, 262).
564
?. ?. ?????????
?а ????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ????????
??а?????????????? ???????????? ?. ?.а?????????а? ????????????? л???????╗ ?а????? л???? ??а???? ???? ??????╗:
???? ??? ?????????, ?????????? ? ?а ? ? ?-? ?! ??? ??-????
л????????, ??????, ???????╗ ?? л??????? ??? ?????? ??????????╗а? ??а????! ? ?а? ? ? ? ? ?а? ?а? ?а? ?а? ?а? ?.?! (???, V, 257).
??????? ?????, ?????? ?????? л???????????╗ ?????????? ??? ??????, ?????????? ???????? ??????????а? ?????????? ????????? ?????:
?а???????? ????, ?, ???? ??????????, ?а?????? ????, ?а??????
????: л???, ???, ????????? ??????, ????? ? ? ? ????????!!!...╗ ??
???????: ?? ??????? ??? ???? ????????а ? ? л?????-??????
?а??-????
?а????-?? ??-?????!╗
?а ???, ?????? ??????????? ?а ??????, ?а ??????????? ???
?????????????. ????? л???╗,а? ?а? ?-???. ??-????-??-?? ??????,
??????, ??????-?-?-?!.. (???; V, 262).
???????? ????????????? ?а?????????? (??? ??а????????????? ??????, ??? ?а? ????? ?????????, ????????? ?????:
л??? ?? ????????????, ?????а? ????????╗) ????????????????? ???? ?????????? ??? ????????? ?а ????????????? ????????? л??????????? ?а ????????? ????????╗, ????????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?а??????:
?? ?а????????-?? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ??а????????? ???????, ???? ?? ?а л????????╗! ?а ????? ????????? л???????╗! ???,
??????, ??а ???? л?????╗ ????? ?????, л??????????╗ ?????????,
?????? ??????? ??????? ???-???? ?а??? ???? ????. ??, ?? ???
?????? ??????? ?а?????. <?> ?а????????-???? ??а? ? ?а? ?, ????
????????? (???, V, 265).
??а????? ??????????? ?а???????? ????????? л???????????╗ л?????????╗ ?. ?.а????:
??? ???-?? л?????????????╗ ?а л??????????╗ ????????! ?,
?а???? ??????????, ?????? ?? ??? ?????, <?> ??? ??? ?а???????
???????? ????????? <?> ?? ????? ?а????-?? ?????????, ?а?????
?????????, ????????? ?а ????, ??? ?а ?????? ?а ????????а ? л???
???!.. ??!...╗ ?а? (???; V, 266).
л????????? ???????╗ ?. ?. ???????? ?ал?????? ??? ?????????╗? 565
?а ???? ???????? ?????? ???????? ??а ????????-???????????? ???????:
??????: ?????? ?а?????а? ?????. ?а?????????? ????, ????????
??????, <?> ??? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? . ???????? ????, ??????, ???????? ??а????-?? ?а????: л???
???╗ ? ?а???????? ????? (???????? ???????) (??; II, 346).
??? ????????????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ?????
????????? ???????, ????????????? ????а? ??????, ???????? ???????? ????? ??????:
???, ??а??????????, ?а???????????, ??а???? ??????. ??????????? ? ?а? ? ?-??, л???????╗-?? ?????? (???; V, 265).
?????????????? ???? ??????????? ?а ???? ?????????,
????????? ????????? ???? ???????????? ??а ??????????
???? ????? ?????? ??а ?????? ???? ?а ??????. ??? ?????
л???????????╗ ???????? ???? ?????? ??????? ?????:
???, ????????? ???????, ??? ???? ?????-????????, ??? 20 ????????? ?????? ????? ?а?? ?а????????? ????????. ?, ??????????
??-?? л???????╗! <?> ?а ????????? ??а ????????: л????? ??????
??а ??????, ?а ??? ?????? ??? ????????, ??? ???? ????, ??-? ????
??????? ?а?????????╗ (???; V, 264).
?????????????? ???????? ?а ??????????? л???????????????╗ ????????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?????
?????????????? ??????????????? ?? ??????? ?а ?? ?????????? ?а?????:
?а л???????-???????╗ <?> ?? <?> ?а л?????????????╗,
??а ????????????????-????????, ??????? ?????? <?> ???? л???????-??????╗ ?????????, ???????? ??а ????????? ?а ?????????:
л? ?? ??, ?????, ?????? ??а????????╗ <?> ?а??????? ???????? ????????, <?> ???????? ???? ???????, ?????? ??а ??????? ?а ???????,а? ????????. ?а????????? ?? ?????????, ?????????? ????
?????????: ??а?????????а? ??????, ??а??????а? ?????, ???? ??а??
?????? ????????? (???, V, 266?267).
?а??????????? ??????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?а?????????????? ?????????а? ????????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????. ??а ????????? ???????????????
566
?. ?. ?????????
?а?????? ???????? ?ал???????????╗а? ???????? ???????????? ?а???????????? ???????????? ????????.
?????????? ??? ??????? ?а ???????, ?????????????? ???????? ?а?????????????? ???????? ????????. ???, ??????
?????, ?????? ?а ???????????. л???????????╗ ??????????
?а??????? ?а?????????:
??а??????? ??????????а? ?-???! ??? ??????????. ???? ??
????? ??????????, ???? ??????. <?> ?? ???-?? ?а???? ??-?????.
?а ???, ???????, ??? ????????? ??? ???????,а ? л?? ??а ????????╗,а? ??, ??? ??????, ???, ???????, ?????????????, ?????? ?????????? <?> ?а???????а? ???????? л????????╗? (???, V, 258,
257).
?????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ??а ??????
?????????? л?????? ??? ??????????╗, ?????? ????????
??????. ??? ??????????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ??а???????? ??????????? ??????, ?а?? ???????????????: л?????? ????, ?? ????╗ (???, V, 258).
?а?????? ??а??????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? л??? ??????? ????? ?????? ???╗, ?а??????? ???? ???????????? ???????? ?а ????????????? ????????????? ???? ??? ??????, ??????????? ??а???????????????
????????? ?а????? ?? ????? ??????? ????????:
?????????? ?????. ??????? ?а ???? ?????? ???????? ??????.
????? ?? ?????? ???????! ????????? ??????, ??? ??????. ? ?а?
? ?-? ?? ?? ??? ????????, ????? ?????????? ??а?????. ?? ?а? л?
???????╗! ??????-?? ??????, ????????????а? л??? ??????? ?????
?????? ????╗ ??-??-??-??-??-??а? ?????? ?а???-??? ??? ??????!
??? ???, ???? ?????????? ?? ??а ????? ?а ????, ?а ???, ??а ??????
?????????? (???; V, 257).
??????????? ??а ?????? ??????, ????????? ??а ?????
????????? ????????? ??а ????????? ???????????? ????,
??????? ???? ?????? ?а ?????? ??????? ??а ????? ????????,
?а ?????????????? ???????, ???, ??а ??????????? л???????????╗, л?????-?????????╗. ????? ?????? ??а??????, ?????????? ??????????? ?а????? ??????, ??????? ???????? ??????????????, ???????? ????????? ???????????:
л????????? ???????╗ ?. ?. ???????? ?ал?????? ??? ?????????╗? 567
???????????, ??? ?? ??? л??????? ???????╗, ???????? ??????,
?????????????????: л????????? ????????╗?! (???; V, 260)
?а????, ??а????? л???????????╗, ????????? ??????????
?????? ????? ?????????? ??????????, ??????? ?а ????????????? ???? ??????? ???? л?????????? ?????? ?????????,
????? ?????╗. ??? ?????????, ??? ?а ?????????, ??????? ???????? ?а ??????????? ????????????? ????, ???????? ????????? ??? ??а???????????? ??????:
??, ???????? ?????????? ????? ??а ?????.. ???? ??а ??????
???? ??? ??????? л???????╗? ?????? ??????. ??а?а?????? ??????????, ?? ??? ??? ?а ???? ???? ??????? ??????, ?а ?? ??..!
??????, ?а???????? ??????, ?а???, л????????? ????????╗, ??? ???,
л????????╗? ??????????, ??????? ??а??????? (???; V, 259).
?????? ???????????????, ?????????? ????????? ?????
?а??????????????????? ???????: ?а??? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ???????? ??????????. ????? ????, ??????????? ????????? ??????? ?а??? ???? ??а???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????, ??????? ?????? ?а ??????????????
?????????? ???????? ????? ??? ?????????, ??? ?а ?????????
????, ?????? ??? л?????????╗ ?ал??????????╗.
???????? ?? ?????? ???? ????????, ??????? ??????. ?????? ??а??????????? ??????? ???????? ???? ?????????, ???
????? ?а ??????????? ???????? ?????????-????, ???????
???? ?????????????. ?????????? ??????????? ????????
?а????? ??? ???????? ?а??????? ????????? ?а???????????? ?, ????, ?а???????? ??????? ????????. ?а??????????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ?а ?????????? ??????????, ????????? ?а л??????? ????╗. ??а ???? ?а ???? ????? ???????
л??????? ????╗ ???????????? ?????? ??????????, ?? л????? ???╗ ?а???? ??????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ??????? 1830-? ??. ?а ?? ????????? ?????. ????????
???? ???????????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????, ??????????? л????? ???╗, ?????????? ?????????? ?????. ????? ???
??, ??? ?а? ???????, ??????????? ??????? л????╗. ??????
???????? ???? ????? ???, ??? ???????? ??????? ??????????
????? ??????? ?а???????????? ??? ??????????, ???????? ?????????. ???????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ????а ? ????????????? ????????, ??? ???????? ?????
568
?. ?. ?????????
???? ???? ??????????? ???????. ????? ???????, ??????? ????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????, ????? ????????? ?а???????????????? ???????? ???? ?а????. л????????? ???????╗
????? ????? ???????? ?а? л????????? ?????╗ ?. ?.а???????,
?а л????????? ???????????╗ ?????????-??????? ?а ??. ???????, ??? ?а ??????, ????????? ???????? ????????????
??????????.
?????? ?а??????? ?????????? ????? ??а?????? ????????
?????????? ?а???????? ?а???? ????????, ??а?????????? ????
?????: ?а ??????? ?????? ??а ?????? ?????????????????
л?????-???????╗ ?????? ?а???? ?????? ??а???, ?а??????:
????????? ?????? <?> ?????? ?а ?????, ??? ?????????????
л?????????╗ ?? ????????, ???????, ??? ????? ?????! (???, V, 267).
?????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??а ?????? ????????,
??а ? ???????. ?????????????, ??? ?????????, ?????????
??а ???-???????????, л???? ??????????╗. ?а ???? ????????
??????????? ???????? ??а ?????????? ?а ?????????????? ?????????????? ?????, ?а??? ????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????. ?????????, ????? ?????? ???? ?????, ??????
????????? ?? ??-???????, ??????????? ?а????? ??а???? ????????????????? ???????:
????? ???? ??????, ???? ???????, ????????-?????? ?а ?????,
????? ??? ????, ??????? ???? ?а? ?????, ??????? ??????, ???????
??????????, ?? ??? ????????а? ????! ????? ?????, ?????? ??
??? ?а???? ??????? (???; V, 268).
??? ????? ??а????????????? ????????? ???? ???????, ???????? ????? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ?а???????. ???????????? ???????? ??????? ????? ?????? ?????????????,
??а??????? ???????????? ?????????. ?а??????, ?а???????
???????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??а ????????? ??????, ??????????????? ????????????? ?а???????????? ???????????
????? ????? (? ??????????а ? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ????, ?а ????????а ? ???????? ????). ?????? ?а ???????
?????????? ??????а? ???????? ?????????-????, ???????????? ?а ????? л??????? ???????????╗. ??????????? ?а ???????? ????? ???????: ?????????????, ???????????? ?????????, ????????? ??????????? ????????, ????? ??а????????????
л????????? ???????╗ ?. ?. ???????? ?ал?????? ??? ?????????╗? 569
??????????. ??? ????????? ????????? ??????? ????????????
?а ???????, ?а ???????? ?а ???????? ??????? ??????????
????????????? ????????.
??????????
1
2
?????? ?????????? ?а?????????????? ????????? ??????????:
??а? ?????? ?. ?.а????????? ???? ?????? [?????]: ?а3 ?. ?.а2. ????????? ???? ?????? 1935?1946а/ ????., ?????. ??., ???????. ?. ?.а??????. ?.: ??????? ?????, 2000. 600 ?.
???а? ?????? ?. ?.а????. ???. [?????]: ?а5 ?. ?.а5.а/ ??????. ??????,
?????. ??. ?. ?.а?????????? ; ???. ???? ?. ?.а????????. ?.: ???????
?????: ????????, 2004. 480 ?.
?????? ?????????? ??а ?????????? ???????: ??????? ?.а ????????? ???????а// ????? ????? ??????. 2009. ?а3. ?. 53?61. ?а???????
??????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ?а????? ????????.
?????? ??????????
1. ??????. ?. ?. ???????? ?а ??????? ??????? ???????? [??????????? ??????]. ????? ???????: http://www.voskres.ru/literature/critics/
anikin.htm
2. ????????? ?. ?.а??????? ???????: ?????????а? ?????????а? ??????. C??.: ??????? ???????, 2008. 384 ?.
3. ??????? ?. ?.а ???????????? ??????? ???????????. ?.: ?????, 2004.
560 ?.
4. ??????? ?. ?.а ??????? ????????: ????? ?????????. ???.: ???????,
2012. 448 ?.
5. ?????????? ?. ?.а ?????????? ????????? ?а ??????-???????
?. ?.а???????? л????????╗а// ????. ????????. ???. ??-??. ???. ?????????. ?. ????????, 2009. ?а54. ?.а47?50.
6. ?????????? ?. ?. ?. ?.а??????? [??????????? ??????]. ????? ???????: http://www.rp- et.ru/book/OurAutors/Drugie%20avtory/durylin.php
?. ?. ?????????
570
Evgeniya Alexandrovna Korshunova
Ph.D.,
Assistant Professor of Kharkov National University by V. N.Karazin
(Kharkov, Ukraine)
zhenyakorshunova@gmail.com
Sergei Durylin?S Ancient triptych anD
ivan Shmelyov?S how did it All hAppen?:
ChriStian realiSm poetiCS
Abstract. The article presents the investigation of creative connections
between Sergei Durylin and Ivan Shmyolev, two щmigrщ writers of the first
half of the 20th century. They were brought together not only by common
religious values, but also by their tragic destiny. That is why we believe the
comparison of their artistic principlesа? through the example of Durylin?s
Ancient Triptych (1919?1923) and Shmelyov?s How did it all happen? (1944) to
be very productive, especially considering that no serious comparative
analyze of these works has been done before. The comparison of two texts
clearly shows that their problematic and poetics are quite closely connected.
Both writers depict the final period of life of outwardly successful, but
spiritually devastated personalities (professor of ancient history and general
Patrikiy Patrikiyevich Drevlyaninov). Durylin and Shmelyov tried to help
their heroes to overcome the spiritual deadlock, senselessness of existence
and their personal obsessions (for the professor it is the idea of scientific
labour corrupting the society, for the general it is gambling).
Both the professor and the general travel their road of purification, their ?way
of the Cross?, their Golgotha and their Resurrection. Durylin directly connects
his character?s road with the liturgical cycle, because ?fighting with the devil?
takes place during the Great Lent, while the grandfather sees his life-changing
dream on the eve of Easter and the Passion Week. The hero?s pilgrimage to Easter
forms the plot of this story, actualizing the importance of Easter archetype for
Russian literature. The methods used by both authors to free their characters
from spiritual emptiness (introduction of a ?spirit character? as a reference to the
devil from Dostoyevsky?s novel The Karamazov Brothers) are also similar.
Stylistic features of Durylin?s and Shmelyov?s poeticsа? plotlessness, prevailing
of metaphysical problematic, Easter archetype and intertextual references to
classical literatureа ? are also related. All these facts enable us to classify the
works of Sergei Durylin and Ivan Shmelyov as Christian realism literature,
distinguished by its own artistic principles and the world picture.
Keywords: Christian realism, poetics, metaphysics, intertext, tradition
References
1. Anikin ?. ?. Reader and descendant of duchess Dashkova [Chitatel? i
potomok knyagini Dashkovoy]. Available at: http://www.voskres.ru/
literature/critics/anikin.htm
л????????? ???????╗ ?. ?. ???????? ?ал?????? ??? ?????????╗? 571
2. Gryakalova N. Yu. Person of modernist style: Biographyа ? reflexionа ?
letter [Chelovek moderna: Biografiya? refleksiya? pis?mo]. StPetersburg,
Dmitriy Bulanin, 2008. 384аp.
3. Yesaulov I. A.а Easter colours in Russian philology [Paskhalnost russkoy
slovesnosti]. Moscow, Krug Publ., 2004. 560аp.
4. Yesaulov I. A.а Russion classic: new understanding [Russkaya klassika:
novoe ponimanie]. StPetersburg, Aleteya, 2012. 448аp.
5. Moteyunayte I. V.аMarxism comprehension in Durylin`s novel-chronics
лBells╗ [Osmyslenie marksizma v romane-khronike S. N.а Durylina
?Kolokola?]. Bulletin of Novgorodskiy State University [Vestnik
novgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo univesiteta]. 2009, no. 54, pp.а47?50.
6. Reznichenko A. I. S. N.аDurylin [S. N.Durylin]. Available at: http://www.
rp-et.ru/book/OurAutors/Drugie%20avtory/durylin.php
й ????????? ?. ?., 2014
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